Leona Tam is Professor of Marketing at the University of Technology Sydney and Acting Head of the Marketing Discipline Group. She holds a Ph.D. in Marketing (Texas A&M University), and an M.Phil and a B.B.A. in Marketing (The Chinese University of Hong Kong). Her main areas of expertise are behavioural recurrence, consumer psychology, and judgment and decision making in personal finance and health. She has developed a measurement scale to capture personal saving orientation. She has identified loyal and habitual customers from loyalty program data and differential effects of promotions on these customers. She is currently working on projects about habit versus loyalty, temporal effects, and repeated behaviour in personal finance and health. She has published in a number of marketing, management, and psychology journals including Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, Psychological Science, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Service Research, and Health Psychology.
Can supervise: YES
Judgment and decision making about behavioural recurrence such as habits, brand loyalty, and implementation plans in personal finance and health.
Leona has taught courses in Marketing Management, Marketing Strategy, Research Methods and Consumer Behaviour at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, and has successfully supervised PhD students.
Zainuddin, N, Dent, K & Tam, L 2017, 'Seek or destroy? Examining value creation and destruction in behaviour maintenance in social marketing', Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 33, no. 5-6, pp. 348-374.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Westburn Publishers Ltd. This article presents an empirical investigation of how behaviour maintenance is supported or hindered through value creation and destruction in social marketing. Using a longitudinal, netnographic approach, we identify and examine the key facilitators and barriers encountered during the maintenance of physical and mental health behaviours. Data were collected over a 12-week observation period via Twitter from a sample of 242 participants. A total of 5212 tweets were analysed using content and thematic analysis facilitated by NVivo software program. The findings identify key barriers to and facilitators of behaviour maintenance at the individual level (downstream), meso level (midstream), and policy level (upstream) that have an influence on value creation and destruction in social marketing. These findings demonstrate the importance of employing a strategic and integrated approach to social change management.
Dholakia, U, Tam, L, Yoon, S & Wong, N 2016, 'The Ant and the Grasshopper: Understanding Personal Saving Orientation of Consumers', Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 134-155.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A low savings rate is a persistent social issue with significant present and future ramifications. As an alternative to conceptualizing saving money as goal-directed behavior, the present research examines the chronic tendencies of people to save money in a consistent and sustained manner through a personal saving orientation (PSO). Drawing upon theorizing on action control and research on forming and maintaining habits, the PSO emphasizes consistent, sustainable saving activities and incorporating them into one's lifestyle. In a set of nine studies, the PSO scale is developed and its nomological, test-retest, discriminant, and predictive validities are established. The results also show that the PSO moderates the relationship between consumers' financial knowledge and their accumulated savings. Additionally, low-PSO consumers are responsive to an intervention to help them save money. The PSO offers an effective method for understanding differences between consumers in their financial decision making and behaviors, and it can be used as a guide to encourage consistent and sustained saving practices
He, Y, Chen, Q, Tam, L & Lee, RP 2016, 'Managing sub-branding affect transfer: the role of consideration set size and brand loyalty', Marketing Letters, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 103-113.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Although the essential role of affect transfer has been evidenced in the brand extension literature, scant research has focused on affect transfer when a firm attempts to add sub-brands into its brand portfolio. We conducted a series of four experiments to demonstrate that affect associated with a family brand does in fact transfer to its sub-brand, and the effect is more pronounced for a sub-brand that is closer to (vs distant from) its family brand. Further, the transfer of affect is contingent upon consideration set size and brand loyalty. While affect transfer is observed when consideration set is small, this effect dissipates when consideration set expands; such moderation effect further interacts with consumers' loyalty to a family brand and a competing brand. Our findings caution brand managers to take into account consumers' consideration set size and brand loyalty when managing their brand portfolios.
