Lawrence Lam is an epidemiologist, medical statistician and research psychologist with a special interest in paedatric and adolescent mental health. His research interests include environmental child health, risky behaviours among young people, and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury among children and young people.
Before joining UTS, Lawrence developed a program of post-graduate studies in health education at the Hong Kong Institute of Education. He also worked with the Hong Kong Mental Health Association to develop a mental health training programme for teachers.
Lawrence has worked as a hospital epidemiologist and medical statistician at Sydney's Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, and taught master classes in epidemiology and biostatistics at the University of Sydney. He was also the Head of Evaluation, Head of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, and Deputy Head of the Population and Public Health domain of the School of Medical Sydney, the Notre Dame University Australia.
Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology (FACE)
Member of the Australian Statistics Society Inc.
Member of the Australia and New Zealand Mental Health Association
Member of the Australian Infant, Child, Adolescent, and Family Mental Health Association
Immediate Past Vice President of the Hong Kong Society of Behavioural Health
Can supervise: YES
- Child and adolescent mental health
- Early childhood social-emotional health and well being
- Child and adolescent mild traumatic head injury
- Chronic disease care and management
- Internet addiction among young people
Areas of research supervision
- Paediatric and adolescent mental health
- Trauma management, rehabilitation, injury prevention
- Behavioural epidemiology and addiction
- Cyberpsychology and problematic internet use
- Epidemiology/ Clinical Epidemiology
- Medical Statistics
- Quantitative Research Methodologies
- Evidence-Based Medicine
- Health Assessment and Psychometrics
- Health program evaluation
- Cyberpsychology and Internet Addiction/Problematic Internet Use
- Injury prevention and risk management
The development of Psychological and Health-related assessment instruments has had a long history since the late nineteenth century. James Cattell laid the foundation for the specialised area of psychological assessment within the study of Modern Psychology by suggesting the establishment of the "Mental Test". In 1895, Alfred Binet applied a scientific approach to evaluate the properties of the assessment on intelligence he had designed and effectively developed the specialised area of study now called Psychometrics. Since then many assessment tools have been designed for use in clinical practices as well as research. It has been estimated that there are more than 100 different psychological tests or assessment instruments developed and commonly used internationally and the number is growing. These instruments have been studied with rigorous scientific methods for their psychometric properties. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kwah, LK, Green, J, Butler, J & Lam, L 2019, 'Quality of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Limb Amputations: A Systematic Review', PHYSICAL THERAPY, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 577-590.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT, Rai, A & Lam, MK 2019, 'Attachment problems in childhood and the development of anxiety in adolescents: A systematic review of longitudinal and prospective studies', Mental Health and Prevention, vol. 14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier GmbH The association between early relationships and the experience of infant and mother, and the subsequent development of the child through their life span has long been studied. Attachment, as a most prominent construct in early child development, has been the focal point of investigation since the inception of the theoretical concept by Bowlby. In recent years, research has expanded to examine the effect of attachment on the mental health and socio-emotional development of young children and their on-going adjustment into adolescence. However, most studies in the field concentrated on the relationship of childhood attachment and internalising symptoms as a generic assessment of mental health problems. To provide more precise information on the effect of attachment insecurity on individual mental health problems, a systematic review (the first in a series) of available longitudinal and prospective studies was conducted. 11 studies were identified after an extensive search of the literature in accordance to the PRISMA guidelines. Of these, 4 satisfied all selection criteria and provided sufficient data on the effect of attachment insecurity during infancy or early childhood and anxiety in adolescence. Information was extracted and analysed systematically from each study and tabulated. The overall results obtained from these studies indicated a significant and possible causal relationship between attachment insecurity during infancy or early childhood and the development of anxiety in adolescence. These results were discussed in light of theoretical and practical preventive implications.
Li, C, Ivarsson, A, Lam, LT & Sun, J 2019, 'Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration, Stress, and Sports Injury Among University Athletes: A Four-Wave Prospective Survey.', Frontiers in psychology, vol. 10.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The prevalence of sports injury among athletes is rather high, suggesting the need to better understand the causes of sports injury, including the risk factors, for preventive purposes. Grounded in basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) and the Model of Stress and Athletic Injury, the aim of this four-wave prospective survey study was to investigate the relationships among basic psychological needs satisfaction and frustration, stress responses, and sports injury. Study variables, including basic psychological need satisfaction/frustration, and perceived stress, were measured using a survey from 112 university athletes at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd months of the study. Sports injury was assessed using a self-report form at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th months of study. Results of the Bayesian multilevel analysis showed that basic psychological need satisfaction negatively predicted sports injuries, whereas stress was a positive predictor. In addition, basic psychological need satisfaction had an indirect effect on injury occurrence via stress. However, basic psychological need frustration did not predict sports injury. BPNT is a viable model to provide additional explanations to psychological risk factors of injury. Intervention programs may be formulated based on the evidence obtained on the model.
Orr, R, Bogg, T, Fyffe, A, Lam, LT & Browne, GJ 2019, 'Graded Exercise Testing Predicts Recovery Trajectory of Concussion in Children and Adolescents.', Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine.View/Download from: Publisher's site
OBJECTIVE:To determine whether graded exercise testing can predict recovery trajectory of concussion in children and adolescents. DESIGN:Prospective study. SETTING:Children's Hospital, Westmead, Australia. PARTICIPANTS:One hundred thirty-nine children aged 12 to 16 years at 5 to 7 days after an acute concussive injury. INTERVENTION:Graded exercise testing on a treadmill at the subacute phase to assess symptom provocation and determine clinical recovery indicating readiness to commence a return to activity (RTA) protocol. Exercise time to symptom exacerbation and clinical recovery were measured. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Standard concussion assessment and clinical testing (neurocognitive, vestibular/ocular, and balance) were conducted to determine major clinical drivers/indicators. RESULTS:Participants (mean age 12.4 ± 2.8 years, 73% male) had a confirmed sport-related concussion. The main clinical drivers identified on exercise testing were headache, balance, and vestibular dysfunction. Participants fell into 1 of 2 groups, exercise-tolerant (54%) and exercise-intolerant (46%). Exercise-tolerant patients showed mild clinical indicators, no symptom exacerbation during 10.3 ± 3.3 minutes of exercise, were safely transitioned to a RTA protocol, and recovered within 10 days. Exercise-intolerant patients had high clinical indicators, significant symptom exacerbation at 4.2 ± 1.6 minutes of exercise, and prolonged recovery of 45.6 days. No adverse effects from exercise were reported in either group. Combined use of provocative exercise and clinical testing was 93% predictive of outcome. CONCLUSIONS:Exercise testing during the subacute phase after a concussion can predict longer recovery. Exercise testing can identify a unique window where patients can be safely transitioned to activity, enabling clinicians to better inform patients and families, allocate resources and streamline care.
DiGiacomo, M, Chang, S, Luckett, T, Phillips, J, Agar, M & Lam, L 2019, 'Financial stress experienced by informal carers of adults with a chronic disease: results from an Australian population-based cross-sectional survey', Australasian Journal of Ageing.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
To identify caregiving characteristics that are associated with financial stress in Australian carers of people with a chronic disease.
Data were collected via the South Australian Health Omnibus, an annual population-based, cross-sectional survey. Individuals who provided care to someone with prevalent chronic conditions were asked about financial stress and caregiving characteristics.
Of 32.4% (988/3047) who were carers, 13.4% (132/988) experienced financial stress. Adjusting for age and household income, providing more than 20 hours of care per week (AOR=2.39,95%CI=1.48-3.86), transport assistance (AOR=1.89,95%CI=1.15-3.09) and assistance with household tasks (AOR=1.92,95%CI=1.14-3.26) and caring for a person with a mental illness (AOR=2.01, 95%CI=1.24-3.28) were associated with a significant increase in odds of experiencing financial stress. Caring for a person with cancer (AOR=0.49, 95%CI=0.30-0.81) or dementia (AOR=0.40, 95%CI=0.21-0.76) was associated with a decrease in odds.
Financial stress was reported by more than 13% of carers and factors other than household income were implicated.
Luckett, T, Agar, M, DiGiacomo, M, Ferguson, C, Lam, L & Phillips, J 2019, 'Health status of people who have provided informal care or support to an adult with chronic disease in the last 5 years: results from a population-based cross-sectional survey in South Australia.', Australian Health Review, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 408-414.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Support for Australian carers is warranted to ensure their continuing contributions to society and return to productivity after their caring role is completed.
Luckett, T, Agar, M, DiGiacomo, M, Lam, L & Phillips, J 2019, 'Health status in South Australians caring for people with cancer: A population-based study', PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ferguson, C, Hickman, LD, Phillips, J, Newton, PJ, Inglis, SC, Lam, L & Bajorek, BV 2019, 'An mHealth intervention to improve nurses' atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation knowledge and practice: the EVICOAG study.', European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 7-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There is a need to improve cardiovascular nurses' knowledge and practices related to stroke prevention, atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation therapy.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of EVICOAG - a novel mHealth, smartphone-based, spaced-learning intervention on nurses' knowledge of atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation.Nurses employed in four clinical specialties (neuroscience, stroke, rehabilitation, cardiology) across three hospitals were invited to participate. In this quasi-experimental study, 12 case-based atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation learning scenarios (hosted by an mHealth platform) were delivered to participants' smartphones over a 6-week period (July-December 2016) using a spaced timing algorithm. Electronic surveys to assess awareness and knowledge were administered pre (T1) and post (T2) intervention.From 74 participants recruited to T1, 40 completed T2. There was a 54% mean improvement in knowledge levels post-intervention. The largest improvement was achieved in domains related to medication interaction and stroke and bleeding risk assessment. Post-intervention, those who completed T2 were significantly more likely to use CHA2DS2-VASc (2.5% vs. 37.5%) and HAS-BLED (2.5% vs. 35%) tools to assess stroke and bleeding risk, respectively ( P<0.01).The EVICOAG intervention improved nurses' knowledge of atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation, and influenced their uptake and use of stroke and bleeding risk assessment tools in clinical practice. Future research should focus on whether a similar intervention might improve patient-centred outcomes such as patients' knowledge of their condition and therapies, medication adherence, time in the therapeutic range and quality of life.
Hosie, A, Phillips, J, Lam, L, Kochovska, S, Noble, B, Brassil, M, Kurrle, SE, Cumming, A, Caplan, GA, Chye, R, Le, B, Ely, EW, Lawlor, PG, Bush, SH, Davis, JM, Lovell, M, Brown, L, Fazekas, B, Cheah, SL, Edwards, L & Agar, M 2019, 'Multicomponent non-pharmacological intervention to prevent delirium for hospitalised people with advanced cancer: study protocol for a phase II cluster randomised controlled trial.', BMJ open, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. e026177-e026177.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
INTRODUCTION:Delirium is a significant medical complication for hospitalised patients. Up to one-third of delirium episodes are preventable in older inpatients through non-pharmacological strategies that support essential human needs, such as physical and cognitive activity, sleep, hydration, vision and hearing. We hypothesised that a multicomponent intervention similarly may decrease delirium incidence, and/or its duration and severity, in inpatients with advanced cancer. Prior to a phase III trial, we aimed to determine if a multicomponent non-pharmacological delirium prevention intervention is feasible and acceptable for this specific inpatient group. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The study is a phase II cluster randomised wait-listed controlled trial involving inpatients with advanced cancer at four Australian palliative care inpatient units. Intervention sites will introduce delirium screening, diagnostic assessment and a multicomponent delirium prevention intervention with six domains of care: preserving natural sleep; maintaining optimal vision and hearing; optimising hydration; promoting communication, orientation and cognition; optimising mobility; and promoting family partnership. Interdisciplinary teams will tailor intervention delivery to each site and to patient need. Control sites will first introduce only delirium screening and diagnosis, later implementing the intervention, modified according to initial results. The primary outcome is adherence to the intervention during the first seven days of admission, measured for 40 consecutively admitted eligible patients. Secondary outcomes relate to fidelity and feasibility, acceptability and sustainability of the study intervention, processes and measures in this patient population, using quantitative and qualitative measures. Delirium incidence and severity will be measured to inform power calculations for a future phase III trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval was obtained for all four sites. Trial r...
