My name is Chun-Hsiang (Michael) Chuang. I worked at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) as a Lecturer (~Assistant Professor in US academic rank) from 2016 to 2017. Currently, I am an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computr Science & Engineering of the National Taiwan Ocean University, a Honorary Associate of FEIT, UTS, a Core Member of the Centre of Artificial Intelligence, UTS.
For more information, please go to www.chchuang.me
PhD: I received my PhD in electrical and control engineering from National Chiao Tung University (NCTU) in Taiwan in March 2014. My PhD project focused on exploring the principles and methods that can be used to design individualised real-time neuroergonomic systems to enhance operator situational awareness and decision making under several forms of cognitive fatigue, and to thereby improve total human-system performance. This research led to 23 research publications in high-ranking journals including Nature Sci. Rep., IEEE TNNLS, IEEE TNSRE and NeuroImage and major international conferences including IJCNN, EMBC, ISCAS, etc.
Work Experience: I was offered a full-time position at the Brain Research Center (BRC) and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE), NCTU, as a Postdoctoral Researcher in 2014. One year later, I received a recommendation for promotion to Assistant Researcher in recognition of my exceptional research excellence.
I have been invited to serve as a referee for high-impact journals such as NeuroImage, J. Neuroeng. Rehabil., IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst., IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., IEEE Trans. Cogn. Devel. Syst., and Integr. Comput. Aided Eng.;
I served as CI of two research projects funded by the US Army Research Lab. One was “Investigate the multitasking-related neural co-modulation among independent brain processes”, and the other was “Online fatigue/lapse detection for adapting BCI technologies”. The two projects received AUD$~400K in total in grant funding;
I was awarded funding to visit UCSD in 2012-2013 the Graduate Students Study Abroad Program, the Outstanding PhD Student Award in 2014, and the Best Live Demo Award at the 3rd IEEE EMB/CAS/SMC Workshop on Brain-Machine-Body Interface for my presentation on BCI technology – Mobile and Wireless EEG System for Predicting Lapse;
Myself and my colleagues engaged in a technology transfer with AmTRAN Inc.
Can supervise: YES
Data Mining, Machine Learning, Biomedical Signal Processing, Brain-Computer Interface
Advanced Data Analytics Algorithms (32513)
Advanced Data Analytics (31005)
Technology Research Preparation (32144)
We describe driver behaviour and brain dynamics acquired from a 90-minute sustained-attention task in an immersive driving simulator. The data included 62 sessions of 32-channel electroencephalography (EEG) data for 27 subjects driving on a four-lane highway who were instructed to keep the car cruising in the centre of the lane. Lane-departure events were randomly induced to cause the car to drift from the original cruising lane towards the left or right lane. A complete trial included events with deviation onset, response onset, and response offset. The next trial, in which the subject was instructed to drive back to the original cruising lane, began 5-10 seconds after finishing the previous trial. We believe that this dataset will lead to the development of novel neural processing methodology that can be used to index brain cortical dynamics and detect driving fatigue and drowsiness. This publicly available dataset will be beneficial to the neuroscience and brain-computer interface communities.
Do, T-TN, Chuang, C-H, Hsiao, S-J, Lin, C-T & Wang, Y-K 2019, 'Neural Comodulation of Independent Brain Processes Related to Multitasking.', IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1160-1169.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Distracted driving is regarded as an integrated task requiring different regions of the brain to receive sensory data, coordinate information, make decisions, and synchronize movements. In this paper, we applied an independent modulator analysis (IMA) method to temporally independent electroencephalography (EEG) components to understand how the human executive control system coordinates different brain regions to simultaneously perform multiple tasks with distractions presented in different modalities. The behavioral results showed that the reaction time (RT) in response to traffic events increased while multitasking. Moreover, the RT was longer when the distractor was presented in an auditory form versus a visual form. The IMA results showed that there were performance-related IMs coordinating different brain regions during distracted driving. The component spectral fluctuations affected by the modulators were distinct between the single- and dual-task conditions. Specifically, more modulatory weight was projected to the occipital region to address the additional distracting stimulus in both visual and auditory modality in the dual-task conditions. A comparison of modulatory weights between auditory and visual distractors showed that more modulatory weight was projected to the frontal region during the processing of the auditory distractor. This paper provides valuable insights into the temporal dynamics of attentional modulation during multitasking as well as an understanding of the underlying brain mechanisms that mediate the synchronization across brain regions and govern the allocation of attention in distracted driving.
