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Professor Mary Spongberg

Biography

Prior to her appointment at UTS Mary Spongberg was Professor of Modern History and Associate Dean of Research in the Faculty of Arts at Macquarie University, where she has been for the last eighteen years. Mary was formerly Head of the Department of Modern History and the Department of Modern History, Politics and International Relations, and was Interim Executive Dean of the new Faculty of Arts when it was established. Prior to being at Macquarie she was an NHMRC postdoctoral fellow in Women’s Studies at the University of Sydney.

Mary has taught Australian History, European History and Women’s Studies at Macquarie and the University of Sydney. She is editor of the international journal Australian Feminist Studies and on the editorial board of Women’s History Review. She is author of Feminizing Venereal Disease (1995), which was shortlisted for the Premier’s History Prize in 1998, and Writing Women’s History Since the Renaissance (2002). With Barbara Caine and Ann Curthoys she edited the groundbreaking Companion to Women’s History (2005) and she is currently working on the Female Biography Project with colleagues at the New School, New York.

Image of Mary Spongberg
Dean, ADMIN Faculty Administration
B. Arts - Modern History, PhD
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 3808
Can supervise: Yes

Books

Spongberg, M. 2002, Writing Women's History Since the Renaissance, Palgrave, Houndmills, UK; New York, USA.

Chapters

Spongberg, M. 2015, 'The Gender of Censorship: John Wilson Croker, Mary Hays and the Aftermath of the Queen Caroline Affair' in Moore, N. (ed), Censorship and the Limits of the Literary A Global View, Bloomsbury Academic, New York, London, pp. 49-64.
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Though literature and censorship have been conceived as long-time adversaries, this collection seeks to understand the degree to which they have been dialectical terms, each producing the other, coeval and mutually constitutive.
Spongberg, M. 2013, ''All Histories Are Against You?': Family History, Domestic History and the Feminine Past in Northanger Abbey and Persuasion' in Mithcell, K. & Parsons, N. (eds), Reading Historical Fiction: The Revenant and Remembered Past, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 50-66.
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Spongberg, M. 2013, 'Representing Woman: Historicizing Women in the Age of Enlightenment' in Cook, Curthoys & Konishi (eds), Representing Humanity in the Age of Enlightenment, Pickering & Chatto Publishers, UK, pp. 27-39.
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Spongberg, M. 2012, 'Remembering Wollstonecraft: Feminine Friendship, Female Subjectivity and the 'Invention' of the Feminist Heroine' in Cook, D. & Culley, A. (eds), Women's Life Writing, 1700-1850: Gender, Genre and Authorship, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 165-180.
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In September 1797, several weeks after the death of her dearest friend Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Hays, feminist and Rational Dissenter, published Wollstonecraft's obituary in the Monthly Magazine. Although her name was not appended to that obituary, in its next edition a note from Hays was published apologizing for this oversight. To the paragraph in your magazine for September announcing the decease of mrs Godwin, it was my desire and intention to have affixed my name, as a public testimony of respect and affection for my late admirable friend. But by some misconception, this intention appears to have been defeated. Farther particulars respecting this extraordinary woman I did not think myself at liberty to add, as they will probably, within a short period, be given to the public by a far abler hand.
Spongberg, M. 2012, 'Remembering Wollstonecraft: Feminine Friendship, Female Subjectivity and the `invention of the Feminist Heroine' in Cook, D. & Culley, A. (eds), Women's Life Writing, 1700-1850: Gender, Genre and Authorship, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 165-180.
Spongberg, M. 2009, 'Jane Austen, the 1790s, and the French Revolution' in Johnson, C.L. & Tuite, C. (eds), A Companion to Jane Austen, Blackwell Publishing, Chichester, UK, pp. 272-281.
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Spongberg, M. 2009, 'Jane Austen and the 1790s' in Johnson, C.L. & Tuite, C. (eds), A Companion to Jane Austen, Blackwell Publishing, Chichester, UK, pp. 272-282.
Spongberg, M. 2007, ''The Ghost of Marie Antoinette: A Prehistory of Victorian Royal Lives'' in Lynette Felber (ed), Clio's Daughters: British Women Making History 1790-1899, University of Delaware Press, Newark, USA, pp. 71-96.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Female Biography' in Spongberg, M., Curthoys, A. & Caine, B. (eds), Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 172-182.
Spongberg, M. & Bartley, P. 2005, 'Prostitution' in Spongberg, M., Curthoys, A. & Caine, B. (eds), Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 437-447.

