Professor Lee Pugalis is an international urban scholar, whose research traverses local and regional economic development, urban regeneration, and strategic planning. He has a particular interest in metropolitan governance and urban entrepreneurship.
Lee is a chartered town planner and economic development officer who gained undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral qualifications from Newcastle University in England. Before taking up an academic position Lee directed a sub-regional economic partnership and was a regeneration specialist advisor to a Regional Development Agency. He has also worked for local, regional and national government in the UK including the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.
Lee is an editor of the journals Regional Studies, Regional Science and Local Economy, and is also a member of 15 international editorial boards. He is also an ambassador for the development of early career researchers through his roles as a World Social Science Fellow and a member of the Global Young Academy.
Professor Lee Pugalis seeks enquiries from enthusiastic, hardworking, outstanding Doctoral candidates in the following areas:
- Intergovernmental relations
- Local and Regional Economic Development
- Metropolitan Governance, Entrepreneurial Governance, Multi-Level Governance and Grassroots Governance
- Urban Planning
- Urban Theory, Policy and Practice
- Urban Regeneration and Renewal
- Urban Entrepreneurship
Can supervise: YES
Fisher, J, Chiappini, L, Pugalis, L & Bruzzese, A 2019, Enabling Urban Alternatives: Crises, Contestation, and Cooperation, Palgrave.
This book asks how thinking, governing, performing, and producing the urban differently can assist in enabling the creation of alternative urban futures. It is a timely response to the ongoing crises and pressing challenges that inhabitants of cities, towns, and villages worldwide are faced with in the midst of what has been widely dubbed as 'an urban age'. Starting from the premise that current urban development patterns are unsustainable in every sense of the word, the book explores how alternative patterns can be pursued by the wide variety of actors – from governments and international institutions to slum-dwellers and social movements – involved in the on-going production of our shared urban condition. The challenges addressed include exclusion and segregation; persisting poverty and increasing inequality; urban sprawl and changing land use patterns; and the spatial frames of urban policy. As such the book appeals to urban scholars, policy makers, activists, and others concerned with shaping the future of our cities and of urban life in general. Additionally, it is of interest to students in urban planning, architecture and design, human geography, urban sociology, and related fields.
Fisker, JK, Chiappini, L, Pugalis, L & Bruzzese, A 2018, The Production of Alternative Urban Spaces An International Dialogue, Routledge.
This edited collection brings together contributors in order to spark an international dialogue about the production of alternative urban spaces through a threefold exploration of alternative spaces of work, dwelling, and public life.
Pugalis, L & Liddle, J 2014, Enterprising Places: Leadership and Governance Networks, Emerald/ISBE, Bingley.
Pugalis, L, Shutt, J & Bentley, G 2012, Local Enterprise Partnerships: Living up to the hype?, Critical Issues in Economic Development, Institute of Economic Development, London.
Bentley, G, Pugalis, L & Shutt, J 2017, 'Leadership and systems of governance: the constraints on the scope for leadership of place-based development in sub-national territories', Regional Studies, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 194-209.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Regional Studies AssociationLeadership and systems of governance: the constraints on the scope for leadership of place-based development in sub-national territories. Regional Studies. A triadic conceptualization of leadership, governance systems and central–local relations is constructed in order to aid understandings about the influence of systems of governance on the scope for place-based leadership. Deploying the dual concepts of 'permissibility' and 'acceptability' provides an innovative analytical device for deciphering the actually existing nature of place-based leadership. Recently initiated public–private partnerships in one of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) most centralized countries are analysed to articulate characteristics of controlling mechanisms of the national system of governance which shape the degree of autonomy of leadership of city and regional development in sub-national terrains.
Binsfeld, N, Whalley, J & Pugalis, L 2017, 'Playing the game: Explaining how Luxembourg has responded to the Networked Readiness Index', Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 269-286.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited. PurposeOver the last decade or so, successive Luxembourgish governments have sought to develop the country's information, communication and technology (ICT) sector. In this paper, we will examine how Luxembourg's relative position in the 'Networked Readiness Index' (NRI), a key international benchmarking exercise published by the World Economic Forum, has evolved over time as these ambitions have been achieved. The paper also explores what policy initiatives could be implemented to further improve Luxembourg's ranking in the NRI. Design/methodology/approachA longitudinal case study based approach, drawing on secondary data and the annual publication of the NRI between 2003 and 2016, was adopted. FindingsLuxembourg's position in the NRI has improved from 27th in 2003 so that it now ranks among the top ten countries in the world. In particular, Luxembourg has substantially improved its position with regards to 'infrastructure' and 'international connectivity'. However, there are also areas, mainly linked to education, the provision of human resources and policies that allow for and stimulate entrepreneurship where further improvements appear possible. Originality/valueThe paper charts the evolution over time of Luxembourg's position in an important international ICT index and identifies its current strengths and weaknesses in terms of the different elements that constitute the NRI. This paper represents the first attempt to investigate the position of a small country, which are often overlooked in the literature, in terms of its changing position and the policies developed and enacted by a national government.
Pugalis, LC 2017, 'THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PARADOX: ATTEMPTING POLICY ORDER IN THE FACE OF SOCIETAL COMPLEXITY', Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 68-95.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Regional economic development, in its various guises and manifestations, is deployed throughout much of Australia. Whilst it remains a contested activity, the conventional wisdom of orthodox regional development practice extols the need to embrace complexity, recognise ambiguity and account for multiplicity, whilst simultaneously managing uncertainty and risks through imbuing policy order and control. Theoretical insights suggest that regional development organisations are often intended to be the primary interface between complex governmental and regional socio-economic systems. Derived from an analysis of the Regional Development Australia Northern Inland Committee, we find that its regional economic strategy is preoccupied with providing the appearance of policy order; reflecting a bias towards structured processes and transactional relationships, which eschew societal complexities. This conceptual paper uses a case study to provide an entry point to critique the design of Regional Development Australia Committees as we seek to contribute to a richer understanding of the complexity that confronts economic development practitioners.
Pugalis, L & Gray, N 2016, 'New regional development paradigms: An exposition of place-based modalities', Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 181-203.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The policy field of regional development is perennially faced with new challenges and, as a result, it continues to evolve. More recently, according to some researchers there has been an important transformation or change in emphasis in the character of regional development. Some have characterised this qualitative transformation as a shift from an 'old' paradigm of regional development that sought to compensate lagging regions to a 'new' paradigm, commonly labelled 'place-based development', which attests that all places can grow when policymaking is attuned to spatial particularities. Nevertheless, recognition that all places exhibit potential to grow and develop does little to advance longstanding debates about how to go about realising inherent possibilities specific to particular places. This paper aims to provide an exposition of this new paradigm of regional development to help to (i) enhance our understanding of contemporary modes of regional development; (ii) develop a clearer understanding of its progressive potentials alongside some unresolved tensions; and (iii) identify practical matters when implementing place-based principles.
