Can supervise: YES
Gallaghar, NJ, Provost, S & Bizo, LA 2020, 'A jump to the left and a step to the right: A test of two accounts of peak shift', PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 11-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
McCord, A, Cocks, B, Barreiros, AR & Bizo, LA 2020, 'Short video game play improves executive function in the oldest old living in residential care', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 108.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd Action video game play as a form of cognitive training shows promise, but has not been widely tested with participants exclusively over age 80 years. Age-related decline in executive function produces widely varying levels of ability to function independently. This study aimed to examine the change in executive functioning after a 3-week action video game intervention in healthy adults aged 80–97 years living in residential care. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or care-as-usual control group: experimental participants played Star Wars Battlefront©, a commercially available video game, for six supervised sessions of 30 min each. Participants completed neuropsychological and quality of life assessments pre-training, post-training, and one month later. The experimental group showed significant improvement in the visual attention and task switching domains, in both post-test and follow-up sessions. Working memory also improved in the experimental group; however, after one month of no game play, memory performance regressed toward baseline levels. Results support the incorporation of video game play as a leisure option for older adults, which may also play a role in enhancing cognitive health. The findings extend previous research conducted below age 80 years to the oldest-old, an age group in which longitudinal follow up data is limited.
Moser, AY, Brown, WY, Bizo, LA, Andrew, NR & Taylor, MK 2020, 'Biosecurity Dogs Detect Live Insects after Training with Odor-Proxy Training Aids: Scent Extract and Dead Specimens', CHEMICAL SENSES, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 179-186.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bruce, J-AM, Jackson, SMK, Bizo, LA, McEwan, JAS & Foster, TM 2019, 'Reinforcer quality matters: A test of the Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement with domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).', Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 88-96.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study evaluated the ability of Killeen's (1994) Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement to account for the effects of changes in reinforcer quality on hens' rates of responding on fixed-ratio schedules. Hens were trained to peck a key on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement and then experienced an ascending series of ratio values in two separate conditions. In different conditions, the food reinforcer was either wheat or puffed wheat. Response rates initially increased with increases in ratio requirement before eventually decreasing at larger ratios. Quantitative fits of the model accounted for the data well. The fits revealed that different foods were systematically associated with changes in the specific activation parameter, a, and these were consistent with previous reports of preference for those food items.
Cameron, KE & Bizo, LA 2019, 'Use of the game-based learning platform KAHOOT! to facilitate learner engagement in animal science students', Research in Learning Technology, vol. 27.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 K.E. Cameron and L.A. Bizo. Gamification of instructional activities is a useful approach that educators can use to promote more effective learning environments by increasing problem-solving, critical thinking and competence in the classroom. 'KAHOOT!' is an online multi-player real-time quiz game that allows students to measure learning in an engaging, immediate and entertaining manner. Lecturers can measure how well students absorb information and tailor their teaching to the next step or re-teach a concept after poor uptake by students. Seventy-two students participated in a 20-question survey about their experiences with 'KAHOOT!'. Engagement scores were correlated with assessment grades to measure if 'KAHOOT!' affected student learning and achievement. The survey was deemed statistically sound in reliability and validity testing, and a principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the attributes were strongly linked. There was no relationship between engagement score and assessment grade, indicating that 'KAHOOT'!' did not directly increase achievement. However, assessment of individual responses identified that students found it to be a positive social learning technology as it provided a fun, competitive and immersive end to a class. The benefits of fostering engagement, enjoyment and immersion within adult learning are especially important for maintaining a level of achievement within education to ensure that students are better equipped to deal with challenges and can turn a potential failure into an opportunity to improve their scholarship. The challenge provided by this study is to identify now how to measure the value of 'fun' activities in the tertiary classroom as a reinforcer for engagement, participation and learning.
Domestic dogs completed a temporal bisection procedure that required a response to one lever following a light stimulus of short duration and to another lever following a light stimulus of a longer duration. The short and long durations across the four conditions were (0.5-2.0 s, 1.0-4.0 s, 2.0-8.0 s, and 4.0-16.0 s). Durations that were intermediate, the training durations, and the training durations, were presented during generalization tests. The dogs bisected the intervals near the geometric mean of the short and long-stimulus pair. Weber fractions were not constant when plotted as a function of time: A U-shaped function described them. These results replicate the findings of previous research reporting points of subjective equality falling close to the geometric mean and also confirm recent reports of systematic departures from Weber's law.