Huang, K-C, Chuang, C-H, Wang, Y-K, Hsieh, C-Y, King, J-T & Lin, C-T 2019, 'The effects of different fatigue levels on brain-behavior relationships in driving.', Brain and behavior, vol. 9, no. 12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND:In the past decade, fatigue has been regarded as one of the main factors impairing task performance and increasing behavioral lapses during driving, even leading to fatal car crashes. Although previous studies have explored the impact of acute fatigue through electroencephalography (EEG) signals, it is still unclear how different fatigue levels affect brain-behavior relationships. METHODS:A longitudinal study was performed to investigate the brain dynamics and behavioral changes in individuals under different fatigue levels by a sustained attention task. This study used questionnaires in combination with actigraphy, a noninvasive means of monitoring human physiological activity cycles, to conduct longitudinal assessment and tracking of the objective and subjective fatigue levels of recruited participants. In this study, degrees of effectiveness score (fatigue rating) are divided into three levels (normal, reduced, and high risk) by the SAFTE fatigue model. RESULTS:Results showed that those objective and subjective indicators were negatively correlated to behavioral performance. In addition, increased response times were accompanied by increased alpha and theta power in most brain regions, especially the posterior regions. In particular, the theta and alpha power dramatically increased in the high-fatigue (high-risk) group. Additionally, the alpha power of the occipital regions showed an inverted U-shaped change. CONCLUSION:Our results help to explain the inconsistent findings among existing studies, which considered the effects of only acute fatigue on driving performance while ignoring different levels of resident fatigue, and potentially lead to practical and precise biomathematical models to better predict the performance of human operators.
Cao, Z, Lai, K-L, Lin, C-T, Chuang, C-H, Chou, C-C & Wang, S-J 2018, 'Exploring resting-state EEG complexity before migraine attacks.', Cephalalgia: an international journal of headache, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1296-1306.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Objective Entropy-based approaches to understanding the temporal dynamics of complexity have revealed novel insights into various brain activities. Herein, electroencephalogram complexity before migraine attacks was examined using an inherent fuzzy entropy approach, allowing the development of an electroencephalogram-based classification model to recognize the difference between interictal and preictal phases. Methods Forty patients with migraine without aura and 40 age-matched normal control subjects were recruited, and the resting-state electroencephalogram signals of their prefrontal and occipital areas were prospectively collected. The migraine phases were defined based on the headache diary, and the preictal phase was defined as within 72 hours before a migraine attack. Results The electroencephalogram complexity of patients in the preictal phase, which resembled that of normal control subjects, was significantly higher than that of patients in the interictal phase in the prefrontal area (FDR-adjusted p < 0.05) but not in the occipital area. The measurement of test-retest reliability (n = 8) using the intra-class correlation coefficient was good with r1 = 0.73 ( p = 0.01). Furthermore, the classification model, support vector machine, showed the highest accuracy (76 ± 4%) for classifying interictal and preictal phases using the prefrontal electroencephalogram complexity. Conclusion Entropy-based analytical methods identified enhancement or "normalization" of frontal electroencephalogram complexity during the preictal phase compared with the interictal phase. This classification model, using this complexity feature, may have the potential to provide a preictal alert to migraine without aura patients.
Wu, D, King, JT, Chuang, CH, Lin, CT & Jung, TP 2018, 'Spatial Filtering for EEG-Based Regression Problems in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)', IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 771-781.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 1993-2012 IEEE. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are frequently used in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), but they are easily contaminated by artifacts and noise, so preprocessing must be done before they are fed into a machine learning algorithm for classification or regression. Spatial filters have been widely used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of EEG for BCI classification problems, but their applications in BCI regression problems have been very limited. This paper proposes two common spatial pattern (CSP) filters for EEG-based regression problems in BCI, which are extended from the CSP filter for classification, by using fuzzy sets. Experimental results on EEG-based response speed estimation from a large-scale study, which collected 143 sessions of sustained-attention psychomotor vigilance task data from 17 subjects during a 5-month period, demonstrate that the two proposed spatial filters can significantly increase the EEG signal quality. When used in LASSO and k-nearest neighbors regression for user response speed estimation, the spatial filters can reduce the root-mean-square estimation error by 10.02-19.77\%, and at the same time increase the correlation to the true response speed by 19.39-86.47\%.
Chuang, C-H, Cao, Z, King, J-T, Wu, B-S, Wang, Y-K & Lin, C-T 2018, 'Brain Electrodynamic and Hemodynamic Signatures Against Fatigue During Driving.', Frontiers in Neuroscience, vol. 12, pp. 1-12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fatigue is likely to be gradually cumulated in a prolonged and attention-demanding task that may adversely affect task performance. To address the brain dynamics during a driving task, this study recruited 16 subjects to participate in an event-related lane-departure driving experiment. Each subject was instructed to maintain attention and task performance throughout an hour-long driving experiment. The subjects' brain electrodynamics and hemodynamics were simultaneously recorded via 32-channel electroencephalography (EEG) and 8-source/16-detector functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The behavior performance demonstrated that all subjects were able to promptly respond to lane-deviation events, even if the sign of fatigue arose in the brain, which suggests that the subjects were fighting fatigue during the driving experiment. The EEG event-related analysis showed strengthening alpha suppression in the occipital cortex, a common brain region of fatigue. Furthermore, we noted increasing oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) of the brain to fight driving fatigue in the frontal cortex, primary motor cortex, parieto-occipital cortex and supplementary motor area. In conclusion, the increasing neural activity and cortical activations were aimed at maintaining driving performance when fatigue emerged. The electrodynamic and hemodynamic signatures of fatigue fighting contribute to our understanding of the brain dynamics of driving fatigue and address driving safety issues through the maintenance of attention and behavioral performance.
