My research spans multiple disciplines with my central expertise centred on the interface that microbes have with their environment and how this drives disease outbreaks or evolution/emergence of pathogens. Specifically, I have extensively investigated and characterised the mobile DNA driving the evolution of bacteria with a focus on pathogens. Therefore, my research has interfaced with multiple areas such as antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in humans and the environment and, aquatic pathogens affecting humans and oysters.
With regard to aquatic pathogens, I predominantly focus on a group of marine bacteria called vibrios that includes the pathogen responsible for the diarrhoeal disease cholera and those affecting marine animals such as those in aquaculture. In collaboration with the aquaculture industry and the Department of Primary Industries and Environment, I have investigated the role of the indigenous oyster microbiota in facilitating health and disease outcomes in Pacific and Sydney rock oysters specifically, Pacific oyster mortality (POMS) and QX disease in Sydney rock oysters. I have also investigated diseases of oyster larvae.
I have researched the movement of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria as well as their contamination in the wider environment (e.g. coastal systems) thereby acting as a reservoir. I have extensively investigated the bacterial process of lateral gene transfer, a phenomenon that has facilitated the emergence and evolution AMR. I have extended my work in AMR by reaching out to an extensive network of researchers in different disciplines including geography, medicine, veterinary sciences, risk, pharmacy, health security and law. I have conducted research into the risk of contaminating AMR genes to people using applied social science and epidemiological methods and, I have worked with diverse researchers using applied social science methods for identifying the facilitators and barriers to antimicrobial stewardship. I have also investigated alternative policy responses to AMR.
- Chair of the University of Technology Sydney Institution Biosafety Committee.
- Member of the Australian Society for Microbiology (ASM).
- Microbial physiology
- Lateral gene transfer
- Molecular biology techniques
- Vibrio biolofy and genetics
- Antimicrobial resistance
- Aquatic pathgens
- Aquaculture diseases
Can supervise: YES
My interests are:
- Pathogenic Vibrio species (identification of genes involved in disease, particularly those derived by lateral gene transfer – human disease and, marine animal diseases such as oyster disease; environmental parameters leading to infectious Vibrio outbreaks)
- Antimicrobial resistance (resistance genes in the wider environment; socio-cultural factors driving stakeholder demand for antimicrobials)
- One Health (interactions between natural environmental, human and socio-economic and animal systems particularly in the fields of antimicrobial resistance and infectious disease by Vibrio species affecting humans and aquaculture).
General Microbiology 91314 - Autumn Semester
Epidemiology and Public Health Microbiology - Spring Semester
Labbate, M, Seymour, JR, Lauro, F & Brown, MV 2016, Anthropogenic Impacts on the Microbial Ecology and Function of Aquatic Environments, Frontiers Media SA, Lausanne, Switzerland.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Aquatic ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented levels of impact from human activities including over-exploitation of resources, habitat destruction, pollution and the influence of climate change. The impacts of these activities on the microbial ecology of aquatic environments are only now beginning to be defined. One of the many implications of environmental degradation and climate change is the geographical expansion of disease- causing microbes such as those from the Vibrio genus. Elevating sea surface temperatures correlate with increasing Vibrio numbers and disease in marine animals (e.g. corals) and humans. Contamination of aquatic environments with heavy metals and other pollutants affects microbial ecology with downstream effects on biogeochemical cycles and nutrient turnover. Also of importance is the pollution of aquatic environments with antibiotics, resistance genes and the mobile genetic elements that house resistance genes from human and animal waste. Such contaminated environments act as a source of resistance genes long after an antibiotic has ceased being used in the community. Environments contaminated with mobile genetic elements that are adapted to human commensals and pathogens function to capture new resistance genes for potential reintroduction back into clinical environments. This research topic encompasses these diverse topics and describes the affect(s) of human activity on the microbial ecology and function in aquatic environments and, describes methods of restoration and for modelling disturbances.
King, WL, Siboni, N, Kahlke, T, Dove, M, O'Connor, W, Mahbub, KR, Jenkins, C, Seymour, JR & Labbate, M 2020, 'Regional and oyster microenvironmental scale heterogeneity in the Pacific oyster bacterial community', FEMS MICROBIOLOGY ECOLOGY, vol. 96, no. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Viet, KN, King, WL, Siboni, N, Mahbub, KR, Dove, M, O'Connor, W, Seymour, JR & Labbate, M 2020, 'The Sydney rock oyster microbiota is influenced by location, season and genetics', AQUACULTURE, vol. 527.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Dadd-Daigle, P, Kirkby, K, Collins, D, Cuddy, W, Lonergan, P, Roser, S, Bhattacharya, P, Labbate, M & Chapman, T 2020, 'Virulence not linked with vegetative compatibility groups in Australian cotton Verticillium dahliae isolates', Australian Joural of Crop Science, vol. 14, no. 04, pp. 633-640.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of Verticillium wilt, is a soil-borne ascomycete that infects numerous agriculturally important crops globally, including cotton. As a billion-dollar industry, cotton is economically important to Australia and the management of disease such as Verticillium wilt is key for the success of the industry. Internationally, defoliating V. dahliae isolates belonging to Vegetative Compatibility Group (VCG) 1A cause severe damage to cotton, while non-defoliating VCG2A isolates result in significantly less disease. However, in Australia, VCG2A is causing more severe damage to crops in the field than the defoliating VCG1A. This study aimed to replicate field observations in controlled greenhouse conditions. We examined and compared disease symptoms on a range of Australian commercial cotton varieties when inoculated with different V. dahliae VCGs. Seedlings were root dipped in conidial suspensions and assessed over seven weeks. The final disease score, disease over time and root length were analysed. Plant mortality resulted from both V. dahliae VCG1A and VCG2A isolates across all cotton varieties used, confirming that there are virulent VCG2A isolates present in Australia. To our knowledge, although virulent on other plant hosts, V. dahliae VCG2A has not previously been reported to be highly virulent in cotton. We infer that virulence cannot be defined solely by VCG in Australian V. dahliae isolates causing disease in cotton.
Carney, RL, Labbate, M, Siboni, N, Tagg, KA, Mitrovic, SM & Seymour, JR 2019, 'Urban beaches are environmental hotspots for antibiotic resistance following rainfall.', Water research, vol. 167.View/Download from: Publisher's site
To reveal the occurrence and mechanisms for dispersal of antibiotic resistance (AbR) among the microbial assemblages inhabiting impacted coastal environments, we performed a weekly, two-year duration time-series study at two urban beaches between 2014 and 2016. We combined quantitative PCR and multiplex PCR/reverse line blot techniques to track patterns in the occurrence of 31 AbR genes, including genes that confer resistance to antibiotics that are critically important antimicrobials for human medicine. Patterns in the abundance of these genes were linked to specific microbial groups and environmental parameters by coupling qPCR and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data with network analysis. Up to 100-fold increases in the abundance of several AbR genes, including genes conferring resistance to quinolones, trimethoprim, sulfonamides, tetracycline, vancomycin and carbapenems, occurred following storm-water and modelled wet-weather sewer overflow events. The abundance of AbR genes strongly and significantly correlated with several potentially pathogenic bacterial OTUs regularly associated with wastewater infrastructure, such as Arcobacter, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Cloacibacterium. These high-resolution observations provide clear links between storm-water discharge and sewer overflow events and the occurrence of AbR in the coastal microbial assemblages inhabiting urban beaches, highlighting a direct mechanism for potentially significant AbR exposure risks to humans.
