Can supervise: YES
Grandou, C, Wallace, L, Impellizzeri, FM, Allen, NG & Coutts, AJ 2020, 'Overtraining in Resistance Exercise: An Exploratory Systematic Review and Methodological Appraisal of the Literature.', Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.).View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND:The balance between training stress and recovery is important for inducing adaptations to improve athletic performance. However, continuously high training loads with insufficient recovery may cause fatigue to accumulate and result in overtraining. A comprehensive systematic review is required to collate overtraining literature and improve the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying functional overreaching (FOR), non-functional overreaching (NFOR) and the overtraining syndrome (OTS) in resistance training. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this systematic review was to establish markers of overtraining and elucidate the mechanisms underlying maladaptive resistance training conditions. Furthermore, this review aims to critically evaluate the methodological approaches of the overtraining literature. METHODS:A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus to identify studies up to June 2019. Electronic databases were searched using terms related to resistance training and overtraining. Records were included if they attempted to induce a state of overreaching or overtraining through resistance exercise in healthy participants. RESULTS:A total of 22 studies were selected for review. Among these studies, eight resulted in decrements in performance and measured changes in performance during a follow-up period. There were four studies that reported decrease in performance yet failed to implement follow-up measures. A total of 10 studies reported no decline in performance. Overall, a lack of standardisation in methodology (follow-up performance testing) and diagnostic criteria prevents consistent determination of FOR, NFOR and OTS in resistance training. CONCLUSIONS:Few studies have appropriately established FOR, NFOR or OTS in resistance training. Overtraining may be related to frequent high-intensity and monotonous resistance training. However, no marker other than a sustained decrease in performance has been establi...
Grandou, C, Wallace, L, Allen, N, Impellizzeri, F & Coutts, A 2019, 'Overtraining in Resistance Exercise: A Systematic Review and Methodological Appraisal of the Literature', Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 22, pp. S85-S85.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Grandou, C, Wallace, L, Fullagar, HHK, Duffield, R & Burley, S 2019, 'The Effects of Sleep Loss on Military Physical Performance.', Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 1159-1172.View/Download from: Publisher's site
As part of both training and active service, military members can be exposed to prolonged periods of sleep loss. Given the extent of physical and cognitive performances viewed as critical to successful military performance, such sleep disruption may present risk to health and performance. The primary aim of this narrative review was to investigate evidence on the effect of inadequate sleep on measures of aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and muscular endurance in military personnel. Sleep loss appears to have the greatest negative impact on aerobic capacity, muscular endurance and military-specific performance in military populations. The findings showed varied results for handgrip strength and anaerobic capacity, with sleep loss inducing a decrease in mean power of the upper body. In comparison to other measures of performance, lower-body muscular strength appeared to be resilient to sleep restriction. However, due to the limited evidence and inter-individual variability in results there is no clear consensus on the specific volume of sleep loss that induces significant or meaningful performance decrements. The difficulties of conducting well-designed and -controlled interventions in military populations are appreciated. However, due to the low quality of reporting and lack of control for confounders (i.e. physical activity, load carriage, prior sleep debt, motivation and energy intake) in the majority of studies, it is difficult to establish the relationship between sleep loss and physical performance in military populations.
Jeffries, AC, Wallace, L & Coutts, AJ 2017, 'Quantifying Training Loads in Contemporary Dance.', International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 796-802.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PURPOSE: To describe the training demands of contemporary dance and determine the validity of using the session-RPE (sRPE) method to monitor exercise intensity and training load in this activity. In addition, we examined the contribution of training (i.e. accelerometry and heart rate) and non-training related factors (i.e. sleep and wellness) to perceived exertion during dance training. METHODS: Training load and actigraphy for sixteen elite amateur contemporary dancers were collected during a 49 day period, using heart rate monitors, accelerometry and sRPE. Within-individual correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between sRPE and several other measures of training intensity and load. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to determine a predictive equation to estimate sRPE during dance training. RESULTS: Average weekly training load was 4283 ±2442 AU, monotony 2.13 ±0.92 AU, strain 10677± 9438 AU, and average weekly vector magnitude load 1809707 ±1015402 AU. There were large-to-very large within-individual correlations between sRPE-TL and various other internal and external measures of intensity and load. The stepwise multiple regression analysis also revealed that 49.7% of the adjusted variance in sRPE-TL was explained by HRpeak, METs, soreness, motivation and sleep quality (Y = -4.637 + 13.817 %HRpeak + 0.316 METS + 0.100 soreness + 0.116 motivation - 0.204 sleep quality). CONCLUSION: The current findings demonstrate; the validity of the sRPE method for quantifying training load in dance, that dancers undertake very high training loads and a combination of training and non-training factors contribute to perceived exertion in dance training.
