After graduating from University of Lancaster with a Msc. in Marketing Education Lynne worked for several years in the Market Research industry in the UK, where she specialised in retail and panel research. Since moving to Australia she has taught both graduate and undergraduate students specializing in consumer behavior and qualitative research. In 2007 Lynne was a recipient, with two other colleagues, of a Carrick Citation for Teaching. As a consultant she has run workshops on tax compliance and qualitative research techniques as well as, giving seminars both here and overseas on communication and Government policy.Her research has been widely published and presented at domestic and international conferences and workshops. Recent papers have focused on education, corporate social responsibility and the use of qualitative research techniques: specifically ethnography and interpretivism.Lynne has been Track Chair for qualitative research, marketing research and marketing education streams at marketing and qualitative research conferences and has reviewed for the Association of Consumer Research, both in Sydney and overseas, ANZMAC and the International Learning Conference. She has reviewed for academic journals such as the Journal of Business Research, Qualitative Market Research; An international Journal and the International Journal of Learning.Her consulting work has involved marketing research; particularly as a qualitative researcher, marketing strategy and marketing communications for a range of clients and she has served in a voluntary capacity on several committees including the AMSRS ethics committee, school and other not for profit boards.
Qualitative research, corporate social responsibility, socially responsible purchasing, body image, brand emotion, marketing education, alternative health systems, marketing communications and tax compliance. Recent research has been supported by funding from the ARC, a faculty teaching and learning grant and a faculty research grant.
- Business Project: Marketing (Postgraduate)
Freeman, L, Greenacre, L, Jaskari, MM & Cadwallader, S 2017, 'Editors' Corner: The "Work-Ready" Marketing Graduate: Part II', Journal of Marketing Education, vol. 39, no. 3, p. 131.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Greenacre, L, Freeman, L, Jaskari, MM & Cadwallader, S 2017, 'Editors' Corner: The "Work-Ready" Marketing Graduate', Journal of Marketing Education, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 67-68.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper explores how consumers select different peers in their social network when obtaining positive verses negative referrals, and the role of social cues in this selection process. An inductive framework incorporating a mixed method process was employed. Thirty in-depth interviews were used to understand how consumers activate specific peers when seeking referrals. First, participants mapped their peer networks and, second, debriefs were undertaken to understand how their peer networks were used across ten product categories. Our research identifies that the choice of peer when seeking referral information is conditional on the type of referral sought. Also, that the cues used by consumers when selecting the most appropriate peer differ depending on the type of referral sought. The different peer activation for these two types of referrals indicates a need to adopt strategies specific to the different referral types.
Greenacre, LM, Freeman, LM, Cong, K & Chapman, T 2014, 'Understanding and predicting student word of mouth', International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 64, pp. 40-48.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Potential students often learn about University offerings through peer communication, in particular, peer Word of Mouth (WOM). Without an ability to predict and influence such WOM, Higher Education managers cannot accommodate it in their marketing strategies. Using a two phase procedure we address this by proposing a method that can be used to predict what will be communicated by WOM. Using that method we then develop an understanding of what information is communicated by WOM.
A qualitative phase identifies that potential students use two decision processes when selecting information to communicate about a university. A second choice-experiment phase models the information communicated by WOM as a consequence of one of those decision processes.
Results demonstrate that multiple decision processes are used by students when determining what to communicate by WOM, and that specific student groups communicate different information when assisting a peer to choose a university to attend.
The results highlight the ability of institutions to influence student WOM, and the procedure developed provides a practical tool for predicting WOM so that custom marketing messages can be developed to assist student choices of HE provider.
Spanjaard, DC, Young, LC & Freeman, LM 2014, 'Emotions in supermarket brand choice: a multi-method approach', Qualitative Market Research: an international journal, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 209-224.