Green, TJ, Siboni, N, King, WL, Labbate, M, Seymour, JR & Raftos, D 2019, 'Simulated Marine Heat Wave Alters Abundance and Structure of Vibrio Populations Associated with the Pacific Oyster Resulting in a Mass Mortality Event.', Microbial ecology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 736-747.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Marine heat waves are predicted to become more frequent and intense due to anthropogenically induced climate change, which will impact global production of seafood. Links between rising seawater temperature and disease have been documented for many aquaculture species, including the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The oyster harbours a diverse microbial community that may act as a source of opportunistic pathogens during temperature stress. We rapidly raised the seawater temperature from 20 °C to 25 °C resulting in an oyster mortality rate of 77.4%. Under the same temperature conditions and with the addition of antibiotics, the mortality rate was only 4.3%, strongly indicating a role for bacteria in temperature-induced mortality. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed a change in the oyster microbiome when the temperature was increased to 25 °C, with a notable increase in the proportion of Vibrio sequences. This pattern was confirmed by qPCR, which revealed heat stress increased the abundance of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fortis by 324-fold and 10-fold, respectively. Our findings indicate that heat stress-induced mortality of C. gigas coincides with an increase in the abundance of putative bacterial pathogens in the oyster microbiome and highlights the negative consequences of marine heat waves on food production from aquaculture.
King, WL, Jenkins, C, Go, J, Siboni, N, Seymour, JR & Labbate, M 2019, 'Characterisation of the Pacific Oyster Microbiome During a Summer Mortality Event.', Microbial Ecology, vol. 77, pp. 502-512.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is a key commercial species that is cultivated globally. In recent years, disease outbreaks have heavily impacted C. gigas stocks worldwide, with many losses incurred during summer. A number of infectious agents have been associated with these summer mortality events, including viruses (particularly Ostreid herpesvirus 1, OsHV-1) and bacteria; however, cases where no known aetiological agent can be identified are common. In this study, we examined the microbiome of disease-affected and disease-unaffected C. gigas during a 2013-2014 summer mortality event in Port Stephens (Australia) where known oyster pathogens including OsHV-1 were not detected. The adductor muscle microbiomes of 70 C. gigas samples across 12 study sites in the Port Stephens estuary were characterised using 16S rRNA (V1-V3 region) amplicon sequencing, with the aim of comparing the influence of spatial location and disease state on the oyster microbiome. Spatial location was found to be a significant determinant of the disease-affected oyster microbiome. Furthermore, microbiome comparisons between disease states identified a significant increase in rare operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Vibrio harveyi and an unidentified member of the Vibrio genus in the disease-affected microbiome. This is indicative of a potential role of Vibrio species in oyster disease and supportive of previous culture-based examination of this mortality event.
King, WL, Jenkins, C, Seymour, JR & Labbate, M 2019, 'Oyster disease in a changing environment: Decrypting the link between pathogen, microbiome and environment.', Marine environmental research, vol. 143, pp. 124-140.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Shifting environmental conditions are known to be important triggers of oyster diseases. The mechanism(s) behind these synergistic effects (interplay between host, environment and pathogen/s) are often not clear, although there is evidence that shifts in environmental conditions can affect oyster immunity, and pathogen growth and virulence. However, the impact of shifting environmental parameters on the oyster microbiome and how this affects oyster health and susceptibility to infectious pathogens remains understudied. In this review, we summarise the major diseases afflicting oysters with a focus on the role of environmental factors that can catalyse or amplify disease outbreaks. We also consider the potential role of the oyster microbiome in buffering or augmenting oyster disease outbreaks and suggest that a deeper understanding of the oyster microbiome, its links to the environment and its effect on oyster health and disease susceptibility, is required to develop new frameworks for the prevention and management of oyster diseases.
King, WL, Siboni, N, Kahlke, T, Green, TJ, Labbate, M & Seymour, JR 2019, 'A New High Throughput Sequencing Assay for Characterizing the Diversity of Natural Vibrio Communities and Its Application to a Pacific Oyster Mortality Event.', Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 10, pp. 2907-2907.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The Vibrio genus is notable for including several pathogens of marine animals and humans, yet characterization of Vibrio diversity using routine 16S rRNA sequencing methods is often constrained by poor resolution beyond the genus level. Here, a new high throughput sequencing approach targeting the heat shock protein (hsp60) as a phylogenetic marker was developed to more precisely discriminate members of the Vibrio genus in environmental samples. The utility of this new assay was tested using mock communities constructed from known dilutions of Vibrio isolates. Relative to standard and Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA sequencing assays, the hsp60 assay delivered high levels of fidelity with the mock community composition at the species level, including discrimination of species within the Vibrio harveyi clade. This assay was subsequently applied to characterize Vibrio community composition in seawater and delivered substantially improved taxonomic resolution of Vibrio species compared to 16S rRNA analysis. Finally, this assay was applied to examine patterns in the Vibrio community within oysters during a Pacific oyster mortality event. In these oysters, the hsp60 assay identified species-level Vibrio community shifts prior to disease onset, pinpointing V. harveyi as a putative pathogen. Given that shifts in the Vibrio community can precede, cause, and follow disease onset in numerous marine organisms, there is a need for an accurate high throughput assay for defining Vibrio community composition in natural samples. This Vibrio-centric hsp60 sequencing assay offers the potential for precise high throughput characterization of Vibrio diversity, providing an enhanced platform for dissecting Vibrio dynamics in the environment.
King, WL, Siboni, N, Williams, NLR, Kahlke, T, Nguyen, KV, Jenkins, C, Dove, M, O'Connor, W, Seymour, JR & Labbate, M 2019, 'Variability in the Composition of Pacific Oyster Microbiomes Across Oyster Families Exhibiting Different Levels of Susceptibility to OsHV-1 μvar Disease.', Frontiers in microbiology, vol. 10, no. Mar.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Oyster diseases are a major impediment to the profitability and growth of the oyster aquaculture industry. In recent years, geographically widespread outbreaks of disease caused by ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariant (OsHV-1 μvar) have led to mass mortalities among Crassostrea gigas, the Pacific Oyster. Attempts to minimize the impact of this disease have been largely focused on breeding programs, and although these have shown some success in producing oyster families with reduced mortality, the mechanism(s) behind this protection is poorly understood. One possible factor is modification of the C. gigas microbiome. To explore how breeding for resistance to OsHV-1 μvar affects the oyster microbiome, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the bacterial communities associated with 35 C. gigas families, incorporating oysters with different levels of susceptibility to OsHV-1 μvar disease. The microbiomes of disease-susceptible families were significantly different to the microbiomes of disease-resistant families. OTUs assigned to the Photobacterium, Vibrio, Aliivibrio, Streptococcus, and Roseovarius genera were associated with low disease resistance. In partial support of this finding, qPCR identified a statistically significant increase of Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA gene copies in the low disease resistance families, possibly indicative of a reduced host immune response to these pathogens. In addition to these results, examination of the core microbiome revealed that each family possessed a small core community, with OTUs assigned to the Winogradskyella genus and the Bradyrhizobiaceae family consistent members across most disease-resistant families. This study examines patterns in the microbiome of oyster families exhibiting differing levels of OsHV-1 μvar disease resistance and reveals some key bacterial taxa that may provide a protective or detrimental role in OsHV-1 μvar disease outbreaks.
Norris, JM, Zhuo, A, Govendir, M, Rowbotham, SJ, Labbate, M, Degeling, C, Gilbert, GL, Dominey-Howes, D & Ward, MP 2019, 'Correction: Factors influencing the behaviour and perceptions of Australian veterinarians towards antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance.', PloS one, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. e0224844-e0224844.View/Download from: Publisher's site
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223534.].