Pugalis, L, Townsend, A, Gray, N & Ankowska, A 2016, 'New approaches to growth planning on larger-than-local scales', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 73-88.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
© 2016 Henry Stewart Publications. All rights reserved. Approaches to growth planning and spatial governance on larger-than-local scales are matters of entrenched contention. Following the annulment of regionalised patterns of working and policy coordination across England during the early 2010s, much of the country was left without suitable larger-than-local scales of spatial governance and planning arrangements for delivering growth ambitions. This paper analyses the emergence of new approaches to planning for growth that have arisen on larger-thanlocal scales since the abandonment of regionalised policy working. Specifically, the nature and capabilities of strategic economic plans are examined, derived from a national comparative analysis of all of them. The findings draw attention to some of the defining challenges of informal growth planning on larger-than-local scales, as the research considers the extent to which these plans address an apparent strategic void. A key distinction is drawn between plans resembling bidding documents and those that could be considered to be plans for the area. In doing so, the intent is that the research contributes new knowledge to the evolving practice of strategic planning and economic strategy.
Pugalis, LC & Bentley, G 2016, 'Place-based deal-making', Regions Magazine, vol. 304, no. 1, pp. 11-12.
Pugalis, L 2016, 'Austere State Strategies: Regenerating for Recovery and the Resignification of Regeneration', Local Government Studies, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 52-74.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Through this paper, I seek to draw attention an apparent fundamental resignification of regeneration that has been taking shape over recent times. Conceptually, I engage with political economy theory in order to examine how élite economic interests have resignified the nature of state articulations of regeneration. The argument is developed that this implies a profound subversion of more marginal socio-economic interests traditionally at the heart of regeneration interventions or at least the customary 'targets' of such policy. Empirically, the analysis draws upon interviews conducted with those operating at the coalface of policy, politics and practice, augmented by my practical experience of the English regeneration milieu. Documenting the contested evolution of policy practice during what I term the 'regenerating for recovery' phase, I investigate the interactions and interconnections between meanings, modes and scales of practice. This analysis helps to demonstrate dual aspects of the resignification of regeneration as both cause and condition that has effectively legitimated and been legitimised by an austere state strategy.
Binsfeld, N, Whalley, J & Pugalis, L 2016, 'Competing against yourself: State duopoly in the Luxembourg telecommunications industry', Telecommunications Policy.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
McGuinness, D, Greenhalgh, P & Pugalis, L 2015, 'Is the grass always greener? Making sense of convergence and divergence in regeneration policies in England and Scotland', GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL, vol. 181, no. 1, pp. 26-37.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pugalis, L, Round, A, Blackwood, T & Hatt, L 2015, 'The entrepreneurial middle ground: Higher education entry decisions of aspiring entrepreneurs', Local Economy, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 503-519.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The growing demand for more entrepreneurs has engendered a proliferation of entrepreneurship education programmes, which, in different ways, aim to assist aspiring entrepreneurs 'learn' entrepreneurship. Yet, understanding the higher education entry decisions of aspiring entrepreneurs is a veritable research lacuna, which creates fertile ground for investigation. This paper reports on an exploratory study investigating the entry decisions of first-year participants enrolled on a recently launched degree programme employing a team-based, experiential approach to learning. The analysis uses an interpretive frame to explore why aspiring entrepreneurs opt for formal education in place of, or alongside, other learning and career journeys. Findings indicate that some participants opted for a university education as part of a positive compromised decision, reflecting the reticence of these aspiring entrepreneurs to 'go it alone' in the world of business. In this sense, such experiential forms of entrepreneurial education may provide a suitable 'middle ground' for some aspiring entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurial learning is complex, reflecting the distinctive dispositions of entrepreneurs (including nascent entrepreneurs at an early stage in their entrepreneurial life course). The surge in entrepreneurship education programmes over recent decades and the attendant increase in scholarship have often contributed to this convoluted field. Consequently, universally applicable articulations of entrepreneurship education can be problematic, especially demarcating between more formal and less formal learning experiences that are not necessarily confined to traditional educational institutions. The authors explore the ways in which nascent entrepreneurs experience and articulate their own 'learning' and development during the first year of a specific three-year experientially-based programme. Drawing attention to their deployment of sense-making narratives, the paper presents key findings that have implications for theory and practice.
Pugalis, L & Bentley, G 2014, 'Place-based development strategies: Possibilities, dilemmas and ongoing debates', Local Economy, vol. 29, no. 4-5, pp. 561-572.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article concludes the special issue – (Re)appraising place-based economic development strategies – by weaving together some of the key strands explored, debated and examined by each contribution. The place-based meta-approach is far from an uncontested concept. It may be more accurately understood (and more efficiently practised) as an innumerable range of place-based economic strategies – each one connected by some common attributes, which could form an ideal-typical place-based policy model, although each approach to place-based development is likely to be contextually distinct. Actualising a place-based mode of thinking shapes how places are understood, conceptualised and codified, which can have significant implications for the formulation of policy and the implementation of development initiatives. The article also identifies some of the most pertinent research gaps, as we conclude by exploring potential future directions as part of the ongoing search for solutions to addressing uneven patterns of development. In many ways, the search has only just begun. Theories and philosophical presuppositions will be challenged, concepts will be deconstructed and reconstructed, machineries of governance will be remodelled, policies will be recast and practice will be recalibrated. Consequently, a continued (re)appraisal of place-based endeavours will be necessary if we are to achieve a qualitative improvement in the present situation marked by an unequal and unsustainable global society.
Pugalis, L, Liddle, J, Deas, I, Bailey, N, Pill, M, Green, C, Pearson, C, Reeve, A, Shipley, R, Manns, J, Dickinson, S, Joyce, P, Marlow, D, Havers, I, Rowe, M, Southern, A, Headlam, N, Janssen-Jansen, L, Lloyd, G, Doyle, J, Cummings, C, McGuinness, D, Broughton, K, Berkeley, N & Jarvis, D 2014, 'Regeneration beyond austerity: A collective viewpoint', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 188-197.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This collective viewpoint concludes the special issue investigating austerity era
regeneration by weaving different threads from each published article together with further
insights. It is a collaborative effort — a synthesis of some diverse views and opinions —
that seeks to extract some key themes, trends and possibilities relating to regeneration
beyond austerity. Despite some significant concerns, the broader 'regeneration project'
continues in distinct ways and at different paces. Through this paper, the authors attempt
to stimulate debate concerning the evolution and recasting of regeneration over future
years. It is hoped that this may lay some of the foundations for a new, more positive and
progressive regeneration narrative, grounded in micro-practices and the particularities of
Pugalis, L, Giddings, B & Anyigor, K 2014, 'Reappraising the World Bank responses to rapid urbanisation: Slum improvements in Nigeria', Local Economy, vol. 29, no. 4-5, pp. 519-540.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper reappraises a specific slum improvement programme in Nigeria that received financial backing from the World Bank. Utilising a large body of bespoke quantitative and qualitative primary research material, rarely available for slum settlements, critical attention is directed towards the mismatch between official project goals and the needs of inhabitants. The findings suggest that considerable funds have been misdirected and, arguably, wasted. It is contended that participation is not only important to identify the most crucial needs and potentialities of slum dwellers and communities – it is a major requirement for the ongoing maintenance and sustainability of urban change, which is the crux of place-based strategies. The proposition developed from this research is that considerably smaller sums of support could be channelled towards particular contexts, in a variety of place-based manners that account for spatial particularity, reflecting the specific needs and opportunities of particular communities. Of broader significance, this paper contributes to a reappraisal of slum improvement programmes, challenges some perceived wisdoms and suggests alternative approaches to the way that the issues raised could be tackled.