Crowcroft, S, Duffield, R, McCleave, E, Slattery, K, Wallace, LK & Coutts, AJ 2015, 'Monitoring training to assess changes in fitness and fatigue: The effects of training in heat and hypoxia', SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS, vol. 25, pp. 287-295.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Slattery, KM, Dascombe, B, Wallace, LK, Bentley, D & Coutts, AJ 2014, 'Effect of N-acetylcysteine on Cycling Performance after Intensified Training', Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1114-1123.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Effect of N-acetylcysteine on Cycling Performance after Intensified Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 46, No. 6, pp. 11141123, 2014. Purpose: This investigation examined the ergogenic effect of short-term oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation and the associated changes in redox balance and inflammation during intense training. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover design was used to assess 9 d of oral NAC supplementation (1200 mgIdj1) in 10 well-trained triathletes. For each supplement trial (NAC and placebo), baseline venous blood and urine samples were taken, and a presupplementation cycle ergometer race simulation was performed. After the loading period, further samples were collected preexercise, postexercise, and 2 and 24 h after the postsupplementation cycle ergometer race simulation. Changes in total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, interleukin 6, xanthine oxidase, hypoxanthine, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, nuclear factor JB, and urinary 15-isoprostane F2t concentration were assessed. The experimental procedure was repeated with the remaining supplement after a 3-wk washout. Eight participants completed both supplementation trials. Results: NAC improved sprint performance during the cycle ergometer race simulation (P G 0.001, Gp 2 = 0.03). Supplementation with NAC also augmented postexercise plasma total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.005, Gp 2 = 0.19), reduced exercise-induced oxidative damage (plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, P = 0.002, Gp 2 = 0.22; urinary 15-isoprostane F2t concentration, P = 0.010, Gp 2 = 0.431), attenuated inflammation (plasma interleukin 6, P = 0.002, Gp 2 = 0.22; monocyte chemotactic protein 1, P = 0.012, Gp 2 = 0.17), and increased postexercise nuclear factor JB activity (P G 0.001, Gp 2 = 0.21). Conclusion: Oral NAC supplementation improved cycling performance via an impr...
Wallace, LK, Slattery, KM & Coutts, AJ 2014, 'A comparison of methods for quantifying training load: relationships between modelled and actual training responses', European Journal Of Applied Physiology, vol. 114, pp. 11-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose To assess the validity of methods for quantifying training load, fitness and fatigue in endurance athletes using a mathematical model. Methods Seven trained runners ( V? O2max: 51.7 ± 4.5 mL kg-1 min-1, age: 38.6 ± 9.4 years, mean ± SD) completed 15 weeks of endurance running training. Training sessions were assessed using a heart rate (HR), running pace and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Training dose was calculated using the session-RPE method, Banisters TRIMP and the running training stress score (rTSS). Weekly running performance (1,500-m time trial), fitness (submaximal HR, resting HR) and fatigue [profile of mood states, heart rate variability (HRV)] were measured. A mathematical model was applied to the training data from each runner to provide individual estimates of performance, fitness and fatigue. Correlations assessed the relationships between the modelled and actual weekly performance, fitness and fatigue measures within each runner.