Norris, JM, Zhuo, A, Govendir, M, Rowbotham, SJ, Labbate, M, Degeling, C, Gilbert, GL, Dominey-Howes, D & Ward, MP 2019, 'Factors influencing the behaviour and perceptions of Australian veterinarians towards antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance.', PloS one, vol. 14, no. 10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global crisis with impacts on the future health and welfare of humans and animals. Determining key factors that influence veterinarians' antimicrobial prescribing behaviours can bridge the gap between prescribing guidelines and clinical usage. Veterinarians practicing in Australia were surveyed on their frequency in prescribing different antibiotics; factors influencing their antibiotic prescribing behaviours; and their perceptions of current drivers of AMR. Antibiotics were prescribed in a third of consultations with key differences in the frequency of use of specific antibiotics by small companion animal (SCA), equine and livestock veterinarians, which broadly aligned with antibiotic registration restrictions in Australia. SCA veterinarians reported prescribing broad-spectrum antibiotics of higher importance to human health more frequently than livestock veterinarians. Factors that were reported as 'strong' or 'moderate' barriers to appropriate antibiotic prescribing were the 1) cost of culture and susceptibility testing and 2) lack of access to rapid and affordable diagnostic tests. Fear of losing clients, colleague pressure, and lack of their own understanding about antibiotics were considered to be 'no' or 'somewhat' of a barrier to appropriate prescribing by respondents. SCA veterinarians placed greater importance on the contribution of antibiotic use in livestock to AMR, than antibiotic use in companion animals. Despite reporting use of fewer, mostly narrow spectrum antibiotics of lower importance to human and animal health, livestock veterinarians were generally more aware of their potential contribution to AMR. This study provides insights into the similarities and differences in SCA, equine and livestock veterinarians practicing in Australia and informs sector-specific strategies to improve antimicrobial stewardship.
Espinoza-Vergara, G, Noorian, P, Silva-Valenzuela, CA, Raymond, BBA, Allen, C, Hoque, MM, Sun, S, Johnson, MS, Pernice, M, Kjelleberg, S, Djordjevic, SP, Labbate, M, Camilli, A & McDougald, D 2019, 'Vibrio cholerae residing in food vacuoles expelled by protozoa are more infectious in vivo', Nature Microbiology, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 2466-2474.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mahbub, KR, Bahar, M, Megharaj, M & Labbate, M 2018, 'Are the existing guideline values adequate to protect soil health from inorganic mercury contamination?', Environment International, vol. 117, pp. 10-15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhuo, A, Labbate, M, Norris, JM, Gilbert, GL, Ward, MP, Bajorek, BV, Degeling, C, Rowbotham, SJ, Dawson, A, Ky-Anh, N, Hill-Cawthorne, GA, Sorrell, TC, Govendir, M, Kesson, AM, Iredell, JR & Dominey-Howes, D 2018, 'Opportunities and challenges to improving antibiotic prescribing practices through a One Health approach: results of a comparative survey of doctors, dentists and veterinarians in Australia', BMJ OPEN, vol. 8, no. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Donnelly, S, Huston, WM, Johnson, M, Tiberti, N, Saunders, B, O'Brien, B, Burke, C, Labbate, M & Combes, V 2017, 'Targeting the master regulator mTOR: a new approach to prevent the neurological of consequences of parasitic infections?', Parasites & Vectors, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A systematic analysis of 240 causes of death in 2013 revealed that parasitic diseases were responsible for more than one million deaths. The vast majority of these fatalities resulted from protozoan infections presenting with neurological sequelae. In the absence of a vaccine, development of effective therapies is essential to improving global public health. In 2015, an intriguing strategy to prevent cerebral malaria was proposed by Gordon et al. 2015 mBio, 6:e00625. Their study suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin prevented experimental cerebral malaria by blocking the damage to the blood brain barrier and stopping the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells and T cells in the brain. Here, we hypothesize that the same therapeutic strategy could be adopted for other protozoan infections with a brain tropism, to prevent cerebral parasitosis by limiting pathogen replication and preventing immune mediated destruction of brain tissue.
Mahbub, KR, Bahar, MM, Labbate, M, Krishnan, K, Andrews, S, Naidu, R & Mallavarapu, M 2017, 'Bioremediation of mercury: not properly exploited in contaminated soils!', Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 963-976.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mahbub, KR, Kader, M, Krishnan, K, Labbate, M, Naidu, R & Megharaj, M 2017, 'Toxicity of Inorganic Mercury to Native Australian Grass Grown in Three Different Soils', Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 850-855.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery Working Group & Labbate, M 2017, 'A Global Declaration on Appropriate Use of Antimicrobial Agents across the Surgical Pathway.', Surgical Infections, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 846-853.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This declaration, signed by an interdisciplinary task force of 234 experts from 83 different countries with different backgrounds, highlights the threat posed by antimicrobial resistance and the need for appropriate use of antibiotic agents and antifungal agents in hospitals worldwide especially focusing on surgical infections. As such, it is our intent to raise awareness among healthcare workers and improve antimicrobial prescribing. To facilitate its dissemination, the declaration was translated in different languages.
Sartelli, M, Weber, DG, Ruppe, E, Bassetti, M, Wright, BJ, Ansaloni, L, Catena, F, Coccolini, F, Abu-Zidan, FM, Coimbra, R, Moore, EE, Moore, FA, Maier, RV, De Waele, JJ, Kirkpatrick, AW, Griffiths, EA, Eckmann, C, Brink, AJ, Mazuski, JE, May, AK, Sawyer, RG, Mertz, D, Montravers, P, Kumar, A, Roberts, JA, Vincent, L, Watkins, RR, Lowman, W, Spellberg, B, Abbott, IJ, Adesunkanmi, AK, Al-Dahir, S, Al-Hasan, MN, Agresta, F, Althani, AA, Ansari, S, Ansumana, R, Augustin, G, Bala, M, Balogh, ZJ, Baraket, O, Bhangu, A, Beltrn, MA, Bernhard, M, Biffl, WL, Boermeester, MA, Brecher, SM, Cherry-Bukowiec, JR, Buyne, OR, Cainzos, MA, Cairns, KA, Camacho-Ortiz, A, Chandy, SJ, Jusoh, AC, Chichom-Mefire, A, Colijn, C, Corcione, F, Cui, Y, Curcio, D, Delibegovic, S, Demetrashvili, Z, De Simone, B, Dhingra, S, Diaz, JJ, Di Carlo, I, Dillip, A, Di Saverio, S, Doyle, MP, Dorj, G, Dogjani, A, Dupont, H, Eachempati, SR, Enani, MA, Egiev, VN, Elmangory, MM, Ferrada, P, Fitchett, JR, Fraga, GP, Guessennd, N, Giamarellou, H, Ghnnam, W, Gkiokas, G, Goldberg, SR, Gomes, CA, Gomi, H, Guzman-Blanco, M, Haque, M, Hansen, S, Hecker, A, Heizmann, WR, Herzog, T, Hodonou, AM, Hong, SK, Kafka-Ritsch, R, Kaplan, LJ, Kapoor, G, Karamarkovic, A, Kees, MG, Kenig, J, Kiguba, R, Kim, PK, Kluger, Y, Khokha, V, Koike, K, Kok, KY, Kong, V, Knox, MC, Inaba, K, Isik, A, Iskandar, K, Ivatury, RR, Labbate, M, Labricciosa, FM, Laterre, PF, Latifi, R, Lee, JG, Lee, YR, Leone, M, Leppaniemi, A, Li, Y, Liang, SY, Loho, T, Maegele, M, Malama, S, Marei, HE, Martin-Loeches, I, Marwah, S, Massele, A, McFarlane, M, Melo, RB, Negoi, I, Nicolau, DP, Nord, CE, Ofori-Asenso, R, Omari, AH, Ordonez, CA, Ouadii, M, Pereira