Conferences

Spongberg, M. 2007, 'Edmund Burke and Mary Wollstonecraft's Irish education', Celts in Legend and Reality, Australian Conference of Celtic Studies, University of Sydney, University of Sydney, Australia, pp. 143-155.

Journal articles

Spongberg, M., Walker, G.L. & Whipp, K. 2017, 'Female Biography and the Digital Turn', Women's History Review, pp. 1-16.
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The digital revolution gives new meaning to the concept of 'shelf life'. It offers the promise of infusing surviving accounts of the ever-fragile female past with both a material and an electronic robustness. Among the many dusty volumes that have benefited dramatically from digital capabilities, few are more emblematic of the power of contemporary technology to advance feminist historical recovery than the six volumes of Mary Hays's Female Biography: or memoirs of illustrious and celebrated women, of all ages and countries: alphabetically arranged (1803). Female Biography was an anomaly when first published and controversial ever since, imitated but unacknowledged, left to molder on library shelves and in the pages of histories of prosopography. It was the first attempt at a comprehensive biographical history of women in English by a named woman author since Christine de Pizan's City of Ladies (1405) and the first compendium of women by either male or female compilers since Thomas Heywood's Generall Historie of Women (1624, 1657) to include rebellious and impious figures as well as learned ones. It was also the first Enlightenment prosopography of women and a compelling response to the great forgetting of women in traditional histories. While Hays's enterprise was a quintessentially 'Enlightenment project', the Female Biography Project to produce the Chawton House Library Edition was very much of the digital age. In this article we examine how Mary Hays put together Female Biography at the cusp of the nineteenth century and what happened in the twenty-first century when some two hundred scholars were assembled to grapple with the scope and scholarship of this work. We also explain the process of constructing a digital archive of Female Biography, and how this enabled a wonderful feat of feminist collaboration across the globe.
Hamilton, P. & Spongberg, M. 2016, 'Twenty Years On: feminist histories and digital media', Women's History Review, pp. 1-7.
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Spongberg, M. 2013, 'Editorial (Australian feminist studies)', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 28, no. 75, pp. 1-1.
Spongberg, M. 2013, 'EDITORIAL', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 28, no. 75, p. 1.
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Spongberg, M. 2012, 'Editorial : the politics of voice (Australian feminist studies)', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 27, no. 71, p. 1.
Spongberg, M. 2012, 'Editorial : The Feminist archive (Australian feminist studies)', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 27, no. 72, pp. 119-119.
Spongberg, M. 2012, 'Editorial : not quite Nigella (Australian feminist studies)', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 27, no. 74, pp. 337-338.
Spongberg, M. 2012, 'Editorial - Thank you Margaret Allen', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 27, no. 73, pp. 231-231.
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This editorial is probably superfluous. Anyone who knows Marg Allen knows how much those of us who work in Womens/Gender Studies owe her. Margs generosity of intellect and spirit has enlivened so much of the feminist work we do, and has done much to open the study of gender and race in Australia to an international audience. I do not see her very often but I am always touched by Margs unfailing kindness and the enthusiasm with which she approaches her own work and the work of others. The articles we publish in this issue dedicated to Marg are a real testament to her influence and her legacy. I would like to thank Margaret Haselgrove for giving us permission to use her photograph on the cover of this issue and Marg Allen for giving us permission to use the photograph that graces her article. Finally I would like to thank Chilla Bulbeck and all the contributors for creating such a wonderful tribute to Marg
Spongberg, M. 2012, 'History, fiction, and anachronism: Northanger Abbey, the Tudor 'past' and the 'Gothic' present', Textual Practice: an international journal of radical literary studies, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 631-648.
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Northanger Abbey is conventionally described as a novel of the 1790s. This dating has seen the novel read as parody and aligned with the numerous satirical essays deriding `terror fiction, that proliferated in the last years of the eighteenth century. B.C. Southam and more recently Jocelyn Harris, have argued that Austen rewrote substantial parts of the novel in 1816. In this essay I explore the idea that Northanger Abbey might be a novel out of time. By taking the advertisement appended to the novel by Austen apologizing for any anachronism that may have crept into the novel, as a starting point, I will argue that while this was undoubtedly meant to signal to readers that the jokes in the novel were about Bath society in 1803, it also reflected Austen's awareness of the increasing historicity of novels. The early years of the nineteenth century saw a plethora of novels emerge that explored both the recent and distant past. Unlike Gothic novels in which an historical setting contributed `only