Phillips, JL, Heneka, N, Lovell, M, Lam, L, Davidson, P, Boyle, F, McCaffrey, N, Fielding, S & Shaw, T 2019, 'A phase III wait-listed randomised controlled trial of novel targeted inter-professional clinical education intervention to improve cancer patients' reported pain outcomes (The Cancer Pain Assessment (CPAS) Trial): study protocol.', Trials, vol. 20, no. 1.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
BACKGROUND:Variations in care models contribute to cancer pain being under-recognised and under-treated in half of all patients with cancer. International and national cancer pain management guidelines are achievable with minimal investment but require practice changes. While much of the cancer pain research over the preceding decades has focused on management interventions, little attention has been given to achieving better adherence to recommended cancer pain guideline screening and assessment practices. This trial aims to reduce unrelieved cancer pain by improving cancer and palliative doctors' and nurses' ('clinicians') pain assessment capabilities through a targeted inter-professional clinical education intervention delivered to participants' mobile devices ('mHealth'). METHODS:A wait-listed, randomised control trial design. Cancer and/or palliative care physicians and nurses employed at one of the six participating sites across Australia will be eligible to participate in this trial and, on enrolment, will be allocated to the active or wait-listed arm. Participants allocated to the active arm will be invited to complete the mHealth cancer pain assessment intervention. In this trial, mHealth is defined as medical or public health practice supported by mobile devices (i.e. phones, patient monitoring devices, personal digital assistants and other wireless devices). This mHealth intervention integrates three evidence-based elements, namely: the COM-B theoretical framework; spaced learning pedagogy; and audit and feedback. This intervention will be delivered via the QStream online platform to participants' mobile devices over four weeks. The trial will determine if a tailored mHealth intervention, targeting clinicians' cancer pain assessment capabilities, is effective in reducing self-reported cancer pain scores, as measured by a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). DISCUSSION:If this mHealth intervention is found to be effective, in addition to improving cancer pain ...
Lam, LT & Wong, EMY 2018, 'Factors associated with the social competence and emotional well-being among young children in an Asian urban city', Early Child Development and Care, vol. 188, no. 3, pp. 336-344.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis GroupThis cross-sectional observational study aims to examine the current status and familial factors associated with social competence and emotional well-being among young children in an urban city in the East Asia region. Early childhood teachers assessed the social competence and the emotional state of preschool children with the Social Competence and Behavioural Evaluation (SCBE-30) Scale. Data were analysed with multiple regression modelling. Results suggested few variables were significantly associated with social competence. These included being a boy, aged 5 years or older, had more than one sibling, whose mother spoke a language other than the local language, and whose carers were not biological parents. Being a male with a mother who spoke a language other than the local language was associated with anger–aggression, while parental work arrangement was the only variable associated with anxiety–withdrawal. Results have a direct implication on the individual and structural levels of child care and early childhood education.
Lam, LT, Lam, MK, Benrimoj, C & Cardens, VG 2018, 'Application of the Social Network Analysis to Better Comprehend Relationships in Qualitative Health Data.', Studies in health technology and informatics, vol. 252, pp. 86-91.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
OBJECTIVE:To explore social network analysis (SNA) as an additional approach to elucidate quantifiable insight from qualitative health-related textual data. METHODS:Key concepts gained from thematic analyses of a set of qualitative health data obtained from an implementation study was analysed using the Excel Add-on module NodeXL. RESULTS:Our results show that SNA provided useful visualisation and quantifiable information of the relationship between key concepts obtained from the thematic analysis. DISCUSSION:SNA is a useful technique for exploring and analysing qualitative data, particularly when the research interest is in complex relationships that may exist among a large number of qualitative variables. In addition to providing a way to visualise the relationship between concepts, SNA provides metric measures that can be further analysed quantitatively. CONCLUSION:The SNA approach allows researchers to explore deeper relationships that may exist among various variables and enable researchers to derive potentially a fuller and more complete appreciation and comprehension of health-related data.
Soundappan, SS, Karpelowsky, J, Lam, A, Lam, L & Cass, D 2018, 'Diagnostic accuracy of surgeon performed ultrasound (SPU) for appendicitis in children', JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 2023-2027.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Piper, SE, Bailey, PE, Lam, LT & Kneebone, II 2018, 'Predictors of mental health literacy in older people', ARCHIVES OF GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS, vol. 79, pp. 52-56.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clark, K, Lam, L, Talley, NJ, Watts, G, Phillips, JL, Byfieldt, NJ & Currow, DC 2018, 'A pragmatic comparative study of palliative care clinician's reports of the degree of shadowing visible on plain abdominal radiographs.', Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 26.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The assessment of constipation symptoms is based on history and physical examination. However, the experience is highly subjective perhaps explaining why palliative medicine doctors continue to use plain abdominal radiographs as part of routine assessment of constipation. Previous studies have demonstrated poor agreement between clinicians with this work in palliative care, limited further by disparity of clinicians' experience and training. The aim of this work was to explore whether there was less variation in the assessments of faecal shadowing made by more experienced clinicians compared to their less experienced colleagues. This pragmatic study was conducted across six palliative care services in Sydney (NSW, Australia). Doctors of varying clinical experience were asked to independently report their opinions of the amount of shadowing seen on 10 plain abdominal radiographs all taken from cancer patients who self-identified themselves as constipated. There were 46 doctors of varying clinical experience who participated including qualified specialists, doctors in specialist training and lastly, doctors in their second- and third post-graduate years. Poor agreement was seen between the faecal shadowing scores allocated by doctors of similar experience and training (Fleiss's kappa (FK): RMO 0.05; registrar 0.06; specialist 0.11). Further, when the levels of agreement between groups were considered, no statistically significant differences were observed. Although the doctors did not agree on the appearance of the film, the majority felt they were able to extrapolate patients' experiences from the radiograph's appearance. As it remains challenging in palliative care to objectively assess and diagnose constipation by history and imaging, uniform and objective assessment and diagnostic criteria are required. It is likely that any agreed criteria will include a combination of imaging and history. The results suggest the use of radiographs alone to diagnose and assess...
Ferreira, DH, Boland, JW, Phillips, JL, Lam, L & Currow, DC 2018, 'The impact of therapeutic opioid agonists on driving-related psychomotor skills assessed by a driving simulator or an on-road driving task: A systematic review.', Palliative Medicine, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 786-803.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Driving cessation is associated with poor health-related outcomes. People with chronic diseases are often prescribed long-term opioid agonists that have the potential to impair driving. Studies evaluating the impact of opioids on driving-related psychomotor skills report contradictory results likely due to heterogeneous designs, assessment tools and study populations. A better understanding of the effects of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on driving can help to inform the balance between individual's independence and community safety.To identify the literature assessing the impact of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on driving-related psychomotor skills for people with chronic pain or chronic breathlessness.Systematic review reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis statement; PROSPERO Registration CRD42017055909.Six electronic databases and grey literature were systematically searched up to January, 2017. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) empirical studies reporting data on driving simulation, on-the-road driving tasks or driving outcomes; (2) people with chronic pain or chronic breathlessness; and (3) taking regular therapeutic opioid agonists. Critical appraisal used the National Institutes of Health's quality assessment tools.From 3809 records screened, three studies matched the inclusion criteria. All reported data on people with chronic non-malignant pain. No significant impact of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on people's driving-related psychomotor skills was reported. One study reported more intense pain significantly worsened driving performance.This systematic review does not identify impaired simulated driving performance when people take regular therapeutic opioid agonists for symptom control, although more prospective studies are needed.
Luckett, T, Phillips, J, Agar, M, Lam, L, Davidson, PM, McCaffrey, N, Boyle, F, Shaw, T, Currow, DC, Read, A, Hosie, A & Lovell, M 2018, 'Protocol for a phase III pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening and guidelines with, versus without, implementation strategies for improving pain in adults with cancer attending outpatient oncology and palliative care services: the Stop Cancer PAIN trial', BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, vol. 18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Phillips, JL, Heneka, N, Hickman, L & Lam, L 2018, 'Self-Perceived Pain Assessment Knowledge and Confidence (Self-PAC) Scale for Cancer and Palliative Care Nurses: a Preliminary Validation Study.', Pain Management Nursing, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 819-626.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
BACKGROUND:Pain is highly prevalent in all health care settings, and frequently poorly managed. Effective pain management is predicated on a continuous cycle of screening, assessing, intervening and evaluating. Identifying gaps in nurses' self-perceived pain assessment competencies is an essential first step in the design of tailored interventions to embed effective pain assessment into routine clinical practice, and improve patient reported pain outcomes. Yet, few validated instruments focus on the competencies required for undertaking a comprehensive pain assessment, with most focusing on clinician's pain management competencies. AIM:To examine the validity of the 'Self-Perceived Pain Assessment Knowledge and Confidence' (Self-PAC) Scale. DESIGN:Preliminary instrument validation. SETTING:Two Australian cancer and palliative care services. PARTICIPANTS/SUBJECTS:186 cancer and palliative care nurses. METHODS:The Self-PAC Scale was administered to participants online. Factor Analyses, including Exploratory and Confirmatory, were applied to examine the structural validity, Cronbach's alpha was calculated for internal consistency. Criterion validity was investigated by comparing responses from experienced and non-experienced nurses. RESULTS:Two components resulted with a single factor structure for pain assessment confidence and a two-factor structure for the knowledge of pain assessment. The factor loading for the subscales ranged from 0.653 to 0.969, with large proportions of the variances explained by the factors. Cronbach's alpha of the subscales ranged from 0.87-0.92 and significant difference in responses were found between experienced and non-experienced nurses. CONCLUSION:Preliminary validation of the Self-PAC Scale suggests that it is a helpful instrument for assessing cancer and palliative care nurse' pain assessment competencies.
