Kyungja's academic interests are experientially grounded in and inspired by her involvement in women's activism in Australia and Korea. Drawing on feminist theory(s) of intersectionality of gender and sexuality her research has been interested in mapping the gendered nature of social processes from cross-cultural and interdisciplinary approaches. Her areas of research include women's movements, women's policy, North Korean female defectors, sex workers, violence against women, in particular, migrant women’s issues.
Kyungja's research has been published in academic journals including Hecate, Asian Survey, Asian Journal of Women’s Studies and International Review of Korean Studies and has book chapters in Women's Movements: Flourishing or in abeyance and The Work of Policy: an international survey. She has also published a co-authored book Sex Trafficking Or Shadow Tourism?: The Lives of Foreign Sex Workers in Australia (2009 with Jang, H, Jung, K, Dalton, B and Wilson, R.) She is currently working on a book Practicing Feminism in South Korea: sexual violence and the women’s movement (London: Routledge, 2012).
She (with Dr Bronwen Dalton, UTS) has pioneered the development of research on gender relations in North Korea based on interviews with North Korean defectors and international NGO workers who have been involved with aid operations or development projects. Her expertise in gender studies and women’s policy has been critical in bringing a gender perpective to North Korean issues which is a key innovation in the studies of North Korea. She has re-examined civil society theories from a gender perspecive in non-western countries such as North Korea and the role of women in economic/social/ political transition. She (with Dr Bronwen Dalton) has been invited to write a paper on The Role of Women in the Growth of DPRK Informal Markets by the United States Institute for Peace (USIP) in 2011.
Kyungja was awarded her PhD by the University of New South Wales for her doctoral thesis which was the first major comparative study of South Korea and Australia examining the emergence and development of civil society including the women’s movement over time, particularly during South Korea’s transition to democracy.
In 2004, she was awarded an ARC International Fellowship (Chief Investigator, Professor Peter Saunders at the Social Policy Research Centre, UNSW) to conduct a research project comparing Australian and South Korean policy making processes as they relate to women's issues.
She has been invited locally and internationally to present lectures and speeches on various topics by universities and a wide range of community organisations such as Sydney Feminist Historian Group (2009), workshop on Women and Human Rights UTS (2008), International Organisation for Migration (2006). She has also been invited by Stanford University (1991), Ewha Woman’s University (2004) and Local Governments in South Korea (2004), NGOs in Korea to present the findings of her research. Her talk on 'Institutionalisaiton of the women's movement in Korea and Australia' at Ewha University was aired on the Korean Radio and was seen as having ignited heated debates on the topic among academics and activists.
Kyungja has held several visiting appointments including Asian Centre for Women’s Studies (2011) and Korean Women’s Institute at Ewha University (2009 and 2010) (Seoul, South Korea).
She is on the board of Immigrant Women’s Speakout Association NSW and has been serving on the committee of international cooperation for the Korean Sexual Violence Relief Centre. (Seoul, South Korea). She has been an invited panel member for the review committee of the Academy of Korean Studies in 2009 and a guest lecturer for Ewha Global Empowerment Program at Ewha Womans University in January 2012.
Can supervise: YES
Kyungja has researched a wide range of issues such as North Korea, NESB/CALD issues, women’s services, gender politics, women’s policy, body politics, female sexuality and sexual violence as demonstrated by the list of presentations/publications.
She has also made significant contribtions in collecting and presenting women’s life stories, particularly the least researched and the most disadvantaged groups of women, sex workers, sexual violence and domestic violence victims, migrants and North Korean defectors.
Gneder and Culture
Policy and Advocay
Qualitative Research Methodology
quantitative Research Methodology
Social Theory/ Feminist Theory
The Korean womens movement, which is seen in both Western and non-Western countries as being exemplary in terms of womens activism, experienced a dramatic change in its direction and strategy in the early 1990s. At the heart of the new approach was an increasing focus on sexual violence, which has had a huge impact on bringing womens issues onto the public agenda in Korea. This book examines feminist practice in Korea by analyzing the experiences of the countrys first sexual assault center, the Korea Sexual Violence Relief Center. Based on extensive original research, including interviews with activists and extensive participant observation, it explores why feminist activists in South Korea chose to organize around the issue of sexual violence, the strategies it used to do so, what impact the movement has made and what challenges it still faces to achieve its objectives.
