Associate Professor Melissa Kang's passion for working with and for young people has defined her career. She is an academic, a clinician, and an advocate. Melissa's research has taken a population health approach, with major projects exploring access to health care, health system navigation, young people’s sexuality and sexual health (particularly sexually transmitted infections). She has skills in complex mixed method research, and high level project management expertise.
Melissa's teaching and curriculum development experience cover topics that range from population and public health issues for young people to micro-skill development for clinicians in engaging young people in health care. Melissa has over 20 years’ experience working in popular media as an educator and as a dynamic way to interact with and learn about young people’s health concerns.
Melissa's academic and clinical roles over 20 years have forged links between grass roots clinicians, service managers, the youth health sector, government and policy makers, educators and researchers. She is a strong advocate for young people’s rights, especially their rights to health: health literacy, health access, and youth participation.
Melissa is currently (2015 - 2017) leading the NSW Health funded study Access 3 which explores the way young people navigate the health system in the digital age. This project will inform the 2017+ NSW Youth Health Policy.
Melissa is currently:
- President of the Australian Association for Adolecent Health
- a member of the Diversity Subcommittee of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (USA)
- Royal Australian College of General Practitioners representative on the NSW Health HIV and STI Implementation Committee
- a member of the NSW Youth Health Policy Reference Group
- a member of the Sexual Health Medicine Network, RACGP Faculty of Specific Interests
- a member of the Children and Young People Network, RACGP FAculty of Specific Interests
- a member of the International Association for Adolescent Health
- a member of the Public Health Association of Australia
Can supervise: YES
- Youth health and wellbeing
- Sexuality, sexual and reproductive health and young people
- Sex education
- Access to health care for young people
- Vulnerable and marginalised populations of young people
- Youth homelessness
- Health literacy and young people
- Primary health care and young people
- Adolescent and Young Adult Health
- Sexuality, Sexual and Reproductive Health
Kang, MS, Skinner, SR, Sanci, L & Sawyer, S 2013, Youth Health and Adolescent Medicine, IP COmmunications, Melbourne, Australia.
Remond, L & Kang, MS 2005, Dolly Doctor: your body your life – every question answered, ACP Magazines, Sydney.
Svetaz, MV, Chulani, V, West, KJ, Voss, R, Kelley, MA, Raymond-Flesch, M, Thruston, W, Coyne-Beasley, T, Kang, M, Leung, E & Barkley, L 2018, 'Racism and Its Harmful Effects on Nondominant Racial–Ethnic Youth and Youth-Serving Providers: A Call to Action for Organizational Change: The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine', Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 257-261.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Racism can exert negative effects on the self-concepts, health and well-being, and life trajectories of both nondominant racial–ethnic (NDRE) youth and youth-serving providers. In the face of growing nationalism, ethnocentrism, xenophobia, and overt expressions of racism, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine recognizes the critically important need to address the issue of racism and its impact on both NDRE youth and youth-serving providers. Organizations involved in clinical care delivery and health professions training and education must recognize the deleterious effects of racism on health and well-being, take strong positions against discriminatory policies, practices, and events, and take action to promote safe and affirming environments. The positions presented in this paper provide a comprehensive set of recommendations to promote routine clinical assessment of youth experiences of racism and its potential impact on self-concept, health and well-being, and for effective interventions when affected youth are identified. The positions also reflect the concerns of NDRE providers, trainees, and students potentially impacted by racism, chronic minority stress, and vicarious trauma and the imperative to create safe and affirming work and learning environments across all levels of practice, training, and education in the health professions. In this position paper, Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine affirms its commitment to foundational moral and ethical principles of justice, equity, and respect for humanity; acknowledges racism in its myriad forms; defines strategies to best promote resiliency and support the health and well-being of NDRE youth, providers, trainees, and students; and provides recommendations on the ways to best effect systemic change.
R Botfield, J, E Newman, C, Kang, M & B Zwi, A 2018, 'Talking to migrant and refugee young people about sexual health in general practice.', Australian journal of general practice, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 564-569.
Young people are an important group to target with health promotion and preventive healthcare. This paper focuses on the engagement of migrant and refugee young people with sexual and reproductive healthcare in general practice.Semi-structured first interviews (n = 27; 16 female, 11 male) and follow-up interviews (n = nine; six female, three male) were undertaken with migrant and refugee young people aged 16-24 years living in Sydney.The majority of participants had seen a general practitioner (GP) for general health issues. However, most were reluctant to discuss sexual health with a practitioner whom they described as their 'family doctor', primarily because of concerns about judgement and confidentiality. Most described negative experiences with GPs for sexual health matters, including not being listened to or being rushed through the appointment.There appears to be a lack of effective engagement with migrant and refugee young people by GPs in relation to sexual health. Building the skills and confidence of GPs to work with this group and promote sexual health and wellbeing should be considered, and efforts should be made to communicate confidentiality and trustworthiness.
Robards, F, Kang, M, Tolley, K, Hawke, C, Sanci, L & Usherwood, T 2018, 'Marginalised young people's healthcare journeys: Professionals' perspectives', Health Education Journal, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 692-704.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© The Author(s) 2018. Introduction: The pursuit of social justice includes a commitment to health equity for marginalised young people. Health professionals are central to marginalised young people's engagement and access to health care and their navigation of health systems. They are also uniquely positioned to shed insight into structures and inefficiencies within the health system, including the role of technology, and to advocate for system change. Methods: This qualitative cross-sectional study employed in-depth semi-structured interviews with 22 health service managers and experienced clinicians to better understand service providers' perspectives. The sampling frame comprised professionals from different sectors and levels of the health system. Analysis used Grounded Theory methods. Results: Three major themes were identified in the data: (1) intersectionalities – understanding the complexity of multiple disadvantage; (2) health system fragmentation – leading to inefficiencies, inertia and advocacy; and (3) services needing to be 'turned on their head' – rethinking service delivery and models of care. Conclusion: A better understanding of marginalised young people's healthcare experiences, including the complexities of multiple disadvantage, and how this contributes to health inequalities could lead to more welcoming and respectful services. Services can reconceptualise their roles by reaching out to young people, both physically and online, to make the navigation of the health system easier. Marginalised young people's healthcare journeys can be supported by advocates that help them navigate the health system.