Vongmany, J, Luckett, T, Lam, L & Phillips, JL 2018, 'Family behaviours that have an impact on the self-management activities of adults living with Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.', Diabetic Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 184-194.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
To identify family behaviours that adults with Type 2 diabetes' perceive as having an impact on their diabetes self-management.Research suggests that adults with Type 2 diabetes perceive that family members have an important impact on their self-management; however, it is unclear which family behaviours are perceived to influence self-management practices.This meta-synthesis identified and synthesized qualitative studies from the databases EMBASE, Medline and CINAHL published between the year 2000 and October 2016. Studies were eligible if they provided direct quotations from adults with Type 2 diabetes, describing the influence of families on their self-management. This meta-synthesis adheres to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement.Of the 2606 studies screened, 40 were included. This meta-synthesis identified that adults with Type 2 diabetes perceive family behaviours to be either: 1) facilitators of diabetes self-management; 2) barriers to diabetes self-management; or 3) equivocal behaviours with the potential to both support and/or impede diabetes self-management. Seven sub-themes were identified within these themes, including: four facilitator sub-themes ('positive care partnerships'; 'family watchfulness'; 'families as extrinsic motivator' and 'independence from family'); two barrier sub-themes ('obstructive behaviours' and 'limited capacity for family support'); and one equivocal behaviours subtheme ('regular reminders and/or nagging').While most family behaviours are unambiguously perceived by adults with Type 2 diabetes to act as facilitators of or barriers to self-management, some behaviours were perceived as being neither clear facilitators nor barriers; these were termed 'equivocal behaviours'. If the concept of 'equivocal behaviours' is confirmed, it may be possible to encourage the adult living with Type 2 diabetes to reframe these behaviours so that they are perceived as enabling their diabetes se...
Hatano, Y, Matsuoka, H, Lam, L & Currow, DC 2018, 'Side effects of corticosteroids in patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review', SUPPORTIVE CARE IN CANCER, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 3979-3983.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Boyce, MJ, Lam, L, Chang, F, Mahant, N, Fung, VSC & Bradnam, L 2017, 'Validation of Fear of Falling and Balance Confidence Assessment Scales in Persons With Dystonia.', Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 239-244.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Falls are problematic for people living with neurological disorders and a fear of falling can impact on actual falls. Fear of falling is commonly assessed using the Falls Self-Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) or the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. These scales can predict risk of falling. We aimed to validate the FES-I and the ABC in persons with dystonia.We conducted an online survey of people with dystonia, collecting information on demographics, 6-month falls history, dystonia disability, and the FES-I and ABC scales. Scales were validated for structural validity and internal consistency. We also examined goodness-of-fit, convergent validity, and predictive validity, and determined cutoff scores for predicting falls risk.Survey responses (n = 122) showed that both FES-I and ABC scales have high internal validity and convergent validity with the Functional Disability Questionnaire in persons with dystonia. Each scale examines a single factor, fear of falling (FES-I) and balance confidence (ABC). At least one fall was reported by 39% of participants; the cutoff value for falls risk was found to be 29.5 and 71.3 for the FES-I and the ABC respectively.The FES-I and the ABC scales are valid scales to examine fear of falling and balance confidence in persons with dystonia. Fear of falling is high and balance confidence is low and both are worse in those with dystonia who have previously fallen.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A182).
Lam, LT & Lam, MK 2017, 'The association between financial literacy and Problematic Internet Shopping in a multinational sample', Addictive Behaviors Reports, vol. 6, pp. 123-127.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 The Authors Purpose To examine the association between financial literacy and Problematic Internet Shopping in adults. Methods This cross-sectional online survey recruited participants, aged between 18 and 60 years, through an online research facility. The sample consisted of multinational participants from mainly three continents including Europe, North America, and Asia. Problematic Internet Shopping was assessed using the Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale (BSAS). Financial Literacy was measured by the Financial Literacy subscale of the Financial Wellbeing Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to elucidate the relationship between the study and outcome variables with adjustment for other potential risk factors. Results Of the total of 997 respondents with an average age of 30.9 (s.d. = 8.8), 135 (13.8%) could be classified as having a high risk of being Problematic Internet Shoppers. Results from the multiple regression analyses suggested a significant and negative relationship between financial literacy and Problematic Internet Shopping with a regression coefficient of − 0.13, after controlling for the effects of potential risk factors such as age, region of birth, employment, income, shopping frequency, self-regulation and anxiety (t = − 6.42, p < 0.001). Conclusions The clinical management of PIS should include a financial counselling as a component of the treatment regime. Enhancement of financial literacy in the general population, particularly among young people, will likely have a positive effect on the occurrence of PIS.
Lam, LT & Wong, EMY 2017, 'Enhancing social-emotional well-being in young children through improving teachers' social-emotional competence and curriculum design in Hong Kong', International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aimed to evaluate an intervention programme for the enhancement of social-emotional well-being of young children through improving the social-emotional competence of kindergarten teachers and a specifically designed curriculum, in an urban city in the East Asia region. The design and some preliminary results on the outcome evaluations of the intervention programme are reported in this paper. The design of the intervention programme was based on the conceptual framework of the evidence-based Wisconsin Pyramid Model for Supporting Social Emotional Competence in Infants and Young Children. Kindergarten teachers and children under their care were recruited using a random cluster sampling technique with teachers undergoing a training programme for 2 months with hands on workshops. The social-emotional well-being of preschool children was assessed with the Social Competence and Behavioural Evaluation (SCBE-30) Scale pre- and post-intervention. Changes in outcome measures that compared assessments between baseline and post-intervention were analysed with adjustment to clustering effects. Results suggested a statistically significant improvement in social competence and reduction to anxiety-withdrawal and anger-aggression after intervention. These results were indicative of a potentially successful intervention programme that would require a proper trail to establish its efficacy.
Luckett, T, Spencer, L, Morton, RL, Pollock, CA, Lam, L, Silvester, W, Sellars, M, Detering, KM, Butow, PN, Tong, A & Clayton, JM 2017, 'Advance care planning in chronic kidney disease: A survey of current practice in Australia.', Nephrology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 139-149.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Advancse care planning (ACP) in nephrology is widely advocated but not always implemented. The aims of this study were to describe current ACP practice, identify barriers/facilitators and perceived need for health professional education and chronic kidney disease (CKD)-specific approaches.An anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered online. Nephrology health professionals in Australia and New Zealand were recruited via professional societies, email lists and nephrology conferences. Multiple regression explored the influence of respondents' attributes on extent of involvement in ACP and willingness to engage in future.375 respondents included nephrologists (23%), nurses (65%), social workers (4%) and others (8%). 54% indicated that ACP at their workplace was performed ad-hoc and 61% poorly. Perceived barriers included patient/family discomfort (84%), difficulty engaging families (83%), lack of clinician expertise (83%) and time (82%), health professional discomfort (72%), cultural/language barriers (65%), lack of private space (61%) and lack of formal policy/procedures (60%). Respondents overwhelmingly endorsed the need for more dialysis-specific ACP programs (96%) and education (95%). Whilst 85% thought ACP would be optimally performed by specially-trained staff, comments emphasized that all clinicians should have a working proficiency. Respondents who were more willing to engage in future ACP tended to be non-physicians (Odds ratio [OR] 4.96, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.74-14.07) and reported a greater need for CKD-specific ACP materials (OR 10.88, 95% CI 2.38-49.79).ACP in nephrology needs support through education and CKD-specific resources. Endorsement by nephrologists is important. A multi-disciplinary approach with a gradient of ACP expertise is also recommended.
Clark, K, Lam, LT, Talley, NJ, Phillips, JL & Currow, DC 2017, 'Identifying Factors That Predict Worse Constipation Symptoms in Palliative Care Patients: A Secondary Analysis.', Journal of Palliative Medicine, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 528-532.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to investigate whether variables identified as likely to impact the experience of constipation in other clinical settings similarly affected the experiences of constipated palliative care patients. BACKGROUND: The majority of palliative care patients with cancer are likely to be bothered by constipation symptoms at some point in their disease trajectory. Despite this, it remains unclear as to which factors predict more severe problems. METHODS: This study was conducted in a sample of 94 constipated palliative care patients who were asked to voluntarily complete a series of questions regarding their demographic and other characteristics, including whether they had chronic constipation symptoms, that is, constipation symptoms for 12 months. Other variables included age, body mass index, sex, performance status, and regular opioids and their doses. At the same time, they were asked to complete the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms (PAC-SYM) and Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) questionnaires. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics summarized baseline data. Unadjusted associations between the selected variables on PAC-SYM were examined by using bi-variate analyses. Significant variables identified on bi-variate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The final results identified that only the chronicity of constipation symptoms predicted more severe symptoms. This relationship persisted when this single variable was retained in the final model, illustrating that PAC-SYM scores are 0.41 higher in patients with chronic constipation compared with those without it (p = 0.02). In contrast, regular opioid use was not identified as a significant factor (p = 0.56). DISCUSSION: This study suggests that the factor most likely to predict worse constipation symptoms was the duration that people had experienced problems. Further, those who perceived their constipation symptoms to be more severe had a po...
Phillips, JL, Heneka, N, Hickman, L, Lam, L & Shaw, T 2017, 'Can A Complex Online Intervention Improve Cancer Nurses' Pain Screening and Assessment Practices? Results from a Multicenter, Pre-post Test Pilot Study.', Pain Management Nursing, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 75-89.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Unrelieved cancer pain has an adverse impact on quality of life. While routine screening and assessment forms the basis of effective cancer pain management, it is often poorly done, thus contributing to the burden of unrelieved cancer pain. The aim of this study was to test the impact of an online, complex, evidence-based educational intervention on cancer nurses' pain assessment capabilities and adherence to cancer pain screening and assessment guidelines. Specialist inpatient cancer nurses in five Australian acute care settings participated in an intervention combining an online spaced learning cancer pain assessment module with audit and feedback of pain assessment practices. Participants' self-perceived pain assessment competencies were measured at three time points. Prospective, consecutive chart audits were undertaken to appraise nurses' adherence with pain screening and assessment guidelines. The differences in documented pre-post pain assessment practices were benchmarked and fed back to all sites post intervention. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Participants who completed the intervention (n = 44) increased their pain assessment knowledge, assessment tool knowledge, and confidence undertaking a pain assessment (p < .001). The positive changes in nurses' pain assessment capabilities translated into a significant increasing linear trend in the proportion of documented pain assessments in patients' charts at the three time points (χ(2) trend = 18.28, df = 1, p < .001). There is evidence that learning content delivered using a spaced learning format, augmented with pain assessment audit and feedback data, improves inpatient cancer nurses' self-perceived pain screening and assessment capabilities and strengthens cancer pain guideline adherence.
Currow, D, Watts, GJ, Johnson, M, McDonald, CF, Miners, JO, Somogyi, AA, Denehy, L, McCaffrey, N, Eckert, DJ, McCloud, P, Louw, S, Lam, L, Greene, A, Fazekas, B, Clark, KC, Fong, K, Agar, MR, Joshi, R, Kilbreath, S, Ferreira, D, Ekström, M & Australian national Palliative Care Clinical Studies Collaborative (PaCCSC) 2017, 'A pragmatic, phase III, multisite, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, dose increment randomised trial of regular, low-dose extended-release morphine for chronic breathlessness: Breathlessness, Exertion And Morphine Sulfate (BEAMS) study protocol.', BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1-19.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
INTRODUCTION: Chronic breathlessness is highly prevalent and distressing to patients and families. No medication is registered for its symptomatic reduction. The strongest evidence is for regular, low-dose, extended- release (ER) oral morphine. A recent large phase III study suggests the subgroup most likely to benefit have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and modified Medical Research Council breathlessness scores of 3 or 4. This protocol is for an adequately powered, parallel-arm, placebo-controlled, multisite, factorial, block-randomised study evaluating regular ER morphine for chronic breathlessness in people with COPD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The primary question is what effect regular ER morphine has on worst breathlessness, measured daily on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Uniquely, the coprimary outcome will use a FitBit to measure habitual physical activity. Secondary questions include safety and, whether upward titration after initial benefit delivers greater net symptom reduction. Substudies include longitudinal driving simulation, sleep, caregiver, health economic and pharmacogenetic studies. Seventeen centres will recruit 171 participants from respiratory and palliative care. The study has five phases including three randomisation phases to increasing doses of ER morphine. All participants will receive placebo or active laxatives as appropriate. Appropriate statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be used. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, findings presented at relevant conferences and potentially used to inform registration of ER morphine for chronic breathlessness. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02720822; Pre-results.