Kong, X, McEwan, JS, Bizo, LA & Foster, MT 2019, 'Generalization of learned variability across multiple dimensions in humans.', Behavioural processes, vol. 158, pp. 32-40.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study examined whether trained variability would generalize across dimensions of the target response. Two experiments used a computerized rectangle drawing task that required participants to click and drag a mouse cursor to create rectangles on a computer screen. In Experiment 1, one group received points when successive rectangles varied in their size, shape and location (VAR), another group were yoked to the VAR group and received points that were allocated to them using a yoking procedure (YOKE), regardless of the variability in the size, shape or location of the rectangle drawn. Variability was higher for a dimension when variability on that dimension was directly reinforced. In Experiment 2, three groups of participants received points when rectangles varied on two dimensions; each group differed in the two dimensions that required variation. Variability was again higher for the reinforced dimensions for two of the three groups. Comparison with the YOKE group showed that the variability on those dimensions where variability was not directly reinforced was affected by reinforcement for variability on the other dimensions. Specifically, the variability in Shape and Location was significantly higher when these two dimensions occurred with other dimensions where variability was reinforced (as in Experiment 2) compared to when they were not required to vary (as in the YOKE group). This suggests that, for these two groups, the reinforced variability on the other two dimensions generalized to the third dimension. Implications of this finding to our understanding of factors that promote behavioral variability are discussed.
Kyonka, EGE, Mitchell, SH & Bizo, LA 2019, 'Beyond inference by eye: Statistical and graphing practices in JEAB, 1992-2017.', Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 155-165.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Debates about the utility of p values and correct ways to analyze data have inspired new guidelines on statistical inference by the American Psychological Association (APA) and changes in the way results are reported in other scientific journals, but their impact on the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) has not previously been evaluated. A content analysis of empirical articles published in JEAB between 1992 and 2017 investigated whether statistical and graphing practices changed during that time period. The likelihood that a JEAB article reported a null hypothesis significance test, included a confidence interval, or depicted at least one figure with error bars has increased over time. Features of graphs in JEAB, including the proportion depicting single-subject data, have not changed systematically during the same period. Statistics and graphing trends in JEAB largely paralleled those in mainstream psychology journals, but there was no evidence that changes to APA style had any direct impact on JEAB. In the future, the onus will continue to be on authors, reviewers and editors to ensure that statistical and graphing practices in JEAB continue to evolve without interfering with characteristics that set the journal apart from other scientific journals.
Generalizing to target odor variations while retaining specificity against non-targets is crucial to the success of detector dogs under working conditions. As such, the importance of generalization should be considered in the formulation of effective training strategies. Research investigating olfactory generalization from pure singular compounds to more complex odor mixtures helps to elucidate animals' olfactory generalization tendencies and inform ways to alter the generalization gradient by broadening or narrowing the range of stimuli to which dogs will respond. Olfactory generalization depends upon both intrinsic factors of the odors, such as concentration, as well as behavioral and cognitive factors related to training and previous experience. Based on the current research, some training factors may influence generalization. For example, using multiple target exemplars appears to be the most effective way to promote elemental processing and broaden the generalization gradient, whereas increasing the number of training instances with fewer exemplars can narrow the gradient, thereby increasing discrimination. Overall, this research area requires further attention and study to increase our understanding of olfactory generalization in dogs, particularly detector dogs, to improve training and detection outcomes.