Bentley, G & Pugalis, L 2014, 'Shifting paradigms: People-centred models, active regional development, space-blind policies and place-based approaches', Local Economy, vol. 29, no. 4-5, pp. 283-294.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There is gathering academic and policy momentum, although not without challenge, critique and ferocious debate, that an apparent 'place-based' mode of activity has emerged. Such a paradigm shift may in part be explained as a response to the deficiencies of 'people-centred' models, active regional development and space-blind policies. This article critically reviews some of the primary literatures relating to these competing, contradictory and also complementary methods of development. The place-based mode of working can be conceptualised as potentially offering the scope, through supportive institutional frameworks and collaborative means of governance, for developing embedded, multi-scalar and multi-annual strategies that are tailored to the complex geographies, capabilities, knowledge-sets, assets and resources of particular places (and networks of places). Whilst appearing to offer a panacea for securing economic growth in a sustainable and socially inclusive manner that releases the potential, creativity and knowledge of local actants, the dominant narrative associated with the place-based approach has not escaped critique and controversy. It is our contention that place-based thinking reflects the continual search for solutions to address territorial, social and economic inequalities and development capacities. Whether it provides a workable policy solution will be contingent on a number of factors, not least spatial context in terms of social, cultural, economic and institutional characteristics. Reflecting the multiplicity of places, place-based approaches, in raising questions about the relationship between scales of operation and institutional structures, are a subset of broader debates and issues concerning not only what works but also where.
Pugalis, L & Liddle, J 2014, 'Austerity era regeneration: Conceptual issues and practical challenges, Part 2', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 105-110.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Lau, CKM, Fung, KWT & Pugalis, L 2014, 'Is health care expenditure across Europe converging? Findings from the application of a nonlinear panel unit root test', Eurasian Business Review, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 137-156.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Uneven patterns of health care expenditure are a prominent feature of
late capitalist society. Across Europe, spearheaded by European Union (EU) economic
integration, there continues to be debate concerning health care expenditure
and, more specifically, to what extent there has been an apparent convergence or
divergence. The extant literature is contradictory, inconclusive and potentially
misleading, characterised as a 'mixed bag'. Therefore, as a means of resolving some
of these tensions, this paper tests the hypothesis that health care expenditure per
capita has converged. Departing from a conceptual review of key factors influencing
health care expenditure, this paper applies a non linear time series test to longitudinal
data for 14 EU countries for the period 1970–2008. This paper fills a notable
research gap by better accounting for the existence of nonlinearity in the growth
dynamics of health care expenditure by utilising the nonlinear panel unit root test.
Using different reference countries, we cannot reject the null hypothesis of unit
root-evidence against the notion of convergence. This generates some notable
policy implications and raises issues for those researching this topic.
Pugalis, L & Townsend, AR 2014, 'The emergence of 'new' spatial coalitions in the pursuit of functional regions of governance', Regional Science Policy and Practice, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 49-67.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In contrast with prevailing international trends and the European Union orthodoxy, the English regional map, a prominent feature of strategic development policy during 2000–2010, has since been expunged. This paper examines 'functional' spatial coalitions and their choice as the intended surrogates for formal regions. Informed by a mixed-method research methodology, the paper challenges the claim that this mosaic of voluntaristic public-private coalitions represents plausible realizations of functional regions. Indeed, the research reveals a noteworthy correlation with geographical antecedents, emphasizing the importance of the legacy of past sub-national forms of governance maintained by some enduring spatial coalitions. Flowing from this analysis, the implications for policy are discussed.
Pugalis, L 2013, 'Hitting the target but missing the point: the case of area-based regeneration', Community Development, vol. 44, no. 5: Innovative Measurement and Evaluation of Community Development, pp. 617-634.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Area-based regeneration projects have captured the imagination of diverse assemblages of community actors, governmental interests, and commercial stakeholders around the world. Their appeal derives from claims that they are exemplary instruments for combating intertwined social, economic, and environmental issues in an integrated manner. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of such initiatives remains contentious and continues to provoke divergent views. In the midst of an era of fiscal austerity, demands for increasing 'returns on investments' and maximizing 'value for money' have risen to the forefront. This article investigates an area-based regeneration initiative in Europe that has been lauded for successfully achieving its regeneration outputs. The research examines whether hitting narrowly constructed (economic) targets may be missing the point of yielding holistic (community) outcomes. Of broader international and theoretical significance, the merits of output-driven regeneration strategies are questioned.
Pugalis, L & Townsend, AR 2013, 'Trends in place-based economic strategies: England's fixation with 'fleet-of-foot' partnerships', Local Economy, vol. 28, no. 7-8, pp. 696-717.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The form of place-based economic strategy that is the focus of this paper is 'fleet-of-foot' partnership arrangements. Contributing to the theorisation of these institutional configurations, which are propounded by some as more flexible and responsive than democratic-administrative alternatives, the paper investigates the empirical situation in England that has unfolded over recent years. Tracing the recent historical evolution of sub-national structures that could be considered 'fleet-of-foot', the paper analyses the implications for place-based economic strategies at large. Through an analysis of Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs), the paper examines the extent to which the conceptual principles underpinning the notion of 'fleet-of-foot' arrangements have informed the configuration of LEPs, emphasising the importance of the legacy of past political constructions. Drawing attention to some of the primary weaknesses of 'fleet-of-foot' arrangements, the paper concludes that there are some inherent limitations to the present configuration of LEPs. These impede such partnerships in opening up space for a richer constellation of actors to participate in governance forums across flexible and functional geographies, or achieve efficient outcomes. More broadly, the paper contributes to the literature on place-based economic strategies and contemporary trends in economic development.