Waller, DS, Freeman, LM, Hambusch, G, Waite, K, Neil, J & Wray-Bliss, E 2014, 'Embedding Ethics in the Business Curriculum: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach', Journal of Business Ethics Education, vol. 11, pp. 239-260.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In response to recent corporate ethical and financial disasters there has been increased pressure on business schools to improve their teaching of corporate ethics. Accreditation bodies, such as the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), now require member institutions to develop the ethical awareness of business students, either through a dedicated subject or an integrated coverage of ethics across the curriculum. This paper describes an institutional approach to the incorporation of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary ethics framework into the business curriculum. We discuss important implications for the assessment of ethics within institutional assurance practices, and address critical issues related to the support of academics when required to incorporate new ethics material within their subject which may be outside their field of
expertise. As an example, the successful application of the framework within the marketing discipline is presented and discussed.
Freeman, LM & Bell, S 2013, 'Women's magazines as facilitators of Christmas rituals', Qualitative Market Research: an international journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 336-354.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to focus on the editorial content of monthly womens magazines and consider their role in facilitating the Christmas food rituals. Of particular interest is the extent to which the special food features have adapted to support the changes in womens lifestyles over the last 20 years. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a longitudinal social semiotic analysis of Christmas food features in womens magazines in Australia and the UK over the period 1991-2011. Findings The analysis reveals a recurring conflict between the magazine content and the lifestyles of their readers. For families to participate in and maintain the Christmas ritual still means devotion, typically by a woman. The message has not changed, even though the work/home balance for many women has. The responsibility for putting the magic in Christmas lies firmly at the womans feet. The magazines text convey a contradictory message by offering readers budget and timesaving tips, while their visuals imply that such shortcuts stand in the way of the sought-after magical Christmas, the rituals must be followed in full. Research limitations/implications Adopting a longitudinal social semiotic analysis enabled the authors to conduct a detailed comparison of both text and imagery across the magazines and across the years. The authors were also able to report on how the sign complexes such as colour and text worked in combination to create a social message. Originality/value Whilst womens magazines remain an important vehicle for the transmission of social values, the papers findings demonstrate that they are not necessarily adapting to social change.
Greenacre, LM, Freeman, LM & Donald, M 2013, 'Contrasting social network and tribal theories: An applied perspective', Journal of Business Research, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 948-954.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper compares social network and tribal theory for their fit with the behaviour of real music communities. These theoretical perspectives are attracting considerable attention as researchers and practitioners search for ways to conceptualise, measure, and interact with communities of consumers. The bases for this comparison are how these perspectives treat community boundary demarcation, communication processes, and the temporal order of events in community creation. Results indicate that social network theory provides a better fit with the behaviour of real communities. These results imply that the a-priori expectation should be that consumer communities conform to the social processes suggested by social network theory. However important exceptions exist for the selective use of tribal perspectives.
Freeman, LM & Spanjaard, DC 2012, 'Bridging the gap: The case for expanding ethnographic techniques in the marketing research curriculum', Journal of Marketing Education, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 238-250.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article challenges the content of most marketing research courses whereby students are indoctrinated into the qualitative-then-quantitative archetype commonly found in scholarly research, under the assumption that it is both sufficient and appropriate when equipping students with the necessary skills for business. By following this standard format, where discussion of qualitative research methods is usually limited to focus groups and depth interviews, academics are potentially penalizing students and their future employers by providing them with a restricted set of abilities. Are we producing a generation of future marketing managers who rather than embracing the possibilities for deep understanding will instead limit themselves to the mainstream? In the article the authors consider the value and viability of introducing ethnographic techniques into the marketing research curriculum to complement existing qualitative methods and provide four examples to demonstrate this. The authors do not negate the need for marketing courses to continue to teach students the basics of marketing research but rather challenge the idea that this archetype provides all the necessary skills. If marketing educators are to truly equip students for future roles as decision makers in business, the authors recommend that ethnography must be considered a viable alternative method of marketing research.