Junior, GA, Piazza, D, Pupelis, G, Rawson, TM, Rems, M, Rizoli, S, Rocha, C, Sakakushev, B, Sanchez-Garcia, M, Sato, N, Segovia Lohse, HA, Sganga, G, Siribumrungwong, B, Shelat, VG, Soreide, K, Soto, R, Talving, P, Tilsed, JV, Timsit, JF, Trueba, G, Trung, NT, Ulrych, J, Van Goor, H, Vereczkei, A, Vohra, RS, Wani, I, Uhl, W, Xiao, Y, Yuan, KC, Zachariah, SK, Zahar, JR, Zakrison, TL, Corcione, A, Melotti, RM, Viscoli, C & Viale, P 2017, 'Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA) (vol 11, 33, 2016)', WORLD JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY SURGERY, vol. 12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Labbate, M, Seymour, JR, Lauro, F & Brown, MV 2016, 'Anthropogenic Impacts on the Microbial Ecology and Function of Aquatic Environments', FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 7.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sartelli, M, Weber, DG, Ruppe, E, Bassetti, M, Wright, BJ, Ansaloni, L, Catena, F, Coccolini, F, Abu-Zidan, FM, Coimbra, R, Moore, EE, Moore, FA, Maier, RV, De Waele, JJ, Kirkpatrick, AW, Griffiths, EA, Eckmann, C, Brink, AJ, Mazuski, JE, May, AK, Sawyer, RG, Mertz, D, Montravers, P, Kumar, A, Roberts, JA, Vincent, J-L, Watkins, RR, Lowman, W, Spellberg, B, Abbott, IJ, Adesunkanmi, AK, Al-Dahir, S, Al-Hasan, MN, Agresta, F, Althani, AA, Ansari, S, Ansumana, R, Augustin, G, Bala, M, Balogh, ZJ, Baraket, O, Bhangu, A, Beltran, MA, Bernhard, M, Biffl, WL, Boermeester, MA, Brecher, SM, Cherry-Bukowiec, JR, Buyne, OR, Cainzos, MA, Cairns, KA, Camacho-Ortiz, A, Chandy, SJ, Jusoh, AC, Chichom-Mefire, A, Colijn, C, Corcione, F, Cui, Y, Curcio, D, Delibegovic, S, Demetrashvili, Z, De Simone, B, Dhingra, S, Diaz, JJ, Di Carlo, I, Dillip, A, Di Saverio, S, Doyle, MP, Dorj, G, Dogjani, A, Dupont, H, Eachempati, SR, Enani, MA, Egiev, VN, Elmangory, MM, Ferrada, P, Fitchett, JR, Fraga, GP, Guessennd, N, Giamarellou, H, Ghnnam, W, Gkiokas, G, Goldberg, SR, Gomes, CA, Gomi, H, Guzman-Blanco, M, Haque, M, Hansen, S, Hecker, A, Heizmann, WR, Herzog, T, Hodonou, AM, Hong, S-K, Kafka-Ritsch, R, Kaplan, LJ, Kapoor, G, Karamarkovic, A, Kees, MG, Kenig, J, Kiguba, R, Kim, PK, Kluger, Y, Khokha, V, Koike, K, Kok, KYY, Kong, V, Knox, MC, Inaba, K, Isik, A, Iskandar, K, Ivatury, RR, Labbate, M, Labricciosa, FM, Laterre, P-F, Latifi, R, Lee, JG, Lee, YR, Leone, M, Leppaniemi, A, Li, Y, Liang, SY, Loho, T, Maegele, M, Malama, S, Marei, HE, Martin-Loeches, I, Marwah, S, Massele, A, McFarlane, M, Melo, RB, Negoi, I, Nicolau, DP, Nord, CE, Ofori-Asenso, R, Omari, AH, Ordonez, CA, Ouadii, M, Pereira Junior, GA, Piazza, D, Pupelis, G, Rawson, TM, Rems, M, Rizoli, S, Rocha, C, Sakakhushev, B, Sanchez-Garcia, M, Sato, N, Lohse, HAS, Sganga, G, Siribumrungwong, B, Shelat, VG, Soreide, K, Soto, R, Talving, P, Tilsed, JV, Timsit, J-F, Trueba, G, Trung, NT, Ulrych, J, van Goor, H, Vereczkei, A, Vohra, RS, Wani, I, Uhl, W, Xiao, Y, Yuan, K-C, Zachariah, SK, Zahar, J-R, Zakrison, TL, Corcione, A, Melotti, RM, Viscoli, C & Viale, P 2016, 'Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA)', WORLD JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY SURGERY, vol. 11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Siboni, N, Balaraju, V, Carney, R, Labbate, M & Seymour, JR 2016, 'Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Vibrio spp. within the Sydny harbour Estuary', FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 7.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Labbate, M, Orata, FD, Petty, NK, Jayatilleke, ND, King, WL, Kirchberger, PC, Allen, C, Mann, G, Mutreja, A, Thomson, NR, Boucher, Y & Charles, IG 2016, 'A genomic island in Vibrio cholerae with VPI-1 site-specific recombination characteristics contains CRISPR-Cas and type VI secretion modules.', Scientific Reports, vol. 6, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cholera is a devastating diarrhoeal disease caused by certain strains of serogroup O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae. Mobile genetic elements such as genomic islands (GIs) have been pivotal in the evolution of O1/O139 V. cholerae. Perhaps the most important GI involved in cholera disease is the V. cholerae pathogenicity island 1 (VPI-1). This GI contains the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) gene cluster that is necessary for colonization of the human intestine as well as being the receptor for infection by the cholera-toxin bearing CTX phage. In this study, we report a GI (designated GIVchS12) from a non-O1/O139 strain of V. cholerae that is present in the same chromosomal location as VPI-1, contains an integrase gene with 94% nucleotide and 100% protein identity to the VPI-1 integrase, and attachment (att) sites 100% identical to those found in VPI-1. However, instead of TCP and the other accessory genes present in VPI-1, GIVchS12 contains a CRISPR-Cas element and a type VI secretion system (T6SS). GIs similar to GIVchS12 were identified in other V. cholerae genomes, also containing CRISPR-Cas elements and/or T6SS's. This study highlights the diversity of GIs circulating in natural V. cholerae populations and identifies GIs with VPI-1 recombination characteristics as a propagator of CRISPR-Cas and T6SS modules.
Dominey-Howes, D, Bajorek, B, Michael, CA, Betteridge, B, Iredell, J & Labbate, M 2015, 'Applying the emergency risk management process to tackle the crisis of antibiotic resistance', FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Labbate, M, Islam, A, Monahan, LG, Stokes, HW, Rapa, R, Mutreja, A, Thomson, N & Charles, IG 2015, 'A genomic island integrated into recA of Vibrio cholerae contains a divergent recA and provides multi-pathway protection from DNA damage', Environmental Microbiology.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Dominey-Howes, D, Michael, C & Labbate, M 2014, 'Why emergency management should be interested in the emergence of antibiotic resistance', The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 11-15.
Bacterial epidemics and pandemics are biological risks to life every bit as significant
as floods, fires, storms and earthquakes. Antibiotics have been a significant tool in the management of epidemics and pandemics (as well as for fighting general infections)
since their discovery in the 1930s. Due to the development of antibiotic resistance by bacteria, we are now approaching a post- antibiotic era where our capacity to manage infectious disease, particularly bacterial epidemics and pandemics, is compromised. Despite considerable efforts by global heath organisations, we need new ways of thinking and acting on the global risk of antibiotic resistance. We argue for a rebranding of the issue to one of a disaster risk and suggest the use of the risk management process and expertise of emergency management to present a new way of thinking about this globally significant risk to life.