Middleton, S, Gardner, A, Della, PR, Lam, L, Allnutt, N & Gardner, G 2016, 'How has the profile of Australian nurse practitioners changed over time?', COLLEGIAN, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 69-77.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hosie, A, Lobb, E, Agar, M, Davidson, P, Chye, R, Lam, L & Phillips, J 2016, 'Measuring delirium point-prevalence in two Australian palliative care inpatient units', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PALLIATIVE NURSING, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 13-21.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Johnson, MJ, Booth, S, Currow, DC, Lam, LT & Phillips, JL 2016, 'A Mixed-Methods, Randomized, Controlled Feasibility Trial to Inform the Design of a Phase III Trial to Test the Effect of the Handheld Fan on Physical Activity and Carer Anxiety in Patients With Refractory Breathlessness', JOURNAL OF PAIN AND SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 807-815.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Luckett, TR, Phillips, J, Lintzeris, N, Allsop, D, Lee, J, Solowij, N, Martin, J, Lam, L, Aggarwal, R, McCaffrey, N, Currow, D, Chye, R, Lovell, M, McGregor, I & Agar, M 2016, 'Clinical trials of medicinal cannabis for appetite-related symptoms from advanced cancer: A survey of preferences, attitudes and beliefs among patients willing to consider participation', Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1269-1275.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clark, K, Lam, LT, Talley, NJ, Quinn, J, Blight, A, Byfieldt, N & Currow, DC 2016, 'Assessing the Presence and Severity of Constipation with Plain Radiographs in Constipated Palliative Care Patients', JOURNAL OF PALLIATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 617-621.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Watts, GJ, Clark, K, Agar, M, Davidson, PM, McDonald, C, Lam, LT, Sajkov, D, McCaffrey, N, Doogue, M, Abernethy, AP & Currow, DC 2016, 'Study protocol: a phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel arm, stratified, block randomised, placebo-controlled trial investigating the clinical effect and cost-effectiveness of sertraline for the palliative relief of breathlessness in people with chronic breathlessness', BMJ OPEN, vol. 6, no. 11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Lam, LT & Lam, MKP 2015, 'Competency of health information acquisition and intention for active health behaviour in children', International Archives of Medicine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Objective: To investigate the association between competency of health information acquisition, both online and offline, and the intention for active health behaviour in children. Methods: This study was a population-based cross-sectional health survey utilising a two-stage random cluster sampling design conducted in a major city. Competency of health information acquisition was assessed by a rating scale designed specifically for this study. The intention for active health behaviour was measured by a vignettebased question. Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression modelling techniques with adjustment to the cluster sampling effect and potential confounding factors. Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors and the cluster sampling effect, intention for active health behaviour was significantly associated with competency of health information acquisition both online (OR=1.06, 95%C.I.=1.01-1.12) and offline (OR=1.08, 95%C.I.=1.02-1.18). Conclusions: Results suggested a positive relationship between competency of health information acquisition, both online and offline, and the intention for active health behaviour which have important public health implications on child health behaviour.
Lam, LT & Wong, EMY 2015, 'Stress Moderates the Relationship Between Problematic Internet Use by Parents and Problematic Internet Use by Adolescents', JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 300-306.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© European Federation of Adapted Physical Activity, 2015. This study aimed to explore the patterns, characteristics, and perceived risk factors of sports-related injuries among Paralympic athletes. One hundred and sixty Chinese athletes with either physical disabilities or visual impairments participating at a province-level Paralympic Games were recruited. Data on the occurrence of injuries during training and competitions were collected using a self-reported injury form. Of the 160 respondents, 82 (51%) reported a sports-related injury with track and field being the most commonly reported place of injury and lower limbs (77%) the most reported body area in young athletes with disabilities. Tried and not in condition (50%), decline in muscle coordination (35%), overtraining (39%), anxiety/overexcitement (39%), weather (46%), and lack of awareness for self-protection (43%) were nominated as main risk factors of injuries. Anxiety/overexcitement was perceived as a major cause resulting in moderate and severe injuries. It was concluded that the prevalence of injury among Chinese Paralympic athletes involving in the province-level Paralympic Games was relatively high. Risk factors especially for training volume, anxiety/overexcitement, weather, and self-protection awareness should be considered when planning injury prevention strategies.
Knowles, S, Lam, LT, McInnes, E, Elliott, D, Hardy, J & Middleton, S 2015, 'Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviour intentions for three bowel management practices in intensive care: effects of a targeted protocol implementation for nursing and medical staff.', BMC Nursing, vol. 14, no. 6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: Bowel management protocols have the potential to minimize complications for critically ill patients. Targeted implementation can increase the uptake of protocols by clinicians into practice. The theory of planned behaviour offers a framework in which to investigate clinicians' intention to perform the behaviour of interest. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of implementing a bowel management protocol on intensive care nursing and medical staffs' knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, behaviour intentions, role perceptions and past behaviours in relation to three bowel management practices. METHODS: A descriptive before and after survey using a self-administered questionnaire sent to nursing and medical staff working within three intensive care units before and after implementation of our bowel management protocol (pre: May - June 2008; post: Feb - May 2009). RESULTS: Participants had significantly higher knowledge scores post-implementation of our protocol (pre mean score 17.6; post mean score 19.3; p = 0.004). Post-implementation there was a significant increase in: self-reported past behaviour (pre mean score 5.38; post mean score 7.11; p = 0.002) and subjective norms scores (pre mean score 3.62; post mean score 4.18; p = 0.016) for bowel assessment; and behaviour intention (pre mean score 5.22; post mean score 5.65; p = 0.048) for administration of enema. CONCLUSION: This evaluation, informed by the theory of planned behaviour, has provided useful insights into factors that influence clinician intentions to perform evidence-based bowel management practices in intensive care. Addressing factors such as knowledge, attitudes and beliefs can assist in targeting implementation strategies to positively affect clinician behaviour change. Despite an increase in clinicians' knowledge scores, our implementation strategy did not, however, significantly change clinician behaviour intentions for all three bowel management pr...
Ho, RC, Zhang, MW, Tsang, TY, Toh, AH, Pan, F, Lu, Y, Cheng, C, Yip, PS, Lam, LT, Lai, CM, Watanabe, H & Mak, KK 2014, 'The association between internet addiction and psychiatric co-morbidity: a meta-analysis.', BMC Psychiatry, vol. 14, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the association between Internal Addiction (IA) and psychiatric co-morbidity in the literature. METHODS: Meta-analyses were conducted on cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies which examined the relationship between IA and psychiatric co-morbidity. Selected studies were extracted from major online databases. The inclusion criteria are as follows: 1) studies conducted on human subjects; 2) IA and psychiatric co-morbidity were assessed by standardised questionnaires; and 3) availability of adequate information to calculate the effect size. Random-effects models were used to calculate the aggregate prevalence and the pooled odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: Eight studies comprising 1641 patients suffering from IA and 11210 controls were included. Our analyses demonstrated a significant and positive association between IA and alcohol abuse (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.14-4.37, z = 6.12, P < 0.001), attention deficit and hyperactivity (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 2.15-3.77, z = 7.27, P < 0.001), depression (OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 2.04-3.75, z = 6.55, P < 0.001) and anxiety (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.46-4.97, z = 3.18, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: IA is significantly associated with alcohol abuse, attention deficit and hyperactivity, depression and anxiety.
Lam, LT 2014, 'Internet gaming addiction, problematic use of the internet, and sleep problems: a systematic review.', Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 16, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The effect of problematic use of the Internet on mental health, particularly depression among young people, has been established but without a probable model for the underlying mechanism. In this study, a model is presented to describe possible pathways for the linkage between Internet gaming addiction and depression possibly mediated by sleep problems. A systematic review was conducted to gather epidemiological evidence to support or refute the link between addictive Internet gaming, problematic Internet use, and sleep problems including insomnia and poor sleep quality. Seven studies were identified through a systematic literature search, of these three related to addictive Internet gaming and four on problematic Internet uses and sleep problems. Information was extracted and analysed systematically from each of the studies and tabulated as a summary. Results of the review suggest that additive gaming, particularly massively multiplayer online role-playing games MMORPG, might be associated with poorer quality of sleep. Results further indicated that problematic Internet use was associated with sleep problems including subjective insomnia and poor sleep quality.
Lam, LT 2014, 'Mental health literacy and mental health status in adolescents: A population-based survey', Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Â© 2014 Lam. Background: This study aims to investigate the association between mental health literacy and the mental health status, particularly depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a population-based health survey utilising a two-stage sampling technique. Mental health literacy was measured by the Australian National Mental Health Literacy and Stigma Youth Survey with the depression vignette only. Depression was assessed by the Depression sub-scale of the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale. Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression modelling techniques with adjustment for cluster sampling effect. Results: A total of 1678 students responded to the survey providing usable information. Only 275 (16.4%) respondents were classified as having an adequate mental health literacy level with correct identification of depression and also intended to seek help, with 392 (23.4%) of the total sample correctly identified the vignette as depression. Two hundred and forty eight (14.8%) were classified to have moderate to severe depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis results suggested that young people who had experienced moderate to severe level of depression in the week prior to the survey were more likely to have an inadequate level of MHL (OR = 1.52, 95% C.I. = 1.01-2.31) after adjusting for a potential confounding factors and cluster sampling effects. Conclusions: Results suggested that mental health literacy level was associated with mental health status, particularly depression of young people. The results have important implications, both clinically and on a population level, on the prevention of mental health problems and for the improvement of the mental health status of adolescents.
Lam, LT 2014, 'Risk factors of Internet addiction and the health effect of internet addiction on adolescents: a systematic review of longitudinal and prospective studies.', Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Internet gaming addiction was included in the latest version of the DSM-V as a possible disorder recently, while debate is still on-going as to whether the condition called "Internet Addiction" (IA) could be fully recognised as an established disorder. The major contention is how well IA could fulfil the validation criteria as a psychiatric disorder as in other well-established behavioural addictions. In addition to various proposed validation criteria, evidence of risk and protective factors as well as development of outcomes from longitudinal and prospective studies are suggested as important. A systematic review of available longitudinal and prospective studies was conducted to gather epidemiological evidence on risk and protective factors of IA and the health effect of IA on adolescents. Nine articles were identified after an extensive search of the literature in accordance to the PRISMA guidelines. Of these, eight provided data on risk or protective factors of IA and one focused solely on the effects of IA on mental health. Information was extracted and analysed systematically from each study and tabulated. Many exposure variables were studied and could be broadly classified into three main categories: psychopathologies of the participants, family and parenting factors, and others such as Internet usage, motivation, and academic performance. Some were found to be potential risk or protective factors of IA. It was also found that exposure to IA had a detrimental effect on the mental health of young people. These results were discussed in light of their implications to the fulfilment of the validation criteria.