Lin, C-T, Chiu, T-C, Wang, Y-K, Chuang, C-H & Gramann, K 2018, 'Granger causal connectivity dissociates navigation networks that subserve allocentric and egocentric path integration.', Brain Research, vol. 1679, pp. 91-100.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Studies on spatial navigation demonstrate a significant role of the retrosplenial complex (RSC) in the transformation of egocentric and allocentric information into complementary spatial reference frames (SRFs). The tight anatomical connections of the RSC with a wide range of other cortical regions processing spatial information support its vital role within the human navigation network. To better understand how different areas of the navigational network interact, we investigated the dynamic causal interactions of brain regions involved in solving a virtual navigation task. EEG signals were decomposed by independent component analysis (ICA) and subsequently examined for information flow between clusters of independent components (ICs) using direct short-time directed transfer function (sdDTF). The results revealed information flow between the anterior cingulate cortex and the left prefrontal cortex in the theta (4-7 Hz) frequency band and between the prefrontal, motor, parietal, and occipital cortices as well as the RSC in the alpha (8-13 Hz) frequency band. When participants prefered to use distinct reference frames (egocentric vs. allocentric) during navigation was considered, a dominant occipito-parieto-RSC network was identified in allocentric navigators. These results are in line with the assumption that the RSC, parietal, and occipital cortices are involved in transforming egocentric visual-spatial information into an allocentric reference frame. Moreover, the RSC demonstrated the strongest causal flow during changes in orientation, suggesting that this structure directly provides information on heading changes in humans.
Lin, CT, Hsieh, TY, Liu, YT, Lin, YY, Fang, CN, Wang, YK, Yen, G, Pal, NR & Chuang, CH 2018, 'Minority Oversampling in Kernel Adaptive Subspaces for Class Imbalanced Datasets', IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 950-962.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 1989-2012 I EEE. The class imbalance problem in machine learning occurs when certain classes are underrepresented relative to the others, leading to a learning bias toward the majority classes. To cope with the skewed class distribution, many learning methods featuring minority oversampling have been proposed, which are proved to be effective. To reduce information loss during feature space projection, this study proposes a novel oversampling algorithm, named minority oversampling in kernel adaptive subspaces (MOKAS), which exploits the invariant feature extraction capability of a kernel version of the adaptive subspace self-organizing maps. The synthetic instances are generated from well-trained subspaces and then their pre-images are reconstructed in the input space. Additionally, these instances characterize nonlinear structures present in the minority class data distribution and help the learning algorithms to counterbalance the skewed class distribution in a desirable manner. Experimental results on both real and synthetic data show that the proposed MOKAS is capable of modeling complex data distribution and outperforms a set of state-of-the-art oversampling algorithms.
Lin, CT, Chuang, CH, Cao, Z, Singh, AK, Hung, CS, Yu, YH, Nascimben, M, Liu, YT, King, JT, Su, TP & Wang, SJ 2017, 'Forehead EEG in Support of Future Feasible Personal Healthcare Solutions: Sleep Management, Headache Prevention, and Depression Treatment', IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 10612-10621.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. There are current limitations in the recording technologies for measuring EEG activity in clinical and experimental applications. Acquisition systems involving wet electrodes are time-consuming and uncomfortable for the user. Furthermore, dehydration of the gel affects the quality of the acquired data and reliability of long-term monitoring. As a result, dry electrodes may be used to facilitate the transition from neuroscience research or clinical practice to real-life applications. EEG signals can be easily obtained using dry electrodes on the forehead, which provides extensive information concerning various cognitive dysfunctions and disorders. This paper presents the usefulness of the forehead EEG with advanced sensing technology and signal processing algorithms to support people with healthcare needs, such as monitoring sleep, predicting headaches, and treating depression. The proposed system for evaluating sleep quality is capable of identifying five sleep stages to track nightly sleep patterns. Additionally, people with episodic migraines can be notified of an imminent migraine headache hours in advance through monitoring forehead EEG dynamics. The depression treatment screening system can predict the efficacy of rapid antidepressant agents. It is evident that frontal EEG activity is critically involved in sleep management, headache prevention, and depression treatment. The use of dry electrodes on the forehead allows for easy and rapid monitoring on an everyday basis. The advances in EEG recording and analysis ensure a promising future in support of personal healthcare solutions.
Wu, SL, Liu, YT, Hsieh, TY, Lin, YY, Chen, CY, Chuang, CH & Lin, CT 2017, 'Fuzzy Integral with Particle Swarm Optimization for a Motor-Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface', IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 21-28.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 IEEE.A brain-computer interface (BCI) system using electroencephalography signals provides a convenient means of communication between the human brain and a computer. Motor imagery (MI), in which motor actions are mentally rehearsed without engaging in actual physical execution, has been widely used as a major BCI approach. One robust algorithm that can successfully cope with the individual differences in MI-related rhythmic patterns is to create diverse ensemble classifiers using the subband common spatial pattern (SBCSP) method. To aggregate outputs of ensemble members, this study uses fuzzy integral with particle swarm optimization (PSO), which can regulate subject-specific parameters for the assignment of optimal confidence levels for classifiers. The proposed system combining SBCSP, fuzzy integral, and PSO exhibits robust performance for offline single-trial classification of MI and real-time control of a robotic arm using MI. This paper represents the first attempt to utilize fuzzy fusion technique to attack the individual differences problem of MI applications in real-world noisy environments. The results of this study demonstrate the practical feasibility of implementing the proposed method for real-world applications.
