Dr. Mohammed Makki is a senior lecturer at the University of Technology Sydney. He holds a Masters of Architecture degree from the Emergent Technologies and Design Program (Honours) at the Architectural Association, as well as a PhD from the Architectural Association under the supervision of Dr. Michael Weinstock. Mohammed’s work is focused on advanced computational design methods and the application of biological and natural processes within the design process. As part of his research, Mohammed is the co-founder of the plugin Wallacei, an evolutionary and analytic engine for Grasshopper 3D that allows users to run evolutionary simulations and analyse the results within a single streamlined user interface. Mohammed is also co-founder of the design practice MSSM Associates, an interdisciplinary design firm located in Cyprus, Lebanon and Indonesia. In 2017/2018, MSSM Associates won the Golden A' Design Award in the Architecture, Building and Structure Design Category as well as the 5 star International Property Award for a single residence in the Asia Pacific region for their project, the ‘Twist and Shout’ house. Mohammed is also an authorised Rhino 3D trainer and has been providing training in advance parametric and generative design since 2012.
- Co-founder of MSSM Associates, an interdisciplinary design office with branches in Cyprus, Lebanon and Indonesia
- Co-Founder of Wallacei, an evolutionary and analytic plugin for Grasshopper and Rhino 3D
- Authorised Rhino 3D trainer
Can supervise: YES
Choi, J, Nguyen, PCT & Makki, M 2020, 'The design of social and cultural orientated urban tissues through evolutionary processes', International Journal of Architectural Computing.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Author(s) 2020. The research examines how social and cultural properties can be utilised as an alternative planning scheme to improve urban morphology and enhance the overall experience of individuals within the city. The aim is for these socio-cultural properties to be translated into quantitative data sets that define the morphological characteristics of the urban tissue. Through the use of evolutionary optimisation methods, the process of urban growth is simulated through a series of individuals that adapt and optimise for multiple design criteria. The experiment presented quantifies the social and cultural properties of a superblock within the city of Kyoto to generate an urban tissue that is susceptible to future growth.
Showkatbakhsh, M & Makki, M 2020, 'Application of homeostatic principles within evolutionary design processes: adaptive urban tissues', Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-17.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Nature is a repository of dynamic and intertwined processes ready to be analyzed and simulated. Homeostasis, as a scale-free and universal biological process across all species, ensures adaptability to perturbations caused by intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. Homeostatic processes by which species maintain their stability are strongly present through ontogenetic and phylogenetic histories of living beings. Forms and behaviors of species are imperative to their homeostatic conditions. Although biomimicry has been established for many decades, and has made significant contributions to engineering and architecture, homeostasis has rarely been part of this field of research. The experiments presented in this paper aim to examine the applicability of biological principles of homeostasis into generative design processes in order to evolve urban superblocks with a degree of morphological and behavioral adaptation to environmental changes; the objective is to eventually develop a modus operandi for the design and development of cities with embedded dynamic adaptation attributes.
Makki, M, Showkatbakhsh, M, Tabony, A & Weinstock, M 2019, 'Evolutionary algorithms for generating urban morphology: Variations and multiple objectives', International Journal of Architectural Computing, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 5-35.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Morphological variation of urban tissues, which evolve through the optimisation of multiple conflicting objectives, benefit significantly from the application of robust metaheuristic search processes that utilise search and optimisation mechanisms for design problems that have no clear single optimal solution, as well as a solution search space that is too large for a 'brute-force' manual approach. As such, and within the context of the experiments presented within this article, the rapidly changing environmental, climatic and demographic global conditions necessitates the utilisation of stochastic search processes for generating design solutions that optimise for multiple conflicting objectives by means of controlled and directed morphological variation within the urban fabri
Makki, M, Matsuoka, M, Ilic, A, Franceschini, L & Beneitez, J 2020, 'Bridging the Gap Between Traditional Japanese Fabrication and Advanced Digital Tools', 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design, Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design, Online, pp. 557-564.