Lam, LT & Yang, L 2014, 'Is low health literacy associated with overweight and obesity in adolescents: an epidemiology study in a 12-16 years old population, Nanning, China, 2012.', Archives of Public Health, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: The problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is considered an epidemic in both developed and developing world by the WHO. There has been little study on the relationship between health literacy and body weight among adolescents.This epidemiological study aims to investigate the association between low health literacy and overweight and obesity among a population of Chinese adolescents aged 12-16 years in the city of Nanning, China in 2012. METHODS: This study was a population-based cross-sectional health survey utilising a two-stage random cluster sampling design. The sample consisted of high school students aged between 12-16 years with the total student population attending high schools in a large city as the sample frame. Health literacy was measured by the Chinese version of the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy translated for and validated among Taiwanese adolescents. Overweight and obesity were assessed in accordance to the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database of Body Mass Index classification methods. Data were analysed using logistic regression modelling techniques with adjustment to the cluster sampling effect. RESULTS: A total of 1035 students responded to the survey providing usable information with 628 (48.1%) respondents classified as high, 558 (42.8%) moderate, and 119 (9.1%) low levels of health literacy. After adjusting for potential confounding factors and the cluster sampling effect, low health literacy was significantly associated with overweight and obesity (OR = 1.84, 95% C.I. = 1.13-2.99). CONCLUSION: Results suggested that low health literacy level was associated with many aspects of adolescence health including their body weight. These results have public health implications on an important global problem of adolescence body weight. Enhancing the health literacy should be considered as part of the strategies in combating adolescence weight problem.
Phillips, JL, Heneka, NA, Hickman, L, Lam, L & Shaw, T 2014, 'Impact of a novel online learning module on specialist palliative care nurses' pain assessment competencies and patients' reports of pain: Results from a quasi-experimental pilot study', Palliative Medicine, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 521-529.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background: Pain is a complex multidimensional phenomenon moderated by consumer, provider and health system factors. Effective pain management cuts across professional boundaries, with failure to screen and assess contributing to the burden of unrelieved pain.
Phillips, JL, Lam, L, Luckett, T, Agar, M & Currow, D 2014, 'Is the Life Space Assessment applicable to a palliative care population? : A brief methodological report on its relationship to measures of performance and quality of life. Brief Methodological Report.', Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1121-1127.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The spatial environments that palliative care patients frequent for business and leisure constrict as their disease progresses and their physical functioning deteriorates. Measuring a persons movement within his or her own environment is a clinically relevant and patient-centered outcome because it measures function in a way that reflects actual and not theoretical participation.
Clark, K, Lam, L, Currow, DC & Agar, M 2014, 'A Prospective Study to Investigate Contributory Factors That Lead to Constipation in Palliative Care Patients', JOURNAL OF PAIN AND SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. E1-E4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT & Li, Y 2013, 'The Validation of the Chinese Aggression and Victimization Scale (CAVS) for Adolescents', Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 301-308.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The psychometric properties of the Chinese Aggression and Victimization Scale (CAVS) were examined among 484 adolescents aged between 11 and 16 years. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was applied and the goodness of fit of the model to the data was determined using multiple criteria. Results confirmed a two-factor structure which fitted well with the data. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for age and sex yielded evidence for good internal reliability with values ranging from 0.63 to 0.88 that were not affected by age or sex. The convergent validity was investigated by correlations among the CAVS and the CES-Depression for Children, Zung's Anxiety Scale, and the Self-Esteem Scale. Results showed that both subscales and the total scale were positively and significantly correlated with depression and anxiety, but negatively related to the Self-Esteem scale. The CAVS is a valid instrument for measuring aggressive behavior and victimization among adolescents. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Lam, LT & Li, Y 2013, 'The validation of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for adolescents', COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Lam, LT, Cheng, Z & Liu, X 2013, 'Violent Online Games Exposure and Cyberbullying/Victimization Among Adolescents', CYBERPSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL NETWORKING, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 159-165.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Waters, K, Kol-Castro, C, Varghese, A, Lam, LT, Prelog, K & Cheng, A 2013, 'Correlations between polysomnographic and lateral airway radiograph measurements in paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea', JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 445-451.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Luckett, T, Davidson, PM, Lam, L, Phillips, JL, Currow, D & Agar, M 2013, 'Do Community Specialist Palliative Care Services That Provide Home Nursing Increase Rates of Home Death for People with Life-Limiting Illnesses? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies', Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 279-297.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Context. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that community specialist palliative care services (SPCSs) can avoid hospitalizations and enable home deaths. But more information is needed regarding the relative efficacies of different models. Family caregivers highlight home nursing as the most important service, but it is also likely the most costly.
Avakian, Z, Shiraev, T, Lam, L & Hope, N 2012, 'Dynamic hip screws versus proximal femoral nails for intertrochanteric fractures', ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, vol. 82, no. 1-2, pp. 56-59.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Duff, J, Di Staso, R, Cobbe, K-A, Draper, N, Tan, S, Halliday, E, Middleton, S, Lam, L & Walker, K 2012, 'Preventing hypothermia in elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery patients: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial', BMC SURGERY, vol. 12.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Lam, MK & Lam, LT 2012, 'Health information-seeking behaviour on the Internet and health literacy among older Australians', ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF HEALTH INFORMATICS, vol. 7, no. 2.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Sandler, G, Soundappan, SSV, Manglick, MP, Fahy, FE, Ross, F, Lam, L & Cass, D 2012, 'Pediatric "Off-Road Vehicle" Trauma Determinants of Injury Severity and Type', PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1328-1333.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Smith, TA, Davidson, PM, Lam, LT, Jenkins, CR & Ingham, JM 2012, 'The use of non-invasive ventilation for the relief of dyspnoea in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; a systematic review', Respirology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 300-307.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background and objective: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves outcomes in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD); however, the efficacy in relieving dyspnoea is uncertain. The objective of this systematic review was to identify, synthesize and interpret the data regarding the relief of dyspnoea afforded by NIV in patients admitted with acute respiratory failure occurring during AECOPD. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing usual medical care (UMC) to UMC plus NIV and reporting dyspnoea as a patient-reported outcome were identified by searching relevant databases and manual searching. The full text of potentially relevant articles was retrieved. Data describing the impact of NIV on dyspnoea was extracted. Results: Four RCTs met the review criteria.One found NIV did not relieve dyspnoea. The other three RCTs reported NIV relieving dyspnoea. The degree of dyspnoea relief was clinically significant in two of these three studies. However, in all but one RCT, methodological or reporting limitations constrain the confidence that can be had in this conclusion. Conclusions: Limited data exist to determine if NIV relieves subjective dyspnoea in AECOPD. Due to limitations in these studies, it is not possible to definitively conclude if NIV relieves dyspnoea. Standardized reporting and analysis of patient reported outcomes will facilitate objective comparisons of interventions with respect to symptom relief. Future studies involving NIV should routinely incorporate patient reported outcomes in order to answer the important clinical question: 'Does NIV relieve dyspnoea?'
To, THM, Clark, K, Lam, L, Shelby-James, T & Currow, DC 2012, 'The Role of Ondansetron in the Management of Cholestatic or Uremic Pruritusd-A Systematic Review', JOURNAL OF PAIN AND SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 725-730.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Abeyasundara, SL, Rajan, V, Lam, L, Harvey, JG & Holland, AJA 2011, 'The Changing Pattern of Pediatric Burns', JOURNAL OF BURN CARE & RESEARCH, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 178-184.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Peng, ZW, Lam, LT & Jin, G 2011, 'Factors associated with social interaction anxiety among Chinese adolescents', East Asian Archives of Psychiatry, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 135-141.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Objectives: To investigate potential risk factors for social anxiety, particularly social interaction anxiety among the Chinese adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional health survey was conducted in Guangzhou city of the Guangdong Province where high school students aged 13 to 18 years were recruited. The sample was selected from all high schools in the city using a 2-stage random cluster sampling technique. Social interaction anxiety was assessed using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Information collected in the survey included: demographics, self-perception on school performance, relationship with teachers and peers, satisfaction with self-image, achievements, and parenting style of the mother. The parent-child relationship, specifically the relationship between respondents and their mothers, was assessed using the mother attachment subscale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The multiple linear regression technique was applied to investigate associations between selected potential risk factors and social interaction anxiety, with adjustments for cluster sampling. Results: Lower family income, lower self-esteem, and hostility were significantly associated with social interaction anxiety among adolescents. Variables identified as risk factors of anxiety disorder in the literature, such as gender, were not associated with social interaction anxiety in this sample. Conclusions: These results were consistent with those of other studies conducted mainly in the United States and Europe. Regarding non-significant results related to gender, they need viewing in the context of parenting styles of Chinese mothers. © 2011 Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists.
Quinlivan, J, Lam, L & Fisher, J 2011, 'A randomized trial of a 4-step multidisciplinary approach to the antenatal care of obese pregnant women', ANZJOG, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 141-146.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Quinlivan, JA, Julania, S & Lam, L 2011, 'Antenatal dietary interventions in obese pregnant women to restrict gestational weight gain to institute of medicine recommendations: a meta-analysis.', Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 118, pp. 1395-1401.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sandler, G, Linh, N, Lam, L, Manglick, MP, Soundappan, SSV & Holland, AJA 2011, 'Trampoline Trauma in Children Is It Preventable?', PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1052-1056.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clark, K, Lam, L & Currow, D 2011, 'Exploring the Relationship Between the Frequency of Documented Bowel Movements and Prescribed Laxatives in Hospitalized Palliative Care Patients', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HOSPICE & PALLIATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 258-263.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sheehan, C, Clark, K, Lam, L & Chye, R 2011, 'A Retrospective Analysis of Primary Diagnosis, Comorbidities, Anticholinergic Load, and Other Factors on Treatment for Noisy Respiratory Secretions at the End of Life', JOURNAL OF PALLIATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1211-1216.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Boufous, S, Ivers, R, Senserrick, T, Norton, R, Stevenson, M, Chen, H-Y & Lam, LT 2010, 'Risky Driving Behavior and Road Traffic Crashes Among Young Asian Australian Drivers: Findings From the DRIVE Study', TRAFFIC INJURY PREVENTION, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 222-227.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Browne, GJ, Noaman, F & Lam, LT 2010, 'Erratum: The nature and characteristics of abdominal injuries sustained during children's sports (Pediatric Emergency Care (2010) 26:1 (30-35))', Pediatric Emergency Care, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 235.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Browne, GJ, Noaman, F, Lam, LT & Soundappan, SV 2010, 'The Nature and Characteristics of Abdominal Injuries Sustained During Children's Sports', PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 30-35.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clark, K, Lam, L, Chye, R & Currow, D 2010, 'Retrospective analysis of contributing factors to laxative prescription in hospitalised palliative care patients.', Palliative Medicine, vol. 24, pp. 410-418.
Hsu, P, Lam, LT & Browne, G 2010, 'The pulmonary index score as a clinical assessment tool for acute childhood asthma', ANNALS OF ALLERGY ASTHMA & IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 425-429.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kim, LHS, Ward, D, Lam, L & Holland, A 2010, 'The impact of Laser Doppler Imaging on time to grafting decision in paediatric burns.', Journal of Burn Care and Research, vol. 31, pp. 328-332.
