Lien Pham is a Lecturer in the Graduate Research School. Her research interests are international education and development, political participation in non-democracies, language and identity, and Vietnam studies. She has collaborated in research projects about political participation in non-democracies, and international education practices in Australia. She has also consulted for various NSW government agencies in public policies research and evaluations, and multilateral organisations including UNESCO Bangkok on educational policy reforms.
Lien has published widely in the areas of sociology of education, education and development, returning graduates’ experiences, identity and representation, and community development. She is currently writing a book about the experiences of Vietnamese international graduates in the local economies, universities and communities upon returning to Vietnam.
In her current role at the Graduate Research School, Lien teaches epistemology and foundational issues in qualitative research, research designs and qualitative data analysis. She has presented seminars and facilitated research methodology workshops in Vietnamese and Malaysian universities. Lien also provides consultations on survey design and analysis, and economic evaluation in public policies and health.
- Editorial Board Member for the Journal of International Students (2019-2022)
- Guest editor for the journal Policy Futures in Education (2017-2019)
- Journal reviewer for Policy Futures in Education, Higher Education, Higher Education Quarterly, Journal of Research in International Education (2014 - current)
- Member of the UTS Social Justice and Inclusion Committee
- Chaired and presented a panel discussion on: The “Arbitrariness” of Agency in the Capability Approach: Real or Imagined Freedom. Panel participants - Suryapratim Roy (The University of the Netherlands), Ance Kaleja (University of Heidelberg, Lien Pham (Macquarie University and Ly Nguyen (Red Cross International Vietnam)
- Invited seminar presentation on qualitative research: “Constructing narratives for enquiry: An etic account and personal reflections from the field” for Hoa Sen University Research Seminar (January 2014)
- Invited workshops facilitation in Qualitative analysis using NVivo, and academic writing for journal articles for University of Sabah (September 2017)
- Invited discussant for Wiley-Blackwell online conference: Migration in a Changing World: Where Do We Go Now (2012)
- Postgraduate Research Grant with Vice-Chancellor (Research) Commendation (2015)
- Travelling scholarship to attend Human Development and Capability Approach Conference – Human Development and Capability Association (2015, 2014)
- Research scholarship to attend British Association of International and Comparative Education 2014 Conference in Bath, UK – British Association of International and Comparative Education (2014)
- Australian Postgraduate Award (APA) – Macquarie University (2011-2015)
- Postgraduate Research Support Scheme – The University of Sydney (2011)
Can supervise: YES
- International education and development
- Development in South East Asia
- Social justice in education
- Political participation and politics
- Language and identity of diaspora
- Vietnam studies
- International and comparative education
- Economic sociology
- Political sociology
- Sociology of education
- Postcolonialism and Southern theories
- Qualitative research methods
- Software training (NVivo and SPSS)
This book examines the extent to which studying and living overseas enable returning graduates to enhance their professional work and contribute to community development. It assesses the transformative potential that returnees are assumed to have in terms of capabilities and skills acquired through an international education. This book is based on a research study on Vietnamese overseas graduates who have returned to Vietnam. It examines the complexity of competing aspirations, responsibilities, identities and cultural dynamics in these returnees' professional, intellectual and civic environments.
Pham, L 2020, 'Capabilities and the "Value" Flows of International Graduate Returnees and Their Networks', Journal of International Students, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. xii-xv.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There is no shortage of assumptions about the economic benefits of international education for international students, graduates, and their home countries. At the individual level, the success stories are about improved employability in the local labor market. These stories, though, are often filled with accounts of personal struggles and systemic barriers relating to cultural adjustment, institutional structures and political contexts of the workplace, lack of research environment, technological and industrial infrastructures, and stigmatization of international students in the home countries. At the national level, returning graduates' acquired knowledge and skills are assumed to translate to quality human resources and national productivity that meet their country's economic development needs. Yet, there are limited studies with conclusive evidence of improved human capital or increased productivity as a result of studying abroad. Although there is some attention to how sending countries can attract students back such as repatriation schemes, which stipulate conditions of study abroad scholarships, there remains little attention to evaluating the effectiveness of these initiatives. The context and contradictions of various institutional and national policies and different countries' development needs, as well as graduates' circumstances that impact their choices and experiences, point to multifaceted outcomes and impacts of international education. Important as they are, contributions of returning international graduates to their society remain curiously underresearched and undertheorized.