Robards, F, Kang, M, Usherwood, T & Sanci, L 2018, 'How Marginalized Young People Access, Engage With, and Navigate Health-Care Systems in the Digital Age: Systematic Review.', The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 365-381.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This systematic review examines how marginalized young people access and engage with health services and navigate health-care systems in high-income countries.Medline, CINAHL, PsychInfo, The University of Sydney Library database, and Google Scholar were searched to identify qualitative and quantitative original research, published from 2006 to 2017, that focused on selected definitions of marginalized young people (12 to 24 years), their parents/carers, and/or health professionals working with these populations. A thematic synthesis was undertaken identifying themes across and between groups on barriers and/or facilitators to access, engagement, and/or navigation of health-care systems.Of 1,796 articles identified, 68 studies in the final selection focused on marginalized young people who were homeless (n=20), living in rural areas (n=14), of refugee background (n=11), gender and/or sexuality diverse (n=11), indigenous (n=4), low income (n=4), young offenders (n=2), or living with a disability (n=2). Studies were from the United States, Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Portugal, including 44 qualitative, 16 quantitative, and 8 mixed-method study types. Sample sizes ranged from 3 to 1,388. Eight themes were identified relating to ability to recognize and understand health issues; service knowledge and attitudes toward help seeking; structural barriers; professionals' knowledge, skills, attitudes; service environments and structures; ability to navigate the health system; youth participation; and technology opportunities.Marginalized young people experience barriers in addition to those common to all young people. Future studies should consider the role of technology in access, engagement, and health system navigation, and the impact of intersectionality between marginalized groups.
Scott, K, Caldwell, P, Kang, M, McCaffery, K & Rachel Skinner, S 2018, 'Adolescents' Use of Dr Google: Help or Hindrance?', Journal of paediatrics and child health, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1282-1283.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brooks, F, Aggleton, P, Dawson, A & Kang, M 2018, 'Youth health and practical justice – Time for renewed conversation', Health Education Journal, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 627-630.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Kang, M, Robards, F, Sanci, L, Steinbeck, K, Jan, S, Hawke, C, Kong, M & Usherwood, T 2017, 'Access 3 project protocol: young people and health system navigation in the digital age: a multifaceted, mixed methods study.', BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: The integration of digital technology into everyday lives of young people has become widespread. It is not known whether and how technology influences barriers and facilitators to healthcare, and whether and how young people navigate between face-to-face and virtual healthcare. To provide new knowledge essential to policy and practice, we designed a study that would explore health system access and navigation in the digital age. The study objectives are to: (1) describe experiences of young people accessing and navigating the health system in New South Wales (NSW), Australia; (2) identify barriers and facilitators to healthcare for young people and how these vary between groups; (3) describe health system inefficiencies, particularly for young people who are marginalised; (4) provide policy-relevant knowledge translation of the research data. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This mixed methods study has four parts, including: (1) a cross-sectional survey of young people (12-24 years) residing in NSW, Australia; (2) a longitudinal, qualitative study of a subsample of marginalised young people (defined as young people who: identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander; are experiencing homelessness; identify as sexuality and/or gender diverse; are of refugee or vulnerable migrant background; and/or live in rural or remote NSW); (3) interviews with professionals; (4) a knowledge translation forum. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approvals were sought and granted. Data collection commenced in March 2016 and will continue until June 2017. This study will gather practice and policy-relevant intelligence about contemporary experiences of young people and health services, with a unique focus on five different groups of marginalised young people, documenting their experiences over time. Access 3 will explore navigation around all levels of the health system, determine whether digital technology is integrated into this, and if so how, and will translate findings i...
Klineberg, E, Vatiliotis, V, Kang, M, Medlow, S, Sullivan, L, Cummings, M, Pringle, G & Steinbeck, K 2017, 'Health status of marginalised young people in unstable accommodation.', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
AIM: More than 26000 Australians aged 12-24 years experience homelessness, yet data on the health status of homeless youth remain limited. The aim of this study was to describe the health of young people attending a youth health service in Western Sydney who were experiencing homelessness. METHODS: Retrospective case note review for clients aged 12-25 years attending Youth Health Services in Western Sydney. Extracted data included: homelessness status; demographics; physical health issues; mental health issues; involvement with juvenile justice; and disengagement from education or employment. RESULTS: Just under half of the 180 clients attending a Youth Health Service in Western Sydney were homeless, and an additional 15 young people who were not currently homeless nominated homelessness as a presenting issue. In comparison with currently domiciled young people, homeless youth were less likely to have a regular general practitioner and more likely to nominate a physical health concern as a presenting issue, although there was no difference between groups in terms of diagnosed mental or physical health conditions. Considered as a whole, the sample showed high rates of acute physical symptoms, physical trauma, psychological distress and self-harm. CONCLUSIONS: Youth homelessness is associated with risk of both poor physical and mental health. As much of youth homelessness is hidden, health-care providers need to ensure that they inquire about homelessness status, and have an awareness of potentially complex multi-morbidities in the physical and mental health of young marginalised people presenting to health services.
Reath, J, Abbott, P, Dadich, A, Hosseinzadeh, H, Hu, W, Kang, M, Usherwood, T, Murray, C & Bourne, C 2016, 'Evaluation of a sexually transmissible infections education program: Lessons for general practice learning', AUSTRALIAN FAMILY PHYSICIAN, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 123-128.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Woodland, L, Kang, M, Elliot, C, Perry, A, Eagar, S & Zwi, K 2016, 'Evaluation of a school screening programme for young people from refugee backgrounds.', Journal of paediatrics and child health, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 72-79.View/Download from: Publisher's site
To describe the development of the Optimising Health and Learning Program, guided by the only available published framework for the delivery of health services to newly arrived refugee children and report on the evaluation of the programme.We conducted process and impact evaluation using a mixed methods approach. The sample was 294 refugee young people enrolled in two Intensive English Centres in New South Wales. We collected quantitative data (demographic and clinical information) as well as qualitative data via focus groups, key informant interviews, surveys and programme documentation. Qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis; programme documents underwent document review.There were high levels of programme participation (90%), and the yield from routine health screening was high (80% of participants screened positive for two or more health conditions). All identified programme development strategies were implemented; programme partners and participants reported satisfaction with the programme. Sixteen programme partners were identified with a high level of intersectoral collaboration reported. Significant in-kind contributions and seed funding enabled the uptake of the programme to increase from one to five Intensive English Centres over a 4-year period.Process and impact evaluation identified that the programme was well implemented and met its stated objectives of increasing the detection of health conditions likely to impact on student health and learning; linkage of newly arrived students and their families with primary health care; and coordination of care across primary health and specialist services.