The experience of women working in the sex and entertainment industry is an issue central to feminism and to social and human rights movements. Although now an area of scholarly research the clandestine nature of this industry makes research challenging and means many aspects remain unknown. It is therefore important to document the experiences of these female sex workers. In this book we highlight the experience of Korean sex industry workers in Australia. We report on recent trends in migration and draw attention to the fact that increasing numbers utilise ?working holiday? visas to work in the sex and entertainment industry and that under Australian law this practice is essentially legal. We examine factors involved in their coming to Australia and whether they were trafficked or coerced into service; the nature of their service and details regarding the conditions of their work. We also track how the respondents use (or fail to use) various social and health services and ask about their key concerns, hopes and plans for the future. Findings from this study aim to inform recommendations to policy makers in relevant government and nongovernment community service organisations
Dalton, B & Jung, K 2019, 'Becoming Cosmopolitan Women while negotiating structurally limited choices: The case of Korean migrant sex workers in Australia', Organization, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 355-370.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
International labor mobility holds the promise that one can become a cosmopolitan citizen of the world. But this interpretation of mobility rarely features in research and media focused on Asian women who travel and engage in sex work. In both arenas, the dominant narrative is that migrant sex workers are poor, the victims of sex trafficking, and pose a risk to public health. This narrative is laced with Orientalist overtones of the Asian sex worker as the alluringly exotic 'other', passive and particularly vulnerable, and in need of rescue. However, the interviews of 11 Korean women sex workers based in Sydney, Australia, challenge this narrative. These women engaged in a transnational quest to become cosmopolitan citizens of the world, albeit making logical choices from structurally limited options shaped by their multiple identities as women, sex workers, and Korean, and their relative precarious position in the Australian labor market. Their stories highlight how migration and work can be an agentic process of self-expression and self-actualization of identity. This identity has emerged against the backdrop of shifting meanings and practices of social reproduction in Korea, a country that has experienced a highly compressed transition from developing, to modern capitalist state. Theoretically, the article draws on post-colonial feminist theory to shed light into the conflicting views on migrant sex workers in existing research, by focusing on the women's voices, which have been neglected or silenced.
Jung, K, Dalton, B & Willis, J 2018, 'From patriarchal socialism to grassroots capitalism: The role of female entrepreneurs in the transition of North Korea', Women's Studies International Forum, vol. 68, no. May -June, pp. 19-27.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Dalton, B, Jung, K & Willis, J 2017, 'Fashion and the social construction of femininity in North Korea', Asian Studies Review, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 507-525.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper we argue that North Korea's socioeconomic transformation has had a
profound and yet under-appreciated impact on the social construction of femininity. Drawing
on forty-five in-depth interviews with North Korean refugees, interviews with regular visitors
to North Korea and NGO workers, as well as our own field notes from trips to North Korea, we
analyse changes over three discernible (yet overlapping) economic periods: the 1960s-1990s
pre-famine period; the mid-1990s to late 2000s grassroots capitalism era; and the current Kim
Jong Un period of quasi-capitalism. As dress is a discursive daily practice of gender, we focus
on the practice of femininity as shown through North Korean women's fashion choices. We
argue that images of women in state propaganda have been shaped primarily by male leaders,
but norms of femininity have shaped, and also been shaped by, women themselves. That is, the
recent trend for North Korean women to dress in hyper-feminine styles can be explained in
terms of women remaking themselves and planning their future lives.
Jang, H & Jung, K 2017, ''My Business is All About Love and Care': Korean Female Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Sydney', International Review of Korean Studies, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 35-66.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper reports on a study of Korean immigrant women to examine various personal, social, economic and cultural aspects of their entrepreneurial activities in Australia. Based on in-depth interviews, findings suggest that women's decision to start business was greatly affected by a complex interaction between push and pull factors; that their performance in the business were often constrained by a lack of support and resources as well as traditional gender role; and that doing business empowered the women, helping improve financial, social and/or psychological independence. These findings, although generated from a small sample, will contribute to a better understanding of the intersection of gender, ethnicity and entrepreneurship.