Spanjaard, D & Freeman, L 2012, 'The hidden agenda: emotions in grocery shopping', International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 439-457.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this paper, we demonstrate the complexity of consumer decision-making within the supermarket and use videographic techniques to gain greater insight into this. We propose that grocery shopping, often perceived as a routine behavior, can in fact, become quite complex. The broad pattern emerging from our study was that the less time the participant spent looking at the shelves, the less emotion displayed. Where there was longer time spent, there was also increasing physical interaction with the product and a greater display of mostly negative emotion. We suggest that this presents a conundrum for retailers. Does the lack of emotion indicate little or no commitment to the store and/or brand? Or are they so loyal there is no need for consumer engagement? This exploration suggests that further insight can be gained if the emphasis is on how the consumer interacts with their brands rather than assuming that all grocery decisions are predictive. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
In this paper, we demonstrate the complexity of consumer decision-making within the supermarket and use videographic techniques to gain greater insight into this. We propose that grocery shopping, often perceived as a routine behavior, can in fact, become quite complex. The broad pattern emerging from our study was that the less time the participant spent looking at the shelves, the less emotion displayed. Where there was longer time spent, there was also increasing physical interaction with the product and a greater display of mostly negative emotion. We suggest that this presents a conundrum for retailers. Does the lack of emotion indicate little or no commitment to the store and/or brand? Or are they so loyal there is no need for consumer engagement? This exploration suggests that further insight can be gained if the emphasis is on how the consumer interacts with their brands rather than assuming that all grocery decisions are predictive
Biopsychology; Complementary and alternative medicine; Doping; Sports law
With the increasing prevalence of group work in marketing courses there is a need to consider the impact of students' social dynamics on both learning and satisfaction outcomes. This article explores one such dynamic at both intra- and intergroup levels.
This is a qualitative, largely reflective, interpretive case study of our evolution from teachers of market research to educational collaborators who work with students to co-develop qualitative researchers. This case both explores the ways to extend and improve qualitative research and researchers and presents a more general, interpretivist approach to problem-solving. The case is mixed method. It reports the combination and interpretation of reflective elements including articulating our individual memories and inter-relating these in a series of discussions where we also considered the nature and meaning of our educational approaches and the effectiveness of what we are doing.
Coleman, C & Freeman, LM 2002, 'Taxation: Critical Perspectives on the World Economy' in James, S (ed), Taxation: critical perspectives on the world economy, Routledge, London, pp. 140-160.
Freeman, LM & Bell, S 2012, 'When Magazine Editorial and Advertising are in Conflict', Asia-Pacific Advances in Consumer Research, Asia-Pacific Advances in Consumer Research, Association of Consumer Research, Queenstown, New Zealand.
Hingorani, A & Freeman, LM 2013, 'Acculturation and Male Body Image: An Exploratory Study of Older Indian- and Anglo-Australians', Proceedings of the 15th Cross Cultural Research Conference, 15th Cross Cultural Research Conference, Cross Cultural Research Conference, Antigua, Guatemala, pp. 1-4.
Freeman, LM, Greenacre, LM & Herenda, N 2012, 'The Maven; nevermore', Asia-Pacific advances in Consumer Research, Asia-Pacific Association of Consumer Research, Association of Consumer Research, Queenstown, New Zealand.
Freeman, LM, Koh, B, Edwards, J & Zaslawski, CJ 2012, 'Defining Alternative Medicine in the Context of Athletic Performance and the Spirit of Sports: D(etermination), O(bservance), P(ermissibility) or E(ducation', Proceedings International Conference on Sports and Society, 3rd International Conference on Sports and Society, Common Ground, Cambridge, UK.
Neil, JA, Freeman, LM, Waller, DS, Hambusch, G & Waite, K 2012, 'Developing graduate attributes in ethics: UTS online ethics portal', Proceedings of UTS Teaching & Learning Forum, UTS, Sydney, Australia.