Skinner, SR, Davies, C, Cooper, S, Stoney, T, Marshall, H, Jones, J, Collins, J, Hutton, H, Parrella, A, Zimet, G, Regan, DG, Whyte, P, Brotherton, JM, Richmond, P, McCaffrey, K, Garland, SM, Leask, J, Kang, M, Braunack-Mayer, A, Kaldor, J & McGeechan, K 2015, 'HPV.edu study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled evaluation of education, decisional support and logistical strategies in school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of adolescents.', BMC Public Health, vol. 15, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program in Australia commenced in 2007 for females and in 2013 for males, using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV 6,11,16,18). Thus far, we have demonstrated very substantial reductions in genital warts and in the prevalence of HPV among young Australian women, providing early evidence for the success of this public health initiative. Australia has a long history of school-based vaccination programs for adolescents, with comparatively high coverage. However, it is not clear what factors promote success in a school vaccination program. The HPV.edu study aims to examine: 1) student knowledge about HPV vaccination; 2) psycho-social outcomes and 3) vaccination uptake.HPV.edu is a cluster randomised trial of a complex intervention in schools aiming to recruit 40 schools with year-8 enrolments above 100 students (approximately 4400 students). The schools will be stratified by Government, Catholic, and Independent sectors and geographical location, with up to 20 schools recruited in each of two states, Western Australia (WA) and South Australia (SA), and randomly allocated to intervention or control (usual practice). Intervention schools will receive the complex intervention which includes an adolescent intervention (education and distraction); a decisional support tool for parents and adolescents and logistical strategies (consent form returns strategies, in-school mop-up vaccination and vaccination-day guidelines). Careful process evaluation including an embedded qualitative evaluation will be undertaken to explore in depth possible mechanisms for any observed effect of the intervention on primary and secondary outcomes.This study is the first to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various strategies to promote best practice in school-based vaccination against HPV. The study aims to improve vaccination-related psychosocial outcomes, including adolescent knowledge and attitudes, decision-making involvement, self-ef...
Dadich, A, Hosseinzadeh, H, Abbott, P, Hu, W, Usherwood, T, Kang, M, Bourne, C, Murray, C & Reath, J 2014, 'Improving sexual healthcare in general practice', British Journal of Health Care Management, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 344-349.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd. Objective: Describe how different types of resources are received and perceived by primary care clinicians to improve sexual healthcare. Study design: Cross-sectional online survey of primary care clinicians in New South Wales, Australia, to evaluate the perceived impact of nine resources to promote sexual healthcare - seven were tailored to general practitioners (GPs) and two to practice nurses (PNs). Participants: 431 primary care clinicians (GPs=214; PNs=217). Main outcome measures: Awareness, use and perceived impact of the resources. Principal findings: Most GPs were aware of and used the Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) Testing Tool; the Online STI Testing Tool GP training was perceived to improve GPs' ability to raise the topic of STIs with patients and order appropriate tests. Although the highest proportion of PNs were aware of the online STI PN training, most used the PN Postcard. The former helped to improve PNs' ability to identify at-risk patients and document sexual history. Conclusions: This study supports the need for a multimodal approach to improve the delivery of sexual healthcare in general practice. This would involve the communication of similar messages in different modes, via different channels, at different times.
Kang, M, Rochford, A, Skinner, SR, Mindel, A, Webb, M, Peat, J & Usherwood, T 2014, 'Sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infections and attitudes to chlamydia testing among a unique national sample of young Australians: baseline data from a randomised controlled trial.', BMC Public Health, vol. 14, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia infection is the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Australia and mostly affects young people (15 - 25 years). This paper presents baseline data from a randomised controlled trial that aimed to increase chlamydia testing among sexually active young people. The objectives were to identify associations between sexual behaviour, substance use and STI history and explore attitudes to chlamydia testing. METHODS: This study was conducted in cyberspace. Study recruitment, allocation, delivery of interventions and baseline and follow up data collection all took place online. Participants were 16 - 25 years old and resided in Australia. Substance use correlates of sexual activity; predictors of history of STIs; barriers to and facilitators of chlamydia testing were analysed. RESULTS: Of 856 participants (79.1% female), 704 had experienced penetrative intercourse. Sexually active participants were more likely to smoke regularly or daily, to drink alcohol, or to have binge drunk or used marijuana or other illicit substances recently. Risk factors for having a history of any STI were 3 or more sexual partners ever, 6 or more partners in the past 12 months, condom non-use and being 20 years or older. Almost all sexually active participants said that they would have a chlamydia test if their doctor recommended it. CONCLUSIONS: Sexually active young people are at risk of STIs and may engage in substance use risk behaviours. Where one health risk behaviour is identified, it is important to seek information about others. Chlamydia testing can be facilitated by doctors and nurses recommending it. Primary care providers have a useful role in chlamydia control. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Trials Registry ACTRN12607000582459.
Kang, MS-L 2014, 'The health of "emerging adults" in Australia: freedom, risk and rites of passage.', The Medical journal of Australia, vol. 201, no. 10, pp. 562-563.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kang, MS-L 2014, 'The health of "emerging adults" in Australia: freedom, risk and rites of passage.', Med J Aust, vol. 201, no. 10, pp. 562-563.