Traditional Japanese woodworking techniques have been inherited between generations in the past millennia through the Daiku, the master carpenter that teaches apprentices the precise and valuable skills of carpentry through methodical and time-intensive processes. Throughout the 21st Century, with the development of advanced construction methods, coupled with younger generations exhibiting little interest in following the Daiku, this valuable cultural artform is becoming less prevalent in Japanese culture. However, the development of advanced digital tools offers an avenue through which the knowledge and skills of older generations can be both transferred and developed by younger
generations. In this context, the paper examines the relationship between traditional Japanese woodworking and advanced computational tools by bringing experts from both disciplines for the design and construction of a Japanese Pagoda, in which the significance of bridging the gap
between both domains is highlighted across the design, fabrication and assembly of the project.
Randall, M, Kordrostami, T & Makki, M 2020, 'The Taikoo Shing Superblock: Addressing Urban Stresses Through Sequential Evolutionary Simulations', RE: Anthropocene, Design in the Age of Humans - Proceedings of the 25th CAADRIA Conference, The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, Thailand, pp. 415-424.
The multiplicity of networks, connections and relationships
that exist in every city - complex and varied - are inherent to the
urban fabric. Variation within the built form is integral to ensure
adaptability to environmental and climatic conditions imposed on
cities over generations. This research aims to highlight the benefits
of utilizing sequential evolutionary simulations, to arrive at a more
resolved solution-set that addresses urban challenges of the Taiko Shing
superblock in Hong Kong.
Alin, H, Neil, G, Makki, M & Brittney, D 2019, 'A responsive cooling tower and shading system for arid environments', Proceedings of the 24th CAADRIA Conference, Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA, New Zealand, pp. 570-581.
Climatic change coupled with desertification processes impacting cities located around the Mediterranean, has raised serious questions for the capability of the affected cities to adapt to the rapidly changing environmental conditions. This research aims to design small-scale tower structures and shading devices in Nicosia, Cyprus through employing environmental analyses within a generative design process to create an intelligent, adaptive system. Guided by Bernoulli's principles, geometrical design parameters acquired from fluid simulations, alongside solar analyses of the existing city fabric, were used to generate an evolutionary algorithm for design. The research develops a methodology to facilitate environmental flows in urban architectural systems, generating cooling processes in arid
environments that facilitate the adaptation of cities to changes in climatic
and environmental conditions.
Hramyka, A, Grewal, N, Makki, M & Dillon, B 2019, 'Intelligent territory', Intelligent and Informed - Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA 2019, pp. 571-590.
© 2019 and published by the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong. Climatic change coupled with desertification processes impacting cities located around the Mediterranean, has raised serious questions for the capability of the affected cities to adapt to the rapidly changing environmental conditions. This research aims to design small-scale tower structures and shading devices in Nicosia, Cyprus through employing environmental analyses within a generative design process to create an intelligent, adaptive system. Guided by Bernoulli's principles, geometrical design parameters acquired from fluid simulations, alongside solar analyses of the existing city fabric, were used to generate an evolutionary algorithm for design. The research develops a methodology to facilitate environmental flows in urban architectural systems, generating cooling processes in arid environments that facilitate the adaptation of cities to changes in climatic and environmental conditions.
Makki, M & Milad, S 2018, 'Control of Morphological Variation Through Population Based Fitness Criteria', Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference, Beijing, China., Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, Beijing, China.
Makki, M 2015, 'An Evolutionary Model for Urban Development', International Seminar on Urban Form, Rome, Italy.
Makki, M, Ali, F & Diego, N 2015, 'The Evolutionary Adaptation of Urban Tissues through Computational Analysis', Education and Research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe, Vienna, Austria.
Makki, M, Milad, S & Yutao, S, 'Wallacei: An Evolutionary and Analytic Engine for Grasshopper 3D'.
Wallacei is an evolutionary multi-objective optimization engine that allows users to run evolutionary simulations in Grasshopper 3D (within Rhino 3D) through utilising highly detailed analytic tools coupled with various comprehensive selection methods, including algorithmic clustering, to assist users to better understand their evolutionary runs, and make more informed decisions at all stages of their evolutionary simulations