Lam, L & Peng, ZJ 2010, 'The effect of pathological use of the Internet on adolescent mental health: A prospective study.', Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 164, pp. 901-906.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Martiniuk, ALC, Ivers, R, Glozier, N, Patton, G, Lam, L, Boufous, S, Stevenson, M & Norton, R 2010, 'Does psychological distress increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes in young people? Findings from the DRIVE study.', Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 47, pp. 488-495.
Nguyen, K, Ward, D, Lam, L & Holland, AJA 2010, 'Laser Doppler Imaging prediction of burn wound outcome in children: Is it possible before 48 h?', BURNS, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 793-798.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Quinlivan, J, Lam, L, Wan, SH & Petersen, RW 2010, 'Selecting medical students for academic and attitudinal outcomes in a Catholic medical school.', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 193.
Shatrov, JG, Birch, SCM, Lam, LT, Quinlivan, JA, McIntyre, S & Mendz, GL 2010, 'Chorioamnionitis and Cerebral Palsy A Meta-Analysis', OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 387-392.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Soundappan, SSV, Holland, A, Lam, L, Roy, G, Evans, JB, Adams, S & Cass, DT 2010, 'Off-Road Vehicle Trauma in Children A New South Wales Perspective', PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 909-913.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clark, K, Lam, LT, Agar, M, Chye, R & Currow, DC 2010, 'The impact of opioids, anticholinergic medications and disease progression on the prescription of laxatives in hospitalized palliative care patients: a retrospective analysis', PALLIATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 410-418.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, L & Lam, M 2009, 'The use of information technology and mental health among older care-givers in Australia', AGING & MENTAL HEALTH, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 557-562.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT, Peng, Z, Mai, J & Jing, J 2009, 'The association between internet addiction and self-injurious behaviour among adolescents', INJURY PREVENTION, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 403-408.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT, Peng, Z-W, Mai, J-C & Jing, J 2009, 'Factors Associated with Internet Addiction among Adolescents', CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 551-555.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, H-L, Lam, LT, Zeng, Q, Han, S-Q, Fu, G & Hou, C-C 2009, 'Effects of drinking water with high iodine concentration on the intelligence of children in Tianjin, China', JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 32-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Martiniuk, ALC, Ivers, RQ, Glozier, N, Patton, GC, Lam, LT, Boufous, S, Senserrick, T, Williamson, A, Stevenson, M & Norton, R 2009, 'Self-harm and risk of motor vehicle crashes among young drivers: findings from the DRIVE Study', CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL, vol. 181, no. 11, pp. 807-812.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clark, K, Lam, L & Currow, D 2009, 'Reducing gastric secretions-a role for histamine 2 antagonists or proton pump inhibitors in malignant bowel obstruction?', SUPPORTIVE CARE IN CANCER, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1463-1468.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clark, K, Lam, LT, Gibson, S & Currow, D 2009, 'The effect of ranitidine versus proton pump inhibitors on gastric secretions: a meta-analysis of randomised control trials', ANAESTHESIA, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 652-657.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2008, 'Re: "Short duration of sleep and unintentional injuries among adolescents in China" - The first author replies', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, vol. 167, no. 6, pp. 755-U6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2008, 'Time in bed and low Body Mass Index (BMI) among adolescents in China', Sleep and Hypnosis, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 11-18.
Study Objective: To investigate the association between time in bed and low Body Mass Index (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) among adolescents. Methods: This is a population school-based health survey utilising a two-stage random cluster sampling design. One thousand two hundred and sixty seven (n=1267) subjects aged 13 to 17 years participated in the study. They were recruited from the total population of adolescents attending high school in the Nanning, the capital city of the Guangxi Province, China. Time in bed was measured by self-reported time to bed and rise in a normal school week. Body Mass Index was calculated from body weight and height assessed by health professionals. Results: There was a significant dose-response relationship between time in bed and low BMI. After adjusting far the potential confounding factors, young people who were in bed for a shorter period of time (<7 hours) had a reduced risk of about 30% for low BMI (OR= 0.76, 95% C.I.=0.58-0.99) compared to those who were in bed 7-8 hours. No significant increase in risk were found for those who slept for longer than 8 hours (OR=1.42, 95% C.I.=0.93-2.19) when compared with the controls. Conclusions: Time in bed is associated with low BMI among adolescents suggesting a potential link to chronic energy deficiency (CED). It would be prudent for clinicians to include the assessment of potential CED in the evaluation and diagnosis of sleep-related problems among adolescents.
Lam, LT 2008, 'Uncorrected or untreated vision problems and occupational injuries among the adolescent and adult population in Australia', INJURY PREVENTION, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 396-400.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, M & Lam, L 2008, 'Access and the use of information technology in the older Australian population: A comparison among the healthy, chronically ill, and people with disability with and without limitation to core functioning', Journal on Information Technology in Healthcare, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 261-272.
Objective: To examine the access and usage of information technology in Australia among various groups of older people including healthy, chronically ill, and disabled people with and without limitations to core functional activities. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based national health survey with stratified random sampling from the total population of people with disability, aged 60 years or older and carers of people with disability. Data were analysed using logistic regression analyses with bootstrapping resampling (a statistical method for estimating the sampling distribution of an estimator by sampling with replacement from the original sample) and estimation statistical techniques. Results: After adjusting for demographic variables there was no significant association between health conditions and access to Internet except for those who were disabled with both physical and communication limitations. In terms of the use of the Internet a 50% reduction of odds (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = 0.11-0.89) were found for this group when compared to the healthy group. A significant result was found for the disability with physical limitation only group with a 30% reduction (OR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.50-0.95). Conclusions: Disabled people with physical and communication limitations are more disadvantaged in terms of using the Internet. More attention should be paid to the design of computer devices for physically restricted people. © The Journal on Information Technology in Healthcare.
Marchant, J, Cheng, NG, Lam, LT, Fahy, FE, Soundappan, SV, Cass, DT & Browne, GJ 2008, 'Erratum: Bystander basic life support: An important link in the chain of survival for children suffering a drowning or near-drowning episode (Medical Journal of Australia (2008) vol. 188 (484-485))', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 189, no. 1, p. 56.
Marchant, J, Cheng, NG, Lam, LT, Fahy, FE, Sounndapound, SV, Cass, DT & Browne, GJ 2008, 'Bystander basic life support: an important link in the chain of survival for children suffering a drowning or near-drowning episode (vol 188, pg 484, 2008)', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 56-56.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Marchant, J, Cheng, NG, Lam, LT, Fahy, FE, Sounndapound, SV, Cass, DT & Browne, GJ 2008, 'Bystander basic life support: an important link in-the chain Of Survival for children suffering a drowning or near-drowning episode', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, vol. 188, no. 8, pp. 484-485.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ridda, I, Motbey, C, Lam, L, Lindley, IR, McIntyre, PB & MacIntyre, CR 2008, 'Factors associated with pneumococcal immunisation among hospitalised elderly persons: A survey of patient's perception, attitude, and knowledge', Vaccine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 234-240.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Aim: To investigate attitudes, perceptions and knowledge of elderly hospital patients in regard to vaccination in general and pneumococcal vaccination in particular. Setting: A hospital-based patient survey in Sydney, Australia. Participants: Patients aged 60 years and older who are admitted to selected wards in an 800-bed tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. Methods: A face-to-face interview administered to 200 inpatients. Results: Approximately half (49%) of the patients had a positive attitude to vaccination whereas 59% had less positive perception. There were 35% of the patients who were unvaccinated against influenza and pneumococcal disease. Positive perception (OR 2.9, 95% C.I. = 1.3-6.5) and attitude (OR 4.4, 95% C.I. = 2.0-9.4) significantly predicted vaccination with both vaccines. Similarly the odds of receiving pneumococcal vaccination for those who had a more positive attitude and more correct knowledge were significant (OR = 2.3, 95% C.I. = 1.0-5.4; OR = 2.7, 95% C.I. = 1.1-6.8). We explored reasons for non-vaccination. Physician recommendation was listed as an important factor by patients. Conclusions: Positive perception and attitude towards vaccination are significant factors associated with immunisation status. For the pneumococcal vaccination, having influenza vaccination is related to pneumococcal vaccination. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lam, LT 2007, 'The association between climatic factors and childhood illnesses presented to hospital emergency among young children', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT & Yang, L 2007, 'Overweight/obesity and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder tendency among adolescents in China', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 584-590.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT & Yang, L 2007, 'Short duration of sleep and unintentional injuries among adolescents in China', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, vol. 166, no. 9, pp. 1053-1058.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lau, JTF, Tsui, HY & Lam, LT 2007, 'Alcohol consumption, sex, and use of psychotropic substances among male Hong Kong-mainland China cross-border substance users', ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 686-699.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lau, JTF, Tsui, HY, Lam, LT & Lau, M 2007, 'Cross-boundary substance uses among hong kong Chinese young adults', JOURNAL OF URBAN HEALTH-BULLETIN OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF MEDICINE, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 704-721.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, H-L, Lam, LT, Wang, T, Hou, C-C, Zeng, Q, Feng, L-H & Chen, X-M 2007, 'The health effects of odor emission from domestic renovation on household residents in Tianjin, China', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 46-50.
Soundappan, SVS, Holland, AJA, Fahy, F, Manglik, P, Lam, LT & Cass, DT 2007, 'Transfer of pediatric trauma patients to a tertiary pediatric trauma centre: Appropriateness and timeliness', JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1229-1233.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Browne, GJ & Lam, LT 2006, 'Concussive head injury in children and adolescents related to sports and other leisure physical activities', BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 163-168.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ivers, RQ, Blows, SJ, Stevenson, MR, Norton, RN, Williamson, A, Eisenbruch, M, Woodward, M, Lam, L, Palamara, P & Wang, J 2006, 'A cohort study of 20 822 young drivers: the DRIVE study methods and population', INJURY PREVENTION, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 385-389.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT, Yang, L, Zheng, Y, Ruan, C & Lei, Z 2006, 'Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder tendency and unintentional injury among adolescents in China', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1176-1182.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, HL, Lam, LT, Hou, CC, Xu, Y & Chen, XM 2006, 'A study of Legionella pneumophilia in Tianjin, China', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 15-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Scheinberg, A, Hall, K, T Lam, L & O'Flaherty, S 2006, 'Oral baclofen in children with cerebral palsy: A double-blind cross-over pilot study', JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 715-720.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Soundappan, S, Smith, NF, Lam, LT, Holland, AJA, McCaskill, M & Cass, DT 2006, 'A trauma series in the injured child - Do we really need it?', PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 710-716.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2005, 'Attention deficit disorder and hospitalization owing to intra- and interpersonal violence among children and young adolescents', JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 19-24.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2005, 'Hospitalisation due to sports-related injuries among children and adolescents in New South Wales, Australia: an analysis on socioeconomic and geographic differences', JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE IN SPORT, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 433-440.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2005, 'Parental modelling of cycling for children: Demographic and socioeconomic determinants', International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 131-136.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of bicycle ownership by parents, and positive parental modelling of cycling for children in New South Wales, Australia. Methods: This was a randomised population-based cross-sectional telephone survey of parents residing within the metropolitan areas of NSW. Results: A random sample of 1278 parents with children aged 4-12 years who owned a bicycle was recruited. Nearly 40 per cent (n=500) of the interviewed parents owned a bicycle themselves and 217 (17%) respondents reported to exhibit positive modelling behaviour. Results suggested that male respondents were two and a half times more likely to own a bicycle than females (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.9-3.4). Parents from an English speaking background were about two times more likely to own a bicycle than their non-English speaking counterparts (OR=2.4, 95%CI=1.7-3.5). In comparison to parents with lower education levels, parents with higher eduction levels were nearly two times more likely to own a bicycle, with an odds of 1.7 (95%CI=1.2-2.2) for parents with certificates or diplomas and an odds of 1.6 (95%CI=1.2-2.1) for parents with university or higher levels. In terms of positive modelling of cycling, male parents were nearly two times more likely to go riding with their children compared with females (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.1-2.5). Parents with children aged 7-9 years were nearly two and a half times more likely to exhibit parental modelling as compared with parents of the youngest age group (OR=2.4, 95%CI=1.5-3.7). Conclusion: The findings indicate that parents of young children 4-6 years old, particularly mothers, should be encouraged to demonstrate more positive modelling behaviour in cycling.