Laczka, OF, Labbate, M & Doblin, MA 2014, 'Application of an ELISA-type amperometric assay to the detection of Vibrio species with screenprinted electrodes', Analytical Methods, vol. 6, pp. 2020-2023.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Laczka, OF, Labbate, M, Seymour, JR, Bourne, DG, Fielder, SS & Doblin, MA 2014, 'Surface Immuno-Functionalisation for the Capture and Detection of Vibrio Species in the Marine Environment: A New Management Tool for Industrial Facilities', PLOS ONE, vol. 9, no. 10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Michael, CA, Dominey-Howes, D & Labbate, M 2014, 'The antimicrobial resistance crisis: causes, consequences, and management.', Frontiers in Public Health, vol. 2, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis is the increasing global incidence of infectious diseases affecting the human population, which are untreatable with any known antimicrobial agent. This crisis will have a devastating cost on human society as both debilitating and lethal diseases increase in frequency and scope. Three major factors determine this crisis: (1) the increasing frequency of AMR phenotypes among microbes is an evolutionary response to the widespread use of antimicrobials; (2) the large and globally connected human population allows pathogens in any environment access to all of humanity; and (3) the extensive and often unnecessary use of antimicrobials by humanity provides the strong selective pressure that is driving the evolutionary response in the microbial world. Of these factors, the size of the human population is least amenable to rapid change. In contrast, the remaining two factors may be affected, so offering a means of managing the crisis: the rate at which AMR, as well as virulence factors evolve in microbial world may be slowed by reducing the applied selective pressure. This may be accomplished by radically reducing the global use of current and prospective antimicrobials. Current management measures to legislate the use of antimicrobials and to educate the healthcare world in the issues, while useful, have not comprehensively addressed the problem of achieving an overall reduction in the human use of antimicrobials. We propose that in addition to current measures and increased research into new antimicrobials and diagnostics, a comprehensive education program will be required to change the public paradigm of antimicrobial usage from that of a first line treatment to that of a last resort when all other therapeutic options have failed.
Islam, MA, Labbate, M, Djordjevic, SP, Alam, M, Darling, AE, Melvold, JA, Holmes, AJ, Johura, FT, Cravioto, A, Charles, IG & Stokes, H 2013, 'Indigenous Vibrio cholerae strains from a non-endemic region are pathogenic', Open Biology, vol. 3, p. 120181.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Of the 200þ serogroups of Vibrio cholerae, only O1 or O139 strains are reported to cause cholera, and mostly in endemic regions. Cholera outbreaks elsewhere are considered to be via importation of pathogenic strains. Using established animal models, we show that diverse V. cholerae strains indigenous to a nonendemic environment (Sydney, Australia), including non-O1/O139 serogroup strains, are able to both colonize the intestine and result in fluid accumulation despite lacking virulence factors believed to be important. Most strains lacked the type three secretion system considered a mediator of diarrhoea in nonO1/O13 V. cholerae. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) showed that the Sydney isolates did not form a single clade and were distinct from O1/O139 toxigenic strains. There was no correlation between genetic relatedness and the profile of virulence-associated factors. Current analyses of diseases mediated by V. cholerae focus on endemic regions, with only those strains that possess particular virulence factors considered pathogenic. Our data suggest that factors other than those previously well described are of potential importance in influencing disease outbreaks.
Rapa, RA & Labbate, M 2013, 'The function of integron-associated gene cassettes in Vibrio species: the tip of the iceberg', Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 4, no. 385, pp. 1-4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The integron is a genetic element that incorporates mobile genes termed gene cassettes into a reserved genetic site via site-specific recombination. It is best known for its role in antibiotic resistance with one type of integron, the class 1 integron, a major player in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes across Gram negative pathogens and commensals. However, integrons are ancient structures with over 100 classes (including class 1) present in bacteria from the broader environment. While, the class 1 integron is only one example of an integron being mobilized into the clinical environment, it is by far the most successful. Unlike clinical class 1 integrons which are largely found on plasmids, other integron classes are found on the chromosomes of bacteria and carry diverse gene cassettes indicating a non-antibiotic resistance role(s). However, there is very limited knowledge on what these alternative roles are. This is particularly relevant to Vibrio species where gene cassettes make up approximately 13% of their entire genome. In this review, we discuss how emphasis on class 1 integron research has resulted in a limited understanding by the wider research community on the role of integrons in the broader environment. This has the capacity to be counterproductive in solving or improving the antibiotic resistance problem into the future. Furthermore, there is still a significant lack of knowledge on how gene cassettes in Vibrio species drive adaptation and evolution. From research in Vibrio rotiferianus DAT722, new insight into how gene cassettes affect cellular physiology offers new alternative roles for the gene cassette resource. At least a subset of gene cassettes are involved in host surface polysaccharide modification suggesting that gene cassettes may be important in processes such as bacteriophage resistance, adhesion/biofilm formation, protection from grazers and bacterial aggregation.
Rapa, RA, Shimmon, R, Djordjevic, SP, Stokes, HW & Labbate, M 2013, 'Deletion of Integron-Associated Gene Cassettes Impact on the Surface Properties of Vibrio rotiferianus DAT722', PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sureshan, V, Deshpande, CN, Boucher, Y, Koenig, JE, Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Stokes, H, Harrop, SJ, Curmi, PM & Mabbutt, BC 2013, 'Integron Gene Cassettes: A Repository Of Novel Protein Folds With Distinct Interaction Sites', Plos One, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-13.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mobile gene cassettes captured within integron arrays encompass a vast and diverse pool of genetic novelty. In most cases, functional annotation of gene cassettes directly recovered by cassette-PCR is obscured by their characteristically high sequence no
Robinson, MW, Buchtmann, KA, Jenkins, C, Tacchi, JL, Raymond, BBA, To, J, Chowdhury, PR, Woolley, LK, Labbate, M, Turnbull, L, Whitchurch, CB, Padula, MP & Djordjevic, SP 2013, 'MHJ_0125 is an M42 glutamyl aminopeptidase that moonlights as a multifunctional adhesin on the surface of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae', OPEN BIOLOGY, vol. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Labbate, M, Boucher, Y, Luu, I, Roy Chowdhury, P & Stokes, H 2012, 'Integron associated mobile genes: Just a collection of plug in apps or essential components of cell network hardware?', Mobile Genetic Elements, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 13-18.
Lateral gene transfer (LGT) impacts on the evolution of prokaryotes in both the short and long-term. The short-term impacts of mobilized genes are a concern to humans since LGT explains the global rise of multi drug resistant pathogens seen in the past 70 years. However, LGT has been a feature of prokaryotes from the earliest days of their existence and the concept of a bifurcating tree of life is not entirely applicable to prokaryotes since most genes in extant prokaryotic genomes have probably been acquired from other lineages. Successful transfer and maintenance of a gene in a new host is understandable if it acts independently of cell networks and confers an advantage. Antibiotic resistance provides an example of this whereby a gene can be advantageous in virtually any cell across broad species backgrounds. In a longer evolutionary context however laterally transferred genes can be assimilated into even essential cell networks. How this happens is not well understood and we discuss recent work that identifies a mobile gene, unique to a cell lineage, which is detrimental to the cell when lost. We also present some additional data and believe our emerging model will be helpful in understanding how mobile genes integrate into cell networks.
