Leona Tam is Professor of Marketing at the University of Technology Sydney and Acting Head of the Marketing Discipline Group. She holds a Ph.D. in Marketing (Texas A&M University), and an M.Phil and a B.B.A. in Marketing (The Chinese University of Hong Kong). Her main areas of expertise are behavioural recurrence, consumer psychology, and judgment and decision making in personal finance and health. She has developed a measurement scale to capture personal saving orientation. She has identified loyal and habitual customers from loyalty program data and differential effects of promotions on these customers. She is currently working on projects about habit versus loyalty, temporal effects, and repeated behaviour in personal finance and health. She has published in a number of marketing, management, and psychology journals including Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, Psychological Science, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Service Research, and Health Psychology.
Can supervise: YES
Judgment and decision making about behavioural recurrence such as habits, brand loyalty, and implementation plans in personal finance and health.
Leona has taught courses in Marketing Management, Marketing Strategy, Research Methods and Consumer Behaviour at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, and has successfully supervised PhD students.
Zainuddin, N, Dent, K & Tam, L 2017, 'Seek or destroy? Examining value creation and destruction in behaviour maintenance in social marketing', Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 33, no. 5-6, pp. 348-374.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Westburn Publishers Ltd. This article presents an empirical investigation of how behaviour maintenance is supported or hindered through value creation and destruction in social marketing. Using a longitudinal, netnographic approach, we identify and examine the key facilitators and barriers encountered during the maintenance of physical and mental health behaviours. Data were collected over a 12-week observation period via Twitter from a sample of 242 participants. A total of 5212 tweets were analysed using content and thematic analysis facilitated by NVivo software program. The findings identify key barriers to and facilitators of behaviour maintenance at the individual level (downstream), meso level (midstream), and policy level (upstream) that have an influence on value creation and destruction in social marketing. These findings demonstrate the importance of employing a strategic and integrated approach to social change management.
Dholakia, U, Tam, L, Yoon, S & Wong, N 2016, 'The Ant and the Grasshopper: Understanding Personal Saving Orientation of Consumers', Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 134-155.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A low savings rate is a persistent social issue with significant present and future ramifications. As an alternative to conceptualizing saving money as goal-directed behavior, the present research examines the chronic tendencies of people to save money in a consistent and sustained manner through a personal saving orientation (PSO). Drawing upon theorizing on action control and research on forming and maintaining habits, the PSO emphasizes consistent, sustainable saving activities and incorporating them into one's lifestyle. In a set of nine studies, the PSO scale is developed and its nomological, test-retest, discriminant, and predictive validities are established. The results also show that the PSO moderates the relationship between consumers' financial knowledge and their accumulated savings. Additionally, low-PSO consumers are responsive to an intervention to help them save money. The PSO offers an effective method for understanding differences between consumers in their financial decision making and behaviors, and it can be used as a guide to encourage consistent and sustained saving practices
Kang, H, Shin, W & Tam, L 2016, 'Differential responses of loyal versus habitual consumers towards mobile site personalization on privacy management', COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR, vol. 56, pp. 281-288.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
He, Y, Chen, Q, Tam, L & Lee, RP 2016, 'Managing sub-branding affect transfer: the role of consideration set size and brand loyalty', MARKETING LETTERS, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 103-113.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zainuddin, N, Tam, L & McCosker, A 2016, 'Serving yourself: value self-creation in health care service', JOURNAL OF SERVICES MARKETING, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 586-600.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Spanjol, J, Tam, L & Tam, V 2015, 'Employer-Employee Congruence in Environmental Values: An Exploration of Effects on Job Satisfaction and Creativity', JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 117-130.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Massingham, PR & Tam, L 2015, 'The relationship between human capital, value creation and employee reward', JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 390-418.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Low personal savings rates are an important social issue in the United States. We propose and test one particular method to get people to save more money that is based on the cyclical time orientation. In contrast to conventional, popular methods that encourage individuals to ignore past mistakes, focus on the future, and set goals to save money, our proposed method frames the savings task in cyclical terms, emphasizing the present. Across the studies, individuals who used our proposed cyclical savings method, compared with individuals who used a linear savings method, provided an average of 74% higher savings estimates and saved an average of 78% more money. We also found that the cyclical savings method was more efficacious because it increased implementation planning and lowered future optimism regarding saving money.