Young, R, Foster, TM & Bizo, LA 2017, 'The effects of reinforcer magnitude in the preceding and upcoming ratios on between-ratio pausing in multiple, mixed, and single fixed-ratio schedules', JOURNAL OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 414-432.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cameron, KE, Clarke, KH, Bizo, LA & Starkey, NJ 2016, 'Concurrent progressive-ratio and fixed-ratio schedule performance under geometric and arithmetic progressions by brushtail possums', BEHAVIOURAL PROCESSES, vol. 126, pp. 94-100.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cowie, S, Bizo, LA & White, KG 2016, 'Reinforcer distributions affect timing in the free-operant psychophysical choice procedure', LEARNING AND MOTIVATION, vol. 53, pp. 24-35.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sargisson, RJ, Lockhart, RA, McEwan, JS & Bizo, LA 2016, 'Demonstration of the Scalar Property of Timing With Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula)', JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 81-86.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cameron, KE, Bizo, LA & Starkey, NJ 2015, 'Assessing stability of body weight in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)', LABORATORY ANIMALS, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 80-84.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cameron, KE, Bizo, LA & Starkey, NJ 2015, 'Assessment of demand for food using concurrent PR and FR schedules in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)', International Journal of Comparative Psychology, vol. 28.
© 2017 The Regents of the University of California. The aim of this study was to compare the demand by possums for foods under different arrangements of concurrent progressive-ratio and fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, every possible food pair made up of berries, chicken, egg, foliage, insects, and mushroom was presented (30 pairs in total). The requirement on the progressive-ratio schedule increased within a session and the fixed-ratio was kept constant at 30. In Experiment 2, a subset of the foods from Experiment 1 were used (chicken, mushroom, egg, and berries) and in separate conditions the fixed-ratio was either 30 or 10 responses. In Experiment 3, the foods were the same as used in Experiment 2 and the progressive-ratio schedule increased every five sessions and the fixed-ratio was kept constant at 30. Exponential models of demand were applied to consumption rates to compare the parameters of initial demand, essential value and Pmax, and break point and cross point across foods. The models described the data well and consumption rates were similar when the incrementing schedules increased within- and across sessions. Demand was highest for berries, egg, and locust in Experiment 1 and egg and chicken in Experiments 2 and 3. This finding has practical implications for understanding possum food preferences in the wild as a function of other available food sources and for informing pest control strategies of potential lures.
Bizo, LA, Chu, JYM, Sanabria, F & Killeen, PR 2014, 'The failure of Weber's law in time perception and production (vol 71, pg 201, 2006)', BEHAVIOURAL PROCESSES, vol. 106, pp. 193-193.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Prichard, JS, Bizo, LA & Stratford, RJ 2011, 'Evaluating the effects of team-skills training on subjective workload', LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 429-440.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tijou, I, Yardley, L, Sedikides, C & Bizo, L 2010, 'Understanding adherence to physiotherapy: Findings from an experimental simulation and an observational clinical study', PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 231-247.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sanabria, F, Acosta, JI, Killeen, PR, Neisewander, JL & Bizo, LA 2008, 'Modeling the effects of fluoxetine on food-reinforced behavior', BEHAVIOURAL PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 61-70.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Randell, T, Hall, M, Bizo, L & Remington, B 2007, 'DTkid: Interactive simulation software for training tutors of children with autism', JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 637-647.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bizo, LA, Chu, JYM, Sanabria, F & Killeen, PR 2006, 'The failure of Weber's law in time perception and production', BEHAVIOURAL PROCESSES, vol. 71, no. 2-3, pp. 201-210.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Harper, DN, Bizo, LA & Peters, H 2006, 'Dopamine agonists and antagonists can produce an attenuation of response bias in a temporal discrimination task depending on discriminability of target duration', BEHAVIOURAL PROCESSES, vol. 71, no. 2-3, pp. 286-296.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Prichard, JS, Bizo, LA & Stratford, RJ 2006, 'The educational impact of team-skills training: Preparing students to work in groups', BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 76, pp. 119-140.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Participants were exposed to 3 conditions in a between-groups design. Participants were told the experiment was about extrasensory perception and were asked to select the word from a pair of words that they thought the experimenter was thinking about. In 1 condition selections of the word with a double letter were reinforced with positive verbal feedback, and in another condition selections of nondouble letters were reinforced. The word selections of a control group were reinforced according to a random and predetermined order. By the end of the experimental session, participants who were reinforced for selecting a particular type of word, double letter or nondouble letter, selected that word significantly more than the alternative that was not associated with reinforcement and those participants in the control group selected the double-letter and nondouble-letter words equally often. In a postexperimental questionnaire none of the participants reported an awareness of the contingency. The present experiment replicates and extends previous work and confirms that participants' behavior can be modified by reinforcement without the participants' conscious awareness of the contingency.