The primary aim of this Special Issue of
Local Economy was to examine UK economic
development under the Cameronled
Coalition Government. Since the
Conservatives and Liberal Democrats
struck upon a deal to forge a coalition in
May 2010 how we had come to understand
local and regional economic development
has had to be reconsidered. In the words
of Rob Huggins and Piers Thompson, 'the
spatio-political economy of Britain has
undergone significant change'. Similarly,
Sarah Ayres and Graham Pearce noted in
their article that 'the scale and speed of
change in sub-national governance in
England over recent years has been
Local Enterprise Partnerships are a key feature of the Coalition Government's attempts to support economic growth. In light of each of the 39 Local Enterprise Partnerships reaching their second birthday by 2013 there is merit in considering what advances have been made in the intervening period. Viewed by the state, amongst others, as the latest intended policy fix in a complex lineage of 'adjourned' agencies, the article looks at how they might evolve over future years, including analysing whether they will survive institutional oblivion beyond the next general election. It is clear that each Local Enterprise Partnership is at a different stage of development, but why is this so? The article utilises Tuckman's theory of group development to explore the characteristics of economic partnerships and provide some explanations pertaining to their varied development trajectories. It concludes that if Local Enterprise Partnerships receive more tangible responsibilities and resources over the coming years then, in order to perform, some may deem it necessary to establish more formal arrangements, not too dissimilar to the 'economic development agency' model. Yet for those economic partnership configurations that remain mired in the 'storming' phase, they may need to consider 'adjourning' and/or '(re)forming'.
Pugalis, L & McGuinness, D 2013, 'From a framework to a toolkit: Urban regeneration in an age of austerity', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 339-353.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Bentley, G & Pugalis, L 2013, 'New directions in economic development: Localist policy discourses and the Localism Act', Local Economy, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 257-274.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Since entering office in 2010, a distinct grammar of localism has pervaded the UK Coalition Government's philosophical outlook inflecting localist policy discourses and practice. This article, written in June 2012, considers the implications of this new grammar for the scope, organisation and mobilisation of economic development interventions, through a focus on the 2011 Localism Act, which applies to England and Wales. Interpreting these changes through a localist conceptual prism, which helps to refract varieties of localism, it raises some serious concerns regarding localism in action through exposing the controlling tendencies of central government. Analysis is also directed towards the uneasy relationship between centralised powers, conditional decentralisation and fragmented localism. Nevertheless, emergent practice serves to demonstrate how 'constrained freedoms' can be negotiated to undertake innovative actions. It concludes by suggesting some foundational elements that would support the notion of 'empowered localities' that may secure the government's imperative to enable private sector-led growth.
Pugalis, L & Carling, J 2013, 'The role of Local Economic Assessments in the new political and economic climate and their relationship with Local Enterprise Partnerships', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 38-52.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pugalis, L & Townsend, A 2013, 'Rescaling of Planning and Its Interface with Economic Development', Planning Practice and Research, vol. 28, no. 1: Spatial Planning and the New Localism in England, pp. 104-121.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Following the installation of a UK Coalition Government in 2010, ways of governing the spatial organization of development have undergone far-reaching change in England. Within a context of austerity following the abolition of regional policy machinery, and an onerous national target framework, localities are entering a new phase of incentivized development. Consequently, local planning authorities are having to transfer part of their focus from government's 'top-down' requirements, as they come to embrace more adequately 'bottom-up' neighbourhood scale plans. Analysing the path of change, especially at the interface between planning and economic development, the paper draws attention to the dilemmas arising from these crucial scale shifts, and explores the potential of sub-national governance entities—Local Enterprise Partnerships—to help resolve the strategic co-ordination of planning.
Pugalis, L & Liddle, J 2013, 'Austerity era regeneration: Conceptual issues and practical challenges, Part 1', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 333-338.
Pugalis, L 2013, 'Briefing: The cultural life of public spaces', Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Urban Design and Planning, vol. 166, no. 3, pp. 151-155.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Within a UK context of radical policy reform and broader global economic shifts, the homogenisation of public space and the decimation of cultural life are leading-edge issues of contemporary concern. Drawing on empirics from a broader research project, this briefing paper reports on the (ongoing) production of public spaces and extracts some pointers for practice pertaining to planning for their cultural life. Underutilisation, temporal dimensions and perceptions of urban quality are analysed, before tentatively considering future directions. Multi-stakeholder coproduction is put forward as a potentially fruitful mode of working.
Pugalis, L & Townsend, AR 2013, 'The Scalar Conundrum of Regional Economic Leadership', Leadership and Policy Quarterly, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 81-100.
At what scale should regional development policy be administered?
Indeed, should economic leadership be constituted across similar scales
of governance? These crucial questions have caught the interest of
academics, policymakers and politicians across all global regions.
Decentralization is a favored policy administered in response to the
dynamics of economic globalization, especially in an age of fiscal
austerity as public service responsibilities are increasingly being
devolved to alternative scales. This paper addresses these theoretical
and practical questions through the case of England, which in 2010, in
contrast to other European countries, initiated the disassembly of formal
regional machinery. The paper interrogates the political, economic and
administrative dimensions for this course of action and examines the
configuration of informal public-private economic leadership
partnerships that have succeeded formal regional machinery. The
research reveals a noteworthy correlation between these latest scalar
entities and those that have been trialed over the past 50 years. This
leads the paper to conclude that the search for a scalar solution to the
governance of development is set to continue as the scalar conundrum
Across England, planning and governance modes of regulation of supra-local development strategies are undergoing important transformations. In particular, the UK's Coalition Government, which was has been in office since 2010, has a political and financial mission of rescaling and simplifying sub-national economic planning. As a consequence of the abandonment of regional apparatus, which can be understood almost as a 'scorched earth' approach, a strategic leadership fissure has arisen between national and local scales of policy. Analyzing the theory and processes of spatial rescaling, including the emergence of new geographies of governance at the sub-regional scale, the paper illustrates some of the key opportunities and dilemmas arising from these 'scalar shifts'. Drawing on the case of Local Enterprise Partnerships - which are supra-local non-statutory spatial governance entities - the paper questions whether these new public-private arrangements present a pragmatic way of resolving the strategic tensions between elected local authority areas that would otherwise be seriously ignored in England after regions. The paper examines whether state-led rescaling in effect provides a new 'cover' for some old politics.
Pugalis, L & Townsend, AR 2012, 'Rebalancing England: Sub-national development (once again) at the crossroads', Urban Research and Practice, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 157-174.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Over the last two decades there has been continuous tinkering and wholesale review of the remit, governance and territorial focus of sub-national development in England. There has also been mounting agreement that subsidiarity will produce optimum material outcomes. It is against this background that we provide a critical reading of the UK Coalition government's 2010 'White Paper' on Local Growth. Revealing the peculiarities of an economic transition plan which dismantled a regional (strategic) framework, we explore the opportunities that cross-boundary local enterprise partnerships (LEPs) may provide. After abandoning regions, LEPs have been promoted as the only possible 'replacements' for regional development agencies and, thus, a prime example of new 'techniques of government'. We probe the potentials and pitfalls from the dash to establish new sub-national techniques of government, and crystallize some key implications that apply beyond the shores of England. Our key contention is that LEPs have designed-in just as many issues as they have designed-out.