Liu-Thompkins, Y & Tam, L 2013, 'Not All Repeat Customers Are the Same: Designing Effective Cross-Selling Promotion on the Basis of Attitudinal Loyalty and Habit', JOURNAL OF MARKETING, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 21-36.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Howell, RT, Kurai, M & Tam, L 2013, 'Money Buys Financial Security and Psychological Need Satisfaction: Testing Need Theory in Affluence', SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 17-29.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tam, L & Dholakia, UM 2013, 'The Consequences and Correction of Inflation in Personal Savings Estimates in Specific Future Time Frames', Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 139-151.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We examined the consequences of personal savings estimate inflation that occurs when decision makers provide savings estimates for specific future months when compared with the next month or the next year time frames, along with a method to attenuate this bias. The results of three experiments showed that the savings estimate inflation leads to significantly larger estimates of desired nest egg size (Experiment 1) and preference for riskier choices in other financial domains such as investment and employment decisions (Experiment 2). An attempt to attenuate this bias revealed that it is corrected when individuals provide a budgeting estimate prior to giving a savings estimate (Experiment 3). The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tam, L & Spanjol, J 2012, 'When impediments make you jump rather than stumble: Regulatory nonfit, implementation intentions, and goal attainment', MARKETING LETTERS, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 93-107.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Spanjol, J, Tam, L & Rosa, JA 2012, 'Unintended effects of implementation intentions on goal pursuit initiation vs. persistence: Substitution and acceleration', Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 40, pp. 924-925.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
When trying to achieve a goal (such as losing five pounds), people run into problems with getting started (begin controlling one's diet), keeping at it (continue cutting out the sugar), or both. Failure at either initiation or persistence in goal striving reduces goal attainment significantly. One way to overcome these challenges is to form implementation intentions (i.e., make detailed plans on when, where, and how to enact goal-directed behaviors, Gollwitzer 1999). Implementation intentions improve action initiation under cognitive load (Brandstaetter, Lengfelder, and Gollwitzer 2001), and shield goal pursuit behaviors from distractions (Bayer, Gollwitzer, and Achtziger 2010). Most implementation intentions research focuses on the outcome (i.e., goal attainment), not distinguishing between initiation and persistence or examining them independently (Gollwitzer and Sheeran 2006). It is unclear if planning out goal-directed behaviors is equally effective for starting and persisting in goal pursuit and what the underlying mechanisms are. The present research addresses this gap. © 2012.
Tam, L & Dholakia, UM 2011, 'Delay and duration effects of time frames on personal savings estimates and behavior', ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 142-152.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Spanjol, J, Tam, L, Qualls, WJ & Bohlmann, JD 2011, 'New product team decision making: Regulatory focus effects on number, type, and timing decisions', Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 623-640.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Company executives rely on new product development teams to carry out their directives and make decisions according to management's goals. However, team members bring their own motivational perspectives to strategic decisions. This research examines how individual and leadership motivations influence a dyadic team's new product decisions. Specifically, this article investigates how matching vs. mismatched motivations between team members affect new product number, type, and timing decisions. In addition, this study asks how effective leadership-provided motivations are in guiding teams' new product decisions. A set of hypotheses is developed using regulatory focus theory, which identifies basic motivational differences in individuals (i.e., promotion vs. prevention focus) and their effects on decision making. The hypotheses examine the effects of regulatory focus match vs. mismatch within teams on the likelihood to introduce new products, the timing of new product introductions, and the types of new products introduced. To test the hypotheses, a controlled, yet realistic product management simulation is employed. A total of 124 undergraduate seniors (83 women and 41 men) at a large public university enrolled in a marketing management capstone course participated in this study for partial course credit. Utilizing two-person teams engaged in a business simulation ensured an appropriate level of controlled complexity in the decision making task, while allowing the phenomena of interest to be isolated and tested. Results show that when dyads share the same motivational approach (regulatory focus match), leadership-prescribed goal pursuit strategies are largely ineffective. Only dyads that do not share the same motivational approach to decision making (regulatory focus mismatch) make new product decisions consistent with leadership-prescribed goal pursuit strategies. For regulatory focus match dyads, the results demonstrate that a promotion focus (when compared to a p...