Jung, K 2017, 'When will the Arduous Journey end?: The experience of North Korean Temporal migrants in China and Australia', International Review of Korean Studies, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-32.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The paper seeks to explore North Korean refugees' migratory trajectories and the lived experience of each stage of transient/temporal living in China and Australia. Emerging studies on onward migration challenge the view that sees migration as a linear process involving the departure of national origin and the permanent settlement of a destination country. Rather the research on onward migration understands 'migratory journeys are multiple, iterative and fragmented, involving steps and stages,' (Della Puppa & King 2018: 14). This paper looks at how transient mobilities of North Korean refugees in the transnational migration journey construct migrant experiences in settled countries. By addressing key pull and push factors for North Korean defectors in each destination, coming to China and Australia and exploring various aspects of their living and working conditions and social networks, the paper gives insight into the unique experience of North Korean refugees as onward, often transient migrants, and addresses the problems that the refugees confront. It then proposes some practical programs and internationally appropriate policies that would facilitate the delivery of assistance to this community. This study is a valuable contribution to the emerging area of research on onward migration and temporary migration by offering an empirical case study of North Korean refugees.
Jung, K, Dalton, B & Willis, J 2017, 'The Onward Migration of North Korean refugees to Australia: In Search of Cosmopolitan Habitus', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 41-60.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Based on assumed common ethnicity, language and culture, South Korea is believed to be the best country for North Korean defectors to restart their lives. This is, however, not necessarily the case. Since the mid-2000s, 2000 to 3000 North Koreans have allegedly settled in the UK, Canada, the US, Australia and EU countries. Despite this trend and its broader implications, the onward migration process of North Korean refugees, together with their motivations and lived experiences, remain poorly addressed in academic research. Drawing from the unique experience of North Korean refugees' onward movement to Australia, the paper suggests that discarding a North Korean identity and habitus and gaining cosmopolitan habitus are the main reasons behind North Korean defectors' onward migration. The paper is the first empirical study on North Korean refugees resettled in Australia to adopt habitus as a theoretical framework, and thus provides new insight into migration studies.
Important changes are taking place inside North Korea. The collapse of the command economy, and the emergence of capitalism in its place, is ongoing. A burgeoning moneyed elite and increasing exposure to foreign pop culture are transforming how North Korean femininity is conceived. These changes are reaching far beyond Pyongyang to affect many, if not most, women in the country.
Officially, North Korea's founding juche (self-reliance) ideology supports gender equality. In practice the leadership cult that was entrenched under Kim Il-sung, who led the country from 1948 to 1994, gave patriarchal relations a significant boost. Under Kim Il-sung, the nation was recast in line with traditional, largely Confucian, male-dominated family structures — a considerable backslide from the progressive gender norms promoted by the early Korean socialist movement. Despite its rhetoric, Kim Il-sung's juche ideology directly perpetuated gender subordination.
Dalton, B, Jung, K, Willis, J & Bell, M 2016, 'Framing and dominant metaphors in the coverage of North Korea in the Australian media', The Pacific Review, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 523-547.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Korean women sex workers have attracted attention from Australian border security, South Korean government officials and Korean-Australian communities. This article considers how the bodies of these women have become the 'iconic sites' (Luibhéid, 2002: ix–xxvii) on which the South Korean government and immigrant Korean-Australian communities perform 'national values'. Within Korean-Australian communities, Korean sex workers have been perceived as threats to the immigrant project of socio-economic mobility and 'legitimate' citizenship. We consider the silence that is desired of sex workers within immigrant communities and how this can be co-opted by anti-trafficking discourses that are still predicated on the helpless, voiceless female victim.