Pugalis, L & Giddings, B 2011, 'A RENEWED RIGHT TO URBAN LIFE: A Twenty-First Century Engagement with Lefebvre's Initial "Cry''', ARCHITECTURAL THEORY REVIEW, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 278-295.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
State-led restructuring of sub-national economic governance and regeneration has been rapidly evolving over the past year or so across England. With several waves of cross-boundary Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) approved by the UK Government, it is opportune to take stock of some of the more notable shifts. Building on a preliminary analytical mapping of the rocky road from regionalism to sub-regional localism, the paper pays particular attention to the politicised process underpinning the alliances, and crafting, development and subsequent submission of LEP proposals, as well as the eventual assessment and state sanctioning of LEP bids. Examining the process from a variety of perspectives, the paper highlights unequal power relations and extracts a number of powerful policy considerations. The paper propounds the argument that the rhetoric of permissive policy masks centralist controlling tendencies and unwritten rules.
Pugalis, L & Fisher, B 2011, 'English regions disbanded: European funding and economic regeneration implications', Local Economy, vol. 26, no. 6-7, pp. 500-516.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The investiture of a UK Coalition Government in 2010 heralded the (ongoing) production of new sub-national geographies of governance in England. Of primary concern is the disbanding of the English regions, outside of London, which were New Labour's preferred scale for 'managing' economic regeneration during the 2000s. In a bid to roll back the functions of the state as part of their deficit reduction plan, the Coalition embarked on a political rescaling strategy resulting in various institutional reconfigurations. This rescaling of state power has significant policy implications in the context of European funding, which is the focus of this article. By analysing a field of policy activity during a period of significant motion, the intent is to highlight some notable dilemmas, aided by posing some practical questions, in order to prompt some much needed policy discussion and academic deliberation.
Pugalis, L 2010, 'Looking Back in Order to Move Forward: The Politics of Evolving Sub-National Economic Policy Architecture', vol. 25, no. 5-6, pp. 397-405.
Pugalis, L 2010, 'The incremental renaissance of the historic city of Durham', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-MUNICIPAL ENGINEER, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 145-153.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pugalis, L 2010, 'Looking back in order to move Forward: The Politics of Evolving Sub-National Economic Policy Architecture', Local Economy, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 397-405.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pugalis, L 2009, 'The culture and economics of urban public space design: Public and professional perceptions', URBAN DESIGN INTERNATIONAL, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 215-230.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pugalis, L 2008, 'Regeneration through place quality the case of seven stories–the centrefor children's books', Urban Research and Practice, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 324-328.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Seven Stories is the only physical centre for children's literature in the UK. As a flagship place of quality development, it is an important element of the regeneration of Newcastle's Ouseburn Valley. However, questions remain whether it will be sufficient to regenerate the wider city economy as the initial 'wow' factor dissipates. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.
Pugalis, L, Fisher, J, Chiappini, L & Bruzzese, A 2019, 'Introducing Urban Alternatives' in Fisker, J, Chiappini, L, Pugalis, L & Bruzzese, A (eds), Enabling Urban Alternatives: Crises, Contestation, and Cooperation, Palgrave, pp. 1-19.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pugalis, L, Fisker, J, Chiappini, L & Bruzzese, A 2019, 'Conclusion: Enabling Alternative Urban Futures' in Fisker, J, Chiappini, L, Pugalis, L & Bruzzese, A (eds), Enabling Urban Alternatives: Crises, Contestation, and Cooperation, Palgrave, pp. 271-292.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pugalis, L, Fisker, J, Chiappini, L & Bruzzese, A 2018, 'Conceptualising the production of alternative urban spaces' in Fisker, J, Chiappini, L, Pugalis, L & Bruzzese, A (eds), The Production of Alternative Urban Spaces: An International Dialogue, Routledge, Oxon & New York, pp. 1-1.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Danso-Wiredu, EY, Fisker, J & Pugalis, L 2018, 'The production of slums: Old Fadama as an alternative space of urban dwelling' in Fisker, J, Chiappini, L, Pugalis, L & Bruzzese, A (eds), The Production of Alternative Urban Spaces An International Dialogue, Routledge, Oxon & New York, pp. 130-152.
Fortunately, Old Fadama is a relatively well-studied case allowing us to build
upon knowledge derived from previous studies on a ... This allows for an initial
conceptualisation of how slums are produced as alternative spaces of urban
Gray, N, Pugalis, L & Dickinson, D 2018, 'The Northern Powerhouse Meets the Cities and Local Growth Agenda: Local Economic Policymaking and Agglomeration in Practice' in Berry, C & Giovannini, A (eds), Developing England's North. Building a Sustainable Political Economy, Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 141-164.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A policy canon has emerged over recent years which contends that decentralised arrangements are a primary means to address long-standing spatial inequalities. This new conventional wisdom, which frequently portrays cities and metropolitan areas as 'economic engines', has gained substantial national and international traction. Often encapsulated by the UK Government's amorphous Cities and Local Growth agenda, but sometimes positioned as a standalone approach, the Northern Powerhouse is the most high-profile policy episode in a fast-developing story of decentralisation in pursuit of (city-centric) economic growth. This chapter draws upon empirical work to consider whether the current approach to subnational development represents a serious, coherent and sustained attempt to begin to close the economic gap between the North and the South. We examine the evolution of Cities and Local Growth and the Northern Powerhouse in the context of current debates around agglomeration economics, looking specifically at ambiguities of scale around the Northern Powerhouse, the kind of policies emergent at the local level, and local perceptions of central government intentions for subnational development policy.
Gray, N & Pugalis, L 2017, 'Place-based subnational development: Unpacking some of the key conceptual strands and normative dispositions' in Handbook of Research on Sub-National Governance and Development, IGI Global, USA, pp. 34-53.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.This chapter offers a critical theoretically informed and policy-relevant exploration of some of the most prevalent conceptual strands informing place-based development scholarship, discourse, and practice. In doing so, it examines the emphasis on co-operation, open governance, and the assumption that all places have the potential to grow and prosper. Further, it analyzes normative dispositions - namely that place-based modes of subnational development could represent a viable and progressive approach which reconciles pervasive tensions between economic growth and spatial equity. In the process, the chapter identifies four key conceptual strands that characterize place-based development theory and practice.