Drawing on Amartya Sen's concept of agency and capability, this article explores political participation in three dimensions: individual dispositions, opportunities for participation, and processes of participation. It presents an analytical approach that examines these dimensions in relation to practices of participation as interactions between the State and citizens within and outside of political institutions. Two examples are used to illustrate the utility of this approach in states where democratic institutions are deficient. The first example historically traces the evolution of tribal informal institutions in Jordan to demonstrate how and why they mediate people's participation in the public sphere. The second example uses narrative inquiry to explore community activists' aspiration for and commitment to political expression through social media in Vietnam. Both examples suggest that a country's political institutions and its rule of law may shape political cultures and societal values of participation, but it is the individuals' recognition and response to these structures that ultimately create their motivations and the opportunities for them to participate. The article emphasises the importance of understanding the contexts in which the respective tradition of political participation takes place in order to understand the outcomes as well as the conditions for participation, especially in contexts that theoretically qualify as authoritarian.
Pham, L 2019, 'Capital and capabilities in education: Re-examining Australia's 2015 PISA performance and context assessment framework', Policy Futures in Education, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 599-617.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Author(s) 2018. This paper offers a conceptual framework that combines Sen's concept of capability and Bourdieu's forms of capital to understand the generative mechanisms of educational advantage or disadvantage. The paper illustrates some ways that the Sen–Bourdieu framework can be applied to understand the Programme for International Student Assessment 2015 results and measures of educational contexts for Australia. The Programme for International Student Assessment 2015 results indicated that students' socioeconomic background and student-level and school-level factors affect their educational performance. Guided by the proposed framework, the paper explains some of these effects and the contexts in which they occur. It suggests educational disadvantages are attributable to economic capital and other forms of capital within broader structural, representational and relational contexts of schooling practices. The implications for improving equity in education are to recognise forms of capital that enable or limit students' educational capabilities, identify contexts and schooling practices in which such enablers or limitations occur, and improve opportunities as well as processes in schools in ways that secure students' differences and uniqueness.
Kearney, M, Maher, D & Pham, L 2019, 'Investigating pre-service teachers' informally-developed online professional learning networks', Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 21-35.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study investigates how final year pre-service teachers (PSTs) from several countries use social media to support their online professional learning network (PLN) activities. Adopting a mixed-methods approach, it uses a global survey and interview methods to generate fresh insights into PSTs' informally-developed online PLN practices and their perceived benefits of these self-initiated activities. Findings uncover new understandings of contemporary PSTs' patterns of use and configurations of their online PLNs and have implications for their effective transitioning into the teaching profession.
Ly, TT & Lien, P 2016, 'International students in transnational mobility: intercultural connectedness with domestic and international peers, institutions and the wider community', COMPARE-A JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 560-581.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tran, LT & Pham, LT 2016, 'International students as intercultural agents: Engagement with domestic students, institutions and the wider community', Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 560-581.
Pham, L & Tran, L 2015, 'Understanding the symbolic capital of intercultural interactions: a case study of international students in Australia', International Studies in Sociology of Education, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 204-224.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Taylor & Francis. Intercultural interaction plays an important role in contributing to international students' learning and wellbeing in the host country. While research on international students' intercultural interactions reveals multifaceted aspects of personal and social factors, there is a tendency to consider language barrier and cultural differences as individual factors that constrain their interactions with the institutional community. Drawing on 105 interviews with international students in Australian vocational education and training and dual sector institutions, this paper examines international students' intercultural interactions in host institutions and the factors that act as enablers or inhibitors for intercultural interactions. It highlights the social and structural conditions in creating symbolic capital of elitist Anglo-Australian culture and English language, and social differentiation. This paper offers insights into understanding the legitimacy of such elitism, in hope that future conceptualisation, research and practices of intercultural interactions may locate international students within their cultural diversity.
Pham, LT 2015, 'Rethinking international education through the concept of Capabilities: a bridge to development in Asia's emergent knowledge societies', Confero: Critical Essays in Philosophy and, Education, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-36.