Koh, CS, Kang, M & Usherwood, T 2014, ''I demand to be treated as the person I am': experiences of accessing primary health care for Australian adults who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender or queer.', Sexual health, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 258-264.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background Individuals who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender or queer (GLBTQ) suffer higher rates of illness and morbidity compared with the general population but may experience significant barriers to accessing primary health care.We used an online questionnaire to explore GLBTQ adults' experiences of accessing primary health care in Australia. We developed the questionnaire in consultation with individuals who belonged to or worked closely with the GLBTQ community. Questions were open-ended and sought information about four topic areas: sexual identity and its meaning, utilisation of primary health care services, disclosure of sexual identity to primary care providers and experiences of accessing primary health care. Data were analysed by coding free-text responses into themes.Ninety-nine valid responses were received. Participants were 18-60+ years old (modal age group: 20-29 years); 70% lived in cities. Of these, 49% identified as gay, 35% as lesbian, 13% as bisexual, 8% as queer and 3% as transgender. Some participants indicated more than one identity. GLBTQ-identifying adults often divided care, seeking different primary care services for different health concerns. Themes in relation to disclosure of sexual identity were: taking a rights-based position, experiences of homophobia and clinical context. Themes about access to primary health care were: diversity and heterogeneity, real or perceived discrimination, visual symbols and respect.Despite diversity, GLBTQ adults experience many barriers to accessing health care due to sexual identity. General practitioners and other primary health care providers have a role in ensuring equitable access to health care.
Abbott, P., Dadich, A., Hosseinzadeh, H., Kang, M., Hu, W., Bourne, C., Murray, C. & Reath, J. 2013, 'Practice nurses and sexual health care', Australian Family Physician, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 729-733.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Background Collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) can enhance health care delivery. However, despite evidenced shortfalls in general practice-based sexual health care, the PN role in sexual health appears underdeveloped. Evaluation of New South Wales Sexually Transmissible Infections Programs Unit GP Project provided an opportunity to canvass views of GPs and PNs regarding PNs and sexual health care. Methods A purposively sampled group of 10 PNs and nine GPs were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Results The extent and nature of PN-GP teamwork in sexual health care was variable, influenced largely by GP recognition and support of the PN role in sexual health care. Other important factors were personal PN interest and supportive practice systems. Discussion The role played by PNs and a team approach to sexual health care in Australian general practice is underdeveloped. Increased recognition and support of PN roles in sexual health is needed, including supportive practice systems that facilitate team care.
Abbott, P, Dadich, A, Hosseinzadeh, H, Kang, M, Hu, W, Bourne, C, Murray, C & Reath, J 2013, 'Practice nurses and sexual health care Enhancing team care within general practice', AUSTRALIAN FAMILY PHYSICIAN, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 729-733.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Dadich, A, Jarrett, C, Sanci, L, Kang, M & Bennett, D 2013, 'The promise of primary health reform for youth health.', Journal of paediatrics and child health, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 887-890.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kang, M 2013, 'A young woman with vulvovaginal and urinary symptoms', Medicine Today, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 58-59.
What are the most important steps in helping this young woman with genital symptoms, who recently commenced sexual activity? This article describes an approach to assessment and the role of STI screening in this clinical context.
Marginalised young people are a heterogeneous group who often have multiple and complex needs. While they experience the same health problems as the broader youth population, including overweight and obesity, mental health problems, sexually transmissible infections and health risk behaviours, their access to healthcare is complicated by psychosocial factors including lack of safe or adequate housing, inadequate access to financial support, education or employment, and a mistrust of health services. This article summarises known access barriers for young people, describes a youth health services model in western Sydney, New South Wales, and demonstrates how general practitioners can work collaboratively to provide appropriate healthcare to marginalised young people.
Kang, M, Rochford, A, Skinner, R, Mindel, A, Webb, M, Peat, J & Usherwood, T 2012, 'Facilitating chlamydia testing among young people: a randomised controlled trial in cyberspace.', Sexually transmitted infections, vol. 88, no. 8, pp. 568-573.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia notifications have been rising in Australia for over a decade and are highest in young people. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of an internet-based intervention on chlamydia testing among young people 16-25 years. METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial, recruitment, data collection, study interventions and follow-up occurred entirely in cyberspace, facilitated by a website. Eligible participants were aged 16-25 years and resided in Australia. The intervention group received personalised emails inviting interaction about chlamydia testing, while the control group received regular impersonal emails. Primary outcome was self-reported chlamydia testing at 6-month follow-up; secondary outcomes were condom use and changes in knowledge and attitudes. RESULTS: 704 young people completed baseline information, 40 were excluded and five withdrew prior to follow-up. The follow-up rate was 47.3% overall. In the intervention group, 40.6% (95% CI 30.7% to 51.1%) reported having had a chlamydia test at follow-up compared with 31.0% (95% CI 24.8% to 37.2%) in the control group (p=0.07). A per-protocol analysis found that those who engaged in email interaction were more likely to report chlamydia test uptake compared with those in the control group (52.5%, 95% CI 39.3 to 65.4% cf 31.0%, 95% CI 24.8% to 37.2%, p=0.002). There were no differences in secondary outcomes between groups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomised controlled trial undertaken in cyberspace to promote chlamydia testing. E-technology may be useful in promoting chlamydia testing and healthcare seeking behaviour in young people.
Kang, M, Skinner, R & Usherwood, T 2010, 'Interventions for young people in Australia to reduce HIV and sexually transmissible infections: a systematic review.', Sexual health, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 107-128.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: Like young people in other developed countries, sexually active young Australians can have an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmissible infections (STIs). This paper reviews intervention programs that aim to reduce the incidence and transmission of HIV and STIs among young people in Australia. METHODS: Articles were identified from seven databases. Intervention studies conducted in Australia that included young people aged 12-25 years were reviewed. A two-dimensional matrix consisting of 'setting' and 'intervention type' was developed to categorize each study. RESULTS: Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria, and the majority were uncontrolled intervention studies. Of these, 23/42 studies measured participation in chlamydia +/- other STI testing and found that the highest participation rates took place in non-clinical and non-general practice health care settings. Four studies facilitated access to testing indirectly, through the internet or other media. Ten studies involved the provision of education and measured its impact on factors such as knowledge, attitudes and/or behaviour. Three studies involved novel immunisation strategies for either hepatitis B or human papillomavirus vaccines. Two studies evaluated the impact of enhanced STI surveillance programs on prevalence rates. CONCLUSIONS: Proactive STI testing in non-clinical and some health settings appears feasible and achieves higher testing rates than in general practice; however, more evaluation of testing strategies in general practice settings is required. New technologies such as the internet and SMS are useful adjuncts for influencing behaviours such as condom use and STI testing. Media campaigns that promote STI testing can have a positive impact on testing rates.