Chalk, K & Bizo, LA 2004, 'Specific praise improves on‐task behaviour and numeracy enjoyment: A study of year four pupils engaged in the numeracy hour', Educational Psychology in Practice, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 335-351.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The effects of praise on student on‐task behaviour, academic self‐concept and numeracy enjoyment were investigated. Four year four classes and their teachers participated. Two teachers were instructed to use specific praise and two to use positive praise. Classes were independently observed on four occasions, twice before and twice after the praise intervention. Student on‐task behaviour, numeracy enjoyment and academic self‐concept were measured and teachers' use of praise was observed. Specific praise promoted more on‐task behaviour than positive praise and significantly increased academic self‐concept. Ratings of numeracy enjoyment were not significantly affected. Implications of this research for teaching practice are discussed. © 2004, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Bizo, LA, Kettle, LC & Killeen, PR 2001, 'Rats don't always respond faster for more food: The paradoxical incentive effect', ANIMAL LEARNING & BEHAVIOR, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 66-78.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Beam, JJ, Killeen, PR, Bizo, LA & Fetterman, JG 1998, 'How reinforcement context affects temporal production and categorization', ANIMAL LEARNING & BEHAVIOR, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 388-396.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bizo, LA, Bogdanov, SV & Killeen, PR 1998, 'Satiation causes within-session decreases in instrumental responding', JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-ANIMAL BEHAVIOR PROCESSES, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 439-452.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bizo, LA & Killeen, PR 1997, 'Models of ratio schedule performance', JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-ANIMAL BEHAVIORAL PROCESSES, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 351-367.
Bizo, LA & White, KG 1997, 'Timing with controlled reinforcer density: Implications for models of timing', JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-ANIMAL BEHAVIOR PROCESSES, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 44-55.
BIZO, LA & WHITE, KG 1995, 'BIASING THE PACEMAKER IN THE BEHAVIORAL-THEORY OF TIMING', JOURNAL OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 225-235.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BIZO, LA & WHITE, KG 1994, 'PACEMAKER RATE IN THE BEHAVIORAL-THEORY OF TIMING', JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-ANIMAL BEHAVIOR PROCESSES, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 308-321.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BIZO, LA & WHITE, KG 1994, 'THE BEHAVIORAL-THEORY OF TIMING - REINFORCER RATE DETERMINES PACEMAKER RATE', JOURNAL OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 19-33.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The effective and quick assessment of food preference is important when attempting to identify foods that might function as effective reinforcers in dogs. In the current experiment a food preference assessment was conducted where more highly preferred foods were expected to be associated with faster approaches in a subsequent runway task. Eight dogs were tested in a paired preference assessment offering combinations of two of six types of raw food, including the dog's staple diet, to identify a rank order of preference for the foods. A different raw food was offered as the staple in two preference tests. The results showed that the staple foods were not preferred as highly as the other foods and that each dog displayed unique and stable preferences for the different foods. In the runway task the dogs were required to walk five metres to obtain a small amount of their most preferred, least preferred or staple foods and latency of approach to the foods was recorded. The approach latencies were faster for their most preferred food compared to their least preferred and the staple foods. The use of a runway to assess reinforcer effectiveness combined an effortful behaviour to obtain food while also requiring the dogs to make a choice, thus precluding the need for more complicated and time-consuming methods of preference assessment. The application of this method for fast and effective identification of preferred reinforcers is currently being investigating further to inform pet owners of simple methods to increase their training successes. Owners of raw food fed dogs are advised to conduct a preference assessment to identify their dogs most preferred food for use as a reinforcer during training.
Bizo, L & McMahon, C 2004, 'Temporal generalisation', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, WILEY, pp. 106-106.
Remington, B, Hastings, R, Hall, M, Bizo, L & Brown, T 2000, 'A computer simulation paradigm for self-injurious behaviour', JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD, pp. 439-440.