Hingorani, A, Freeman, LM & Agudera, M 2010, 'Acculturation and Body Image: A cross-cultural, intergenerational qualitative study of Filipino and Indian Australians', European Advances in Consumer Research, European Association for Consumer Research, Association of Consumer Research, London, pp. 207-213.
Prior research investigating the relationship between acculturation and body image has largely been quantitative. This qualitative study investigates how and why the process of change in values, attitudes, and standards when moving cultures (i.e., acculturation) that is experienced by two under-researched immigrant communities in multicultural Australia, namely, Filipino-Australians and Indian-Australians, might influence their body image perceptions. Two generations of these immigrant groups were compared with Anglo-Australians. The immigrant groups were found to be more relaxed than the Anglo groups with respect to their body image, which was indirectly impacted by the factors that shaped their acculturation experience.
Spanjaard, DC & Freeman, LM 2010, 'Do Consumers and Retailers Eat Off the Same Plate When it Comes to Premium House Brands? An Australian Perspective', European Advances in Consumer Research, European Advances in Consumer Research, Association of Consumer Research, London, UK, pp. 237-242.
Freeman, LM & Greenacre, LM 2010, 'Brand based word of mouth: developing a theoretically relevant tool for predicting word of mouth', Academy of Marketing, Brand identity and Reputation SIG 9th International Colloquium, Acadamy of marketing, Barcelona, Spain.
Spanjaard, DC & Freeman, LM 2010, 'Putting Emotion Where it Belongs: at the centre of brand loyalty', Academy of Marketing brand identity abd Reputation SIG International Colloquium, Academy of marketing, Barcelona, Spain.
Young, LC, Benn, SH, Donald, M, Freeman, LM & Marroun, S 2010, 'In times of need are there more reasons to be green?', Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference 2010, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp. 1-8.
There is concern that consumers may have turned their backs on Ethical and Socially Responsible (E&SR) products in response to the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). This paper reviews secondary data on consumers changes in E&SR purchasing as a result of the GFC, comparing it to the discourse of ten focus groups conducted immediately before and during the downturn. Our findings show that there has been little behaviour change in response to the downturn; E&SR products are perceived as more costly, consumer purchase decisions are primarily driven by cost rather than E&SR concerns, and consumers continue to purchase E&SR products that provide financial value.
Freeman, LM, Spanjaard, DC & Young, LC 2009, 'The accidental ethnographer: ajourney within the world of the supermarket', Proceedings of 4th Annual International Ethnography Symposium, University of Liverpool, Liverpool England.
Hingorani, A & Freeman, LM 2009, 'The role of acculturation in the body perceptions of immigrants', Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research, Association for Consumer Research, Asia Pacific Conference, ACR, Hydrabad, India, pp. 184-185.
Spanjaard, DC, Freeman, LM & Young, LC 2010, 'Negative Behaviour or Positive Emotions?', Proceedings of the 5th International Academy of Marketing Brand Conference, Academy of Marketing, Cambridge England.
Freeman, LM, Koh, B, Jonson, PT & Zaslawski, CJ 2009, 'Athletes healthcarebehaviour: an ethnographers conumdrum', Proceedings of 4th Annual International Ethnography Symposium, University of Liverpool, Liverpool England.
Freeman, LM, White, D & Zaslawski, CJ 2009, 'Emergent practitioners of CHinese Medicine: an ethnographic inquiry into medical thought', Proceedings of 4th Annual International Ethnography Symposium, University of Liverpool, Liverpool England.
Spanjaard, DC & Freeman, LM 2008, 'Why qualitative researchers squint: A micro analysis of the temporal aspects for grocery shopping', 2008 Latin America Association for Consumer Research, Latin American ACR Conference, ACR, Sao Paulo, Brazil, pp. 116-119.
This paper discusses the rewards for the researchers when they adopted a multidimensional approach, incorporating temporal aspects, to the analysis of emotion factors for in-store shopping behavior. Of particular interest was the role these emotions play in brand selection. Whilst emotional research is not unique, little has been done to understand it from an internally consumer-driven perspective for grocery brands. We used videography to capture the behavior. As a result of our findings, it is proposed that the temporal affect becomes the moderating variable in developing emotive bonds between the consumer and the brand whilst making in-store decisions.