atmosphere and ornamentation, this new historical fiction was concerned to represent `historically specific culture and to avoid the `unsignaled anachronism that characterised the popular works of novelists such as Ann Radcliffe. Austen's awareness of the `datedness of her novel, reflects her engagement with ideas emerging from the works of writers of this new historical fiction, who sought to `accurately depict the mores and manners of the past. This essay reads Austen's advertisement as an ironic gesture, one that reflects the novel's historical setting in 1803, while also situating the text as part of this new genre of historicised fiction, like the Gothic, only different. It also speculates that Austen's decision to revisit her `Gothic novel in 1816, may be related to her interest in the sexual politics of the Regency which had taken a particularly Gothic turn.
Spongberg, M. 2012, 'EDITORIAL: Not quite Nigella', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 27, no. 74, pp. 337-338.
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Spongberg, M. 2012, 'The Feminist Archive', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 27, no. 72, p. 119.
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Dallman, S. & Spongberg, M. 2012, 'Expanding Local Water Supplies: Assessing the Impacts of Stormwater Infiltration on Groundwater Quality', Professional Geographer, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 232-249.
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In urban regions, the increased volume of stormwater runoff that results from the impermeable urban landscape is a potential source of water supply, particularly for groundwater recharge. One concern regarding infiltration of stormwater is its potential impact on groundwater quality. To further evaluate this, an extensive monitoring program was conducted in and around Los Angeles, California, over a six-year period. Samples collected from stormwater runoff, the vadose zone, and groundwater were analyzed for constituents of concern including metals, nutrients, organics, bacteria, and emerging contaminants. Findings indicate no degradation of groundwater quality as a result of intentional infiltration. At sites with shallow groundwater, concentrations of some constituents decreased over the period of the study. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Spongberg, M. 2012, 'Editorial: The Politics of Voice', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 27, no. 71, p. 1.
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Spongberg, M. 2011, 'Jane Austen and the History of England', Journal of Women's History, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 56-80.
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This article examines Jane Austens History of England from the reign of Henry the 4th to the death of Charles I, by a partial, prejudiced and ignorant historian. Written when she was just fifteen, the History has recently been the subject of interest among historians. Understood as a satire upon Oliver Goldsmiths History of England (1764), Austens History has not been read against the tumultuous politics of the 1790s. This article will suggest that Austen was not merely satirizing Goldsmith but, like Catherine Sawbridge Macaulay and Mary Wollstonecraft, was staking her claim in the vigorous debate around English history that emerged in the wake of Edmund Burkes Reflections on the Revolution in France. While Austens politics were Jacobite not Jacobin, this article situates the History along side other satires refuting Burkes spurious account of English history and as an early example of her engagement with the feminine past.
Spongberg, M. 2011, 'La Reine malheureuse : Stuart history, sympathetic history and the Stricklands' history of Henrietta Maria', Women's History Review, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 745-764.
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This article examines the representation of 'Stuart' queens, particularly Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I, in the writings of Victorian royal biographers, Agnes and Elizabeth Strickland, to consider how their depiction of women associated with the Stuarts might alter our understanding of the Stuart heritage in Victorian Britain. The article will demonstrate that the Stricklands' sympathetic representation of Henrietta Maria can be read, not merely as an attempt to insert women into the historical record, but rather, as an alternate feminine historiography of Britain, which contrary to the Whig tradition, retained a sympathy for things French, Catholic and Stuart
Spongberg, M. 2011, 'Editorial : one hundred years from now (Australian feminist studies)', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 26, no. 68, pp. 165-166.
Spongberg, M. 2011, 'Editorial : The End of journal rankings (Australian feminist studies)', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 26, no. 69, pp. 249-249.
Spongberg, M. 2011, 'Editorial (Australian feminist studies)', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 26, no. 70, p. 389.
Spongberg, M. & Tuite, C. 2011, 'Introduction: The Gender of Whig Historiography: women writers and Britains pasts and presents', Women's History Review, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 673-687.
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Spongberg, M. 2011, 'EDITORIAL', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 26, no. 70, p. 389.
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Spongberg, M. 2011, 'One hundred years from now', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 26, no. 68, pp. 165-166.