Pugalis, L 2017, 'From theory to practice in place-based development approaches: Local, regional and national implementation challenges' in Uncovering the Territorial Dimension of European Union Cohesion Policy: Cohesion, Development, Impact Assessment and Cooperation, Routledge, pp. 81-96.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pugalis, L, Gray, N & Townsend, A 2017, 'The resilience of growth strategies' in Creating Resilient Economies: Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times, Edward Elgar Publishing, UK, pp. 160-174.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© Nick Williams and Tim Vorley 2017., All rights reserved. Particularly marked since the onset of the global credit crunch, a pervasive economic growth narrative has inflected political and policy rationalities as nations, regions and cities have attempted to 'bounce back' from recessions as well as contend with other crises. This has engendered new conceptual debates at the interface between those concerned with economic resilience and economic growth. In England, voluntaristic public-private partnerships operating in the field of local and regional development have recently prepared Strategic Economic Plans. These plans are part strategic and part bidding documents, motivated by a boosterist policy of 'going for growth'. Derived from a comparative analysis of growth plans and attendant empirical research, this chapter provides an examination of the manner with which these growth strategies reflect different understandings of resilience. Our findings reveal that while contemporary economic development practice often evokes the notion of resilience, this tends to be a 'conservative' reading of the objective utilised to get back to growth and/or maintain prevailing growth levels.
Pugalis, L, Swords, J, Jeffries, M & Giddings, B 2016, 'Toonsformation: Skateboarders' renegotiation of city rights' in Simin, D & Derek, B (eds), Justice and Fairness in the City: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to 'Ordinary' Cities, Policy Press, UK, pp. 125-148.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pugalis, L, Blackwood, T, Baty, G, Dale, B, Fowle, M, Hatt, L & Jussila, N 2015, 'Team Academy Northumbria – learn to surprise yourself' in Higher Education Academy, ed. Compendium of effective practice in directed independent learning, Higher Education Academy, London, pp. 118-121.
Pugalis, L 2015, 'The paradox of urban policy' in Condie, J & Cooper, AM (eds), Dialogues of sustainable urbanisation: social science research and transitions to urban contexts, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, pp. 52-55.
Pugalis, L, Giddings, B & Anyigor, K 2015, 'In roads in Alleviating Slum Conditions across Nigeria' in Aworti, N & Musahara, H (eds), Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals: Progresses and Challenges in Some African Countries, The Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA), Ethiopia.
Pugalis, L & Bentley, G 2014, 'State strategies and entrepreneurial governance' in Pugalis, L & Liddle, J (eds), Enterprising Places: Leadership and Governance Networks, Emerald, Bingley.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pugalis, L & Liddle, J 2014, 'Introduction: Enterprising Places' in Pugalis, L & Liddle, J (eds), Enterprising Places: Leadership and Governance Networks, Emerald, Bingley, pp. xi-xix.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pugalis, L, Giddings, B & Anyigor, K 2014, 'Informal settlements: The prevalence of and barriers to entrepreneurial synergies in slum communities' in Pugalis, L, Liddle, J, Henry, C & Marlow, S (eds), Contemporary Issues in Entrepreneurship Research: Enterprising Places: Leadership and Governance Networks, Emerald, UK, pp. 197-225.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2014 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose – Across the global community the eradication of slums has been identified as a key project as part of the broader goal to eradicate poverty. Entrepreneurial efforts are viewed as a key means of 'lifting' people from poverty. Through a focus on Nigeria, this chapter examines slum upgrading programmes. The primary aim is to identify the opportunities and barriers facing inhabitants of informal settlements to realising entrepreneurial synergies that can occur in particular places. Methodology/approach – A case study examination of the Kpirikpiri informal settlement in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was conducted that utilised a mixed-method approach. The research passed through three key phases. The first phase comprised a literature survey and review. The second phase involved a household survey to gather some baseline socio-economic and physical data that helped to fill the void of basic data. A total of 142 respondents participated in the survey, representing 10% of the total number of households in the area. The third phase involved the collection of qualitative data through focus group discussions and individual interviews. Findings – Slum dwellers have skills and formal education equivalent to those in the Global North. Nevertheless, Nigerians tend to view entrepreneurial activities as secondary to other forms of employment, especially positions in the public sector. Paradoxically, slum dwellers place little trust in state authorities. Security of tenure is a major barrier to expanding entrepreneurial activities, as many landlords are reluctant to permit tenants to operate home-based enterprises, which is often a neglected element of place-based development strategies. Research and practical implications – The chapter demonstrates the need for basic socio-economic datasets alongside user perspectives to shape the efficacy of development initiatives. In the case of Kpirikpiri, slum improvement programmes may have bene...
Pugalis, L, Townsend, A & Johnston, L 2014, 'Pushing it! austerity urbanism and dispersed leadership through 'fleet-of-foot' mechanisms in times of crisis' in Diamond, J & Liddle, J (eds), Critical Perspectives on International Public Sector Management: European Public Leadership in Crisis?, Emerald, UK, pp. 1-25.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2014 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited. The form of crisis-governance responses to austerity urbanism that is the focus of this paper is 'fleet-of-foot' partnerships. These non-statutory mechanisms which champion dispersed forms of leadership are crafted in policy discourse as lean, mean, crisis-tackling fighting machines. Their perceived agility and entrepreneurialism are often lauded, yet empirical evidence for these traits remains sparse. This paper investigates this concern through the lens of the Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) in England, which are deemed by some to exude some of the defining characteristics of 'fleet-of-foot' mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed method approach was utilised, including analysis of socio-economic datasets and qualitative policy analysis of primary and secondary material. The quantitative element includes analysis of employment and journey-to-work data, whereas the qualitative material originated from a review of LEP proposals, and narrative analysis of transcripts of interviews undertaken since 2010, together with other textual artefacts. Findings - The findings reveal that dispersed public leadership is problematic as a mode of crisis-governance. LEPs were adopted as a crisisgovernance fix. These loose (or looser) constellations of many, varied actors, are considered to be more flexible, responsive and deliveryorientated than more traditional and statutory democratic-administrative mechanisms: lean, mean, crisis-tackling fighting machines. Flexibility is a primary trait of 'fleet-of-foot' configurations and perhaps the defining feature of LEPs. Research limitations - The programme of research remains on-going, which reflects the continual shifts in the form and configurations of LEPs. Practical implications - Detecting some of the primary weaknesses of 'fleet-of-foot' public leadership arrangements, the research draws attention to some of the dangers of pushing austerity down and through 'fleet-of-foot...
Pugalis, L 2013, 'Regional development policy and economic leadership: an analysis of the scalar conundrum' in Huang, J (ed), Empirical Policy Research - Letting the Data Speak for Themselves, Untested Ideas, Niagara Falls, USA.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
At what scale should regional development policy be administered? Indeed, should economic leadership be constituted across similar scales of governance? These crucial questions have caught the interest of academics, policymakers and politicians across all global regions. Decentralization is a favored policy administered in response to the dynamics of economic globalization, especially in an age of fiscal austerity as public service responsibilities are increasingly being devolved to alternative scales. This paper addresses these theoretical and practical questions through the case of England, which in 2010, in contrast to other European countries, initiated the disassembly of formal regional machinery. The paper interrogates the political, economic and administrative dimensions for this course of action and examines the configuration of informal public-private economic leadership partnerships that have succeeded formal regional machinery. The research reveals a noteworthy correlation between these latest scalar entities and those that have been trialed over the past 50 years. This leads the paper to conclude that the search for a scalar solution to the governance of development is set to continue as the scalar conundrum remains.