Kang, H, Shin, W & Tam, L 2016, 'Differential responses of loyal versus habitual consumers towards mobile site personalization on privacy management', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 56, pp. 281-288.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. We examine how two different underlying mechanisms of behavioral loyalty to a brand - attitudinal loyalty and habit - impact smartphone users' privacy management when they browse personalized vs. non-personalized mobile websites. The online experimental study conducted with Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (N = 73) finds different responses of attitudinal loyalty and habit towards personalization in significant three-way interactions between personalization, attitudinal loyalty, and habit on privacy disclosure and protection behaviors. When interacting with a personalized website, highly habitual consumers without high level of attitudinal loyalty disclosed the most personal information on a personalized mobile site, and displayed the least intention of protecting their privacy on their smartphones, whereas consumers with high levels of both habit and attitudinal loyalty reported the highest tendency of privacy protection behavior. However, habit and personalization do not have a significant effect on disclosure behaviors when users have high attitudinal loyalty to a brand. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Zainuddin, N, Tam, L & McCosker, A 2016, 'Serving yourself: value self-creation in health care service', Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 586-600.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the concept of value self-creation and provides a formal definition for this concept. The paper suggests that it sits within an overall continuum of value creation that includes value delivery and value co-creation. Design/methodology/approach: A proposed model of value self-creation was developed and empirically tested in a health care self-service, bowel screening. An online, self-completion survey was administered to Australian men and women aged 50 years and above, as this represents the primary target population for bowel screening. Findings: The results of the structural equation modelling in AMOS suggest that consumers can self-create value, leading to desired outcomes of satisfaction with the consumption experience and behavioural intentions to engage with the self-service again in the future. The findings provide empirical evidence to suggest that consumers' behavioural contributions represent the most important consumer contributions in self-service, followed by cognitive contributions. Originality/value: The study provides an empirically validated model of value self-creation in health care self-service. Much of the existing research on value co-creation has concentrated on traditional service types and is ill-placed to explain the value creation processes in self-services. This study offers originality by addressing this gap and demonstrating to service managers how they can manage consumer contributions towards a self-service and facilitate value-self creation, even though they are not present during the consumption stage of the consumption process.
Massingham, PR & Tam, L 2015, 'The relationship between human capital, value creation and employee reward', Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 390-418.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between human capital (HC) and value creation and employee reward. HC is an important component of intellectual capital (IC). There is growing interest in how IC can be used to create organizational value. This paper addresses the need for critical analysis of IC practices in action. Based on data gathered from three annual surveys at Australia's second largest public sector organization, the paper introduces psychological contract (PC) as new HC factors, and develops a method to measure HC in terms of value creation (work activity) and employee reward (pay). The findings have practical implications for managers in using the paper's HC measurement to achieve strategic alignment (SA) of the workforce. Design/methodology/approach – The research was based on data gathered from three annual surveys (2009-2011) of staff at Australia's second largest public sector organization. A total of 248 questionnaires were completed. Three independent variables conceptualized HC: first, employee capability (HC1); second, employee satisfaction (HC2); and third, employee commitment (HC3). Two dependent variables were tested: work activity and pay. The data collected in this study was analyzed through the use of bivariate correlation and linear regression using SPSS software. Findings – The paper's major finding is that HC1 (employee capability) and HC2 (employee satisfaction), had a direct positive relationship with the importance of work activity. The paper's second finding was that only HC1 has a direct positive relationship with the pay. However, HC3 (employee commitment) had a direct negative relationship with the importance of work activity. Further, HC2 and HC3 had no relationship with pay. The research project organization (RPO) achieved SA with employees' capability and motivation; as well as employee capability and pay. However, inequities emerge in terms of employee...
Spanjol, J, Tam, L & Tam, V 2015, 'Employer–Employee Congruence in Environmental Values: An Exploration of Effects on Job Satisfaction and Creativity', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 117-130.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. This study examines how the match (vs. mismatch) between personal and firm-level values regarding environmental responsibility affects employee job satisfaction and creativity and contributes to three literature streams [i.e., social corporate responsibility, creativity, and person–environment (P–E) fit]. Building on the P–E fit literature, we propose and test environmental orientation fit versus nonfit effects on creativity, identifying job satisfaction as a mediating mechanism and regulatory pressure as a moderator. An empirical investigation indicates that the various environmental orientation fit conditions affect job satisfaction and creativity differently. More specifically, environmental orientation fit produces greater job satisfaction and creativity when the employee and organization both demonstrate high concern for the environment (i.e., a high–high environmental orientation fit condition) than when both display congruent low concern for the environmental (i.e., a low–low environmental orientation fit condition). Furthermore, for employees working in organizations that fit their personal environmental orientation, strong regulatory pressure to comply with environmental standards diminishes the positive fit effect on job satisfaction and creativity, while regulatory pressure does not affect the job satisfaction and creativity of employees whose personal environmental orientation is incongruent with that of the organization.