Pham, LT 2013, 'Social structures in the economics of international education: Perspectives from Vietnamese tertiary students in Australia', Globalisation, Societies and Education, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 39-60.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Drawing on the findings from in-depth interviews with Vietnamese international students studying at Australian universities, this article presents insights into the sociological influences that stem from international students' social networks, at home and abroad, and how they impact on students' aspirations and engagement in international education. Underpinned by Bourdieu's social capital framework, this article critically challenges human capital ideology for its assumptions of individualism and utilitarian function of education as economic goals. The implication for international education providers is to create learning and living opportunities that consider students' social and cultural conditions so as to develop their capacity, self-determination and citizenship.
Pham, LT & Saltmarsh, D 2013, 'International students' social identities in a globalised world: Narratives from Vietnam.', International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 129-141.
Kearney, M, Maher, D, Pham, L & Kuang, S 2020, 'Pre-service teachers' self-initiated use of mobile devices to support their online professional learning networking' in Burden, K & Naylor, A (eds), Transforming Teacher Education with Mobile Technologies, Bloomsbury Academic, London, pp. 51-72.
This study investigates how pre-service teachers (PSTs) are using social media apps to support their self-initiated online professional learning networks (PLNs). It also explores PSTs' perceived benefits and challenges of these mobile learning activities. The study used an international online survey fielded in two phases to explore these aims. In the first phase, the survey was compiled in English and disseminated in Australia and overseas. In the second phase, to widen the survey participation and gather more culturally diverse perspectives of PSTs' practices, the survey was translated to Chinese and disseminated in China. This chapter focuses on the respondents from both surveys that reported using a mobile device for their PLN activities (n=335). A validated mobile pedagogical framework is used to analyse the data. Findings provide nuanced insights into this niche and evidently valuable mobile learning practice in initial teacher education.
© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This chapter examines returnees' experience in the 'civic' field and focuses on voluntary community work. The chapter first presents a brief overview of the civic culture and functions of civil society organisations in Vietnam. Findings from the survey and interviews reveal returnees' nuanced conceptions of community and civic actions that arbitrate between overseas-acquired ideals of community and civic 'self' and the Vietnamese tradition of communities as enclaves of extended families. Despite some returnees' critique of the latter as limited in reach and impact, their choices and practices of community work were firmly situated in the Vietnamese habitus of personal networks of families and friends. For these returnees, citizenship and ability to use their overseas-acquired skills to help others were their achieved functionings. The chapter concludes with theoretical abstractions of the findings that reaffirm the workings of normative agency and situated freedom in the 'professional' and 'intellectual' fields. The notion of power embedded in social networks highlights the inextricable link between individual agency and collective agency in the 'civic' field. The chapter identifies some implications for international education broadly, and for Vietnam's civil society organisations in receiving returning international graduates or migrants.
© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This chapter addresses the 'intellectual' field and focuses on the higher education sector. The practical experiences of returnees working in Vietnamese universities provide a neat instance of the high-skilled returnee experience, hinging on the dialectic of agency and structure. The chapter first describes the context of universities development in Vietnam and some of the opportunities and challenges that overseas-educated academics may encounter. Drawing on survey and interview data, the next section discusses the utility of overseas-acquired skills, knowledge and attributes across public and private universities. This is followed by accounts of returnees' experiences in their teaching, research and career pathway in academia. The last part of the empirical discussion draws on the survey results to present returnees' achieved functionings in terms of job roles, income levels and job satisfaction. The concluding section summarises the key findings and explication of the Sen-Bourdieu concepts of normative agency and situated freedom. It identifies some implications for Vietnamese universities in receiving overseas-educated academics.
© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This chapter addresses the 'professional' field and focuses on the economies. The first section presents a brief overview of Vietnam's economic sectors, types of business enterprises, law and governance issues and the labour market demand and supply of workers' skills as background contexts. The next section summarises the economic sectors and enterprises that survey respondents and interviewees worked in. Drawing on the survey and interview data, the following section discusses overseas-acquired skills, knowledge and attributes that were favourable for returnees in terms of employment opportunities. This is followed by accounts of returnees' experiences in applying these skills, knowledge and attributes and how they mediated and negotiated the culture and social relations in the workplace. The last part of the empirical discussion draws on the survey results to present returnees' achieved functionings in terms of job roles, income levels and job satisfaction. The concluding section summarises the key findings and explication of the Sen-Bourdieu concepts of normative agency and situated freedom. It identifies some implications for international education practices broadly and for Vietnam's authorities and employers, particularly foreign-owned firms, in receiving returning graduates or migrants.