Kang, M, Cannon, B, Remond, LC & Quine, S 2009, 'Is it normal to feel these questions ...?': a content analysis of the health concerns of adolescent girls writing to a magazine', Family Practice, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 196-203.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background. There is a mismatch between presenting concerns of adolescents to GPs and behaviours that lead to adolescent morbidity and mortality. Better understanding of health concerns of this target group would enhance communication between health professionals and adolescent patients. Objective. To explore and categorize the health concerns of adolescent girls sending unsolicited emails to a teenage girls' magazine. Method. We conducted a content analysis of 1000 systematic randomly selected unsolicited emails submitted to the health column of an Australian adolescent girls' magazine over a 6-month period. Results. Three main foci of concern were identified: Context of Concern, Health Issue of Concern and Advice Sought for Concern. Within Health Issue of Concern, there were five categories: body (47.5%), sex (31.9%), relationship (14.7%), mind (4.7%) and violence and/or safety (1.2%). Concerns within the body and sex categories ranged enormously, but frequently expressed intimate descriptions of anatomy, feelings, sexual practices and relationships. Many concerns occurred in the context of adolescents' relationships with others. The proportion of concerns about physical or psychological symptoms or health issues commonly associated with the adolescent age group (such as health risk behaviours, mental health, pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) was relatively small. Conclusions. GPs and other health professionals might engage more readily with adolescent patients with a deeper understanding of the concerns that adolescents have about their bodies, relationships and overall health. Seemingly 'trivial' issues, such as normal puberty, could be used as discussion triggers in health consultations to help alleviate anxiety and build rapport.
Booth, ML, Knox, SA & Kang, M 2008, 'Encounters between adolescents and general practice in Australia', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 699-705.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Aim: To describe the nature of the encounters between adolescents and general practice in Australia. Methods: Data collected by the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health programme from 19982004 were analysed. Data for 1014-yearold and 1519-year-old males and females were compared with data for 2529-year-olds. The outcome measures included: number of encounters compared with other age groups, reasons for encounter, problems managed, treatments prescribed and referrals made for key problems and types of consultations. Results: Adolescents have the lowest rate of encounter with general practice, compared with all other age groups. Respiratory, skin, musculoskeletal and unspecified (fever, injury, weakness) problems accounted for the great majority of reasons for encounter and problems managed. Management of mental health problems, preventive health care and health education were very infrequently managed problems. Standard surgery consultations were more common among adolescents than among young adults. Conclusions: Adolescents have a relatively low rate of encounter with general practice and the problems managed are primarily physical ailments. There is great scope to improve delivery of preventive health care and to increase management of mental health problems.
Ramanathan, V, Kang, M, Jeganathan, S, Jackson, E, Lagios, K & Furner, V 2008, 'Accessibility and acceptability of public sexual health clinics for adult clients in New South Wales, Australia.', Sexual health, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 305-306.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zakher, B & Kang, M 2008, 'Attitudes to chlamydia screening in general practice among Australian university students: a pilot study.', Sexual health, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 359-363.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia screening of sexually active young people in general practice is key to the Australian National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy 2005-2008. Overseas research indicates that young people have positive attitudes towards opportunistic screening by a general practitioner (GP). This pilot study aims to investigate the attitudes of Australian university students towards chlamydia screening in primary care. METHODS: Students (16-25 years) attending a class in one of three faculties at the University of Sydney participated by completing a questionnaire, which collected information about demographics, sexual history, chlamydia knowledge, attitudes towards and preferences for chlamydia screening. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-five students (78% female) returned questionnaires (participation rate 92%). Arts students were younger, more likely to be sexually active and to report having little or no knowledge of chlamydia. Males in the study were less likely to have had sex as a group compared to the group of females in the sample. Science students were also less likely to have had sex compared to their counterparts in other faculties. Seventy-six percent of students were comfortable with opportunistic testing for chlamydia by their GP. Reasons for not being comfortable included 'don't think I'm at risk' (65%) and 'not comfortable discussing sexual matters with my GP' (38%). Although comfortable with GP-based testing, the likelihood of being tested in the upcoming year for most students was low, as was personal concern about chlamydia infection. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the most at risk group for chlamydia infection is not well educated about their risk of infection. The limited numbers of tests among sexually active individuals in this sample indicate that health practitioners are not screening this high-risk group for chlamydia infection.
Kang, M & Quine, S 2007, 'Young people's concerns about sex: Unsolicited questions to a teenage radio talkback programme over three years', Sex Education, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 407-420.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes a novel qualitative study that identified the concerns of young people about sex through a talk-back segment from 2002 to 2004 on an Australian national radio popular music programme targeting 15-24 year olds. Two hundred and thirty-one unsolicited callers (150 female and 81 male) went to air over the study period, and 212 (92%) of these asked questions relating to sexuality and sexual health. Content analysis was used to categorise the verbatim data. Four categories were identified: sexual development; sexual and reproductive health, sexual relationship issues and sexual practices. The findings suggest that young people have a wide range of concerns, many of which are very explicit. An important finding was the high proportion of questions related to concerns over relationships. The overall implication for health educators and professionals is that a broader approach to sex education is warranted.
Kang, M & Sanci, LA 2007, 'Primary health care for young people in Australia.', International journal of adolescent medicine and health, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 229-234.
This article gives an overview of the primary health care system and the evolution of adolescent medicine and health care in Australia over the past three decades. The various ways that Australian young people come into contact with different elements of primary health care are described, as well as research findings into improving young people's access to and quality of primary health care. Challenges and future directions are discussed.
Kang, M, Skinner, R & Foran, T 2007, 'Sex, contraception and health.', Australian family physician, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 594-600.
