Zemanova, MA 2020, 'Towards more compassionate wildlife research through the 3Rs principles: moving from invasive to non-invasive methods', WILDLIFE BIOLOGY, vol. 2020, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wallach, AD, Batavia, C, Bekoff, M, Alexander, S, Baker, L, Ben-Ami, D, Boronyak, L, Cardilini, APA, Carmel, Y, Celermajer, D, Coghlan, S, Dahdal, Y, Gomez, JJ, Kaplan, G, Keynan, O, Khalilieh, A, Kopnina, H, Lynn, WS, Narayanan, Y, Riley, S, Santiago-Ávila, FJ, Yanco, E, Zemanova, MA & Ramp, D 2020, 'Recognizing animal personhood in compassionate conservation', Conservation Biology.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Compassionate conservation argues that actions taken to protect the Earth's diversity of life should be guided by compassion for all sentient beings. A set of essays published in Conservation Biology call to reject compassionate conservation. Critics argue that there are situations in which harming animals in conservation programs is appropriate. Three core reasons can be summarized: (1) conservation's raison d'être is biodiversity protection; (2) conservation is already compassionate to nonhumans; and (3) conservation should be compassionate to humans. We analysed these arguments, finding that objections to compassionate conservation are expressions of human exceptionalism, the view that humans are of categorically separate and higher moral status than all other species. In contrast, compassionate conservationists believe that conservation should expand its moral community by recognising all sentient beings as persons. Personhood, in an ethical sense, implies an entity is owed respect, and should never be treated merely as a means to other ends. On scientific and ethical grounds, there are good reasons to extend personhood to nonhuman animals, particularly in conservation. The moral exclusion or subordination of nonhuman beings has served to legitimate the ongoing manipulation and exploitation of the more-than-human world, the very reason conservation was needed in the first place. We embrace compassion for its ability to dismantle human exceptionalism, to recognise nonhuman personhood, and to navigate a more expansive moral space. Article impact statement: The debate about compassionate conservation is about whether to recognize nonhuman personhood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Earth's biodiversity is currently experiencing immense pressure from habitat loss, overexploitation, global climate change, and invasive species, which escalate the global extinction crisis. Comprehensive knowledge of the extent and impact of biodiversity loss is therefore critical for determining species vulnerability and prioritizing conservation goals. An integral part of wildlife conservation research and management is nowadays genetic sampling. Animal DNA has been traditionally obtained invasively, from blood or other tissues, however public concerns over animal welfare require that animals are affected as little as possible during research. One of the ways to minimize the impact on wildlife animal welfare is to use non-invasive genetic sampling. Even though non-invasive genetic sampling techniques have been developed for many animal species, it is not clear how often they are being implemented. Here, I present an overview of recently published articles on genetics in amphibians, birds, carnivores, molluscs and rodents, for which I examined whether they used a lethal, invasive or non-invasive DNA sampling technique. Disappointingly, only 22% of the identified relevant studies implemented the available non-invasive genetic sampling method. I conclude highlighting the need for better implementation of non-invasive DNA collection methods in wildlife research through raising awareness, increasing financial support, and introducing more stringent criteria for obtaining research permits.
Zemanova, MA, Broennimann, O, Guisan, A, Knop, E & Heckel, G 2018, 'Slimy invasion: Climatic niche and current and future biogeography of Arion slug invaders', DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1627-1640.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zemanova, MA, Perotto-Baldivieso, HL, Dickins, EL, Gill, AB, Leonard, JP & Wester, DB 2017, 'Impact of deforestation on habitat connectivity thresholds for large carnivores in tropical forests', ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES, vol. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Desurmont, GA, Zemanova, MA & Turlings, TCJ 2016, 'The Gastropod Menace: Slugs on Brassica Plants Affect Caterpillar Survival through Consumption and Interference with Parasitoid Attraction', JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ECOLOGY, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 183-192.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zemanova, MA, Knop, E & Heckel, G 2016, 'Phylogeographic past and invasive presence of Arion pest slugs in Europe', MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, vol. 25, no. 22, pp. 5747-5764.View/Download from: Publisher's site