Pham, L 2019, 'Applying the Sen-Bourdieu framework' in International Graduates Returning to Vietnam: Experiences of the Local Economies, Universities and Communities, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 59-74.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This chapter presents a systematic application of the Sen-Bourdieu conceptual framework of normative agency to gain insights into the benefits of acquired overseas education for Vietnamese international graduates in their work and community activities when they return home. The chapter describes the case study approach and use of a mixed-method model to address the methodological gap in conducting research about international education outcomes and benefits for returnees. This mixed-method approach embraced quantitative categories of outcomes in light of qualitative conditions to achieve these outcomes and allowed for an examination of the returnees' perception of their self-worth in terms of their accomplishment and power relations with others. The quantitative outcomes resulting from the survey will be explained by the qualitative conditions required for achieving these outcomes, which are expressed in the interviews. Bourdieu's notion of reflexive sociology was incorporated in the interview method and subsequent analysis to engage the returnees in reasoning their values and goals reflexively of their social environment and relationships. This was a methodological attempt to soften the tension between Bourdieu's seemingly social determinism and Sen's view that human beings are more or less free and responsible beings in various ways.
© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This book stems from the motivation to shift the vision of international education towards a constructive role in ethical development. The book is an attempt to illustrate, through research, how we can consider international students' perspectives about themselves as ends not just as means in the development processÂ – who are knowledge producers as well as knowledge consumers, who can critically examine their roles in society and contribute to national development of their countries in ways they see valuable. Along this vision, and in consideration of the large population of international students from Asian developing countries, this book set out to understand the outcomes and benefits of acquired international education for Vietnamese graduates upon returning home. To address this central objective, the book has two main aims: to understand the types of overseas-acquired skills, knowledge and attributes that Vietnamese graduate returnees can utilise in their professional career, academic career and community development activities and to understand the impacts of acquired overseas education for these returnees in their chosen work and community activities. The research presented in this book is preliminary and certainly presents an incomplete understanding of the outcomes and benefits of acquired international education for Vietnamese overseas-educated returnees. However, it offers empirical groundwork and an innovative conceptual framework to further explore these phenomena. This conclusion chapter synthesises the key empirical findings and theoretical explications to address the two main aims and key arguments of the book. It outlines the key contributions and considerations in applying the Sen-Bourdieu framework to conduct future research in related areas. The final part offers some suggestions for further research about international education and returnees in the development context.
© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This chapter provides insights into what the Vietnamese habitus may look likeÂ – aspects of cultural and social norms, political culture and educational valuesÂ – through a series of historical experiences that shape contemporary Vietnamese society. Five characteristics of the Vietnamese habitus are considered and discussed in terms of the relationships between people, people and society, society and the State: personal relations that act as the moral foundation of the Vietnamese person, individualistic dispositions in Vietnamese society, nationalism and democratic centralism of Vietnam's political system, economic pragmatism in everyday life and international influences on the development of Vietnam's education system and tradition of studying abroad. The chapter foregrounds the Vietnamese habitus in the three 'fields' (economic, intellectual and civic) as formative conditions of the returnees' motivations and expectations of their acquired overseas education and provides the sociocultural logic for returnees' choice and actions in these fields, which will be discussed in depth in the next four chapters.
© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This chapter sketches the evolution of international education in terms of definition, approach and rationale from the late nineteenth century to current days. It notes the uneven terrain of international education practices that favour Western universities as sites of knowledge production and consumption. It discusses the research landscape of international education in relation to returning graduates and migrants, noting a marked absence in attending to graduates or returnees' socioeconomic contributions to their home countries. The chapter offers Amartya Sen's capabilities approach as a framework to view international education as a potentiality for ethical development. Anchored in pluralism, the capabilities approach could provide insights about conditions for people-centred development because it allows for evaluation to consider local voices and perspectives of those who live and work in the local communities rather than institutions from afar. In highlighting the potentiality of international education for ethical development, the chapter embraces the vision of education for international understanding and global citizenshipÂ – the core ideas of the international education movement when it began in the late nineteenth century and the global education goal of the United Nation 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 4).
© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This introduction chapter provides, firstly, the background to the research in relation to the impacts of international education for Asian overseas students in their efforts to contribute to their countries' development. It outlines the rationale for the book in shifting the vision of international education toward ethical development. This vision conceptualises international education in terms of its impacts upon the lives of graduates and their local communities. Secondly, it sets out the main areas of the research enquiry – the work and community work experiences of Vietnamese overseas graduates who returned home (referred to in this book as returnees). Thirdly, it summarises the key arguments and the philosophical standing of the book. The conceptual frame and empirical evidences to support the arguments are pointed to the individual chapters in order to orientate the readers to the organisation of the book and how they could choose to read the book.
Pham, L 2019, 'Preface', pp. ix-x.
© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This chapter focuses on how Vietnamese international graduate returnees confront traditional values with their changed attitudes and newly acquired knowledge and skills from overseas education. The chapter begins with a brief discussion of Bourdieu's habitus as an analytical framework of returnees' values, noting the diverse and mutability of values systemsÂ – an idea shared with Sen's notion of values and reasoning of values. Then, drawing on the findings from the survey and interviews with returnees and network members, the chapter discusses returnees' priorities, motivations and expectationsÂ – referred to in Bourdieu's notions of capitalÂ – and how they are shaped by returnees' values and reasoning of values in connection with Sen's concepts of capabilities. The discussion orients around returnees' reflections about their self-development, family responsibilities and goals for work and community work. Their reasoning about the values that inform their priorities, motivations and expectations of their acquired overseas education suggests correspondence to as well as divergence from the dimensions of habitus set out in Chap. 5. The chapter concludes by identifying some broad implications for further research and policies for returnees and for using the Sen-Bourdieu framework as a theoretical bind of the book.
© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This chapter presents the conceptual framework of the bookÂ – introducing sociological references and analysis to Sen's capability approach. Dimensions of agency are emphasised in viewing and evaluating the potentialities of international education for ethical development. Combining Sen and Bourdieu, the book advances the concept of normative agency, which introduces power and ethics in the agency decisions, and qualifies freedom as situated within network of social relationships in specific fields, therefore implying recognition of the otherÂ – situated freedom. Intersecting Bourdieu's sociology with Sen's capabilities provides the foundation for the research design and interpretation of findings presented in Parts II and III of the book. It also contributes to the intellectual outputs of a very small number of scholars who try to introduce sociological reflection within the capabilities approach to make it more operational.
Pham, LT 2018, 'Aspirations of Vietnamese overseas-trained graduates in their homeland' in Tran, LT & Marginson, S (eds), Internationalisation of Vietnamese Higher Education, Springer, Germany, pp. 177-199.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This chapter sets out to examine the nature of Vietnamese international graduates' aspirations to contribute to socio-economic development in Vietnam. My aim is to analyse the impact of international education in shaping Vietnamese international graduates' conception and development of aspirations for themselves and their local communities. The chapter draws on results of a survey with 280 participants and 48 follow-up interviews conducted with overseas-educated Vietnamese academics and professional workers in four major cities of Vietnam. The conceptual framework that guides the analysis is Pierre Bourdieu's theory of habitus, field and forms of capital. The findings reveal that at the national level (macro), participants' main aspiration is to acquire jobs and career advancement for personal economic returns rather than promoting Vietnam's social development. At the institutional level (meso), participants aspire to work in transnational corporations (TNCs) or foreign associated enterprises (FAEs) including foreign owned universities as these employers offer high remunerations and work conditions that utilise their overseas-acquired skills, particularly soft managerial skills and English language skills. At the individuals' level (micro), their aspiration is to transfer discipline-specific knowledge acquired from "the West", teaching and learning practices, and professional work practices that are steeped in Western organisational culture. These aspirations reflect interrelated dynamics cross all three levels that emphasise participants' intention of taking vantage positions of their Western-acquired skills and work attitudes to convert to economic capital and cultural capital by working in foreign institutions. Despite this apparent Western "mental colonisation", many perceive their contribution to social development through work activities where they help to improve technological, professional and ethical standards of Vietnamese business and educational envir...