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Spongberg, M. 2011, 'The end of journal rankings', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 26, no. 69, p. 1.
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Spongberg, M. 2010, 'feminist publishing in a cold climate?: Australian Feminist Studies and the new ERA of research', Feminist Review, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 99-110.
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This article explores the implications for feminist research and publishing in Australia in the new `ERA of research excellence. Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) is an initiative of the Australian Federal government to assess research quality within Australias higher education institutions using a combination of indicators and expert review by committees comprising experienced, internationally recognised experts (Australian Research Council, 2008).
Spongberg, M. 2010, 'Mary Hays and Mary Wollstonecraft and the Evolution of Dissenting Feminism', Enlightenment and Dissent, vol. 26, no. 26, pp. 230-258.
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Spongberg, M. 2010, 'Editorial: The new Era', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 25, no. 64, pp. 103-104.
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Murray, S. 2010, 'TAKING THE TOYS FROM THE BOYS Feminism and Australian Women's Peace Activism in the 1980s', AUSTRALIAN FEMINIST STUDIES, vol. 25, no. 63, pp. 3-15.
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Spongberg, M. 2009, 'Editorial: Feminist Generations', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 24, no. 59, pp. 1-2.
Spongberg, M. 2009, 'Editorial: The Rights of Women Now', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 24, no. 61, pp. 301-301.
Spongberg, M. 2009, 'Editorial: The 'F' word', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 24, no. 62, pp. 389-390.
Spongberg, M. 2009, 'Editorial', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 24, no. 60, pp. 145-145.
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Although the concept of genital modification is a relatively new one, feminists have always been engaged in theorising and activism around differing modes of body modification. In the 1970s eyebrow plucking, leg shaving and bra wearing became almost proverbial issues for Second Wavers. While such concerns led to certain stereotypes evolving around `the feminist, they reflected a deep-seated critique of the modes through which womens bodies had been moulded to meet masculine ideas of beauty in both the past and the present. Changing technologies and medical practices have ensured that the range of modifications to which female bodies may now be subjected have increased exponentially and present a ripe field for feminist enquiry, as the articles in this special issue readily attest. Focusing on the legal, ethical and political status of diverse practices of genital modification, the articles in this issue, brought together by Samantha Murray, Wairimu Ngaruiya Njambi and Nikki Sullivan, offer unique and innovative insights to familiar topics such as depilation and female circumcision, as well as areas less well trodden by feminist scholars such as cosmetic genital surgery. As well as offering new and original research, these articles have the power to unsettle many assumptions that we might have about such practices and I am very grateful to the guest editors for bringing such a wonderful special issue together. I would also like to thank all the contributors for their diligence, flexibility and patience. Special thanks go to Kellie Greene, whose fabulous image graces our cover. Cathy Hawkins was critical to putting the issue together, and again I am most grateful for her assistance. Finally I would like to wish all our readers a happy International Womens Day.
Spongberg, M. 2009, 'The 'F'Word', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 24, no. 62, pp. 389-390.
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Spongberg, M. 2009, 'The rights of woman now', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 24, no. 61, pp. 301-301.
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Spongberg, M. 2009, 'Feminist generations', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 24, no. 59, pp. 1-2.
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Spongberg, M. 2008, 'William Godwin's Memoirs of the Author of the Rights of Woman and the gender of romantic biography', Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanities, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 17-31.
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Some years after the publication of her ground-breaking article Women and Philosophy (1977), in which she describes women's relationship to philosophical inquiry in terms of a Heloise complex, Michèle Le Duff wrote that she had not initially thought through how the tragic fate of the philosopher Peter Abelard might modify her thesis. The story of Abelard certainly complicates Le Duff's understanding of how the Heloise complex functions as an impulse driving women to subsume themselves into a philosopher lover. Critical to Le Duff's original thesis is the idea of erotico-theoretical transference (Moi 185), that is, while a male student is led to philosophise by a lack caused by his instructor (I imagined I had found the man who would teach me but he disappointed me ), Le Duff has argued, a female student experiences not a philosophical lack but the ordinary, classic, psychological lack, the lack which the Other is seen as capable of meeting (Hipparchia's Choice 188). Thus untroubled by the disappointment that propels men to theory, and embraced by their lover-instructor, women are not condemned to philosophise, nor to write not to say `I (188). Such abnegation of mind, Le Duff suggests, was always profitable to him and fatal to her (188).