Lam, LT 2005, 'Parental risk perceptions of childhood pedestrian road safety: A cross cultural comparison', JOURNAL OF SAFETY RESEARCH, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 181-187.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT & Lam, MKP 2005, 'The association between sudden illness and motor vehicle crash mortality and injury among older drivers in NSW, Australia', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 563-567.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT, Norton, R, Connor, J & Ameratunga, S 2005, 'Suicidal ideation, antidepressive medication and car crash injury', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 335-339.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT, Yang, L, Liu, Y, Geng, WK & Liu, DC 2005, 'Different quantitative measures of the impact of injury deaths on the community in the Guangxi Province, China', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 761-766.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Yang, L, Lam, LT, Liu, Y, Geng, WK & Liu, DC 2005, 'Epidemiological profile of mortality due to injuries in three cities in the Guangxi Province, China', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 137-141.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2004, 'Different quantitative measures of the impact of premature deaths on the community in Australia', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 555-558.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2004, 'Environmental factors associated with crash-related mortality and injury among taxi drivers in New South Wales, Australia', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 905-908.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT, Norton, R, Woodward, M, Connor, J & Ameratunga, S 2004, 'Passenger carriage and car crash injury: a comparison between younger and older drivers (vol 35, pg 861, 2003)', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 931-931.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Browne, GJ, Lam, LT & Barker, RA 2003, 'The usefulness of a modified adult protocol for the clearance of paediatric cervical spine injury in the emergency department', Emergency Medicine, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 133-142.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Objective: To determine if the use of a modified adult protocol that uses cervical spine imaging on presentation for the assessment of cervical spine injury in children improves clinical outcome. Methods: This is a case series study on all consecutive trauma patients presenting from April to July 2000 inclusive to the ED of a major paediatric trauma hospital. Children presenting to the ED with potential cervical spine injury (CSI) were identified using standard selection criteria. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, method and time of presentation, associated injuries, radiological investigation and clinical outcome were recorded. The major outcome measures for this study were: time to clearance of the cervical spine, length of stay in the ED and admission to an in-hospital bed. Data were analysed for compliance to the protocol, this being the standard assessment pathway of cervical spine clearance used by our trauma service. Results: The trauma registry identified 1721 trauma presentations during the 4-month study period; 208 presentations representing 200 children with potential CSI were entered into the study. Males represented 72.5% of the study population, having a mean age of 8.32 years, although 29% were less than 5 years of age. The majority of presentations (69%) occurred outside of normal working hours. In 17.8% of cases the cervical spine was cleared based on clinical assessment alone, half less than 5 years of age. Compliance to the protocol occurred in 78% of presentations. However, when examined by age group, children 5 years of age or above were 1.5 times more likely to comply with the protocol as compared with younger children. Adequate plain imaging was not obtained in 18% of presentations, this group almost exclusively less than 5 years of age. There were no missed injuries and no short or long-term neurological sequelae reported during this study. There were no differences in time to clearance, length of stay and admission rate between c...
Objective: To assess the occurrence of hypovolaemic shock in children who have sustained traumatic femoral fracture. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was performed on a cohort of children with traumatic femoral fracture presenting over a five and a half year period from 1 January 1996 to 1 July 2001. Selected parameters for analysis included administration of a fluid bolus, as well as all available vital signs within 4 h following injury relating to pulse, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, skin capillary refill time and mental status. Fluid and blood transfusion records were examined, as was the need for intraosseous access. Initial haemoglobin and haematocrit results were also obtained. Results: There was no evidence for haemodynamic instability in the 100 patients who met the selection criteria when compared with internationally accepted normal vital sign parameters. No significant difference was found in the initial vital signs between patients who received fluid bolus and those that didn't. No patient needed intraosseous access or fluid resuscitation. One patient received blood transfusion without evidence of haemodynamic instability. Haemoglobin and haematocrit values were not significantly decreased. Ninety-two percent of patients in this study had isolated femoral fracture. Conclusions: No evidence for haemodynamic instability was found in a cohort of children with traumatic femoral fracture.
Chu, RSL, Browne, GJ & Lam, LT 2003, 'Traction splinting of femoral shaft fractures in a paediatric emergency department: Time is of the essence?', Emergency Medicine, vol. 15, no. 5-6, pp. 447-452.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Objective: To describe the use of traction splinting in children with femoral shaft fracture and to determine if timing of traction splinting application effects outcome. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study conducted over a five and a half year period (1 January 1996 to 1 July 2001) on children presenting with femoral shaft fracture to a Paediatric trauma centre. Data were collected on all children with a radiological diagnosis of fracture to the femoral shaft. Evidence for hypovolaemic shock and neurovascular compromise was sought. The administration of parenteral analgesia and whether a validated pain scale was employed to monitor pain relief was documented. The use of a traction splint or other leg splint device before arrival in the ED and subsequent changes to splinting in hospital were noted. Times to perform radiographic examination and femoral nerve block were also recorded. Results: Ninety-five (95) patients met the study inclusion criteria with 66.3% having some form of immobilization and 70% administered parenteral analgesia in the pre-hospital setting. In only 7.3% of patients was a Thomas splint traction applied within 2 h of arrival. Adverse clinical outcome was not reported in any patient regardless of time to application of Thomas splint traction. The application of Thomas splint traction in the ED resulted in a significant delay in the performance of diagnostic radiographs and femoral nerve block. Conclusions: The timing of traction splinting is not associated with poor outcome in isolated paediatric femoral shaft fracture provided effective analgesia has been administered in a timely fashion.
Chu, RSL, Browne, GJ, Cheng, NG & Lam, LT 2003, 'Femoral nerve block for femoral shaft fractures in a paediatric Emergency Department: can it be done better?', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 258-263.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Frampton, A, Browne, GJ, Lam, LT, Cooper, MG & Lane, LG 2003, 'Nurse administered relative analgesia using high concentration nitrous oxide to facilitate minor procedures in children in an emergency department', EMERGENCY MEDICINE JOURNAL, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 410-413.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Habashy, D, Lam, LT & Browne, GJ 2003, 'The administration of beta(2)-agonists for paediatric asthma and its adverse reaction in Australian and New Zealand emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 219-224.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2003, 'A neglected risky behavior among children and adolescents: Underage driving and injury in New South Wales, Australia', JOURNAL OF SAFETY RESEARCH, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 315-320.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2003, 'Childhood and adolescence poisoning in NSW, Australia: an analysis of age, sex, geographic, and poison types', INJURY PREVENTION, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 338-342.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2003, 'Factors associated with fatal and injurious car crash among learner drivers in New South Wales, Australia', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 333-340.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2003, 'Factors associated with young drivers' car crash injury: comparisons among learner, provisional, and full licensees', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 913-920.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT & Lam, MK 2003, 'Associations between social, economic resources and mental, physical illnesses in a population of older people in New South Wales, Australia', Journal of Mental Health and Aging, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 223-232.
This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the association between social and economic resources and the likelihood of being diagnosed with mental and physical illnesses in a well defined population of older people, aged 60 or above, who are referred to an aged care assessment program. The likelihood of being diagnosed with mental illness was increased by 40% for older people who were socially isolated (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.12-1.85), and about 50% for those who stayed in care providing facilities (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.06-2.15), as compared to those who were not isolated and staying with spouse/relatives. A nearly 50% reduction of likelihood for mental illness diagnosis for those who lived in the nonmetropolitan areas (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.41-0.67) as compared to those staying in metropolitan areas. The likelihood of being diagnosed with both mental and physical illnesses was increased for older people who were economically more disadvantaged (mental: OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.12-2.00; physical: OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.09-1.83). Results from this study shed light on possible community health strategies for older people.
Lam, LT, Norton, R, Woodward, M, Connor, J & Ameratunga, S 2003, 'Passenger carriage and car crash injury: a comparison between younger and older drivers', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 861-867.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Phin, SJ, McCaskill, ME, Browne, GJ & Lam, LT 2003, 'Clinical pathway using rapid rehydration for children with gastroenteritis', JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 343-348.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ross, FI, Elliott, EJ, Lam, LT & Cass, DT 2003, 'Children under 5 years presenting to paediatricians with near-drowning', JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 446-450.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Browne, GJ & Lam, LT 2002, 'Isolated extradural hematoma in children presenting to an emergency department in Australia', PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 86-90.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cheng, NG, Browne, GJ, Lam, LT, Yeoh, R & Oomens, M 2002, 'Spacer compliance after discharge following a mild to moderate asthma attack', ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 302-305.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chin, R, Browne, GJ, Lam, LT, McCaskill, ME, Fasher, B & Hort, J 2002, 'Effectiveness of a croup clinical pathway in the management of children with croup presenting to an emergency department', JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 382-387.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2002, 'Attention Deficit Disorder and hospitalization due to injury among older adolescents in New South Wales, Australia', Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 77-82.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The association between Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and injuries among children has long been studied. More recently, research interest has extended to the long-term consequences of childhood ADD in adolescents and young adults, mainly focusing on motor vehicle-related accidents, but not other injuries. Very little work has investigated the associations between individual characteristics, type of injuries, outcomes, and the diagnosis of ADD upon admission of injured patients to a hospital. To investigate these associations, this study used a population-based epidemiological design that analyzed data routinely collected on patients hospitalized due to injuries. Results showed that younger, male, and more socioeconomically disadvantaged patients were more likely to be diagnosed with ADD upon admission. Significant association between different causes of injuries, in particular self-inflicted injuries, and diagnosis of ADD were also found. Patients diagnosed with ADD stayed in the hospital longer than others regardless of the cause of their injury. These results illustrate clearly that ADD is underrecognized among injured patients upon admission to hospitals. Information on the ADD status of injured patients is important for treatment decision making. A screening tool should be developed for assessing all injured patients upon admission to hospitals. Copyright © 2002 Multi-Health Systems Inc.