Low personal savings rates are an important social issue in the United States. We propose and test one particular method to get people to save more money that is based on the cyclical time orientation. In contrast to conventional, popular methods that encourage individuals to ignore past mistakes, focus on the future, and set goals to save money, our proposed method frames the savings task in cyclical terms, emphasizing the present. Across the studies, individuals who used our proposed cyclical savings method, compared with individuals who used a linear savings method, provided an average of 74% higher savings estimates and saved an average of 78% more money. We also found that the cyclical savings method was more efficacious because it increased implementation planning and lowered future optimism regarding saving money.
Howell, RT, Kurai, M & Tam, L 2013, 'Money Buys Financial Security and Psychological Need Satisfaction: Testing Need Theory in Affluence', Social Indicators Research, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 17-29.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The most prominent theory to explain the curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being (SWB) is need theory, which proposes that increased income and wealth can lead to increased well-being in poverty because money is used to satisfy basic physiological needs. The present study tests the tenets of need theory by proposing that money can buy happiness beyond poverty if the money satisfies higher-order needs. Findings indicate that in older adults (n = 1,284), as economic standing rises, so do individual perceptions of financial security (a safety need), which in turn increases overall life satisfaction. Further, a path model tested the degree to which financial security and psychological need satisfaction mediated the path from economic standing to life satisfaction and demonstrated the complete mediation through higher-order needs-there was a 66% reduction in the direct link through financial security and a 34% reduction through psychological need satisfaction. Discussion focuses on how these mediation and path models extend need theory. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Liu-Thompkins, Y & Tam, L 2013, 'Not all repeat customers are the same: Designing effective cross-selling promotion on the basis of attitudinal loyalty and habit', Journal of Marketing, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 21-36.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Not all repeat purchases are created equal. They can be driven by both positive reaction toward a brand (i.e., attitudinal loyalty) and automaticity triggered by non-brand-related contextual cues (i.e., habit). Combining the loyalty literature with recent habit research, the authors suggest ways to distinguish the two drivers of repeat purchase and examine how they affect consumer response to cross-selling promotions. In Study 1, the authors propose a method to derive individual-level habit strength from consumer transaction records and demonstrate the influence of both attitudinal loyalty and habit on repeat purchase. Studies 2a and 2b then show that attitudinal loyalty facilitates cross-selling, whereas habit has the opposite effect. Finally, in Study 3, the authors suggest a specific promotional design that works better for habitual consumers than for those with attitudinal loyalty and demonstrate that ignoring these two underlying drivers can lead to unintended negative consequences on consumer behavior. This research adds to a richer understanding of repatronage and yields important managerial insights into more effective cross-selling to repeat customers. © 2013, American Marketing Association.
Tam, L & Dholakia, UM 2013, 'The Consequences and Correction of Inflation in Personal Savings Estimates in Specific Future Time Frames', Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 139-151.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We examined the consequences of personal savings estimate inflation that occurs when decision makers provide savings estimates for specific future months when compared with the next month or the next year time frames, along with a method to attenuate this bias. The results of three experiments showed that the savings estimate inflation leads to significantly larger estimates of desired nest egg size (Experiment 1) and preference for riskier choices in other financial domains such as investment and employment decisions (Experiment 2). An attempt to attenuate this bias revealed that it is corrected when individuals provide a budgeting estimate prior to giving a savings estimate (Experiment 3). The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Spanjol, J., Tam, L. & Rosa, J.A. 2012, 'Unintended effects of implementation intentions on goal pursuit initiation vs. persistence: Substitution and acceleration', Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 40, pp. 924-925.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
When trying to achieve a goal (such as losing five pounds), people run into problems with getting started (begin controlling one's diet), keeping at it (continue cutting out the sugar), or both. Failure at either initiation or persistence in goal striving reduces goal attainment significantly. One way to overcome these challenges is to form implementation intentions (i.e., make detailed plans on when, where, and how to enact goal-directed behaviors, Gollwitzer 1999). Implementation intentions improve action initiation under cognitive load (Brandstaetter, Lengfelder, and Gollwitzer 2001), and shield goal pursuit behaviors from distractions (Bayer, Gollwitzer, and Achtziger 2010). Most implementation intentions research focuses on the outcome (i.e., goal attainment), not distinguishing between initiation and persistence or examining them independently (Gollwitzer and Sheeran 2006). It is unclear if planning out goal-directed behaviors is equally effective for starting and persisting in goal pursuit and what the underlying mechanisms are. The present research addresses this gap. © 2012.