Spongberg, M. 2008, 'An Extraordinary Destiny: Mary Hays, Dissenting Feminist', Enlightenment and Dissent, vol. 24, no. NA, pp. 82-93.
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Since the late eighteenth century Mary Hays has occupied an unfortunate critical space, akin perhaps to the place she must have felt she occupied for sometime in her life, awkwardly positioned between the rational philosopher William Godwin and the `romantic feminist Mary Wollstonecraft. Known principally for the scandalous `novel Memoirs of Emma Courtney (1796), Hays was grouped by contemporaries along with those women named in Richard Polwheles rabidly anti-feminist poem `The Unsexd Females (1798) as `a Wollstonecraftian. When critical attention turned to Hays in the mid-twentieth century, she was first categorized as a `disciple of Godwin, one of a number of women who formed `a sort of philosophic seraglio around him.1 This slightly scandalous assignment echoed Polwhele and implied that Hays primary interest in Godwin was erotic. Early biographers of Godwin such as Ford K Brown reported that Hays proposed marriage to Godwin `in 1795 or early 17962 - an unsubstantiated claim implying that Hays was in love with William Frend and William Godwin simultaneously
Spongberg, M. 2008, 'Australian women's history in Australian feminist periodicals 1971-1988', History Australia, vol. 5, no. 3.
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This article traces the history of feminist periodical publishing in this country between 1970 and 1988 and its role in the development of Australian women's history. It shows that a distinctly Australian feminist historiography developed within the pages of journals such as Refractory Girl, Hecate, and Australian Feminist Studies. While most studies of the evolution of Australian women's history since the 1970s signal the importance of such journals, there has to date been no major study of their history or their influence within Australian historiography.
Spongberg, M. 2008, 'Editorial: Australian Feminist Studies', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 23, no. 55, p. 1.
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Spongberg, M. 2008, 'The child', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 23, no. 57, p. 287.
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Spongberg, M. 2008, 'Australian Feminist Studies: Editorial', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 23, no. 58, pp. 433-434.
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Spongberg, M. 2008, 'Australian Feminist Studies: Editorial', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 23, no. 56, pp. 173-174.
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Spongberg, M. 2008, 'Untitled', AUSTRALIAN FEMINIST STUDIES, vol. 23, no. 56, pp. 173-174.
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Spongberg, M. 2007, 'Australian Feminist Studies: Editorial', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 22, no. 54, p. 365.
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Arrow, M. & Spongberg, M. 2007, 'Australian Feminist Studies: Editorial', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 22, no. 53, pp. 159-161.
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Spongberg, M. & Moore, N. 2007, 'Australian Feminist Studies: Editorial', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 22, no. 52, pp. 1-2.
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Spongberg, M. 2006, 'Obituary: Andrea Dworkin 1946-2005', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 21, no. 49, pp. 3-5.
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Spongberg, M. 2006, 'Australian Feminist Studies: Editorial', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 21, no. 51, pp. 301-302.
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Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Review Stephen Garton's Histories of Sexuality', History Australia, vol. NA, no. NA, pp. 97-98.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Feminist histories: Histories of Feminism', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 20, no. 48, pp. 279-280.
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Spongberg, M. 2004, ''Beyond the Ladies Lounge'', Australian Historical Studies, vol. NA, no. NA, pp. 417-419.
Spongberg, M.E. 2000, 'Spectral analysis of base flow separation with digital filters', Water Resources Research, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 745-752.
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Base flow separation has often been portrayed as the process of removing a high-frequency event (runoff) from a streamflow time series to determine the low-frequency component (base flow). Fourier decomposition of several models of streamflow components suggests that this view is inaccurate. Base flow is a predominantly low-frequency phenomenon, but runoff has a broad bandwidth with a significant low-frequency 'signal.' Base flow separation with digital filters is the attempt to isolate these two signals. Perfect separation is not possible because of the overlapping frequency content. Removal of low-frequency runoff signal will also partially attenuate base flow. Some principles of filter theory are used to suggest optimal filtering procedures for one commonly used recursive filter. To maximize runoff removal while minimizing base flow attenuation and phase distortion, it is usually best to use two high-attenuation filter passes as opposed to several low-attenuation passes.