Scott, NE, Nothaft, H, Edwards, AV, Labbate, M, Djordjevic, SP, Larsen, MR, Szymanski, CM & Cordwell, SJ 2012, 'Modification Of The Campylobacter Jejuni N-linked Glycan By EptC Protein-mediated Addition Of Phosphoethanolamine', Journal Of Biological Chemistry, vol. 287, no. 35, pp. 29384-29396.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Campylobacter jejuni is the major worldwide cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. C. jejuni possesses an extensive repertoire of carbohydrate structures that decorate both protein and nonprotein surface-exposed structures. An N-linked glycosylation system
Deshpande, CN, Harrop, SJ, Boucher, Y, Hassan, KA, Di Leo, R, Xu, X, Cui, H, Savchenko, A, Chang, C, Labbate, M, Paulsen, IT, Stokes, H, Curmi, PM & Mabbutt, BC 2011, 'Crystal structure of an integron gene cassette- associated protein from Vibrio cholerae identifies a cationic drug-binding module', PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 3, p. e16934.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background: The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes. Methodology/Principal Findings: We report the 1.8 A° crystal structure of Cass2, an integron-associated protein derived from an environmental V. cholerae. The structure defines a monomeric beta-barrel protein with a fold related to the effectorbinding portion of AraC/XylS transcription activators. The closest homologs of Cass2 are multi-drug binding proteins, such as BmrR. Consistent with this, a binding pocket made up of hydrophobic residues and a single glutamate side chain is evident in Cass2, occupied in the crystal form by polyethylene glycol. Fluorescence assays demonstrate that Cass2 is capable of binding cationic drug compounds with submicromolar affinity. The Cass2 module possesses a protein interaction surface proximal to its drug-binding cavity with features homologous to those seen in multi-domain transcriptional regulators. Conclusions/Significance: Genetic analysis identifies Cass2 to be representative of a larger family of independent effectorbinding proteins associated with lateral gene transfer within Vibrio and closely-related species. We propose that the Cass2 family not only has capacity to form functional transcription regulator complexes, but represents possible evolutionary precursors to multi-domain regulators associated with cationic drug compounds.
Labbate, M, Boucher, Y, Roy Chowdhury, P & Stokes, H 2011, 'Integration of a laterally acquired gene into a cell network important for growth in a strain of Vibrio rotiferianus', BMC Microbiology, vol. 11, no. 253, p. 253.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) is a major contributor to bacterial evolution and up to 25% of a bacterium's genome may have been acquired by this process over evolutionary periods of time. Successful LGT requires both the physical transfer of DNA and its successful incorporation into the host cell. One system that contributes to this latter step by site-specific recombination is the integron. Integrons are found in many diverse bacterial Genera and is a genetic system ubiquitous in vibrios that captures mobile DNA at a dedicated site. The presence of integron-associated genes, contained within units of mobile DNA called gene cassettes makes up a substantial component of the vibrio genome (1-3%). Little is known about the role of this system since the vast majority of genes in vibrio arrays are highly novel and functions cannot be ascribed. It is generally regarded that strain-specific mobile genes cannot be readily integrated into the cellular machinery since any perturbation of core metabolism is likely to result in a loss of fitness. Results In this study, at least one mobile gene contained within the Vibrio rotiferianus strain DAT722, but lacking close relatives elsewhere, is shown to greatly reduce host fitness when deleted and tested in growth assays. The precise role of the mobile gene product is unknown but impacts on the regulation of outermembrane porins. This demonstrates that strain specific laterally acquired mobile DNA can be integrated rapidly into bacterial networks such that it becomes advantageous for survival and adaptation in changing environments.
Roy Chowdhury, P, Boucher, Y, Hassan, KA, Paulsen, IT, Stokes, H & Labbate, M 2011, 'Genome sequence of Vibrio rotiferianus Strain DAT722', Journal Of Bacteriology, vol. 193, no. 13, pp. 3381-3382.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Vibrio rotiferianus is a marine pathogen capable of causing disease in various aquatic organisms. We announce the genome sequence of V. rotiferianus DAT722, which has a large chromosomal integron containing 116 gene cassettes and is a model organism for studying the role of this system in vibrio evolution.
Sajjad, A, Holley, MP, Labbate, M, Stokes, H & Gillings, MR 2011, 'Preclinical class 1 integron with a complete Tn402-like transposition module', Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 335-337.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The presence of integrons was assessed in gut bacteria isolated from wild-caught prawns. A pseudomonad was recovered that contained a Tn402-like class 1 integron with a complete transposition module and two gene cassettes. One cassette was identical to a previously described cassette from a chromosomal class 3 integron in Delftia tsuruhatensis.
Background: The integron/gene cassette system is a diverse and effective adaptive resource for prokaryotes. Short cassette arrays, with less than 10 cassettes adjacent to an integron, provide this resource through the expression of cassette-associated ge
Gillings, M, Labbate, M, Sajjad, A, Giguère, N, Holley, MP & Stokes, H 2009, 'Mobilization of a Tn402-Like Class 1 Integron with a Novel Cassette Array via Flanking Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Element-Like Structures', Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 75, no. 18, pp. 6002-6004.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A Tn402-like class 1 integron was recovered from a prawn-associated bacterium. One of its cassettes included methionine sulfoxide reductase genes, the first example of such genes being captured by an integron. The integron was flanked by direct repeats that resemble miniature inverted-repeat transposable element equences. Excision of the integron by homologous ecombination through these sequences was demonstrated.
Joss, MJ, Koenig, JE, Labbate, M, Polz, MF, Gillings, M, Stokes, H, Doolittle, WF & Boucher, Y 2009, 'ACID: annotation of cassette and integron data', BMC Bioinformatics, vol. 10, no. 118, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Although integrons and their associated gene cassettes are present in ~10% of bacteria and can represent up to 3% of the genome in which they are found, very few have been properly identified and annotated in public databases. These genetic elements have been overlooked in comparison to other vectors that facilitate lateral gene transfer between microorganisms.
Labbate, M, Case, RJ & Stokes, HW 2009, 'The integron/gene cassette system: an active player in bacterial adaptation.', Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), vol. 532, pp. 103-125.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The integron includes a site-specific recombination system capable of integrating and expressing genes contained in structures called mobile gene cassettes. Integrons were originally identified on mobile elements from pathogenic bacteria and were found to be a major reservoir of antibiotic-resistance genes. Integrons are now known to be ancient structures that are phylogenetically diverse and, to date, have been found in approximately 9% of sequenced bacterial genomes. Overall, gene diversity in cassettes is extraordinarily high, suggesting that the integron/gene cassette system has a broad role in adaptation rather than being confined to simply conferring resistance to antibiotics. In this chapter, we provide a review of the integron/gene cassette system highlighting characteristics associated with this system, diversity of elements contained within it, and their importance in driving bacterial evolution and consequently adaptation. Ideas on the evolution of gene cassettes and gene cassette arrays are discussed.
Roy Chowdhury, P, Merlino, J, Labbate, M, Cheong, EY, Gottlieb, T & Stokes, H 2009, 'Tn6060, a Transposon from a Genomic Island in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolate That Includes Two Class 1 Integrons', Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 5294-5296.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A 25,441-bp transposon was recovered from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. While the transposition module was >99% identical to sequence of Tn1403, the element had been subject to rearrangements, with two In70.2-like class 1 integrons inserted into it in an unusual "tail-to-tail" configuration. One cassette array was the same as that in In70.2; however, the second was different, generating a transposon that collectively includes six resistance cassettes.
Case, RJ, Labbate, M & Kjelleberg, SL 2008, 'AHL-driven quorum sensing circuits: their frequency and function among the Proteobacteria', ISME Journal, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 345-349.View/Download from: Publisher's site
It is now apparent that bacteria utilize regulatory systems called quorum sensing (QS) to sense their population density. Such systems are dependant on the production of signaling molecules that activate specific genes when the signal reaches a critical threshold concentration. Such QS-regulated genes produce phenotypes that require coordinate behavior to convey competitive advantage to the population (such as biofilm formation and pathogenesis). The best-characterized QS system is that driven by acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules.