Tam, L & Spanjol, J 2012, 'When impediments make you jump rather than stumble: Regulatory nonfit, implementation intentions, and goal attainment', Marketing Letters, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 93-107.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper examines the relative effectiveness of forming implementation intentions (i. e., making specific plans regarding how to go about achieving a goal) for increasing goal attainment under regulatory fit vs. nonfit. We discuss and empirically test the proposition that regulatory nonfit increases the effectiveness of implementation intentions. Extant research contrasts goals of differing difficulty (e. g., buying a textbook vs. finding an apartment) in order to test the relative effectiveness of implementation intentions. In contrast, the present study focuses on identifying the change in implementation intention effectiveness for the same goal (i. e., collecting and turning in receipts for a reward) under conditions of fit vs. nonfit. We empirically demonstrate that when faced with the same goal, people who experience regulatory nonfit perceive the task to be more difficult to complete than people who experience regulatory fit. In turn, when the task is perceived as being more difficult, implementation intentions prove more effective to enhance goal attainment. Our study provides insight into the interaction between regulatory fit and implementation intentions and subsequent effects on goal attainment. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Spanjol, J, Tam, L, Qualls, WJ & Bohlmann, JD 2011, 'New product team decision making: Regulatory focus effects on number, type, and timing decisions', Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 623-640.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Company executives rely on new product development teams to carry out their directives and make decisions according to management's goals. However, team members bring their own motivational perspectives to strategic decisions. This research examines how individual and leadership motivations influence a dyadic team's new product decisions. Specifically, this article investigates how matching vs. mismatched motivations between team members affect new product number, type, and timing decisions. In addition, this study asks how effective leadership-provided motivations are in guiding teams' new product decisions. A set of hypotheses is developed using regulatory focus theory, which identifies basic motivational differences in individuals (i.e., promotion vs. prevention focus) and their effects on decision making. The hypotheses examine the effects of regulatory focus match vs. mismatch within teams on the likelihood to introduce new products, the timing of new product introductions, and the types of new products introduced. To test the hypotheses, a controlled, yet realistic product management simulation is employed. A total of 124 undergraduate seniors (83 women and 41 men) at a large public university enrolled in a marketing management capstone course participated in this study for partial course credit. Utilizing two-person teams engaged in a business simulation ensured an appropriate level of controlled complexity in the decision making task, while allowing the phenomena of interest to be isolated and tested. Results show that when dyads share the same motivational approach (regulatory focus match), leadership-prescribed goal pursuit strategies are largely ineffective. Only dyads that do not share the same motivational approach to decision making (regulatory focus mismatch) make new product decisions consistent with leadership-prescribed goal pursuit strategies. For regulatory focus match dyads, the results demonstrate that a promotion focus (when compared to a p...
Tam, L & Dholakia, UM 2011, 'Delay and duration effects of time frames on personal savings estimates and behavior', Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 142-152.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We examined effects of time frame duration (a month vs. a year) and delay (next month vs. a specific future month) on personal savings estimates. Results revealed that unitized monthly savings estimates provided for a specific future month were significantly higher than those given for either next month or next year (Experiments 1). An examination of the underlying process revealed that decision makers had greater future optimism when estimating savings for a specific future month (Experiment 2) and thought of the savings task with low-level construal (Experiments 3 and 4) compared to other conditions. However, these decision makers actually saved less money (Experiment 5) after providing the higher estimates. Our findings uncovered the mediating roles of future optimism in the delay effect, and of construal level in the duration effect, on savings estimates, and shed light on how resource slack and temporal construal combined to affect savings estimates. © 2010.