Lin, C, Liu, Y-T, Wu, S-L, Cao, Z, Wang, Y, Huang, C-S, King, J-T, Chen, S-A, Lu, S-W & Chuang, C 2017, 'EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces: A Novel Neurotechnology and Computational Intelligence Method', IEEE Systems Man and Cybernetics Magazine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 16-26.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article presents the latest BCI-related research done in our group. Our previous work applied computational intelligence technology in BCIs to inspire detailed investigations of practical issues in real-life applications. Novel EEG devices featuring dry electrodes facilitate and speed up electrode positioning before recording and allow subjects to move freely in operational environments. We also demonstrate the feasibility of applying CCA, RBFNs, effective connectivity measurements, and D-S theory to help BCIs extract informative knowledge from brain signals. Two recent trends in research in the computational and artificial intelligence community, big data and deep learning, are expected to impact the direction and development of BCIs.
Cao, Z, Lin, C-T, Chuang, C-H, Lai, K-L, Yang, AC, Fuh, J-L & Wang, S-J 2016, 'Resting-state EEG power and coherence vary between migraine phases', JOURNAL OF HEADACHE AND PAIN, vol. 17.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chuang, S-W, Chuang, C-H, Yu, Y-H, King, J-T & Lin, C-T 2016, 'EEG Alpha and Gamma Modulators Mediate Motion Sickness-Related Spectral Responses', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEURAL SYSTEMS, vol. 26, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lin, C-T, Chuang, C-H, Kerick, S, Mullen, T, Jung, T-P, Ko, L-W, Chen, S-A, King, J-T & McDowell, K 2016, 'Mind-Wandering Tends to Occur under Low Perceptual Demands during Driving', SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, Y-T, Lin, Y-Y, Wu, S-L, Chuang, C-H & Lin, C-T 2016, 'Brain Dynamics in Predicting Driving Fatigue Using a Recurrent Self-Evolving Fuzzy Neural Network', IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS AND LEARNING SYSTEMS, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 347-360.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Yu, Y-H, Lu, S-W, Chuang, C-H, King, J-T, Chang, C-L, Chen, S-A, Chen, S-F & Lin, C-T 2016, 'An Inflatable and Wearable Wireless System for Making 32-Channel Electroencephalogram Measurements', IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 806-813.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, K-C, Huang, T-Y, Chuang, C-H, King, J-T, Wang, Y-K, Lin, C-T & Jung, T-P 2016, 'An EEG-Based Fatigue Detection and Mitigation System.', International journal of neural systems, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1650018-1650018.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Research has indicated that fatigue is a critical factor in cognitive lapses because it negatively affects an individual's internal state, which is then manifested physiologically. This study explores neurophysiological changes, measured by electroencephalogram (EEG), due to fatigue. This study further demonstrates the feasibility of an online closed-loop EEG-based fatigue detection and mitigation system that detects physiological change and can thereby prevent fatigue-related cognitive lapses. More importantly, this work compares the efficacy of fatigue detection and mitigation between the EEG-based and a nonEEG-based random method. Twelve healthy subjects participated in a sustained-attention driving experiment. Each participant's EEG signal was monitored continuously and a warning was delivered in real-time to participants once the EEG signature of fatigue was detected. Study results indicate suppression of the alpha- and theta-power of an occipital component and improved behavioral performance following a warning signal; these findings are in line with those in previous studies. However, study results also showed reduced warning efficacy (i.e. increased response times (RTs) to lane deviations) accompanied by increased alpha-power due to the fluctuation of warnings over time. Furthermore, a comparison of EEG-based and nonEEG-based random approaches clearly demonstrated the necessity of adaptive fatigue-mitigation systems, based on a subject's cognitive level, to deliver warnings. Analytical results clearly demonstrate and validate the efficacy of this online closed-loop EEG-based fatigue detection and mitigation mechanism to identify cognitive lapses that may lead to catastrophic incidents in countless operational environments.
Liu, YT, Lin, C, Chuang, CH, Wang, YK, Huang, SH, King, JT, Chen, SA & Lu, SW 2016, 'Novel Neurotechnology and Computational Intelligence Method Applied to EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces', IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Magazine.
Chuang, C-H, Huang, C-S, Ko, L-W & Lin, C-T 2015, 'An EEG-based perceptual function integration network for application to drowsy driving', KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS, vol. 80, pp. 143-152.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, C-S, Pal, NR, Chuang, C-H & Lin, C-T 2015, 'Identifying changes in EEG information transfer during drowsy driving by transfer entropy', FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE, vol. 9.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study investigated the effects of kinesthetic stimuli on brain activities during a sustained-attention task in an immersive driving simulator. Tonic and phasic brain responses on multiple timescales were analyzed using time-frequency analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) sources identified by independent component analysis (ICA). Sorting EEG spectra with respect to reaction times (RT) to randomly introduced lane-departure events revealed distinct effects of kinesthetic stimuli on the brain under different performance levels. Experimental results indicated that EEG spectral dynamics highly correlated with performance lapses when driving involved kinesthetic feedback. Furthermore, in the realistic environment involving both visual and kinesthetic feedback, a transitive relationship of power spectra between optimal-, suboptimal-, and poor-performance groups was found predominately across most of the independent components. In contrast to the static environment with visual input only, kinesthetic feedback reduced theta-power augmentation in the central and frontal components when preparing for action and error monitoring, while strengthening alpha suppression in the central component while steering the wheel. In terms of behavior, subjects tended to have a short response time to process unexpected events with the assistance of kinesthesia, yet only when their performance was optimal. Decrease in attentional demand, facilitated by kinesthetic feedback, eventually significantly increased the reaction time in the suboptimal-performance state. Neurophysiological evidence of mutual relationships between behavioral performance and neurocognition in complex task paradigms and experimental environments, presented in this study, might elucidate our understanding of distributed brain dynamics, supporting natural human cognition and complex coordinated, multi-joint naturalistic behavior, and lead to improved understanding of brain-behavior relations in operating enviro...