Jung, K 2016, 'Review of : "Transnational Feminism and Women's Movements in Post-1997 Hong Kong: Solidarity Beyond the State" by Adelyn Lim', Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific, no. 40.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Jung, K, Jang, H & Dalton, B 2016, 'Broken global explorations: The lived experience of Korean women working in the entertainment and sex industries in Sydney', Asian Journal of Women's Studies,, vol. 2016 Vol. 22,, no. No. 3,, pp. 208-227.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There has been limited discursive space for Korean women in the sex and entertainment industries, particularly for those working overseas in countries including Australia, to narrate their experience. Bringing out the voices of these women to the forefront, this paper offers a nuanced understanding of their migration trajectories and working and living conditions. Neither the abolitionist nor the decriminalization approach fully understands how women in these industries fare. The former neglects the agency of women who voluntarily choose this work, while the latter tends to silence the women trafficked into the industry. These views fail to encompass women's complicated lived experience, often falling outside this binary. The 22 women interviewed here described their involvement in the industry as a short-lived and auxiliary part of their global exploration. Although they voluntarily chose such work, and despite its legal status, they still suffer from the stigma associated with it, while their working conditions are often deceptive, abusive and exploitative. The paper suggests that we need to transcend the dichotomy between the 'free' and the 'trafficked' assumed by both global and national policies regarding the sex trade, in order to develop policies and programs to support and protect these migrant women better.
Dalton, BM & Jung, K 2009, 'Feeding the dictator or making a difference? The experiences of international aid and development agencies in North Korea 1995-2005', The International Review of Korean Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-28.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Since 2005 food aid to North Korea has been in steep decline, however, during the period 1995 to 2005 North Korea received more food aid from the UN World Food Programme (WFP) and US government than any other country. Similarly, private relief aid to North Korea significantly increased, with approximately 130 organisations worldwide providing over US$2 billion in aid between 1995 and 2005. This article revisits this period marked by the most extensive engagement of humanitarian organisations since the establishment of the Democratic Peopleâs Republic of Korea (DPRK) in 1948. In the context of this dependence on foreign aid the article examines the impact of International Aid Agencies or International Nongovernment Organisationsâ (INGOs) operations, not only in humanitarian terms but with regards to political, social and economic development. We argue that due to tight operating restrictions there was no discernable impact on North Korean society or the polity. However, it is argued that longer term and unanticipated effects are likely due to the extensive diversion of aid to the emerging informal market economy.
Jung, K & Dalton, BM 2006, 'Rhetoric versus reality for the women of North Korea - Mothers of the revolution', Asian Survey, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 741-760.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The role and status of women in North Korea have changed in recent years. Reports suggest that women, more than men, have become active players in emerging capitalist processes, particularly those centered on local markets, thus creating new opportunitie
Jung, K & Cho, SK 2005, 'Women's Policy during the Kim Dae Jung Administration in South Korea', KAREC Discussion Papers, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1-21.
Jung, K & Phillips, RL 2005, 'Strengthening the South Korean Welfare State Through Policy Transdfer from Australia: The Experience of Social Work and Welfare Practitioners', KAREC Discussion Papers, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1-67.
This paper explores feminist practice in South Korea on the basis of a case study on a feminist-run sexual assault centre (SAC). Feminism has been regarded as Western culture' in most parts of Asia. Feminists in Asian countries have been criticised in relation to the introduction of feminism into their countries and the application of 'Western thought' to their local contexts. However, some Asian countries such as Korea have developed their own feminist practice rooted in their specific sociopolitical and cultural context. Through an analysis of development of the first SAC in Korea, this paper shows how the Korean activists have operated SAC as a site of a broader feminist movement even though the idea of the SAC was introduced from Western countries. This paper concludes that feminist practices can be a dynamic process, constituted by social contexts and feminist activists in their local situation.
Jung, K 1998, 'The Politics of 'Speaking Out': NESB Women and the Discourse of Sexual Assault in Australia', Asian Journal of Women's Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 109-145.
In Australia, public policy discourse on rape and sexual assault emerged in the early 1970s. Until recently, however, sexual assault in culturally and linguistically diverse communities, such as the Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) groups, was largely an invisible issue both in government and non-government sectors. Now interest in the sexual assault of NESB women has increased even though NESB women themselves have mostly kept silent about it. This paper explores the category NESB, which is not homogeneous, and asks why interest in sexual assault against its women is increasing in public discourse in Australia, while the women themselves have kept silent or do not want to speak out. Furthermore, this paper investigates discourse about the sexual assault of NESB women, focusing on the reasons and meanings that underlie the womens silence. This paper also examines how the current discourse on sexual assault against NESB women has affected them and, in conclusion, advocates a political strategy for ending their silence.