Shen, LY, Tam, VWY, Tam, L & Ji, YB 2010, 'Project feasibility study: the key to successful implementation of sustainable and socially responsible construction management practice', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 254-259.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper introduces a new approach for conducting project feasibility study by embracing the principles of sustainable development. Construction projects, in particular, infrastructures have major influence on the attainment of sustainable development, thus project sustainability needs to be considered. This becomes a pressing issue particularly in those developing countries or regions, such as China where a huge amount of construction works are currently performed and remain to happen in the future. Previous study has addressed little on the relevance of project feasibility study to project sustainability performance. The importance of incorporating sustainable development principles in conducting project feasibility study is not effectively understood by project stakeholders. This paper addresses major challenges of undertaking project feasibility study in line with sustainable construction practice with reference to the Chinese construction industry. A case study approach is the major research method in this study. The research team collected 87 feasibility study reports from various projects. Attributes are used for measuring project performance, including 18 economic performance attributes, nine social performance attributes, and eight environmental performance attributes. Research results show that economic performance is given the most concern in the current practice of project feasibility study, whilst less attention is given to the social and environmental performance. The study reveals the insufficiency of examining the performance of implementing a construction project from the perspective of sustainable development. The results also suggest the need for shifting the traditional approach of project feasibility study to a new approach that embraces the principles of sustainable development. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spanjol, J & Tam, L 2010, 'To change or not to change: How regulatory focus affects change in dyadic decision-making', Creativity and Innovation Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 346-363.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Successful innovation requires teams to embrace and enact change. However, team members often differ in their preferences for change. We examine how regulatory focus affects dyadic teams' tendencies to enact change across an array of repeated brand management decisions. Understanding such tendencies is important, since the innovation process is characterized by a series of investment decisions typically made by teams, yet prone to significant biases. Regulatory focus theory provides a framework for understanding the dominant motivations driving decision-making during goal pursuit. It argues that individuals operate under either a promotion or prevention focus, influencing preferences for stability vs. change. We develop a set of hypotheses regarding regulatory focus match vs. mismatch in teams and their effects on the relative tendency to enact change in decision-making. In the context of dyads involved in a complex management simulation consisting of multiple decision cycles, we empirically demonstrate that a promotion focus match is associated with greater levels of change in decisions than a prevention focus match, regardless of the type of goal pursuit strategy prescribed to dyads. Under regulatory focus mismatch, however, dyads are guided by the goal pursuit strategy (vigilant vs. eager) provided to them, which in turn informs their propensity to implement change. Without change there is no innovation, creativity, or incentive for improvement. C. William Pollard (1996, p. 116) © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tam, L, Bagozzi, RP & Spanjol, J 2010, 'When planning is not enough: the self-regulatory effect of implementation intentions on changing snacking habits.', Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 284-292.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study examined whether matching implementation intentions to people's regulatory orientation affects the effectiveness of changing unhealthy snacking habits.Participants' regulatory orientation was either measured (as a chronic trait) or manipulated (as a situational state), and participants were randomly assigned to implementation intention conditions to eat more healthy snacks or avoid eating unhealthy ones.A self-reported online food diary of healthy and unhealthy snacks over a 2-day period.Participants with weak unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks when forming any type of implementation intentions (regardless of match or mismatch with their regulatory orientation), while participants with strong unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks only when forming implementation intentions that matched their regulatory orientations.RESULTS suggest that implementation intentions that match regulatory orientation heighten motivation intensity and put snacking under intentional control for people with strong unhealthy snacking habits.
Tam, L, Glassman, M & Vandenwauver, M 2010, 'The psychology of password management: A tradeoff between security and convenience', Behaviour and Information Technology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 233-244.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite technological advances, humans remain the weakest link in Internet security. In this study, we examined five password-management behaviours to answer questions about user knowledge of password quality, motivation behind password selection and the effect of account type on password-management behaviour. First, we found that users know what constitutes a good/bad password and know which common password-management practices are (in)appropriate. Second, users are motivated to engage in these bad password-management behaviours because they do not see any immediate negative consequences to themselves (negative externalities) and because of the convenience-security tradeoff. Applying Construal Level Theory, we found that this tradeoff can be positively influenced by imposing a time frame factor, i.e. whether the password change will take place immediately (which results in weaker passwords) or in the future (which results in stronger passwords). Third, we found a time frame effect only for more important (online banking) accounts. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Tam, VWY, Tam, L & Le, KN 2010, 'Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry.', Waste management (New York, N.Y.), vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 291-297.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Waste management is pressing very hard with alarming signals in construction industry. Concrete waste constituents major proportions of construction and demolition waste of 81% in Australia. To minimize concrete waste generated from construction activities, recycling concrete waste is one of the best methods to conserve the environment. This paper investigates concrete recycling implementation in construction. Japan is a leading country in recycling concrete waste, which has been implementing 98% recycling and using it for structural concrete applications. Hong Kong is developing concrete recycling programs for high-grade applications. Australia is making relatively slow progress in implementing concrete recycling in construction. Therefore, empirical studies in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan were selected in this paper. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. Power spectrum was used for analysis. It was found that "increasing overall business competitiveness and strategic business opportunities" was considered as the major benefit for concrete recycling from Hong Kong and Japanese respondents, while "rising concrete recycling awareness such as selecting suitable resources, techniques and training and compliance with regulations" was considered as the major benefit from Australian respondents. However, "lack of clients' support", "increase in management cost" and "increase in documentation workload, such as working documents, procedures and tools" were the major difficulties encountered from Australian, Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. To improve the existing implementation, "inclusion of concrete recycling evaluation in tender appraisal" and "defining clear legal evaluation of concrete recycling" were major recommendations for Australian and Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively.