Tam, VWY, Tam, L & Le, KN 2010, 'Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry', WASTE MANAGEMENT, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 291-297.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tam, L, Glassman, M & Vandenwauver, M 2010, 'The psychology of password management: a tradeoff between security and convenience', BEHAVIOUR & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 233-244.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Shen, L-Y, Tam, VWY, Tam, L & Ji, Y-B 2010, 'Project feasibility study: the key to successful implementation of sustainable and socially responsible construction management practice', JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 254-259.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tam, VWY, Tam, L & Zeng, SX 2010, 'Cost effectiveness and tradeoff on the use of rainwater tank: An empirical study in Australian residential decision-making', RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 178-186.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tam, L, Bagozzi, RP & Spanjol, J 2010, 'When Planning Is Not Enough: The Self-Regulatory Effect of Implementation Intentions on Changing Snacking Habits', HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 284-292.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Spanjol, J & Tam, L 2010, 'To change or not to change: How regulatory focus affects change in dyadic decision-making', Creativity and Innovation Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 346-363.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Successful innovation requires teams to embrace and enact change. However, team members often differ in their preferences for change. We examine how regulatory focus affects dyadic teams' tendencies to enact change across an array of repeated brand management decisions. Understanding such tendencies is important, since the innovation process is characterized by a series of investment decisions typically made by teams, yet prone to significant biases. Regulatory focus theory provides a framework for understanding the dominant motivations driving decision-making during goal pursuit. It argues that individuals operate under either a promotion or prevention focus, influencing preferences for stability vs. change. We develop a set of hypotheses regarding regulatory focus match vs. mismatch in teams and their effects on the relative tendency to enact change in decision-making. In the context of dyads involved in a complex management simulation consisting of multiple decision cycles, we empirically demonstrate that a promotion focus match is associated with greater levels of change in decisions than a prevention focus match, regardless of the type of goal pursuit strategy prescribed to dyads. Under regulatory focus mismatch, however, dyads are guided by the goal pursuit strategy (vigilant vs. eager) provided to them, which in turn informs their propensity to implement change. Without change there is no innovation, creativity, or incentive for improvement. C. William Pollard (1996, p. 116) © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Le, KN, Tam, VWY & Tam, L 2009, 'Assessment schemes in engineering courses using spectral techniques', International Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 547-556.
This paper studies assessment schemes with regard to attitudes and understanding in engineering undergraduate and postgraduate courses at Griffith University, Australia. A survey was conducted consisting of eight typical assessment schemes: seminar, open-book mid-semester test, closed-book mid-semester test, problem-based assignment, presentation, multiple-choice question, closed-book final examination and open-book final examination. F-test, Relative Important Indices (RII), and rankings of each scheme are estimated. An additional insight into the student responses is given by using a novel spectral technique of computing the power spectrum of the data. Detailed comparisons are made. Recommendations are given. Further work is also outlined. © 2009 TEMPUS Publications.
Karande, K, Magnini, VP & Tam, L 2007, 'Recovery voice and satisfaction after service failure: An experimental investigation of mediating and moderating factors', JOURNAL OF SERVICE RESEARCH, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 187-203.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Spanjol, J & Tam, L 2013, 'It's the thoughts that count: substitution for goal striving actions', Looking forward, looking back: drawing on the past to shape the future of marketing, 16th Biennial World Marketing Congress on Looking Forward, Looking Back - Drawing on the Past to Shape the Future of Marketing, Springer Int Publishing AG, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, pp. 11-11.
Spanjol, J, Tam, L & Tam, V 2013, 'Fit to be creative: organization-employee congruence on environmental values', Looking forward, looking back: drawing on the past to shape the future of marketing, 16th Biennial World Marketing Congress on Looking Forward, Looking Back - Drawing on the Past to Shape the Future of Marketing, SPRINGER INT PUBLISHING AG, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, pp. 529-529.
Tam, L, Spanjol, J & Rosa, JA 2012, 'Unintended Effects of Planning in Goal Striving Substitution and Amplification', PSYCHOLOGY OF THE ASIAN CONSUMER, Annual Advertising and Consumer Psychology Conference (ACP), ROUTLEDGE, Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore, SINGAPORE, pp. 33-39.