Gillings, M, Boucher, Y, Labbate, M, Holmes, AJ, Krishnan, S, Holley, MP & Stokes, H 2008, 'The Evolution of Class 1 Integrons and the Rise of Antibiotic Resistance', Journal Of Bacteriology, vol. 190, no. 14, pp. 5095-5100.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Class 1 integrons are central players in the worldwide problem of antibiotic resistance, because they can capture and express diverse resistance genes. In addition, they are often embedded in promiscuous plasmids and transposons, facilitating their lateral transfer into a wide range of pathogens. Understanding the origin of these elements is important for the practical control of antibiotic resistance and for exploring how lateral gene transfer can seriously impact on, and be impacted by, human activities. We now show that class 1 integrons can be found on the chromosomes of nonpathogenic soil and freshwater Betaproteobacteria. Here they exhibit structural and sequence diversity, an absence of antibiotic resistance genes, and a phylogenetic signature of lateral transfer. Some examples are almost identical to the core of the class 1 integrons now found in pathogens, leading us to conclude that environmental Betaproteobacteria were the original source of these genetic elements. Because these elements appear to be readily mobilized, their lateral transfer into human commensals and pathogens was inevitable, especially given that Betaproteobacteria carrying class 1 integrons are common in natural environments that intersect with the human food chain. The strong selection pressure imposed by the human use of antimicrobial compounds then ensured their fixation and global spread into new species.
Labbate, M, Roy Chowdhury, P & Stokes, H 2008, 'A Class 1 Integron Present in a Human Commensal Has a Hybrid Transposition Module Compared to Tn402: Evidence of Interaction with Mobile DNA from Natural Environments', Journal Of Bacteriology, vol. 190, no. 15, pp. 5318-5327.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In a survey of class 1 integrons from human stools, an unusual class 1 integron from a strain of Enterobacter cloacae was isolated and characterized in detail. Sequence analysis of a fosmid containing the class 1 integron revealed a complex set of transposons which included two Tn402-like transposons. One of these transposons, Tn6007, included a class 1 integron with two non-antibiotic-resistance-type gene cassettes and a complete transposition module. This tni module is a hybrid with a boundary within the res site compared to Tn402, implying that a site-specific recombination event generated either Tn6007 or Tn402. The second Tn402-like transposon, Tn6008, possesses neither a mer operon nor an integron, and most of its tni module has been deleted. Tn6007, Tn6008, and the 2,478 bases between them, collectively designated Tn6006, have transposed into a Tn5036/Tn3926-like transposon as a single unit. Tn6006, Tn6007, and Tn6008 could all transpose as discrete entities. Database analysis also revealed that a version of Tn6008 was present in the genome of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Overall, the E. cloacae isolate further demonstrated that functional class 1 integrons/transposons are probably common in bacterial communities and have the potential to add substantially to the problem of multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections.
Marquez, C, Labbate, M, Ingold, AJ, Roy Chowdhury, P, Ramirez, MS, Centron, D, Borthagaray, G & Stokes, H 2008, 'Recovery of a functional class 2 integron from an Escherichia coli strain mediating a urinary tract infection', Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 4153-4154.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A class 2 integron was found in an Escherichia coli isolate mediating a urinary tract infection. Unlike other class 2 integrons from pathogens, the encoded IntI2 protein was functional. The integron possessed a dfrA14 cassette, and a second novel cassett
Marquez, C, Labbate, M, Raymondo, C, Fernandez, J, Gestal, AM, Holley, MP, Borthagaray, G & Stokes, H 2008, 'Urinary Tract Infections in a South American Population: Dynamic Spread of Class 1 Integrons and Multidrug Resistance by Homologous and Site-Specific Recombination', Journal Of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3417-3425.View/Download from: Publisher's site
One hundred four bacterial strains mediating urinary tract infections in separate individuals from a Uruguayan community were isolated. Forty-six strains conferred a multidrug resistance phenotype. All 104 strains were examined for the presence of class 1, 2, and 3 integrons. Class 1 integrons were found in 21 isolates across four distinct bacterial genera. A large class 1 integron in a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was fully sequenced and was 29,093 bp in length. This integron probably arose by homologous recombination since it was embedded in a hybrid Tn21-like transposon backbone which comprised a Tn5036-like tnp transposition module at the IRi integron end and a Tn21 mer module at the IRt integron end. The parent integron/transposon that contributed the Tn5036 module was not related to Tn1696 since the integron insertion points in the transposon backbones were 16 bases apart. Examination of the other 20 class 1 integron-containing strains revealed further evidence of genetic exchange. This included a strain that possessed a Tn5036 module at the IRt end but not at the IRi end and another that possessed a tnp module beyond IRi that was a hybrid of Tn21 and Tn5051 and that is presumed to have arisen by site-specific recombination. This study highlights the ability of different genetic elements to act cooperatively to spread and rearrange antibiotic resistance in a community.
Boucher, Y, Labbate, M, Koenig, JE & Stokes, H 2007, 'Integrons: mobilizable platforms promoting genetic diversity in bacteria', Trends In Microbiology, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 301-309.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Integrons facilitate the capture of potentially adaptive exogenous genetic material by their host genomes. It is now clear that integrons are not limited to the clinical contexts in which they were originally discovered because not, vert, similar10% of bacterial genomes that have been partially or completely sequenced harbour this genetic element. This wealth of sequence information has revealed that integrons are not only much more phylogenetically diverse than previously thought but also more mobilizable, with many integrons having been subjected to frequent lateral gene transfer throughout their evolutionary history. This indicates that the genetic characteristics that make integrons such efficient vectors for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes have been associated with these elements since their earliest origins. Here, we give an overview of the structural and phylogenetic diversity of integrons and describe evolutionary events that have contributed to the success of these genetic elements.
Labbate, M, Boucher, Y, Joss, MJ, Michael, CA, Gillings, M & Stokes, H 2007, 'Use of the chromosomal integron array as a phylogenetic typing system for Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains', Microbiology-uk, vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 1488-1498.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Approximately 200 serogroups of Vibrio cholerae exist, with only two, O1 and O139, responsible for epidemic and pandemic cholera. Strains from these serogroups have evolved from a common progenitor, with lateral gene transfer largely driving their emergence. These strains are so closely related that separation using single- or multi-locus phylogeny has proven difficult. V. cholerae strains contain a genetic system called the integron that is located in the chromosome and that can integrate and excise DNA elements called mobile gene cassettes (MGCs) by site-specific recombination. Large arrays of MGCs are found in V. cholerae strains. For instance, the O1 El Tor strain N16961 contains 179 MGCs. Since integron arrays are dynamic through recombination and excision of MGCs, it was hypothesized that the MGC composition in a given V. cholerae pandemic strain would be useful as a phylogenetic typing system. To address this, a PCR-based method was used to rapidly characterize the MGC composition of V. cholerae arrays. The results showed that the MGC composition of pandemic V. cholerae cassette arrays is relatively conserved, providing further evidence that these strains have evolved from a common progenitor. Comparison of MGC composition between the V. cholerae pandemic strains was also able to resolve the evolution of O139 from a subgroup of O1 El Tor. This level of differentiation of closely related V. cholerae isolates was more sensitive than conventional single-gene phylogeny or multi-locus sequence analysis. Using this method, novel MGCs from an O1 classical strain and an Argentinian O139 isolate were also identified, and a major deletion in the MGC array in all pandemic O139 strains and a subset of O1 El Tor strains was identified. Analysis of sequenced V. cholerae integron arrays showed that their evolution can proceed by rearrangements and deletions/insertions of large portions of MGCs in addition to the insertion or excision of single MGCs.