BACKGROUND: Young Australian people aged 12-25 years are sexually active at a younger age and have more sexual partners compared to previous generations. Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates are high in this age group. Sexual violence, discrimination against same sex attracted youth, and associated health risk behaviours such as alcohol and drug use are also important sexual health issues for adolescents. OBJECTIVE: This article describes current trends in adolescent sexual health in Australia, provides an update on contraception, screening and prevention of STIs, and provides practical tips on how to discuss sexual health with adolescent patients. DISCUSSION: General practitioners can play an important role in protecting and promoting the sexual health of their adolescent patients. Together with educational and public health strategies, effective clinical care provided by GPs can help to improve current sexual health issues faced by young people and prevent long term health problems.
Skinner, SR, Kang, M & Rosenthal, SL 2007, 'Vaccinating young adults against human papillomavirus: the importance of understanding health decision-making and behaviour.', Sexual health, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 129-132.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Vaccination of young teenage females against human papillomavirus (HPV) with a newly licenced quadrivalent vaccine designed to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts has recently been recommended by the Australian government and will be implemented through schools from April 2007. In addition, a fully funded 'catch-up' vaccination program for young women up to age 26 years has been approved for a 2-year period, from July 2007. As general practitioners (GPs) will be the main immunisation providers for this age group, in order to achieve high vaccination coverage and maximal impact on disease, it will be critical for GPs to be opportunistic in recommending this vaccine. An initial study of young Australians' attitudes towards HPV vaccination and hypothetical acceptance of the vaccine was published in this journal. We draw on this study and data published elsewhere to discuss issues of HPV vaccine acceptability, and the likely challenges of a mass vaccination initiative in this age group in Australia. We suggest specific strategies to support GPs, and highlight areas for further research in HPV vaccine acceptability.
Skinner, SR, Parsons, A, Kang, M, Williams, H & Fairley, C 2007, 'Sexually transmitted infections. Initiatives for prevention.', International journal of adolescent medicine and health, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 285-294.
Sexually transmissible infections (STIs) are responsible for a significant burden of disease in both developed and developing countries and young people are disproportionately affected by STIs and their consequences. STI rates in young people are determined by a wide range of well documented influences. These include physiological, cognitive and behavioural factors, as well as environmental factors such as the social, and cultural context in which young people live. Despite the erecognition of these influences, their complex inter-relationships are less well documented and the evidence for interventions to reduce STIs in young people is similarly less clear. This paper explore tht most important factors that impact STI rates in young people in Australia and reviews interventions that have shown success, in Australia and elsewhere. In addition, promising strategies for the promotion of sexual health and reduction of STIs in young Australians, are discussed.
Kang, M 2006, 'Therapy update - The art of medicine', Australian Doctor, no. 20/OCT., pp. 39-40.
Kang, M, Bernard, D, Usherwood, T, Quine, S, Alperstein, G, Kerr-Roubicek, H, Elliott, A & Bennett, DL 2006, 'Towards better practice in primary health care settings for young people.', Health promotion journal of Australia : official journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 139-144.View/Download from: Publisher's site
ISSUE ADDRESSED: To identify and describe elements of accessibility and other dimensions of quality of primary health care for Australian young people. METHODS: Five sampling frames identified relevant services and programs across New South Wales (NSW) which were then selected using purposive, convenience or snowball sampling. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior staff members, tape-recorded, transcribed, entered into the qualitative software package NUD*IST and coded under seven theme headings. RESULTS: Interviews with 77 services across five sectors in NSW identified seven principles of better practice in youth health. These were: accessibility, evidence-based practice, youth participation, collaboration, professional development, sustainability and evaluation. Accessibility was the principle most frequently addressed and evaluation was the least frequently addressed. Many seemingly effective programs and services had been minimally evaluated for impact or outcome related to young people's access or health. CONCLUSIONS: Principles of better practice in promoting or delivering adolescent health care have strong face validity across a range of sectors and service types in a heterogeneous primary health care system. These principles are applied to varying degrees in a vast array of health and health promotion programs. Despite this, there is a clear need for impact and outcome evaluation among the majority of programs.
Kang, M, Rochford, A, Johnston, V, Jackson, J, Freedman, E, Brown, K & Mindel, A 2006, 'Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among 'high risk' young people in New South Wales.', Sexual health, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 253-254.View/Download from: Publisher's site
International research on homeless adolescents has found that incidence and prevalence of sexually transmissible infections is relatively high. This study reports on a chlamydia prevalence survey conducted among high-risk young people (14-25 years) in New South Wales. The participants were recruited from youth health centres, which target homeless and high-risk youth. Of 333 clients (42.6% male), 84.1% were sexually active and mean number of sexual partners over the preceding 3 months was 1.4. Among sexually active participants, 24.6% claimed to use condoms always and 25% never. Sixteen of 274 available urine samples tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Further research is warranted to better define high-risk groups and clarify the nature of associations between various factors impacting on sexual health. Most importantly, research is now called for into effective strategies for engaging and attracting young people to screening, treatment and contact tracing.
Kang, MS, Bernard, D, Usherwood, T, Quine, S, Alperstein, G, Kerr-Roubicek, H, Elliott, A & Bennett, DL 2006, 'Primary health care for young people: are there models of service delivery that improve access and quality?', Youth Studies Australia, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 49-59.
Skinner, SR & Kang, M 2006, 'Human papillomavirus prevalence in Canberra high school students: significance for vaccination strategies and adolescent health.', Sexual health, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 299-300.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, DL, Chown, P & Kang, MS-L 2005, 'Cultural diversity in adolescent health care.', The Medical journal of Australia, vol. 183, no. 8, pp. 436-438.
In Australia, where about 16% of young people are born overseas and 24% are from a non-English-speaking background, adolescent health care is a multicultural challenge. "Cultural competency" involves challenging one's own cultural assumptions and beliefs, developing empathy for people from other cultures, and applying specific communication and interaction skills in clinical encounters. For health professionals, sensitivity to the cultural, ethnic, linguistic and social diversity among young people helps to avert problems and misunderstandings, improves satisfaction for all concerned and leads to better outcomes. Engaging the family and gaining the trust of parents is critical in treating young people from cultural backgrounds in which participation in health care is a family concern rather than an individual responsibility.