Tran, LT & Pham, L 2017, 'International student connectedness with local teachers and peers: Insights from teachers' in Cultural Studies and Transdisciplinarity in Education, pp. 41-60.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017. The mobility processes associated with the dynamic formations of locality shape and reshape international students' connectedness with teachers, peers, families, institutions and the broader community. This chapter considers the academic and social connectedness of international students in vocational education and training (VET) from teachers' perspectives. This research includes 155 interviews with international students and staff as well as fieldwork in Australian dual-sector universities and VET colleges. The chapter draws on Vertovec's idea of transnationalism and Hall's notion of identity to examine international students' connectedness with teachers and peers in international VET classrooms. The findings of the research point to the ways VET teachers view their relationships with international students and the connectedness among all students through a functional lens. Placing the functional goals of developing students' vocational and cultural skills and hands-on experiences at the centre of their pedagogy, these teachers engage in practices to foster the interaction of international and domestic students inside and outside the classroom. The research found that meaningful connectedness in international VET spaces moves beyond the mere condition for interaction between domestic and international peers to the real opportunities for international students to share, negotiate and contribute to building practical hands-on skills, vocational knowledge and cultural experiences on a more equal basis. This process enhances not only vocational capabilities but also mutual learning for all.
Tran, LT & Pham, LT 2016, 'International students' connectedness in Australian vocational and training colleges: Insights from Teachers.' in International Student Connectedness and Identity Transnational Perspectives, Springer.
Teachers. and. Peers: Insights. from. Teachers. Ly Thi Tran and Lien Pham
Abstract The mobility processes associated with ... and reshape international
students' connectedness with teachers, peers, families, institutions and the
broader community. ... and social connectedness of international students in
vocational education and training (VET) from teachers' perspectives. ... with
international students and staff as well as fieldwork in Australian dualsector
universities and VET colleges.
Pham, L 2017, 'Capital and Capabilities: Reimagining Social Justice in Education', Capital and Capabilities: Reimagining Social Justice in Education, HDCA 2017 Conference: Challenging Inequalities: Human Development and Social Change, Cape Town, South Africa.
Pham, L 2018, 'Family and community networks: Tactics of everyday life practices in the Vietnamese diaspora', Asian Studies Association of Australia Conference 2018, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
This paper examines the role of family and community networks in Vietnamese communities in Sydney. Interviews with Vietnamese international students and their relations suggest networks of exchange and participation that are predominantly families and close friends in Australia with extended relations in Vietnam. Examinations of cultural artefacts from Vietnamese newspapers in Australia also reveal proliferation of business relations within the close community of Vietnamese-Australians, juxtaposed with melancholic overtures of Vietnam's past years. To this extent, the Vietnamese diasporic consciousness represents vernacular tactics of everyday life as cultural and political imperatives for wellbeing and agency. The paper argues that Vietnamese sense of 'self', home and belonging are constituted within discourse of Vietnamese social and cultural norms of close family and community networks that transcend time, space and place. Their lived-through experiences account for the Vietnamese past and present and construct identities that speak to Stuart Hall's ideas of being as much as becoming.
Pham, L 2018, 'Responsibility and freedom in community activism: A case for sustainable development in Vietnam's emerging civil society', Social Ontology 2018, Tuft University, Boston, USA.
Drawing on a research project about community activism in Vietnam, this paper analyses the notion of responsibility in enabling social change. Interview data with 48 Vietnamese community workers suggest that the Vietnamese habitus imposed on these activists a set of moral obligations to families, communities and the State, which shaped their conception of freedom. The majority of interviewees valued community work because helping others particularly those within the immediate families and communities are laudatory and obligatory in Vietnam. On the other hand, the State's pervasive presence in all aspects of social lives enhanced the high Confucius master/servant role, which resulted in limited desire for political participation at the grassroots level. Freedom was viewed by these Vietnamese activists as being derived from responsibility – prospective responsibility to satisfy their obligations to their families, communities and the State before they could move to satisfy their individual rights and freedom. In this way, responsibility became part of the person - their self-consciousness - and thus not seen as a constraint to freedom since they voluntarily imposed on themselves the responsibility before they exercised their freedom (Ballet et al. 2013). At the same time, these activists also had rights and freedom within their social contexts, which informed their actions in their obligations to others, although this was more visible in foreign non-government organisations. This conception of retrospective responsibility - to be accounted for by a person when their freedom has been exercised - takes the individual as a source of moral decisions based on the view that objective freedom exists outside of the person (Sen 1999). These activists' political ambitions and will to exercise agency depended on their conception of morality and freedom that mediated between these two forms of prospective and retrospective responsibilities.