Rainbow, J, Browne, GJ & Lam, LT 2002, 'Controlling seizures in the prehospital setting: Diazepam or midazolam?', JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 582-586.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Browne, GJ, Giles, H, McCaskill, ME, Fasher, BJ & Lam, LT 2001, 'The benefits of using clinical pathways for managing acute paediatric illness in an emergency department', Journal of Quality in Clinical Practice, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 50-55.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The aim of this study was to provide an evaluation of the overall effectiveness of using a number of clinical pathways in treating common acute paediatric conditions in an emergency department. This was a before and after study conducted on the effectiveness of three clinical pathways (gastroenteritis, asthma, and croup) in the emergency department of the Children's Hospital at Westmead, conducted over two separate yearly periods January to December 1996 and January to December 1999 representing before and after the introduction of clinical pathways in the emergency department. The main outcomes of the effectiveness of the pathways, namely admission to an in-patient bed, length of hospital stay and re-presentation after discharge from the ED were compared. Other outcomes of interest such as parental satisfaction and patient waiting times were also presented. Any deviation from a key clinical pathway process was reported. A total of 2854 children were managed by a clinical pathway compared to 2680 children managed before clinical pathways were introduced. The admission rate was reduced by threefold (9.1% compared to 23.6%) with a twofold reduction in length of hospital stay (32.7 h compared to 17.5 h). In 3.6% of children using a clinical pathway an unscheduled medical visit or re-presentation to the emergency department occurred after discharge, compared to 4.9% before the use of clinical pathways. No adverse events were reported in these children. In 76 cases deviation from a clinical pathway process was reported. High parental satisfaction was reported for clinical pathways throughout the study. Clinical pathways in this emergency department allowed rapid stabilisation of children, reducing admission rate, with a shortened length of hospital stay and few patients re-presenting after discharge and were well accepted by parents.
Browne, GJ, McCaskill, ME, Giles, H, Lam, LT, Fasher, BJ & Exley, B 2001, 'Paediatric walk-out patients: Characteristics and outcomes', JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 235-239.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, LT 2001, 'Factors associated with parental safe road behaviour as a pedestrian with young children in metropolitan New South Wales, Australia', ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 203-210.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Browne, G, Lam, L, Giles, H, Mccaskill, M, Exley, B & Fasher, B 2000, 'The effects of a seamless model of management on the quality of care for emergency department patients', Journal of Quality in Clinical Practice, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 120-126.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the seamless model of management on the quality of care for emergency department (ED) patients. This was a pre- and postintervention study of comparing post intervention data with the baseline on several variables of interest. The intervention was the seamless model of ED management, designed and implemented as a response to the challenge of increasing work load at the ED. Information on patients' waiting times, critical care performance, patients' satisfaction and staff morale was collected at baseline and postintervention for comparison. The results indicated significant improvements on all outcome measures were found postintervention. The average waiting time reduced by 40%, from 92.1 to 55.3 min, as well as the time to craniotomy from 120 to 45 min for more severe patients. Complaints from patients were reduced by 80% and staff morale had improved with a 48% reduction in sick days and a 80% reduction in staff resignations. Ambulatory patients presenting to the department saw a 20% improvement in their waiting time. We report a successful restructuring process that used routinely collected clinical and administrative data to highlight problems. Using these data and through a systematic planning process, appropriate strategies for restructuring were developed by emergency staff in partnership with the hospital executive. Significant improvements in waiting time and patient care were clearly demonstrated.
Lam, LT, Ross, FI & Cass, DT 1999, 'Children at play: The death and injury pattern in New South Wales, Australia, July 1990-June 1994', JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 572-577.
Lam, LT, Ross, FI, Cass, DT, Quine, S & Lazarus, R 1999, 'The impact of work related trauma on the psychological health of nursing staff: a cross sectional study.', The Australian journal of advanced nursing : a quarterly publication of the Royal Australian Nursing Federation, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 14-20.
This study aims to investigate the effects of work-related trauma exposure on the health of nursing staff in hospitals. The survey was conducted using a randomised sample of 314 nurses. Half (52.2%, n = 189) of staff surveyed had multiple exposures to different kinds of trauma. Results on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Beck's Depression Inventory--Revised (BDI-R) suggested that nearly 40% of staff experienced poor health, while nearly 10% experienced moderate to severe depression. Results of the logistic analyses, after adjusting for confounders, suggested that high and long term trauma exposure is detrimental to the mental health of nurses. These findings indicate that hospital nursing staff, in particular those who have high exposure to trauma, are in urgent need of support services such as debriefing and counselling.
Lam, L 2017, 'The mental health literacy of internet addiction among adolescents: An initial measure development and validation' in Internet Addiction Prevalence, Risk Factors and Health Effects, Nova Science Publishers, USA, pp. 1-17.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study aims to describe the initial development and to investigate
the psychometric properties of an instrument for measuring the Mental
Health Literacy (MHL) of Internet Addiction (IA). The formation of the
items was based on the Australian National Survey of Mental Health
Literacy and Stigma Youth Survey. It was designed as a vignette-based
questionnaire depicting behavioural characteristics of a severe problem
with Internet usage. These symptomatic behaviours were based on the
description in the Young Internet Addiction Test (IAT). This newly
developed instrument was administered to 348 adolescents aged between
15-18 years randomly recruited from high schools in a large city.
Responses on the recognition of the problem from the vignette with the
recognition of another vignette depicting depression were compared. The
convergent validity of the intended action to seek help was investigated
using the Self-Stigma of Seeking Help Scale (SSOSH), and the personal
identification of the problem by the IAT. The results of this study
provided supporting evidence for the validity of the MHL of IA measure.
As the unique measure of the MHL of IA, this could play an important
role in understanding the level of MHL in the population of an emerging
area of psychiatric problem.
Lam, L 2016, 'Associations between Parental Problematic Internet Use and their children's Mental Health: A parent-child dyad Study' in Columbus, AM (ed), Advances in Psychology Research, Nova, USA, pp. 95-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Background: Effect of parental Problematic Internet Use (PIU) on their children had
never been studied until recently. This study aimed to examine possible influence of
parental PIU on the mental health of their children.
Methods: This was a population-based parent-and-child dyad cross-sectional study
utilising a cluster random sampling technique with children aged between 13-17 years.
PIU for both parents and their children was measured by the Internet Addiction Test
(IAT). Mental health status, and stress level of children were assessed using the
Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS). Data were analysed using logistic regression
modelling techniques to examine the relationship between parental PIU and child's
mental health status.
Results: Of the 1098 parent-and-child dyads, 263 (24.0%) students and 62 (5.7%)
parents could be classified as moderate and severe users. About 19% (n = 209) and 23%
(n = 251) of children exhibited moderate to severe symptoms of depression and anxiety
respectively. Logistic regression analysis results suggested a significant interaction
between parental PIU and children's stress level on child depression. Stratified regression
analyses by stress level resulted in a significant relationship between parental PIU and
depression in the low stress group (OR = 2.16, 95% C.I. = 1.05-4.43). On the other hand,
the association between parental PIU and depression in the high stress group, as well as
anxiety became insignificant.
Wan, GB & Lam, LT 2010, 'The Child Behaviour Scale Chinese (CBSC) - A Validation Study' in Psychological and Health-Related Assessment Tools Developed in China, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), developed based on the conceptual framework of child developmental psychopathology proposed by Achenbach, has been considered as the most studied instrument in assessing child behavioural problems. For younger pre-school age children, a specific CBCL/1.5-5 has also been recently developed. However, this specific form of the CBCL has not been translated into Chinese, and thus not validated as a Chinese version. The Child Behaviour Scales-Chinese (CBSC) has been developed by researchers in China for the purpose of providing a useful behavioural assessment instrument for young pre-school children. Studies were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CBSC. Results obtained from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated that 46 items were to be retained from the pool of 60 with a seven factor structure. Cronhach's Alpha values for both sexes and total provided evidence for good internal reliability with values ranging from 0.59 to 0.90. Correlations on all subscales between CBSC and CBCL suggested moderate to high concordance providing evidence for reasonable convergent validity. The ICC for all subscales and the total between repeated administrations of CBSC within a period of 4-6 weeks were significantly and moderately high ranging from 0.52 to 0.72. These preliminary results suggest that the CBSC is a valid instrument for assessing young pre-school children in China. Studies could be further conducted to provide more evidence on the externalisation and internalisation factors structure on which the design of the instrument has been based. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferguson, C, Hickman, L, Phillips, J, Newton, P, Inglis, S, Lam, L & Bajorek, B 2017, 'An mHealth intervention to improve nurses' atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation knowledge and practice: the EVICOAG study', International Journal of Stroke, Stroke Society of Australasia, SAGE Publications, Queenstown, New Zealand, pp. 9-9.
Ferguson, C, Hickman, L, Phillips, J, Newton, P, Inglis, S, Lam, L & Bajorek, B 2017, 'Exploring the acute care registered nurses' contribution in anticoagulation decision making for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation', International Journal of Stroke, Stroke Society of Australasia, SAGE Publications, Queenstown, New Zealand, pp. 48-48.
Lovell, M, Luckett, T, Phillips, J, Agar, M, Ryan, L, Lam, L, McCaffrey, N, Boyle, F, Stubbs, J, Shaw, T, Currow, D, Hosie, A & Davidson, P 2015, 'Clinical Trial Protocol - Implementing Clinical Practice Guidelines For Cancer Pain In Adults To Ensure Equitable, Cost-Effective, Evidence-Based, Person-Centred Care: A Phase III Pragmatic Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Of Guidelines And Screening With Implementation Strategies Versus Guidelines And Screening Alone To Improve Pain In Adults With Cancer Attending Outpatients Oncology And Palliative Care Centres', Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, pp. 162-162.
Phillips, JL, Heneka, N, Lam, L & Shaw, T 2014, 'A complex Qstream (R) pain assessment intervention on cancer nurses' pain screening and assessment practices: results from a quasi-experimental study', ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, pp. 136-136.
Phillips, JL, Heneka, N, Lam, LT & Shaw, T 2014, 'Multi-Centre Pre-Post Test Trial of a complex Qstream (C) pain assessment intervention on cancer nurses' pain screening and assessment practices', ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, pp. 206-206.
Lam, LT 2005, 'Attention deficit disorder and hospitalization owing to intra- and interpersonal violence among children and young adolescents', Journal of Adolescent Health, pp. 19-24.View/Download from: Publisher's site
To investigate the associations between intra-and interpersonal violence and related injuries and the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) among children and young adolescents. This was a population-based epidemiological study that analyzed data routinely collected on hospitalized patients owing to injuries. Data were obtained from the routinely collected inpatient statistics. Information included patients' demographics, diagnostic classifications of admitting problem, classification of external causes of injury, length of stay, and outcome of hospitalization. Patients with comorbidity of ADD were identified by the ICD-9CM diagnosis code. Data were analyzed univirately using Pearson Chi-square tests. Logistic regression analyses were also applied to calculate the adjusted odds ratio and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Significant associations between suicide and self-harm, injuries owing to assault, and diagnosis of ADD were found. Patients diagnosed with ADD stayed in the hospital longer than others, disregarding the cause of their injury. Children and adolescents with ADD are at risk of being victims of assaults, as well as suicide and self harm. Assessment for ADD can be considered as part of school-age childhood screening programs. © 2005 Society for Adolescent Medicine. All rights reserved.
Lawrence has been collaborating with colleagues of the following institutes around the world:
School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, CHINA
Department of Adolescence Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, CHINA
The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong SAR, CHINA
Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, CHINA
School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Guangxi, CHINA
Institute of Psychology and Behaviour, Henan University, Kaifeng, CHINA
Institute of Mental Health, Singapore
Center for Internet Addiction, St. Bonaventure University, US