Kang, MS-L 2005, 'Being "Dolly Doctor".', The Medical journal of Australia, vol. 183, no. 8, p. 415.
Sanci, LA, Kang, MS-L & Ferguson, BJ 2005, 'Improving adolescents' access to primary health care.', The Medical journal of Australia, vol. 183, no. 8, pp. 416-417.
Sanci, LA, Sawyer, SM, Kang, MS-L, Haller, DM & Patton, GC 2005, 'Confidential health care for adolescents: reconciling clinical evidence with family values.', The Medical journal of Australia, vol. 183, no. 8, pp. 410-414.
Community debate about confidential health care for adolescents was triggered recently by the federal government's proposal to allow parents of teenagers aged 16 years and under access to their children's Health Insurance Commission data without their consent. Extensive research evidence highlights the importance of confidentiality in promoting young people's access to health care, particularly for sensitive issues such as mental and sexual health, and substance use. Involving parents is important, but evidence for any benefit from mandatory parental involvement is lacking. The law recognises the rights of mature minors to make decisions about their medical treatment and to receive confidential health care; however, the doctor must weigh up certain factors to assess maturity and ensure that confidentiality around such treatment will be in the young person's best interests. Evaluation of maturity must take into account characteristics of the young person, gravity of the proposed treatment, family factors, and statutory restrictions.
Bernard, D, Quine, S, Kang, M, Alperstein, G, Usherwood, T, Bennett, D & Booth, M 2004, 'Access to primary health care for Australian adolescents: how congruent are the perspectives of health service providers and young people, and does it matter?', Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 487-492.View/Download from: Publisher's site
OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent of congruence between the views of service providers and young people (on adolescents' health concerns, barriers to accessing health services and ideal service model) in order to improve and increase the appropriateness, quality and usage of primary health care services. METHODS: A qualitative data collection technique was used. During 2001/02, focus groups were conducted in urban and rural locations with adolescents (in and out of mainstream education), general practitioners, community health staff and youth health workers. RESULTS: Service providers and young people identified a similar range of health concerns for young people, with young people adding additional issues of great importance to them that service providers felt were not in their 'domain of treatment'. There was reasonable congruence in regard to 'ideal service model' with some differences relating to methods of information delivery. However, for 'barriers to accessing services' there were major discrepancies. CONCLUSIONS: While there is some common understanding between young people and service providers on certain aspects of health services, there are clearly areas where perceptions differ. This discrepancy matters because it may adversely affect the quality of provider-adolescent interaction and the willingness of adolescents to access services. IMPLICATIONS: To deliver optimal health services to young people, the differences in understanding regarding services need to be addressed. Strategies could include promotion to, and encouragement of, young people to seek help, continuing professional education of providers and changes in remuneration policies.
Booth, ML, Bernard, D, Quine, S, Kang, MS, Usherwood, T, Alperstein, G & Bennett, DL 2004, 'Access to health care among Australian adolescents young people's perspectives and their sociodemographic distribution.', The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 97-103.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PURPOSE: To identify the health concerns for which adolescent residents in New South Wales, Australia, do not receive health care, and the associated factors, including their sociodemographic distribution. METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to recruit school students who were stratified by gender and age (12-14, 14-16 and 16-17 years), from schools stratified by socioeconomic status and urban/rural location. Out-of-school young people were recruited through youth health services. Qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze data. RESULTS: Eighty-one focus groups were conducted. Most young people defined health solely in terms of their physical well-being, but still identified a broad range of situations, conditions, or behaviors which they believed might affect their health. One-third of females and two-thirds of males said they would not seek help for their health concerns, and when they did, were most likely to seek help from family, friends, or others they trusted. When professional help was sought, young people again preferred someone they knew and trusted. The three groups of barriers to accessing health care were: concerns about confidentiality, knowledge of services and discomfort in disclosing health concerns, and accessibility and characteristics of services. Factors related to use of health care services were associated with age, gender, and location, but rarely with socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of these young people in New South Wales (particularly males) do not seek health care despite identifying a broad range of issues that affect their health.
Kang, MSL 2004, 'Confessions of a medical mother', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 181, no. 7, p. 394.
Kang, M, Bernard, D, Booth, M, Quine, S, Alperstein, G, Usherwood, T & Bennett, D 2003, 'Access to primary health care for Australian young people: service provider perspectives.', The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, vol. 53, no. 497, pp. 947-952.
BACKGROUND: To adequately address the complex health needs of young people, their access to services, and the quality of services received, must be improved. AIMS: To explore the barriers to service provision for young people and to identify the training needs of primary healthcare service providers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. DESIGN OF STUDY: A cross-sectional, qualitative study of the perspectives of a range of health service providers. SETTING: A range of primary healthcare organisations across NSW. METHODS: Samples of general practitioners (GPs), youth health workers, youth health coordinators, and community health centre staff were drawn from urban and rural clusters across NSW. Focus groups and interviews were used to identify barriers to service provision and the training needs of service providers. Data were tape recorded, transcribed, and analysed. RESULTS: Barriers to service provision among GPs and community health centre staff included inadequate time, flexibility, skills, and confidence in working with young people, and poor linkages with other relevant services. Training needs included better knowledge of and skills in adolescent health requirements, working with adolescents, and working with other services. Barriers to service provision for youth health workers and coordinators included lack of financial resources and infrastructure. There were few linkages between groups of service providers. CONCLUSION: Models of service provision that allow stronger linkages between service providers, sufficient time for consultation with young people, adequate training and support of health professionals, and flexibility of service provision, including outreach, should be explored and evaluated.
Quine, S, Bernard, D, Booth, M, Kang, M, Usherwood, T, Alperstein, G & Bennett, D 2003, 'Health and access issues among Australian adolescents: a rural-urban comparison.', Rural and remote health, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 245.