Along with Ricoeur's (1992) dialecti...
Pham, L 2018, 'VIETNAM'S PATHWAYS TO NEOLIBERALISM: AN ANALYSIS OF STATE-SOCIETY RELATIONS IN DOI MOI ECONOMIC REFORM', VIETNAM'S PATHWAYS TO NEOLIBERALISM: AN ANALYSIS OF STATE-SOCIETY RELATIONS IN DOI MOI ECONOMIC REFORM, 25th World Congress of Political Science, Brisbane.
Pham, LT & Nguyen, L 2015, 'Understanding the culture of communication in shaping value, equality and process of agency: A case study of community activities in Vietnam', Human Development and Capabilities 2016, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
Pham, LT 2014, 'Social networks, commitment, and agency in community work participation in Vietnam: Civil society reconsidered', Human Development and Capabilities Association 2014, Athens, Greece.
Pham, LT 2013, 'Reimagining the ideology of international education and development: from human capital theory to perspectives of freedom and capability - A case study of Vietnamese students in Australia', Reimagining the ideology of international education and development: from human capital theory to perspectives of freedom and capability - A case study of Vietnamese students in Australia, 6th Vietnamese Economist Annual Meeting, DEPOCEN, Hue, Vietnam.
Pham, LT 2012, 'Evaluating the transformative impact of international education: a case for operationalizing the capability approach using Bourdieuian theory', Human Development and Capabilities Association 2012, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Pham, LT 2011, 'Social structures in the economics of international education: Perspectives from Vietnamese tertiary students in Australia', Social structures in the economics of international education: Perspectives from Vietnamese tertiary students in Australia, Australian Association for Research in Education, AARE, Hobart, Australia, pp. 1-20.
Based on the findings from in-depth interviews with Vietnamese international students
studying at Australian universities, this paper presents insights into the sociological
influences that stem from international studentsʼ social networks, at home and abroad, and
how they impact studentsʼ aspirations and behaviours. Informed by Bourdieuʼs (1986)
social capital framework this paper argues that investment in human capital must take into
account the role of social and cultural networks in influencing dispositions of students
towards and hence their participation in international education. It critically challenges
human capital theory for its assumptions of individualism and utilitarian function of
education as economic goals. Understanding the sociological factors that influence
international students will reveal how they engage with their learning, and present
opportunities for universities to deliver programs that encourage students to participate in
activities with local students and communities to improve their overseas educational
experience. This paper presents a case for viewing social capital and human capital as
mutual development of productive factors for human development in a globalised
Pham, LT 2011, 'The sociocultural dimensions of human capital theory: Re-imagining the ideology of international education', Human Development and Capabilities Association 2011, The Hague, the Netherlands.
Pham, LT 2010, 'Beyond human capital theory: Social relations and networks in Vietnamese students' experience of Australian tertiary education', Society of Research into Higher Education (SHRE) 2010, Wales, the United Kingdom.
Djonov, E, Pham, LT & Torr, J 2016, Early Literacy in NSW Public Libraries: A survey of library staff involved in early literacy initiatives, Sydney, Australia.
Pham, LT 2016, Customer Service Improvement Plan (Initial Report). A report to the NSW Customer Service Council Meeting for the Premier Priority 12, Sydney, Australia.
Pham, LT 2012, Migration and its implications for education policies. June 2012. Paper for UNESCO-KEDI Policy Seminar: Education policy-making in the age of migration in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand.
Pham, LT UNESCO Bangkok 2012, Towards Quality Learning for All in Asia and the Pacific'. Report of the 2011 UNESCO-KEDI Regional Policy Seminar, Thailand, Bangkok.
Pham, LT 2012, Understanding emergent development trends in the Asia-Pacific region and their implications for a new vision of education, UNESCO Bangkok Regional Experts Meeting: Towards EFA 2015 and Beyond - Shaping a new Vision of Education, Bangkok, Thailand.
Pham, L 2019, 'Improving the contribution of returning students to SDGs', University World News.
Pham, LT 2012, 'Towards Aid Effectiveness: The Importance of Mutual Accountability', UNESCO Bangkok.
Pham, L, 'Vietnamese international students' outcomes and SGDs', University World News.