Lee, W, Slattery, KM, Impellizzeri, F & Coutts, AJ 2014, 'Establishing the criterion validity and reliability of common methods for quantifying training load', Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 2330-2337.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of common methods for quantifying training load. Ten (5 men and 5 women) recreational athletes (mean ± SD, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 37.0 ± 4.3 ml·kg·min; age: 23.8 ± 8.4 years) completed 18 randomly assigned steady state (SS) and interval (INT) training sessions during a 6-week period. Steady-state sessions were 18 minutes in duration and were performed at 35, 50, and 65% of maximum work capacity (Wmax). Interval sessions were performed at 50, 60, and 70% of Wmax with a work to rest ratio of 1:1 and matched for total work with the 50% SS session. Oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout all sessions, whereas blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) measures were taken every 6 minutes during sessions. Session-RPE (sRPE) was collected after each exercise bout. All individual correlations between V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and external work (r = 0.88-0.97), HR (r = 0.65-0.90), and RPE-based methods (r = 0.55-0.89) were statistically significant. External work correlated best with the total V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and was significantly different from RPE-based methods. A poor level of test-retest reliability was shown for Banister's TRIMP (15.6% coefficient of variation [CV]), Lucia's TRIMP (10.7% CV), and sRPE (28.1% CV). Good reliability was shown for HR (3.9% CV) and a moderate level for RPE 6-20 (8.5% CV) as a measure of exercise intensity. These results suggest external work to be the most valid and reliable method for quantifying training load. Poor levels of reliability were reported for each of the HR-based TRIMP methods and RPE-based methods.
Slattery, KM, Wallace, LK & Coutts, AJ 2012, 'Nutritional practices of elite swimmers during an intensified training camp: with particular reference to antioxidants', Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 501-505.
Aim. Athletes should match their energy intake with expenditure in order to maintain lean body mass. It is also important to consume adequate amounts of antioxidant vitamins and minerals to maintain health. Methods. To assess the dietary habits of six nationally ranked Australian swimmers physical training load and dietary intake (24 h food recall) and were recorded on a daily basis during a 4 day intensive physical training period. Results. The results showed no significant difference between energy intake and expenditure (P=0.58) or the amount of carbohydrate consumed (P=0. 14) compared to the Australian recommended daily intake (RDI). Athletes reported a significantly greater intake of vitamin A (P<0.01), vitamin C (P<0.01), vitamin E (P<0.01) and protein (P<0.01) than the RDI. Conclusion. It was concluded that these elite swimmers have an adequate dietary intake to allow for optimal physical training and performance.
Slattery, KM, Wallace, LK, Bentley, D & Coutts, AJ 2012, 'Effect Of Training Load On Simulated Team Sport Match Performance', Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 315-322.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study examined the effect of training load on running performance and plasma markers of anaerobic metabolism, muscle damage, and inflammation during a simulated team sport match performance.
Wallace, LK, Slattery, KM & Coutts, AJ 2009, 'The ecological validity and application of the session-RPE method for quantifying training loads in swimming', Journal Of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 33-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There are few practical methods available for evaluating training loads (TL) during swimming. The purpose of this study was to examine the ecological validity of the session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method for quantifying internal TL in competitive swimmers using heart rate (HR)-based methods and distance as criterion measures. This study also examined the correspondence between athlete and coach perceptions of internal TL using the session-RPE method. Twelve (six male, six female) well-trained swimmers (mean ± SD: age 22.3 ± 3.1 years, weight 71.8 ± 11.6 kg, height 175.0 ± 9.0 cm) participated in this study. All subjects completed a swimming step test to evaluate individual HR zones and blood lactate profile before undertaking 20 swim training sessions where RPE, HR, and distance covered were recorded. Training load was then calculated for each session using the session-RPE, HR-based methods, and session distance. The session-RPE scores were correlated to HR-based methods for measuring internal TL as well as training distance for each swimmer. All individual correlations between session-RPE, HR-based methods (r = 0.55-0.94; p < 0.05), and distance measures (r = 0.37-0.81; p < 0.05) were significant. Two-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant interaction for training intensity × coach-athlete perception, indicating that coach RPE was lower than athlete RPE for low-intensity sessions and higher than athlete RPE at high-intensity sessions. The results of this study suggest that session-RPE may provide a practical, noninvasive method for quantifying internal TL in competitive swimmers.
The ability to measure and control the internal training load (TL) of athletes is important to optimize athletic performance. However, at present, there are no methods available for evaluating internal TL during swimming. The session-RPE method is a practical, noninvasive system used to quantify the internal TL placed on athletes. This article discusses how the session-RPE method may be used to monitor swim training and ultimately improve the training process of swimmers.