Koh, K, Lam, K, Alhede, M, Queck, S, Labbate, M, Kjelleberg, SL & Rice, SA 2007, 'Phenotypic diversification and adaptation of Serratia marcescens MG1 biofilm-derived morphotypes', Journal Of Bacteriology, vol. 189, pp. 119-130.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We report here the characterization of dispersal variants from microcolony-type biofilms of Serratia marcescens MG1. Biofilm formation proceeds through a reproducible process of attachment, aggregation, microcolony development, hollow colony formation, and dispersal. From the time when hollow colonies were observed in flow cell biofilms after 3 to 4 days, at least six different morphological colony variants were consistently isolated from the biofilm effluent. The timing and pattern of variant formation were found to follow a predictable sequence, where some variants, such as a smooth variant with a sticky colony texture (SSV), could be consistently isolated at the time when mature hollow colonies were observed, whereas a variant that produced copious amounts of capsular polysaccharide (SUMV) was always isolated at late stages of biofilm development and coincided with cell death and biofilm dispersal or sloughing. The morphological variants differed extensively from the wild type in attachment, biofilm formation, and cell ultrastructure properties. For example, SSV formed two- to threefold more biofilm biomass than the wild type in batch biofilm assays, despite having a similar growth rate and attachment capacity. Interestingly, the SUMV, and no other variants, was readily isolated from an established SSV biofilm, indicating that the SUMV is a second-generation genetic variant derived from SSV. Planktonic cultures showed significantly lower frequencies of variant formation than the biofilms (5.05 x 108 versus 4.83 x 106, respectively), suggesting that there is strong, diversifying selection occurring within biofilms and that biofilm dispersal involves phenotypic radiation with divergent phenotypes.
Labbate, M, Zhu, H, Thung, L, Bandara, R, Learsen, MR, Willcox, MD, Givskov, M, Rice, SA & Kjelleberg, SL 2007, 'Quorum sensing regulation of adhesion in Serratia marcescens is surface dependant', Journal Of Bacteriology, vol. 189, pp. 2702-2711.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen and a major cause of ocular infections. In previous studies of S. marcescens MG1, we showed that biofilm maturation and sloughing were regulated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS). Because of the importance of adhesion in initiating biofilm formation and infection, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether QS is important in adhesion to both abiotic and biotic surfaces, as assessed by determining the degree of attachment to hydrophilic tissue culture plates and human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. Our results demonstrate that while adhesion to the abiotic surface was AHL regulated, adhesion to the HCE cell biotic surface was not. Type I fimbriae were identified as the critical adhesin for non-QS-mediated attachment to the biotic HCE cell surface but played no role in adhesion to the abiotic surface. While we were not able to identify a single QS-regulated adhesin essential for attachment to the abiotic surface, four AHL-regulated genes involved in adhesion to the abiotic surface were identified. Interestingly, two of these genes, bsmA and bsmB, were also shown to be involved in adhesion to the biotic surface in a non-QS-controlled fashion. Therefore, the expression of these two genes appears to be cocontrolled by regulators other than the QS system for mediation of attachment to HCE cells. We also found that QS in S. marcescens regulates other potential cell surface adhesins, including exopolysaccharide and the outer membrane protein OmpX. We concluded that S. marcescens MG1 utilizes different regulatory systems and adhesins in attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces and that QS is a main regulatory pathway in adhesion to an abiotic surface but not in adhesion to a biotic surface.
Rice, SA, Koh, K, Queck, S, Labbate, M, Lam, K & Kjelleberg, SL 2005, 'Biofilm formation and sloughing in Serratia marcescens is controlled by quorum sensing and nutrient conditions', Journal Of Bacteriology, vol. 187, no. 10, pp. 3477-3485.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We describe here a role for quorum sensing in the detachment, or sloughing, of Serratia marcescens filamentous biofilms, and we show that nutrient conditions affect the biofilm morphotype. Under reduced carbon or nitrogen conditions, S. marcescens formed a classical biofilm consisting of microcolonies. The filamentous biofilm could be converted to a microcolony-type biofilm by switching the medium after establishment of the biofilm. Similarly, when initially grown as a microcolony biofilm, S. marcescens could be converted back to a filamentous biofilm by increasing the nutrient composition. Under high-nutrient conditions, an N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum-sensing mutant formed biofilms that were indistinguishable from the wild-type biofilms. Similarly, other quorum-sensing-dependent behaviors, such as swarming motility, could be rendered quorum sensing independent by manipulating the growth medium. Quorum sensing was also found to be involved in the sloughing of the filamentous biofilm. The biofilm formed by the bacterium consistently sloughed from the substratum after approximately 75 to 80 h of development.
Labbate, M, Queck, S, Koh, K, Rice, SA, Givskov, M & Kjelleberg, SL 2004, 'Quorum sensing-controlled biofilm development in Serratia liquefaciens MG1', Journal Of Bacteriology, vol. 186, pp. 692-698.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Serratia liquefaciens MG1 contains an N-acylhomoserine lactone-mediated quorum-sensing system that is known to regulate swarming motility colonization. In this study, we describe for S. liquefaciens MG1 the development of a novel biofilm consisting of cell aggregates and differentiated cell types, such as cell chains and long filamentous cells. Furthermore, quorum sensing is shown to be crucial for normal biofilm development and for elaborate differentiation. A mutant of S. liquefaciens MG1 that was incapable of synthesizing extracellular signal formed a thin and nonmature biofilm lacking cell aggregates and differentiated cell chains. Signal-based complementation of this mutant resulted in a biofilm with the wild-type architecture. Two quorum-sensing-regulated genes (bsmA and bsmB) involved in biofilm development were identified, and we propose that these genes are engaged in fine-tuning the formation of cell aggregates at a specific point in biofilm development.
Holden, MTG, Chhabra, SR, de Nys, R, Stead, P, Bainton, NJ, Hill, PJ, Manefield, M, Kumar, N, Labatte, M, England, D, Rice, S, Givskov, M, Salmond, GPC, Stewart, GSAB, Bycroft, BW, Kjelleberg, SA & Williams, P 1999, 'Quorum-sensing cross talk: isolation and chemical characterization of cyclic dipeptides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacteria', MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1254-1266.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Roy Chowdhury, P, Stokes, H & Labbate, M 2013, 'Integrons: antibiotic resistance evolution and beyond' in Roberts, AP & Mullany, P (eds), Bacterial Integrative Mobile Genetic Elements, Landes Bioscience, Austin, Texas USA, pp. 53-69.
Labbate, M, Case, RJ & Stokes, H 2009, 'The integron/gene cassette system: an active player in bacterial adaptation' in Gogarten, M, Gogarten, P & Olendzenski, L (eds), Horizontal Gene Transfer, Humana Press, New York, pp. 103-125.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The integron includes a site-specific recombination system capable of integrating and expressing genes contained in structures called mobile gene cassettes. Integrons were originally identified on mobile elements from pathogenic bacteria and were found to be a major reservoir of antibiotic-resistance genes. Integrons are now known to be ancient structures that are phylogenetically diverse and, to date, have been found in approximately 9 % of sequenced bacterial genomes. Overall, gene diversity in cassettes is extraordinarily high suggesting that the integron/gene cassette system has a broad role in adaptation rather than being confined to simply conferring resistance to antibiotics. In this chapter, we provide a review of the integron/gene cassette system highlighting characteristics associated with this system, diversity of elements contained within it and their importance in driving bacterial evolution and consequently adaptation. Ideas on the evolution of gene cassettes and gene cassette arrays are discussed.
Viet, KN, King, WL, Siboni, N, Mahbub, KR, Dove, M, O'connor, W, Seymour, J & Labbate, M 2019, 'The Sydney rock oyster microbiome is influenced by local environmental parameters and QX disease resistance', FISH & SHELLFISH IMMUNOLOGY, ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, pp. 438-438.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Davila, Y, Griffiths, N & Labbate, M 2019, 'Writing in a 'popular science' style: A paradigm shift', Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education, Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education, The University of Sydney and University of Technology Sydney, pp. 26-26.
Labbate, M Australian Academy of Sciences 2017, ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE: A COMPLEX MULTI-FACTORIAL PROBLEM REQUIRING AN ORCHESTRATED INTERDISCIPLINARY RESPONSE, pp. 17-20, Canberra.