Jung, K 2017, 'Surviving Hard Times: The women's movement under the Conservative Administration in South Korea and Australia' in Chang, PW, Lee, M & Roh, J (eds), Asian Feminisms and Transnational Activism, Ewha Womans University Press, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 289-312.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Jung, K 2016, 'Hankukkwa Hojueui Bosujeongbuha Yeosung Undong Bigyo (A Comparison of the Women's Movement under the Conservative Administration in South Korea and Australia)' in Glocalsidaeeui Asisyeosunghakkwa Yeosung Undongeui Jaengjeom (Issues of Women's Studies and Women's Movement in Asia in the Glocal Era), Hanul Academy, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 307-333.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Like the Australian women's movement of the 1970s, the Korean women's movement from the mid-1980s exploded into action. From out of nowhere, seemingly, came a plethora of newspapers, journals, cultural groups, rape and domestic violence support services and other women-focused activities – right down to the humble food co-op. Despite the 15-year time difference, the Australian and Korean women's movements have seen women's studies graduates and feminist scholars become the creative force behind new women's organisations, the circulation of feminist discourses, the initial development of women's policy machinery and the emergence of femocrats. Both countries are internationally recognised for advanced and successful women's policies that were developed through close engagement with the state. There is little doubt that the women's movement's engagement with the state has produced significant advances in gender equality, including legislation and a range of programs in both countries that have seen a partial institutionalisation of feminist perspectives within state policy-making processes. However, during the conservative Howard government (1996-2007), the Australian women's movement markedly lost its policy gains and energy. The Korean women's movement had similar experiences when facing the conservative Lee government (2008-2013). Drawing on activists' accounts in two countries, this chapter explores the challenges faced by the women's movement amid a hostile political context. It also explores how the women's movement might be reinvigorated. This chapter suggests the need for a critical assessment of the women's movement in a new context, including a re-examination of what constitutes the women's movement and how the success or failure of the women's movement can be measured. This chapter finishes by arguing that the significance of activists in reconstructing and sustaining the women's movement ought to be recognised.
Jung, K, Jung, Y & Jang, H 2013, 'Family Welfare and Family Policy in Australia' in Lee, H & Moon, H (eds), Understanding of Contemporary Australian Society II, Haksuljeongbo, Yonse University, Seoul, pp. 75-108.
Jung, K 2011, 'Institutionalisation and Marginalisation of Women's Issues' in Jeongbo, HH (ed), Yeoseong Munjeeui Jedowhawa Jubyunwha (Institutionalisation and Marginalisation of Women's issues in Australia) Understanding Contemporary Australian Society, Yonsei University Press, Korea, pp. 239-264.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Jung, K 2011, ''Yeoseong Munjeeui Jedowhawa Jubyunwha'(Institutionalisation and Marginalisation of Women's issues in Australia)' in Lee, H & Moon, K (eds), Understanding Contemporary Australian Society, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Literature Studies, Korea, pp. 239-264.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Australia, Women's Paradise really: Institutionalization and marginalization of women's issues
Maddison, S & Jung, K 2008, 'Autonomy and engagement: women's movements in Australia and South Korea' in Grey, S & Sawer, M (eds), Women's Movements: Flourishing or in abeyance?, Routledge, USA, pp. 33-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Jung, K 2013, 'Voices in Exile: North Koreans in China and Australia: a clandestine existence', KSAA BIENNIAL CONFERENCE, KSAA (Korean studies Association of Australisia) Biennial Conference), KSAA BIENNIAL CONFERENCE, ANU, Canberra, pp. 1-18.