Spongberg, M. 1997, 'Queering new ground', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 12, no. 26, pp. 341-344.
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The publication of Annamarie Jagose's Queer Theory and Jill Julius Matthews Sex in Public mark something of a watershed in theorising around sex and sexuality in Australia. Matthews' striking collection represents the shifting modalities shaping sexual politics in the 1990s. Crossing genres, media and debates, this collection draws together some of the most exciting theorists of sexuality writing today. Jagose's text, with its in-your-face cover depicting a dickless Ken doll (or is it Gl-Joe?) being fellated by Noddy, is a most incisive and intelligent contribution to Queer, offering keen insights and fluendy presenting its multiple possibilities
Spongberg, M. 1997, 'Mother Knows Best? Bridging Feminism's Generation Gap', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 12, no. 26, pp. 257-263.
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At the beginning of 1995 a mini-storm erupted in the Australian press over the publication of Helen Garner's text The First Stone. I was perhaps more aware of this than most people. It was my first semester in a new university, having shifted from a job in women's studies back into history. I was the youngest in my new department by twenty years and both my other female colleagues were on leave. Surrounded by greying men in cardigans who were somewhat bemused by the new feminist historian, I came to hear a lot about The First Stone, long before I read it.
Spongberg, M. 1997, 'Are Small Penises Necessary for Civilisation? The Male Body and the Body Politic', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 12, no. 25, pp. 19-28.
Spongberg, M. 1997, 'Queer theory', AUSTRALIAN FEMINIST STUDIES, vol. 12, no. 26, pp. 341-344.
Spongberg, M. 1997, 'Bad girls: The media, sex and feminism in the 90s', AUSTRALIAN FEMINIST STUDIES, vol. 12, no. 26, pp. 341-344.
Spongberg, M. 1997, 'Sex in public: Australian sexual cultures', AUSTRALIAN FEMINIST STUDIES, vol. 12, no. 26, pp. 341-344.
Lawless, S., Crawford, J., Kippax, S. & Spongberg, M. 1996, ''If it's not on...': Heterosexuality for HIV positive women', Venereology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 15-21+23.
While there is a small amount of literature which considers the impact of an HIV positive diagnosis on one's life very little of it has considered how HIV affects the lives of women or how living with HIV affects women's sexuality and relationships. Based on in-depth interviews with 24 women living with HIV/AIDS, utilising a grounded theory approach, this paper begins to consider how living with HIV impacts on women's sexuality and relationships. The impact of messages that HIV positive women receive and the dominant discourses around HIV/AIDS and 'safe sex' and heterosexuality present contradictions for women. As a result, various tensions arise for positive women and their partners in trying to negotiate sex, safe sex, and condom use in particular. These tensions work themselves out in ways which depend in part upon the seroconcordance/discordance of the partner(s) and the nature of the relationship, that is, casual or on-going. Findings reveal that positive women are in need of support and counselling which affirms their identity as sexual beings, which upholds the expectation that HIV positive women will and can have a fulfilling sex life, and which recognises that sex can be a source of pleasure for women as well as for their male partners.
Spongberg, M.E. & James, W.P. 1996, 'Control of natural brine springs in brazos river basin part II: Brine disposal', Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 485-490.
Water quality in the Brazos River of Texas is seriously degraded by natural salt pollution. Two thousand tons/day of total dissolved solids emanate from brine springs and seeps in the Upper Brazos River drainage. Approximately 45 percent of the total salt load comes from a relatively small flow in the Dove Creek area. The companion paper demonstrates that a system of wells pumping brine at a constant rate of about 2 cfs from the near surface aquifer should eliminate the brine springs in this area. In this paper, injection into deep brine aquifers is shown to be a feasible brine disposal alternative. Four brine aquifers were determined from the literature to be possible injection zones. Accurate net aquifer thickness maps were generated in a 23 by 14 mile area centered on the Dove Creek area for three of the aquifers from an interpretation of 41 well logs. Constant injection for a project life of 100 years was simulated using the SWIFT/486 software. Modeling suggests that one well would be sufficient to inject the entire disposal volume into either the Strawn or Ellenburger Formation.
Roberts, C., Kippax, S., Spongberg, M. & Crawford, J. 1996, ''Going Down': Oral Sex, imaginary bodies and HIV', Body and Society, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 107-124.
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Spongberg, M. & Winn, M. 1996, 'Women, sexuality and development: A comment on the women, sexuality and development conference', VENEREOLOGY-THE INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SEXUAL HEALTH, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 4-6.