Coutts, AJ, Slattery, KM & Wallace, LK 2007, 'Practical tests for monitoring performance, fatigue and recovery in triathletes', Journal Of Science And Medicine In Sport, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 372-381.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Few studies have described simple tests which can be used to provide an early warning of overreaching. The purpose of this study was to examine selected practical tests for monitoring changes in performance, fatigue and recovery of endurance athletes. Sixteen male triathletes were randomly assigned into matched groups. The normal training (NT) and intensified training (IT) groups completed 4 weeks of training followed by a 2-week taper. Physiological measures were taken pre- and post-overload and post-taper periods during an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Performance was assessed weekly using a 3-km run time trial (3 kmTT). Five-bound jump for distance (5BT) and submaximal running heart rate (HRsubmax) test were measured twice weekly and the Daily Analyses of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) were recorded. During the overload training period, the IT group completed 290% more training load than the NT group (p < 0.001). After the overload training period, 3 kmTT in the IT group was reduced compared to both pre-training (3.7%, p < 0.05) and the NT group (6.8%, p < 0.05). 5BT was decreased by 7.9% in the IT group following the overload period (p < 0.05). The IT group also demonstrated increases in stress reaction symptoms from the DALDA. Following the taper, the IT group improved 3 kmTT. In contrast, the performance, physiological and psychological markers of NT group remained relatively unchanged throughout the 6-week training period. There were weak significant correlations between weekly changes in 3 kmTT and 5BT (r = â0.37, p < 0.01). The DALDA and 5BT may be practical tests for assessing changes in performance, fatigue and recovery of endurance athletes.
Coutts, AJ, Wallace, LK & Slattery, KM 2007, 'Monitoring changes in performance, physiology, biochemistry, and psychology during overreaching and recovery in triathletes', International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 125-134.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Slattery, KM, Wallace, LK, Murphy, AJ & Coutts, AJ 2006, 'Physiological determinants of three-kilometer running performance in experienced triathletes', Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 47-52.
The present investigation examined the physiological parameters that contribute to 3-km running performance. Following 2 familiarization sessions, 16 experienced male triathletes (Vo(2)max = 55.7 +/- 4.9 ml(.)kg(-1.)min(-1), age = 31.3 +/- 11.7 years) pe
Slattery, KM, Wallace, LK & Coutts, AJ 2006, 'Nutritional practices of elite swimmers during an intensified training camp: with particular reference to antioxidants.', 2nd Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science Conference, 2nd Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science Conference, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
Slattery, KM, Wallace, LK & Coutts, AJ 2005, 'Practical test for monitoring fatigue and recovery in triathletes', Promoting Innovation, Measuring Success - Program & Abstracts of the 2005 Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, Sports Medicine Australia, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 171-171.
Wallace, LK, Slattery, KM & Coutts, AJ 2005, 'The efficacy of psychological state measures for the early detection of overreaching', Promoting Innovation, Measuring Success - Program & Abstracts of the 2005 Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, Sports Medicine Australia, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 170-170.
Coutts, AJ, Wallace, LK & Slattery, KM 2004, 'Biochemical & psychological changes driving deliberate overreaching in experienced triathletes', Exercise & Sports Science 2004 conference, AAESS:Exercise & Sports Science Conference 2004 : From Research to Practice, Central Queensland university, Brisbane, Australia.
Sirotic, AC, Slattery, KM, Wallace, LK, Murphy, AJ & Coutts, AJ 2004, 'Physiological & Performance test predictors of prolonged, high-intensity, intermittent running performance', Exercise & Sports Science Conference 2004, AAESS: Exercise & Sports Science Conference 2004 from research to practice, Central Queensland University, Brisbane, Australia.
Wallace, LK, Slattery, KM, Sirotic, AC, Murphy, AJ & Coutts, AJ 2004, 'Predictors of 3KM Running Performance in experienced Triatheletes', Exercise & Sports Science Conference 2004, AAESS: Exercise & Sports Science Conference 2004 : From Research to Practice, Central Queensland university, Brisbane, Australia.