Tam, VWY, Tam, L & Zeng, SX 2010, 'Cost effectiveness and tradeoff on the use of rainwater tank: An empirical study in Australian residential decision-making', Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 178-186.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Australia is currently facing a serious water crisis. Saving water is not the government's solo effort, it also requires support from individual households. The use of rainwater tanks for rainwater storage has been highly recommended for both outdoor and indoor uses. This paper investigates cost effectiveness on the use of rainwater tanks for Australian residential environment. Seven cities are examined in this paper, including Gold Coast, Brisbane, Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, Perth and Canberra. Cost for installing and operating rainwater tanks and cost from alternative water sources including building additional dams and desalination plants are compared. It is found that using rainwater is an economical option for households in Gold Coast, Brisbane, and Sydney. Recommendations of suitable tank sizes for different household environments are also proposed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Le, K.N., Tam, V.W.Y. & Tam, L. 2009, 'Assessment schemes in engineering courses using spectral techniques', International Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 547-556.
This paper studies assessment schemes with regard to attitudes and understanding in engineering undergraduate and postgraduate courses at Griffith University, Australia. A survey was conducted consisting of eight typical assessment schemes: seminar, open-book mid-semester test, closed-book mid-semester test, problem-based assignment, presentation, multiple-choice question, closed-book final examination and open-book final examination. F-test, Relative Important Indices (RII), and rankings of each scheme are estimated. An additional insight into the student responses is given by using a novel spectral technique of computing the power spectrum of the data. Detailed comparisons are made. Recommendations are given. Further work is also outlined. © 2009 TEMPUS Publications.
Karande, K, Magnini, VP & Tam, L 2007, 'Recovery voice and satisfaction after service failure: An experimental investigation of mediating and moderating factors', Journal of Service Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 187-203.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Past research studies on service failures and recovery have conceptualized "voice" in terms of customers having an opportunity to air complaints after failures occur. In contrast, the authors introduce the concept of recovery voice , which entails a service provider asking a customer (after a failure has occurred) what the firm can do to rectify the problem. In a scenario-based experiment carried out in an airline setting and in a hotel setting with 216 and 208 participants, respectively, it was found that customers perceived greater procedural justice when offered recovery voice, which resulted in higher overall postfailure satisfaction. It was shown that perceived procedural justice mediated the effect of recovery voice on overall satisfaction. Furthermore, recovery voice had a greater impact on perceived procedural justice for established customers with long transaction histories than for new ones with short transaction histories. Managerial and research implications based on these findings are also presented. © 2007 SAGE Publications.
The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions.
Spanjol, J. & Tam, L. 2013, 'It's the thoughts that count: substitution for goal striving actions', Looking forward, looking back: drawing on the past to shape the future of marketing, 16th Biennial World Marketing Congress on Looking Forward, Looking Back - Drawing on the Past to Shape the Future of Marketing, Springer Int Publishing AG, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, pp. 11-11.
Spanjol, J., Tam, L. & Tam, V. 2013, 'Fit to be creative: organization-employee congruence on environmental values', Looking forward, looking back: drawing on the past to shape the future of marketing, 16th Biennial World Marketing Congress on Looking Forward, Looking Back - Drawing on the Past to Shape the Future of Marketing, SPRINGER INT PUBLISHING AG, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, pp. 529-529.