Thomrongsuwannakij, T, Blackall, PJ, Djordjevic, SP, Cummins, ML & Chansiripornchai, N 2020, 'A comparison of virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance profiles and genetic diversity of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates from broilers and broiler breeders in Thailand and Australia.', Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
ABSTRACT Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the causative agent of colibacillosis resulting in economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. A total of 168 APEC isolates, equal numbers from Australian and Thai broilers/broiler breeders, were identified and tested for their susceptibility to ten antimicrobial agents. Most of the Thai APEC isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR) (60.7%) whilst Australian APEC isolates showed a MDR rate of just 10.7%. The Thai APEC isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (TET) (84.5%), amoxicillin (AMX) (70.2%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (51.2%) whilst the Australian APEC isolates showed lower levels of resistance (TET 36.9%, AMX 29.8%, SXT 17.86%). The 34 Thai APEC and four Australian APEC isolates which were resistant to nalidixic acid were characterized for their carriage of mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. While no mutations were detected in gyrB in the Thai isolates, the Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn substitutions in gyrA and Ser80Ile in parC were common (n = 9/34). In regard to the Australian isolates, the Ser83Leu and Asp678Glu substitution in gyrA, Pro385Ala and Ser492Asn in gyrB and Met241Ile and Asp475Glu in parC were identified (n = 3/4). Rep-PCR analysis of the 84 Thai and 84 Australian APEC isolates showed 16 main clusters that mostly contained isolates from both countries. Our results suggest that the emergence of MDR is a major concern for the Thai APEC isolates and that more prudent use of antimicrobial agents in Thai poultry production is required.
Wyrsch, ER, Chowdhury, PR, Wallis, L, Cummins, ML, Zingali, T, Brandis, KJ & Djordjevic, SP 2020, 'Whole-genome sequence analysis of environmental Escherichia coli from the faeces of straw-necked ibis (Threskiornis spinicollis) nesting on inland wetlands', MICROBIAL GENOMICS, vol. 6, no. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hastak, P, Cummins, ML, Gottlieb, T, Cheong, E, Merlino, J, Myers, GSA, Djordjevic, SP & Chowdhury, PR 2020, 'Genomic profiling of Escherichia coli isolates from bacteraemia patients: a 3-year cohort study of isolates collected at a Sydney teaching hospital', MICROBIAL GENOMICS, vol. 6, no. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cummins, ML, Hamidian, M & Djordjevic, ASP 2020, 'Salmonella Genomic Island 1 is Broadly Disseminated within Gammaproteobacteriaceae.', Microorganisms, vol. 8, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is an integrative mobilisable element that plays an important role in the capture and spread of multiple drug resistance. To date, SGI1 has been found in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter spp, and recently in Escherichia coli. SGI1 preferentially targets the 3´-end of trmE, a conserved gene found in the Enterobacteriaceae and among members of the Gammaproteobacteria. It is, therefore, hypothesised that SGI1 and SGI1-related elements (SGI1-REs) may have been acquired by diverse bacterial genera. Here, Bitsliced Genomic Signature Indexes (BIGSI) was used to screen the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) for putative SGI1-REs in Gammaproteobacteria. Novel SGI-REs were identified in diverse genera including Cronobacter spp, Klebsiella spp, and Vibrio spp and in two additional isolates of Escherichia coli. An extensively drug-resistant human clonal lineage of Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying an SGI1-RE in the United Kingdom and an SGI1-RE that lacks a class 1 integron were also identified. These findings provide insight into the origins of this diverse family of clinically important genomic islands and expand the knowledge of the potential host range of SGI1-REs within the Gammaproteobacteria.
Cummins, ML, Roy Chowdhury, P, Marenda, MS, Browning, GF & Djordjevic, SP 2019, 'Salmonella Genomic Island 1B Variant Found in a Sequence Type 117 Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolate.', mSphere, vol. 4, no. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is an integrative genetic island first described in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium DT104 and Agona in 2000. Variants of it have since been described in multiple serovars of S. enterica, as well as in Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Morganella morganii, and several other genera. The island typically confers resistance to older, first-generation antimicrobials; however, some variants carry bla NDM-1, bla VEB-6, and bla CTX-M15 genes that encode resistance to frontline, clinically important antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins. Genome sequencing studies of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) identified a sequence type 117 (ST117) isolate (AVC96) with genetic features found in SGI1. The complete genome sequence of AVC96 was assembled from a combination of Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequence data. Analysis of the AVC96 chromosome identified a variant of SGI1-B located 18 bp from the 3' end of trmE, also known as the attB site, a known hot spot for the integration of genomic islands. This is the first report of SGI1 in wild-type E. coli The variant, here named SGI1-B-Ec1, was otherwise unremarkable, apart from the identification of ISEc43 in open reading frame (ORF) S023.IMPORTANCE SGI1 and variants of it carry a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes, including those conferring resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams and carbapenems, and have been found in diverse S. enterica serovars, Acinetobacter baumannii, and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae SGI1 integrates into Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria by targeting a conserved site 18 bp from the 3' end of trmE For the first time, we describe a novel variant of SGI1 in an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate. The presence of SGI1 in E. coli is significant because it represents yet another lateral gene transfer mechanism to enhancing the capacity of E. coli to acquire and propagate antimicrobial resistance ...