Chuang, C-H, Ko, L-W, Lin, Y-P, Jung, T-P & Lin, C-T 2014, 'Independent component ensemble of EEG for brain-computer interface.', IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 230-238.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Recently, successful applications of independent component analysis (ICA) to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals have yielded tremendous insights into brain processes that underlie human cognition. Many studies have further established the feasibility of using independent processes to elucidate human cognitive states. However, various technical problems arise in the building of an online brain-computer interface (BCI). These include the lack of an automatic procedure for selecting independent components of interest (ICi) and the potential risk of not obtaining a desired ICi. Therefore, this study proposes an ICi-ensemble method that uses multiple classifiers with ICA processing to improve upon existing algorithms. The mechanisms that are used in this ensemble system include: 1) automatic ICi selection; 2) extraction of features of the resultant ICi; 3) the construction of parallel pipelines for effectively training multiple classifiers; and a 4) simple process that combines the multiple decisions. The proposed ICi-ensemble is demonstrated in a typical BCI application, which is the monitoring of participants' cognitive states in a realistic sustained-attention driving task. The results reveal that the proposed ICi-ensemble outperformed the previous method using a single ICi with ∼ 7% (91.6% versus 84.3%) in the cognitive state classification. Additionally, the proposed ICi-ensemble method that characterizes the EEG dynamics of multiple brain areas favors the application of BCI in natural environments.
Lin, C-T, Chuang, C-H, Huang, C-S, Tsai, S-F, Lu, S-W, Chen, Y-H & Ko, L-W 2014, 'Wireless and wearable EEG system for evaluating driver vigilance.', IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 165-176.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brain activity associated with attention sustained on the task of safe driving has received considerable attention recently in many neurophysiological studies. Those investigations have also accurately estimated shifts in drivers' levels of arousal, fatigue, and vigilance, as evidenced by variations in their task performance, by evaluating electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. However, monitoring the neurophysiological activities of automobile drivers poses a major measurement challenge when using a laboratory-oriented biosensor technology. This work presents a novel dry EEG sensor based mobile wireless EEG system (referred to herein as Mindo) to monitor in real time a driver's vigilance status in order to link the fluctuation of driving performance with changes in brain activities. The proposed Mindo system incorporates the use of a wireless and wearable EEG device to record EEG signals from hairy regions of the driver conveniently. Additionally, the proposed system can process EEG recordings and translate them into the vigilance level. The study compares the system performance between different regression models. Moreover, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for online analysis. A case study involving 15 study participants assigned a 90 min sustained-attention driving task in an immersive virtual driving environment demonstrates the reliability of the proposed system. Consistent with previous studies, power spectral analysis results confirm that the EEG activities correlate well with the variations in vigilance. Furthermore, the proposed system demonstrated the feasibility of predicting the driver's vigilance in real time.
Lin, C-T, Huang, K-C, Chuang, C-H, Ko, L-W & Jung, T-P 2013, 'Can arousing feedback rectify lapses in driving? Prediction from EEG power spectra', JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, vol. 10, no. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lin, F-C, Ko, L-W, Chuang, C-H, Su, T-P & Lin, C-T 2012, 'Generalized EEG-Based Drowsiness Prediction System by Using a Self-Organizing Neural Fuzzy System', IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 2044-2055.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lance, B, Touryan, J, Wang, YK, Lu, SW, Chuang, CH, Khooshabeh, P, Sajda, P, Marathe, A, Jung, TP, Lin, CT & McDowell, K 2015, 'Towards Serious Games for Improved BCI' in Nakatsu, R, Rauterberg, M & Ciancarini, P (eds), Handbook of Digital Games and Entertainment Technologies, Springer, Germany, pp. 1-28.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies, or technologies that use online brain signal processing, have a great promise to improve human interactions with computers, their environment, and even other humans. Despite this promise, there are no current serious BCI technologies in widespread use, due to the lack of robustness in BCI technologies. The key neural aspect of this lack of robustness is human variability, which has two main components: (1) individual differences in neural signals and (2) intraindividual variability over time. In order to develop widespread BCI technologies, it will be necessary to address this lack of robustness. However, it is currently unknown how neural variability affects BCI performance. To accomplish these goals, it is essential to obtain data from large numbers of individuals using BCI technologies over considerable lengths of time. One promising method for this is through the use of BCI technologies embedded into games with a purpose (GWAP). GWAP are a game-based form of crowdsourcing which players choose to play for enjoyment and during which the player performs key tasks which cannot be automated but that are required to solve research questions. By embedding BCI paradigms in GWAP and recording neural and behavioral data, it should be possible to much more clearly understand the differences in neural signals between individuals and across different time scales, enabling the development of novel and increasingly robust adaptive BCI algorithms.