Pugalis, L & Bentley, G 2013, 'LEPs: Forming-Storming-Norming-Performing-Adjourning' in Ward, M & Hardy, S (eds), Where Next for Local Economic Partnerships?, The Smith Institute, London, pp. 36-45.
The literature on local enterprise partnerships is burgeoning. It variously investigates
their potential roles in a diverse range of policy fields, from economic development
through to civic engagement, from infrastructure delivery through to enhancing
workforce skills, and from planning and strategising to destination promotion and
inward investment. Nevertheless, this literature base often far outweighs the LEPs'
actually existing capabilities and locally derived programmes of delivery.
What the interest in LEPs does demonstrate is that subnational forms of economic
development policy and institutions matter. This is a point of broader international
relevance, reflected in the on-going rescaling of states, including the rise and demise
of metropolitan governance arrangements, regional governments and cross-border
partnerships. Yet the exceptional English circumstance, whereby the country is bereft of
a subnational democratic economic development settlement1 – notwithstanding some
notable exceptions such as the Greater London Authority and the Greater Manchester
Combined Authority – brings the issue to the forefront of policy debates.
In 2012 we published a series of works that posed the question: are LEPs living up
to the hype?2 Our assessment led us to conclude then with an unequivocal answer
– which we contend remains true – of 'not yet'. This was qualified by stating that
central government had been unrealistic in its expectation that unincorporated,
loose partnership configurations (lacking a statutory footing, policy tools and
specific resources) could make any more than a symbolic difference to the growth
and regeneration of subnational territories.
Pugalis, L & McGuinness, D 2013, 'The Retreat of the State: The Challenges Faced by Regeneration Managers in a Climate of Austerity' in Diamond, J & Liddle, J (eds), Civil Society, Social Movements and Crises for Public Management: Looking for Consensus: Critical Perspectives on International Public Sector Management, Emerald, Bingley, pp. 59-85.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Purpose of this chapter
A climate of austerity has gripped the politico-economic philosophy of many nation states across Europe and beyond as governments seek to rebalance budget deficits. This presents unique challenges for those engaged in purposeful acts aiming to regenerate communities of places – the regeneration managers.
England provides an interesting case study to examine some of the prime challenges facing regeneration managers by focusing on the ideologies that have informed successive UK governments' policy responses and spatial strategies. The main body of research, including interviews, was carried out between 2010 and 2012, and was subsequently updated in early 2013.
Tracing an apparent transmutation of urban regeneration policy, the chapter helps to unmask a spatially unjust neoliberal toolkit, albeit pierced by some socially motivated actually existing regeneration initiatives. The transmutation of regeneration that has taken place is often concealed by de facto austerity measures and austerity politics.
The programme of interviews remains ongoing, as the research continues to track the shifting contours of state-led regeneration policy. Analysis is therefore provisional and explorative, with more detailed research reports and publications subject to follow.
The chapter explores emerging new agendas and sets out to identify some of the primary challenges that regeneration managers must face.
'Regeneration' as a state-led policy objective and political concern has been virtually expunged from the Coalition lexicon. The present policy preference is to target public resources in 'value-added' schemes that favour private oriented objectives in a highly unbalanced way.
What is original/value of paper
The curtailment of broader regeneration debates has framed discussions limited to the depth of cuts, the speed of implementation and the sp...
Shutt, J, Pugalis, L & Bentley, G 2012, 'LEPs - living up to the hype? The changing framework for regional economic development and localism in the UK' in Ward, M & Hardy, S (eds), Changing Gear - Is Localism the New Regionalism, The Smith Institute and Regional Studies Association, London, pp. 12-24.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pugalis, L 2012, 'LEPs - living up to the hype? The changing framework for regional economic development and localism in the UK' in Ward, M & Hardy, S (eds), Changing Gear - Is Localism the New Regionalism, The Smith Institute and Regional Studies Association, London, pp. 12-24.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pugalis, L & Bafarasat, A 2018, 'The governance of metropolitan regions: Governmental-business interactions', Regional Development: Policy, Research and Engagement, ANZRSAI 42nd Annual Conference, ANU, Canberra.
Pugalis, L, Eversole, R & Sorensen, T 2018, 'Regional agility: A preliminary framework for cultivating future-ready regions', Regional Development: Policy, Research and Engagement, ANZRSAI 42nd Annual Conference, ANU, Canberra.
Pugalis, L 2018, 'Joint Organisations to support regional growth: Australian Experiences', Moving beyond Devolution: A Forward Look to 2030, Public Administration Committee Spring Conference, Leeds.
Pugalis, L 2018, 'Leading Local Economies: The Role of Local Government in Economic Development', 2018 WA Local Government Convention & Trade Exhibition, Perth.
Pugalis, L 2018, 'The role of local government in local and regional economic development: The use of economic strategies', NSW Local Government Association Webinar, Sydney.
Pugalis, L & Howarth 2018, 'Reflections on developing regional economic development strategies: The case of Regional NSW', Regional Development: Policy, Research and Engagement, ANZRSAI 42nd Annual Conference, ANU, Canberra.
Pugalis, L, Townsend, Gray & Ankowska 2018, 'England's main (sub-) Regional Planning: the patchy inheritance of Local Industrial Strategies', Regional Studies Association Winter Conference 2018 New Horizons for Cities and Regions in a Changing World, Holiday Inn Bloomsbury, London, UK.
Pugalis, L & Tan, S 2016, 'Metropolitan and Regional Economic Development: Competing and Contested Local Government Roles in Australia in the 21st Century', Refereed Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Regional Science Association International, Australian And New Zealand Regional Science Association International, Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, Lincoln University, RMIT.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Economic development is a priority of all levels of government; irrespective of country,
constitution or system of governance. This is particularly the case in Australia, where federal,
state and local tiers of government are undertaking activities intended to support economic
growth. However, roles and responsibilities are not always clear, which reflects interorganisational,
intergovernmental and intra-organisational conflict, contradictions,
duplications and fissures. Traditionally the role of local government in the subnational
economic development policy space has been rather limited, although their remit and
engagement in this sphere has increased steadily since the 1980s. Even so, the role of councils
in subnational economic development – and metropolitan and regional economic development
in particular – remains ambiguous and contested. Derived from findings from a project funded
by the Australian Centre of Excellence for Local Government investigating the role of local
government in the organisation and promotion of economic development, this paper intends
to make two contributions to the literature. First, it shows how the conceptual messiness of
the notion of (metropolitan and regional) economic development can both enable and
constrain local government practice. Secondly, a state-level policy vacuum is apparent, which
is a source of frustration amongst local practitioners. A key policy implication is the need to
open-up more space for dialogue between different tiers of government to help engender a
shared understanding of economic development, including the roles of different actors.