Spanjaard, DC, Freeman, LM & Young, LC 2008, 'The conscious decision versus the unconscious choice: Observed grocery shopping', Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Symposium on Current Developments in Ethnographic Research in Social and Management Science, The 3rd Annual Symposium on Current Developments in Ethnographic Research in the Social and Management Sciences, University of Liverpool Management School, Liverpool, England, pp. 1-21.
Researchers have long suspected that there is greater complexity in consumer brand choice within the supermarket than much research suggests. This paper discusses how the use of ethnographic techniques uncovers particulars of this specifically that consumers unconsciously use emotions to make conscious decisions about such brands.
Spanjaard, DC, Freeman, LM & Young, LC 2008, 'Why happy shoppers don't stop and think', Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference 2008: Marketing: Shifting the Focus from Mainstream to Offbeat, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, ANZMAC, Sydney, pp. 1-7.
This paper discusses findings from observational research of grocery shopping. Videographic analysis via qualitative research techniques reveals that consumers who display less emotion tend to be more positive about the experience and have shorter shopping visits. Whereas those who display distinct emotional responses tend to reveal negative reactions and result in taking longer to make a decision. Four categories of consumer decision behaviour for grocery products are suggested as a result of this research and as a discussion point for further investigations into this specific topic.
Young, LC, Donald, M, Freeman, LM & Benn, SH 2008, 'The nature and role of social relationships in social responsibility', Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference 2008: Marketing: Shifting the Focus from Mainstream to Offbeat, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, ANZMAC, Sydney, pp. 1-7.
The importance of socially responsible purchasing continues to grow. However there is limited work that considers high involvement purchasing and the importance of social relationships in building attitudes and guiding behavior in this context. This paper presents findings that consider these issues. Social relationships are found to be an important factor in responsible purchasing however these effects often are not consciously recognized by consumers. The paper concludes by considering the need for research methods to uncover the importance of social relations.
Young, LC & Freeman, LM 2007, 'A celebration of contrast, conflict and serendipity in developing the interpretivists of the future', EISMA Workshop on Interpretivst consumer research, Marseilles.
Young, LC & Freeman, LM 2007, 'A celebration of contrast, conflict and serendipity in developing the interpretivists of the future', Proceeding: 4TH WORKSHOP ON INTERPRETIVE CONSUMER RESEARCH, 4TH WORKSHOP ON INTERPRETIVE CONSUMER RESEARCH, European Institute for the Advanced Study of Management,, Marseilles, pp. 1-5.
Spanjaard, DC & Freeman, LM 2006, 'Is qualitative research always exploratory?', Advancing Theory, Maintaining Relevance - Proceedings of the 2006 ANZMAC Conference, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, ANZMAC, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 1-7.
Spanjaard, DC & Freeman, LM 2006, 'Tread softly: Using videography to capture shopping behavior', Advances in Consumer Research, Asia Pacific Vol VII, Borderless Consumption, Association for Consumer Research, Sydney, Australia.
Young, LC & Freeman, LM 2005, 'Study of contrasts: reflections on teaching, learning and training in the realm of qualitative research methods', Broadening the Boundaries - ANZMAC 2005 Conference Proceedings, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, University of Western Australia, Fremantle, Australia, pp. 55-60.
Young, LC & Freeman, LM 2003, 'The qualitative manager? reflections on the training and education of qualitative researchers in business', Association for Qualitative Researchers, --, Canberra.
Bock, T, Davis, T, Freeman, LM & Garlin, FV 2001, 'Towards a Taxocomy of Brand Association Statements: The Ignorance of Measurement or a Measurement of Ignorance?', Proceedings of ANZMAC 2001: Bridging Marketing Theory and Practice, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Massey University, Auckland, pp. 0-0.