Jung, K & Jang, H 2013, 'Tarnished Lure of Australia: The Life of Korean Women Working in the Sex Industry', AKSE conference Proceedings, The Association for Korean Studies in Europe, The Association for Korean Studies in Europe, Vienna, pp. 1-17.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Dalton, BM & Jung, K 2011, 'North Korea's Informal Markets and the Increasing Role of Women.', Proceedings of the Korean Studies Association of Australasia, Korean Studies Association of Australasia Biennial Conference, University of New South Wales, University of New South Wales, pp. 2-34.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper focuses on the spread of markets in North Korea and the role of women in this process. It does this by presenting individual accounts of North Korean female defectors and contextualizing these with data drawn from in-depth interviews with representatives of transnational and South Korean NGOs, government officials and North Korean experts and analysis of a variety of English and Korean language materials. In so doing the paper seeks to provide a more nuanced understanding of North Korean society at a time of unprecedented economic and social change.
Dalton, BM, Jang, H, Jung, K & Johns, RE 2009, 'Destination Australia: Working conditions of Korean women working in the entertainment and sex industry', Proceedings of the 9th PERA Conference - Workforce Planning in Times of Crisis and Change, Pacific Employment Relations Association Conference, Pacific Employment Relations Association, Adelaide Australia, pp. 32-54.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The experience of women working in the sex and entertainment industry is an issue central to feminism, social and human rights movements, and ongoing political debate. Although now an area of scholarly research the clandestine nature of this industry makes research challenging and means many aspects remain unknown. In this paper, the researchers examine the working conditions of Korean women working in the sex industry in Australia. The paper reports on recent trends in patterns of migration and draws attention to the fact that increasing numbers of Korean women are utilising =working holiday` visas to work in the sex and entertainment industry and that under Australian law this practice is essentially legal. The paper also examines the nature of their service in the sex industry and details the conditions of their employment. Findings from this study aim to inform recommendations to policy makers in relevant government and non-government community service organisations.
Dalton, BM & Jung, K 2009, 'The Humanitarian's Dilemma: The experience of international NGOs in North Korea', The Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial Korean Studies Association of Australasia (KSAA) Conference, Biennial Korean Studies Association of Australasia Conference, University of Sydney, University of Sydney, pp. 201-216.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Until the drastic reduction in the flow ofinternational aid precipitated by US sanctions in 2005, International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) conducted significant operations in the Democratic People's Republic ofKorea (DPRK). The DPRK solicited assistance from the international community in 1995, after a major flood and subsequent chronic food shortage. Over subsequent years the country became increasingly dependant on international assistance. Given this dependence on foreign aid by one of the world's most isolated, repressive andpotentially dangerous regimes and the recent withdrawal of' many aid agencies, it is timely to examine the impact of NGO operations, not only in humanitarian terms but with regards to economic, political and social development. After discussion of the various theories relating to the role ofINGOs in economic, social and political development, including their potential to promote democratisation, the pdper examines the impact of the activities of international aid organisations participating directly or indirectly in the provision ofhumanitarian aid, assistance or development in the DPRK. Based on the findings of10 semi-structured telephone interviews with relevant INGO personnel, INGO documents and other economic and social data, the paper examines the impact of INGOs on three key areas: Humanitarian objectives, economic development andpolitical/ social development.
Jang, H, Jung, K & Dalton, BM 2009, 'Factors influencing labour migration of Korean women into the entertainment and sex industry in Australia', Global Korea: Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial Conference Korean Studies Association of Australa, KSAA, KSAA, University of Sydney, Australia, pp. 254-265.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Jung, K 2005, 'What women have so far achieved: Policy gains and remaining tasks in South Korea', Korean Studies in the Era of Reconciliation and Cooperation, Academy of Korean Studies, Peking University, China, pp. 351-367.
Jung, K Korea Peace Institute 2012, Report on North Korean Defectors living overseas, pp. 1-715, Korea Peace Institute, Seoul.
Jung, K & Jung, Y Ministry of Gender Equqlity and Family, South Korea 2012, Women's Policy Trend and Policy Structure in Australia, pp. 332-363, Seoul.
Jung, K Korean Women's Development Institure 2006, A comparative study of family and child support policy in the UK, France, Australia and Finland, pp. 109-140, Seoul.
Jung, K 2016, 'Feminist Organisations in Transition: Surviving under Conservative Government in South Korea and Australia', International Society for Third Sector Research.