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has reported rural-urban differences in health concerns and access issues. However, very little of this has concerned young people, and what has been published has been mainly from countries other than Australia and may not generalise to Australian youth. The study described in this paper is a subset of a larger study on health concerns and access to healthcare for younger people (12-17 years) living in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. This paper reports findings on rural-urban similarities and differences. The specific study objective was to identify and describe rural-urban differences, especially those associated with structural disadvantage. METHOD: The reported findings form part of a larger state-wide cross-sectional study of access to healthcare among NSW adolescents. Adolescents were drawn from high schools in ten of the 17 Area Health Services in NSW. These Area Health Services were selected because they represent most aspects of rural-urban NSW with respect to population characteristics and health services. Eighty-one focus groups were conducted with adolescents (35 with boys and 46 with girls), of which 56 were conducted in urban, 22 in rural and 3 in regional areas. The focus groups were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the computer software package NUD*IST 4. RESULTS: The analysis revealed certain health concerns that were common to both rural and urban adolescents: use of alcohol and illicit drugs, bullying, street safety, diet and body image, sexual health, stress and depression. However, certain concerns were mentioned more frequently in rural areas (eg depression), and two concerns were raised almost exclusively by rural youth (youth suicide and teenage pregnancy). There were also structural differences in service provision: adolescents in rural areas reported disadvantage in obtaining access to healthcare (limited number of providers and lengthy waiting times); having only a limited choice of provide...
Kang, M 2002, 'Substance abuse in teenagers. Trends and consequences.', Australian family physician, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 8-11.
BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades there has been growing concern about the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs by adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To outline the trends in and consequences of adolescent substance abuse. DISCUSSION: Alcohol and tobacco remain the most often used drugs in adolescence, and are the drugs associated with greatest morbidity and mortality, but there is some evidence that the use of illicit drugs is increasing. Morbidity and mortality from substance abuse can occur directly from the effects of the drug, from the mode of administration or from environmental factors associated with drug use. Drug related deaths compromise 24% of all deaths in the 12-24 year old age group. This is likely to be an underestimate as alcohol related traffic accidents are excluded from this figure.
Kang, M 2002, 'An approach to adolescent drug use.', Australian family physician, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 12-17.
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse is one of the most challenging and emotionally charged areas of general practice as it is in society at large. When this is combined with some of the difficulties in engaging the adolescent patient, it is not uncommon for the general practitioner to feel overwhelmed and unsure about how to approach the issue. OBJECTIVE: This article discusses strategies for GPs in managing adolescent patients with substance abuse, including referral services and opportunities for collaboration and a team approach. DISCUSSION: While there are good reasons to be concerned about substance abuse among adolescents and uncertainty about where to turn for specialised help, there is much the GP can do alone, and in collaboration with other services, to care for the adolescent with a substance use issue.
Kang, M 2000, 'Sex files: exploring sexuality through Dolly magazine', Youth Studies Australia, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 28-33.
Kang, M, Alperstein, G, Dow, A, van Beek, I, Martin, C & Bennett, D 2000, 'Prevalence of tuberculosis infection among homeless young people in central and eastern Sydney.', Journal of paediatrics and child health, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 382-384.View/Download from: Publisher's site
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) infection among homeless young people (aged 12-25 years) in central and eastern Sydney. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 youth refuges and four drop-in centres in Central and Eastern Sydney Health Areas and at the Cellblock Youth Health Centre, Glebe and the Kirketon Road Centre, Darlinghurst, New South Wales (NSW). Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent Mantoux testing. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-one young people completed questionnaires and 139 received a Mantoux test; 112 (80. 6%) had their Mantoux read and 10 (8.9%) were Mantoux positive (95% confidence interval 3.6-14.2). None of the risk factors examined were found to be associated with increased risk for TB infection. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of homeless young people in central and eastern Sydney, the Mantoux positivity rate appears to be higher than the general population in NSW, but they would not currently be considered a high-risk group for TB infection.
Kang, MS & Zador, D 1993, 'Sexual behaviour and contraceptive practices of Year 10 schoolgirls in inner metropolitan Sydney', Australian Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 137-142.
Kang, MS & Rosenthal, D 2014, 'Adolescents' in Temple-Smith, M & Gifford, S (eds), Sexual Health in Australia, IP Communications, Melbourne, Australia.
Grover, S & Kang, MS 2013, 'Adolescent Gynaecology' in Youth Health and Adolescent Medicine, IP Communications.
Bennett, DL & Kang, MS 2011, 'Adolescent health and development' in Phelps, K & Hassad, C (eds), General Practice The Integrative Approach, Elsevier Australia.
The aim of the book is to provide a comprehensive General Practice text book which takes a contemporary, integrative approach to diagnosis, investigation and management of health issues and disease states encountered in the general practice ...
Kang, MS 2011, 'Adolescent Sexual Health' in Russell, D, Bradford, D & Fairley, C (eds), Sexual Health Medicine: A Clinical Approach.
Bennett, DL, Kang, MS & Chown, P 2005, 'Cultural diversity in adolescent health care' in Greydanus, DE (ed), Essentials of Adolescent Medicine, McGraw-Hill.
Bennett, DL & Kang, MS 2001, 'Adolescence' in Oates, K, Currow, K & Hu, W (eds), Child Health A Practical Manual for General Practice, MacLennan and Petty Pty Ltd.
This manual provides practical advice that recognizes the realities of general practice and the importance of the general practitioner's role in child health.
Kang, MS 2015, 'Sex, young people and chlamydia: reducing the impact'.
Genital chlamydia infection is a highly prevalent condition and disproportionately affects young people. Chlamydia screening is the major strategy for chlamydia control in developed countries. This research includes two separate, linked studies, aiming to reduce the impact of chlamydia in Australian young people by increasing chlamydia testing. The first study is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and the second a qualitative study using in-depth interviews and discourse analysis. The RCT evaluated an email based intervention and found that those who engaged in email interaction were more likely to report chlamydia test uptake at six month follow up compared with those in the control group. Young people who completed the RCT were invited to participate in face-to-face in-depth interviews, which explored the young person's experiences of the RCT and enquired about the meanings of STIs they held. Discourse analysis of interview transcripts suggested that young people strongly uphold a medical discourse about STIs and see themselves and others as being responsible if they are safe (ie use condoms or get tested). As digital technologies continue to rapidly evolve, understanding the ways in which young people engage with them in relation to sexual health care will be important.
Department of General Practice, University of Sydney at Westmead
Academic Department of Adolescent Medicine, University of Sydney