Maciuca, IE, Cummins, ML, Cozma, AP, Rimbu, CM, Guguianu, E, Panzaru, C, Licker, M, Szekely, E, Flonta, M, Djordjevic, SP & Timofte, D 2019, 'Genetic Features of mcr-1 Mediated Colistin Resistance in CMY-2-Producing Escherichia coli From Romanian Poultry.', Frontiers in microbiology, vol. 10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic used for the treatment of human infections associated with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriales. Here, we evaluated the occurrence of mcr-1 and -2 plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in colistin and/or carbapenem resistant human clinical Enterobacteriales and other gram-negative bacteria (n = 543) as well as third generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) Escherichia coli isolates from poultry abattoir workers (n = 15) and poultry fecal samples (n = 92) collected from two geographically separate abattoirs in Romania. which revealed that mcr-1 was present within four sequence types (STs): ST744 (n = 7), ST57 (n = 7), ST156 (n = 2), and ST10 (n = 1). Within STs, serotypes were conserved and, notably, all except one of the mcr-1-positive isolates were found to exhibit fluoroquinolone-resistance (FQR) associated SNPs in both gyrA and parC. While there were variations in genotypes, all isolates belonging to ST744, ST57, and ST156 were rich in resistance determinants, carrying aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes genes, sulfonamide resistance gene bla TEM- 1 as well as bla CMY- 2 AmpC β-lactamase resistance genes. They also exhibited high similarity in carriage of virulence genes; ST10, however, only carried the mcr-1 gene. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis also revealed that although the mcr-1 gene was identified in a diverse population of E. coli, two STs (ST57 and ST744) predominated and interestingly, were found in isolates across both abattoirs providing evidence for clonal transmission. Also, two main genomic contexts of mcr-1 isolates were revealed with all ST57 isolates harboring the mcr-1 gene between two copies of ISApl1 (or the Tn6330 transposon) whilst a common mcr-1 containing scaffold, highly similar to IncX type mcr-1-bearing plasmids (pWI2-mcr, Accession number: LT838201), was present among mcr-1 isolates of varying phylogenetic backgrounds (ST10, ST744 and ST156). The high prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in poul...
Monahan, LG, DeMaere, MZ, Cummins, ML, Djordjevic, SP, Roy Chowdhury, P & Darling, AE 2019, 'High contiguity genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant hospital isolate of Enterobacter hormaechei.', Gut pathogens, vol. 11, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background:Enterobacter hormaechei is an important emerging pathogen and a key member of the highly diverse Enterobacter cloacae complex. E. hormaechei strains can persist and spread in nosocomial environments, and often exhibit resistance to multiple clinically important antibiotics. However, the genomic regions that harbour resistance determinants are typically highly repetitive and impossible to resolve with standard short-read sequencing technologies. Results:Here we used both short- and long-read methods to sequence the genome of a multidrug-resistant hospital isolate (C15117), which we identified as E. hormaechei. Hybrid assembly generated a complete circular chromosome of 4,739,272 bp and a fully resolved plasmid of 339,920 bp containing several antibiotic resistance genes. The strain also harboured a 34,857 bp repeat encoding copper resistance, which was present in both the chromosome and plasmid. Long reads that unambiguously spanned this repeat were required to resolve the chromosome and plasmid into separate replicons. Conclusion:This study provides important insights into the evolution and potential spread of antimicrobial resistance in a nosocomial E. hormaechei strain. More broadly, it further exemplifies the power of long-read sequencing technologies, particularly the Oxford Nanopore platform, for the characterisation of bacteria with complex resistance loci and large repeat elements.
Cummins, ML, Reid, CJ, Roy Chowdhury, P, Bushell, RN, Esbert, N, Tivendale, KA, Noormohammadi, AH, Islam, S, Marenda, MS, Browning, GF, Markham, PF & Djordjevic, SP 2019, 'Whole genome sequence analysis of Australian avian pathogenic Escherichia coli that carry the class 1 integrase gene.', Microbial genomics, vol. 5, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause widespread economic losses in poultry production and are potential zoonotic pathogens. Genome sequences of 95 APEC from commercial poultry operations in four Australian states that carried the class 1 integrase gene intI1, a proxy for multiple drug resistance (MDR), were characterized. Sequence types ST117 (22/95), ST350 (10/95), ST429 and ST57 (each 9/95), ST95 (8/95) and ST973 (7/95) dominated, while 24 STs were represented by one or two strains. FII and FIB repA genes were the predominant (each 93/95, 98 %) plasmid incompatibility groups identified, but those of B/O/K/Z (25/95, 26 %) and I1 (24/95, 25 %) were also identified frequently. Virulence-associated genes (VAGs) carried by ColV and ColBM virulence plasmids, including those encoding protectins [iss (91/95, 96 %), ompT (91/95, 96 %) and traT (90/95, 95 %)], iron-acquisition systems [sitA (88/95, 93 %), etsA (87/95, 92 %), iroN (84/95, 89 %) and iucD/iutA (84/95, 89 %)] and the putative avian haemolysin hylF (91/95, 96 %), featured prominently. Notably, mobile resistance genes conferring resistance to fluoroquinolones, colistin, extended-spectrum β-lactams and carbapenems were not detected in the genomes of these 95 APEC but carriage of the sulphonamide resistance gene, sul1 (59/95, 63 %), the trimethoprim resistance gene cassettes dfrA5 (48/95, 50 %) and dfrA1 (25/95, 27 %), the tetracycline resistance determinant tet(A) (51/95, 55 %) and the ampicillin resistance genes blaTEM-1A/B/C (48/95, 52 %) was common. IS26 (77/95, 81 %), an insertion element known to capture and mobilize a wide spectrum of antimicrobial resistance genes, was also frequently identified. These studies provide a baseline snapshot of drug-resistant APEC in Australia and their role in the carriage of ColV-like virulence plasmids.