Nascimben, M, Yu, Y-H, Lin, C-T, King, J-T, Singh, AK & Chuang, C 2016, 'Effect of a cognitive involving videogame on MI task', Proceedings of the 6th International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting, organized by the BCI Society, Verlag der TU Graz, Graz University of Technology, sponsored by g.tec medical engineering GmbH, pp. 175-175.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Researcher and developers have to face with performance variation in motor imagery across and
within subjects and its fluctuations over time. In addition MI achievement variations within subjects are closely
correlated to neurophysiological variables. In our study a MI task was submitted to a group of healthy subjects
before and after playing BCIGEM videogame for 90 minutes. Some EEG features were found, suggesting a
different pathway of activation inside MU rhythm during Motor Imagery (MI) after a mentally challenging activity
like playing a videogame
Liu, YT, Wu, SL, Chou, KP, Lin, YY, Lu, J, Zhang, G, Chuang, CH, Lin, WC & Lin, CT 2016, 'A motor imagery based brain-computer interface system via swarm-optimized fuzzy integral and its application', 2016 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, FUZZ-IEEE 2016, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, IEEE, Vancouver, BC, Canada, pp. 2495-2500.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 IEEE.A brain-computer interface (BCI) system provides a convenient means of communication between the human brain and a computer, which is applied not only to healthy people but also for people that suffer from motor neuron diseases (MNDs). Motor imagery (MI) is one well-known basis for designing Electroencephalography (EEG)-based real-life BCI systems. However, EEG signals are often contaminated with severe noise and various uncertainties, imprecise and incomplete information streams. Therefore, this study proposes spectrum ensemble based on swam-optimized fuzzy integral for integrating decisions from sub-band classifiers that are established by a sub-band common spatial pattern (SBCSP) method. Firstly, the SBCSP effectively extracts features from EEG signals, and thereby the multiple linear discriminant analysis (MLDA) is employed during a MI classification task. Subsequently, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to regulate the subject-specific parameters for assigning optimal confidence levels for classifiers used in the fuzzy integral during the fuzzy fusion stage of the proposed system. Moreover, BCI systems usually tend to have complex architectures, be bulky in size, and require time-consuming processing. To overcome this drawback, a wireless and wearable EEG measurement system is investigated in this study. Finally, in our experimental result, the proposed system is found to produce significant improvement in terms of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a robotic arm can be reliably controlled using the proposed BCI system. This paper presents novel insights regarding the possibility of using the proposed MI-based BCI system in real-life applications.
Ko, LW, Lai, WK, Liang, WG, Chuang, CH, Lu, SW, Lu, YC, Hsiung, TY, Wu, HH & Lin, CT 2015, 'Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection', Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IEEE, Killarney, Ireland.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. Driver fatigue problem is one of the important factors of traffic accidents. Recent years, many research had investigated that using EEG signals can effectively detect driver's drowsiness level. However, real-time monitoring system is required to apply these fatigue level detection techniques in the practical application, especially in the real-road driving. Therefore, it required less channels, portable and wireless, real-time monitoring and processing techniques for developing the real-time monitoring system. In this study, we develop a single channel wireless EEG device which can real-time detect driver's fatigue level on the mobile device such as smart phone or tablet. The developed device is investigated to obtain a better and precise understanding of brain activities of mental fatigue under driving, which is of great benefit for devolvement of detection of driving fatigue system. This system consists of a Bluetooth-enabled one channel EEG, a regression model, and smartphone, which was a platform recording and transforming the raw EEG data to useful driving status. In the experiment, this was a sustained-attention driving task to implement in a virtual-reality (VR) driving simulator. To training model and develop the system, we were performed for 15 subjects to study Electroencephalography (EEG) brain dynamics by using a mobile and wireless EEG device. Based on the outstanding training results, the leave-one-subject-out cross validation test obtained 90% fatigue detection accuracy. These results indicate that the combination of a smartphone and wireless EEG device constitutes an effective and easy wearable solution for detecting and preventing driver fatigue in real driving environments.
Wu, D, Chuang, CH & Lin, CT 2015, 'Online driver's drowsiness estimation using domain adaptation with model fusion', 2015 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, ACII 2015, International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, IEEE, Xian, PEOPLES R CHINA, pp. 904-910.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. Drowsy driving is a pervasive problem among drivers, and is also an important contributor to motor vehicle accidents. It is very important to be able to estimate a driver's drowsiness level online so that preventative actions could be taken to avoid accidents. However, because of large individual differences, it is very challenging to design an estimation algorithm whose parameters fit all subjects. Some subject-specific calibration data must be used to tailor the algorithm for each new subject. This paper proposes a domain adaptation with model fusion (DAMF) online drowsiness estimation approach using EEG signals. By making use of EEG data from other subjects in a transfer learning framework, DAMF requires very little subject-specific calibration data, which significantly increases its utility in practice. We demonstrate using a simulated driving experiment and 15 subjects that DAMF can achieve much better performance than several other approaches.