Non traditional outputs

Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Anne Clifford', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 99-100.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Helen Blackburn', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 61-62.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Cristina di Belgiojoso', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 60-60.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Elizabeth Benger', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 60-61.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Elizabeth Cary', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 87-88.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Catalogs of women', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 88-90.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Lydia Maria Child', Companion to Women's HIstorical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 92-94.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Anna Julia Cooper', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 112-113.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Mary Ritter Beard', Companion to Women's HIstorical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 56-59.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Clara Lucas Balfour', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 54-55.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Baudonivia', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 56-56.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Lucy Aikin', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 4-5.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Cecilia Ady', Companion to Women's HIstorical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 3-4.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Caroline Dall', Companion to Women's HIstorical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 113-114.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Defences of Women', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 115-119.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Lina Eckenstein', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 129-130.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Elizabeth Ellet', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 142-143.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Margaret Fuller', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 215-217.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'ELEANOR FLEXNER', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 204-205.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Mary Anne Everett Green', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 230-231.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Hagiography', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 231-233.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Sarah Josepha Hale', Companion to Women's HIstorical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 232-233.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Elizabeth Hamilton', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 234-235.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Mary Hays', Companion to Women's HIstorical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 237-238.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Eliza Haywood', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 238-239.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Anna Jameson', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 288-290.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Hrotsvitha', Companion to Women's HIstorical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 252-253.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Julia Kavanagh', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 300-300.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Joan Kelly', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 301-302.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Catherine Macaulay', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 323-325.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Delarivier Manley', Companion to Women's HIstorical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 325-326.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Nellie Neilson', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 370-371.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Sydney Owenson, Lady Morgan', Companion to Women's Historical WRiting, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 398-400.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Ivy Pinchbeck', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 412-413.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Christine de Pizan', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 413-415.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Eileen Power', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 426-427.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Lucy Maynard Salmon', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 506-507.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Madeleine de Scudery', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 515-516.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Stopford Green, Alice', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 544-545.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Strickland Sisters', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 546-548.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Sumner, Helen Laura [Woodbury]', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 548-549.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Helen Maria Williams,', Companion to Women's Historical Writing, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain, pp. 588-588.
Spongberg, M. 2005, 'Lydia Maria Child', Berkeshire Encyclopedia of World History, Berkshire Pub. Group, Great Barrington, Mass. USA, pp. 326-327.