Pugalis, LC 2016, 'The Regional Economic Development Paradox: policy order and complex practice', ANZRSAI-2016-Conference-Proceedings, Australia and New Zealand Regional Science Association International Conference 2016, Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 107-120.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Regional economic development, in its various guises, is deployed throughout much of Australia. Whilst it remains a contested activity, conventional wisdom extols the need to embrace complexity, whilst simultaneously imbuing order and control. Insights from the literature reveal that regional economic development organisations are often the primary interface between government and regional socio-economic systems – two highly dynamic and multidimensional, yet opaque, operational landscapes, characterised by interactive network relationships across place and time. Derived from an analysis of the Regional Development Australia Northern Inland Committee, we find that regional economic strategies may tend to reflect a bias towards structured processes, transactional relationships and hierarchical decisions, which eschew practical complexities. We identify some striking future risks for regional development if extant practice continues as we seek to contribute to a richer understanding of the complexity that confronts economic development policy-makers.
Binsfeld, N, Whalley, J & Pugalis, L 2016, 'Competing through e-skills: Luxembourg and its second level digital divide', 27th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society (ITS), European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society (ITS), Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 1-26.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
There is growing awareness amongst policy makers, scholars and practitioners that the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector plays an important role in a country's economy and welfare. The ICT sector relies on highly performing technical infrastructures but also needs skilled people who are able to understand its complexities and are fully capable of making the best use of its potential. In this article we present and discuss this tension for the case of Luxembourg, one of the smallest countries in the world whose economy is open and largely service driven. Although a lot of improvements have been made in recent years regarding its ICT infrastructure, Luxembourg performs poorly in international league tables with regards to e-skills or digital competences showing a tendency to a 'second level digital divide' in terms of its ICT professionals. Drawing on a prior study which mapped Luxembourg's ICT ecosystem, we conducted qualitative interviews with human resources managers that allowed us to identify the need for relevant ICT professional skills. By applying an e-competences framework, we have identified six different families of ICT jobs that are most demanded in Luxembourg as well as their underlying competences. We then present several policy initiatives that could address the challenges faced by Luxembourg. By doing so we provide a contribution in order to better understand the issues related to e-skills and digital competences in a small country. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of this kind looking specifically into the e-skills situation in Luxembourg
Pugalis, L NSW Government, Centre for Economic and Regional Development 2018, Optimal Spatial Development Distribution in NSW: Key Issues Associated with New Towns and Accelerated City Development, pp. 1-47, Orange, NSW.
Binsfeld, N, Whalley, J & Pugalis, L 2017, 'An analysis of the structure, actors and interrelationships producing Luxembourg's ICT ecosystem'.
There is substantial analytical value in examining the structure of the ICT sector by deploying the notion of ecosystems, which can help to reveal new insights into the role of key actors and their interrelationships. This paper aims to provide a thorough analysis of Luxembourg's ICT ecosystem, which until now has received limited research attention in the international arena. Key actors comprising and producing the ecosystem are identified and analysed according to a layered model devised by Martin Fransman (2001). The primary output is a detailed mapping of the Luxembourgish ICT ecosystem. The findings indicate that Luxembourg's ICT ecosystem consists of nearly 2000 different actors of which the majority are micro and small software development companies. Nevertheless, some large telecommunications network operators in which the government holds a substantial stake appear to perform a decisive role from an economic perspective. More recently, the role of different types of service providers, particularly subcontractors to financial actors, has grew in prominence, with trends suggesting that this is subject to continue. The research has also identified some limitations to the Fransman model and suggests several extensions as well as a stakeholder analysis to gain a deeper understanding of the issues at stake. It is intended to be of use and interest to policymakers, managers, and decision makers or actors operating within and across different layers of ICT ecosystems.
Binsfeld, N, Pugalis, L & Whalley, J 2015, 'ICT ecosystems in small countries: an analysis of Luxembourg'.
Purpose: Information and communication technologies (ICT) are increasingly becoming an important component of economic development. 'Ecosystems' are one way of understanding complex interactions and relationships. Luxembourg's ICT sector is usually characterised as performing admirably - it is often at the top-end of different indices and international league tables. Nevertheless, headline statistics and high-level assessments often disguise the complexities of dynamic relations. It is in this respect that this paper deploys the concept of ecosystems to investigate Luxembourg's ICT sector. Design/methodology/approach: The layered ecosystem model, devised by Martin Fransman, is utilised to map key actors that comprise Luxembourg's ICT ecosystem, following which a programme of semi-structured interviews were conducted. This empirically produced material, combined with documentary analysis, provides the basis for an analysis of the interrelated elements that are shaping the development of Luxembourg's ICT ecosystem. Findings: The study has identified the main forces that affect the ICT ecosystem and concluded that Luxembourg's strengths are related to its well-developed ICT infrastructures such as international fibre and national ultra-high broadband connectivity and high quality datacentres and its political vision for ICT that has led to a supportive policy environment. Its main weaknesses are related to an inappropriate educational system in which technical and scientific training is less developed, missing e-skills such as coding, application development, technical IT know-how as well a nonentrepreneurial mind-set and a risk averse culture. Social implications: The paper highlights the importance of the different socioeconomic, political, strategic and technological forces that shape the ICT ecosystem of a small country in order to provide a comprehensive basis for its policy makers. Originality/value: An empirical focus on a small country helps to redress the r...
Binsfeld, N, Whalley, J & Pugalis, L 2014, 'Luxembourg a bastion of state ownership'.
Akin to many other European Union member states, over recent times the Luxembourgish telecommunications market is undergoing a process of market liberalisation, which is itself encapsulated by broader neoliberal tendencies. While many aspects of market liberalisation are similar to those in other European Union member states, there are others that appear to be highly distinctive. The government has simultaneously sought to liberalise the small telecommunications market while protecting the wholly state owned incumbent. Moreover, the state has created or participated in the creation of new companies, thereby deepening its presence within the telecommunications market, although the incumbent operator remains the predominant player. As a result, competition and market penetration - especially by way of international investment - has been curtailed and alternative fixed operators have found it difficult to gain access to public infrastructures while being unable to build out their own network infrastructure. The current nature of the market raises four key questions that this paper will explore and seek to address. Firstly, how competitive (or 'open') is the marketplace? Secondly, how has the extensive presence of the state in the market shaped its development? Thirdly, will Luxembourg be able to maintain its current international ICT competitiveness in the short and medium term? Fourthly, why have international operators invested (or not) in a market as small as Luxembourg? To answer these questions, we construct an extensive and detailed timeline of political, technological, regulatory and competitive developments within the Luxembourgish market. Contrary to prevailing international trends displaying the hegemony of neoliberalism, we reveal how the Luxembourgish telecommunications sector has benefitted from the deepening of state involvement over time. This leads us to conclude that Luxembourg is indeed a bastion of state ownership, as the government has not follow...