Liu, Y-T, Lin, Y-Y, Wu, S-L, Chuang, C-H, Prasad, M & Lin, C-T 2014, 'EEG-based Driving Fatigue Prediction System Using Functional-link-based Fuzzy Neural Network', PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2014 INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NEURAL NETWORKS (IJCNN), International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN), IEEE, Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA, pp. 4109-4113.
Chuang, C-H, Lin, Y-P, Ko, L-W, Jung, T-P & Lin, C-T 2013, 'Automatic design for independent component analysis based brain-computer interfacing.', Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference, International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE, Osaka, Japan, pp. 2180-2183.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study proposes a new framework, independent component ensemble, to leverage the acquired knowledge into a truly automatic and on-line EEG-based brain-computer interfacing (BCI). The envisioned design includes: (1) independent source recover using independent component analysis (ICA) (2) automatic selection of the independent components of interest (ICi) associated with human behaviors; (3) multiple classifiers with a parallel constructing and processing structure; and (4) a simple fusion scheme to combine the decisions from multiple classifiers. Its implications in BCI are demonstrated through a sample application: cognitive-state monitoring of participants performing a realistic sustained-attention driving task. Empirical results showed the proposed ensemble design could provide an improvement of 7% ~ 15% in overall accuracy for the classification of the arousal state and the driving performance. In summary, constructing ICi-ensemble classifiers and combining their outputs demonstrates a practical option for ICA-based BCIs to reduce the risk of not obtaining any desired independent source or selecting an inadequate component. Most importantly, the ensemble design for integrating information across multiple brain areas creates potentials for developing more complicated BCIs for real world applications.
Ko, LW, Chuang, CH, Huang, CS, Chen, YH, Lu, SW, Liao, LD, Chang, WT & Lin, CT 2013, 'Real-time vigilance estimation using mobile wireless mindo EEG device with spring-loaded sensors', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), International Conference on Augmented Cognition, Springer, Las Vegas, NV, USA, pp. 450-458.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Monitoring the neurophysiological activities of human brain dynamics in an operational environment poses a severe measurement challenge using current laboratory-oriented biosensor technology. The goal of this research is to design, develop and test the wearable and wireless dry-electrode EEG human-computer interface (HCI) that can allow assessment of brain activities of participants actively performing ordinary tasks in natural body positions and situations within a real operational environment. Its implications in HCI were demonstrated through a sample application: vigilance-state prediction of participants performing a realistic sustained-attention driving task. Besides, this study further developed an online signal processing for extracting EEG features and assessing cognitive performance. We demonstrated the feasibility of using dry EEG sensors and miniaturized supporting hardware/software to continuously collect EEG data recorded from hairy sites (i.e., occipital region) in a realistic VR-based dynamic driving simulator. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Lin, CT, Chuang, CH, Huang, CS, Chen, YH & Ko, LW 2013, 'Real-time assessment of vigilance level using an innovative Mindo4 wireless EEG system', Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, International Symposium on Circuits and Systems Nano-Bio Circuit Fabrics and Systems (ISCAS), IEEE, Beijing, China, pp. 1528-1531.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Monitoring the neurophysiological activities of driver in an operational environment poses a severe measurement challenge using a current laboratory-oriented biosensor technology. The aims of this research are to 1) introduce a dry and wireless EEG system used for conveniently recording EEG signals from forehead regions, 2) propose an effective system for processing EEG recordings and translating them into the vigilance level, and 3) implement the proposed system with a JAVA-based graphical user interface (GUI) for online analysis. To validate the performance of the proposed system, this study recruited eight voluntary subjects to participate a 90-min sustained-attention driving task in a virtual-realistic driving environment. Physiological evidence obtained from the power spectral analysis showed that the dry EEG system could distinguish an alert EEG from a drowsy EEG by evaluating the spectral dynamics of delta and alpha activities. Furthermore, the experimental result of the comparison of the prediction performance using four forehead electrode sites (AF8, FP2, FP1, and AF7) implied that a single-electrode EEG signal used in the mobile and wireless EEG system is able to obtain a high prediction accuracy (∼93%). Taken together, the proposed system applied a dry-EEG device combined with an effective algorithm can be a promising technology for real driving applications. © 2013 IEEE.
Chuang, CH, Huang, CS, Lin, CT, Ko, LW, Chang, JY & Yang, JM 2012, 'Mapping information flow of independent source to predict conscious level: A granger causality based brain-computer interface', Proceedings - 2012 International Symposium on Computer, Consumer and Control, IS3C 2012, pp. 813-816.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Recent studies have shown that the various brain networks over different cognitive states. In contrast to measure a physiological change over a single region, the information flows between brain regions described by effective connectivity provides an informative dynamic over the whole brain. In this study, we proposed a source information flow network based on the combination of Granger causality and support vector regression to predict driver's conscious level. This work provides the first application of using brain network to develop a brain-computer interface and obtain a sound result of performance. © 2012 IEEE.
Huang, K-C, Jung, T-P, Chuang, C-H, Ko, L-W & Lin, C-T 2012, 'Preventing lapse in performance using a drowsiness monitoring and management system.', 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 3336-3339.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Research on public security, especially the safe manipulation and control of vehicles, has gained increasing attention in recent years. This study proposes a closed-loop drowsiness monitoring and management system that can estimate subjects' driving performance. The system observes electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics and behavioral changes, delivers arousing feedback to individuals experiencing momentary cognitive lapses, and assesses the efficacy of the feedback. Results of this study showed that the arousing feedback immediately improved subject performance, which was accompanied by concurrent theta- and alpha-power suppression in the bilateral occipital areas. This study further demonstrated the feasibility of accurately assessing the efficacy of arousing feedback presented to drowsy participants by monitoring the changes in their EEG power spectra.
Kuo, B-C, Lin, S-S, Wu, H-M & Chuang, C-H 2010, 'A NOVEL CLASSIFICATION PROCESSING BASED ON THE SPATIAL INFORMATION AND THE CONCEPT OF ADABOOST FOR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE CLASSIFICATION', 2010 IEEE INTERNATIONAL GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING SYMPOSIUM, 30th IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) on Remote Sensing - Global Vision for Local Action, IEEE, Honolulu, HI, pp. 2816-2819.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chuang, C-H, Lai, P-C, Ko, L-W, Kuo, B-C & Lin, C-T 1970, 'Driver's Cognitive State Classification toward Brain Computer Interface via using a Generalized and Supervised Technology', 2010 INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NEURAL NETWORKS IJCNN 2010, World Congress on Computational Intelligence (WCCI 2010), IEEE, Barcelona, SPAIN.
Jung, TP, Huang, KC, Chuang, CH, Chen, JA, Ko, LW, Chiu, TW & Lin, CT 2010, 'Arousing feedback rectifies lapse in performance and corresponding EEG power spectrum.', Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, pp. 1792-1795.
This study explores electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics and behavioral changes in response to arousing auditory signals presented to individuals experiencing momentary cognitive lapses. Arousing auditory feedback was delivered to the subjects in half of the non-responded lane-deviation events during a sustained-attention driving task, which immediately agitated subject's responses to the events. The improved behavioral performance was accompanied by concurrent power suppression in the theta- and alpha-bands in the lateral occipital cortices. This study further explores the feasibility of estimating the efficacy of arousing feedback presented to the drowsy subjects by monitoring the changes in EEG power spectra.
Jung, T-P, Huang, K-C, Chuang, C-H, Chen, J-A, Ko, L-W, Chiu, T-W & Lin, C-T 2010, 'Arousing Feedback Rectifies Lapse in Performance and Corresponding EEG Power Spectrum', 2010 ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY SOCIETY (EMBC), 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society (EMBC 10), IEEE, Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA, pp. 1792-1795.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Yu, Y-H, Lai, P-C, Ko, L-W, Chuang, C-H, Kuo, B-C & Lin, C-T 1970, 'An EEG-based Classification System of Passenger's Motion Sickness Level by using Feature Extraction/Selection Technologies', 2010 INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NEURAL NETWORKS IJCNN 2010, World Congress on Computational Intelligence (WCCI 2010), IEEE, Barcelona, SPAIN.
Kuo, B-C, Chuang, C-H, Huang, C-S & Hung, C-C 2009, 'A NONPARAMETRIC CONTEXTUAL CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MARKOV RANDOM FIELDS', 2009 FIRST WORKSHOP ON HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE AND SIGNAL PROCESSING: EVOLUTION IN REMOTE SENSING, 1st Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing - Evolution in Remote Sensing, IEEE, Grenoble, FRANCE, pp. 135-+.
Kuo, B-C, Chuang, C-H, Li, C-H & Lin, C-T 2009, 'SUBSPACE SELECTION BASED MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEMS FOR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE CLASSIFICATION', 2009 FIRST WORKSHOP ON HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE AND SIGNAL PROCESSING: EVOLUTION IN REMOTE SENSING, 1st Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing - Evolution in Remote Sensing, IEEE, Grenoble, FRANCE, pp. 211-+.
Chuang, C-H, Kuo, B-C & Wang, H-P 2008, 'Fuzzy Fusion Method for Combining Small Number of Classifiers in Hyperspectral Image Classification', ISDA 2008: EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS, VOL 1, PROCEEDINGS, 8th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA 2008), IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Kaohsiung, TAIWAN, pp. 327-332.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kuo, BC, Chuang, CH, Hung, CC & Yang, SW 2008, 'A novel random subspace method using spectral and spatial information for hyperspectral image classification', International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS).View/Download from: Publisher's site
Many studies have demonstrated that multiple classifier systems, such as random subspace method, obtain more outstanding and robust results than a single classifier. In this study, we propose a novel RSM framework which is composed of two parts. The first part is the construction of a weighted RSM, where weights are given by two classifier-based distributions. One is the feature weighting distribution, and the other is the subspace dimensionality distribution that helps for dynamically selecting the size of subspace with respect to the employed classifiers. The second part is to introduce the spatial information estimated by the Markov random filed theory into the Bayesian classifiers used in the framework. The real data experimental results show that the proposed framework obtains satisfactory performances, and the classification maps remarkably produce fewer speckles. © 2008 IEEE.