Prof Williams is a registered pharmacist with 18 years of academic experience in teaching and research at both the University of Technology Sydney and The University of Sydney. She has made a sustained contribution to learning and teaching in Pharmacy, and has taught students at all levels of study (undergraduates, postgraduates, practicing pharmacists). She has expertise in a variety of areas including evidence-based practice, drug information, pharmacoepidemiology, online health information, and therapeutics, and has a special interest in eLearning. She has extensive experience with the design, implementation and evaluation of curricula, at both the individual subject level, as well as for entire programs. She has received a number of teaching grants, has co-authored teaching-related peer-reviewed journal articles and two professional books, and has written over 80 educational articles for pharmacists. Her teaching efforts were recognised with an Award for Outstanding teaching at The University of Sydney in 2006.
Prof Williams' main research area is consumer self-care and pharmacy's role in this, with a focus on non-prescription drugs, and the use of the Internet. She has experience with both qualitative (focus groups, interviews) and quantitative research methods (questionnaires, pseudo-patient methodologies, actual use studies). Her productivity is evidenced by funding received (she has been a member of research teams awarded over $4 million in grants), numerous publications and conference presentations, and student supervision (having supervised 29 research students to completion).
Prof Williams welcomes research degree enquiries via a formal expression of interest (please do not email directly).
Can supervise: YES
Prof Williams is an experienced doctoral supervisor and welcomes research degree enquiries via a formal expression of interest (please do not email directly).
Prof Williams' main research interest is consumer self-care and pharmacy's role in this, with a focus on non-prescription drugs, and the use of the Internet.
Consumers are becoming increasingly involved in self-management and decision-making regarding their health, and are requiring timely and convenient access to health services. Pharmacy is well positioned to assist consumers with self-care as pharmacies are widely distributed and, therefore, extremely accessible. Pharmacists could be involved with many aspects of self-care, including provision of non-prescription drugs and advice, chronic disease management, preventative health care and health promotion.
Prof Williams' interest in the area of self-care began with her PhD which focused on how consumers used non-prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as developing an innovative methodology for monitoring actual use of non-prescription products and consumer self-medication behaviour. Since then, this methodology has been widely used to explore consumer use of such medications as paracetamol, pseudoephedrine and the emergency oral contraceptive. A/Prof Williams is also interested in pharmacy provision of non-prescription drugs. She has been involved in a nation-wide study of community pharmacy interventions in the non-prescription area, which has been used as evidence to maintain the current Pharmacy and Pharmacist-only Medicine schedules (S2 and S3). Recent work includes the evaluation of pharmacists' perspectives on the provision of the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP), as well as pseudo-patient testing of the service provided in community pharmacies in relation to the ECP, and evaluation of community and Internet pharmacy provision of children’s over-the-counter cough and cold medicines.
Prof Williams is also interested in the impact of technology on pharmacy and consumer self-care. Projects in this area have included: telepharmacy - the use of videoconferencing to provide patient discharge counselling; pharmacists’ use of online health information and their search strategies; consumer and pharmacist use of Internet-based medicine information; ePharmacy and Standards of Practice; blogging and the development of critical reflection in pharmacy; using a wiki to enhance collaboration in problem based learning; Australian consumers and DTCA on the Internet. Current projects include the assessment of online insomnia-related information for consumers and online asthma information in Arabic for consumers in Saudi Arabia.
Primary Health Care
Williams, K. & Aslani, P. 2001, Essential CPE - New drug in Context: Antifungals, Pharmaceutical Society of Australia (PSA), ACT, AU.
Aly, M, García-Cárdenas, V, Williams, KA & Benrimoj, SI 2019, 'A qualitative study of stakeholder views and experiences of minor ailment services in the United Kingdom.', Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP.View/Download from: Publisher's site
An international strategy designed to promote access to primary care is the utilisation of community pharmacy to deliver structured minor ailment services (MASs). An understanding of key implementation features of MASs will support effective service delivery and implementation, promote MAS viability, sustainability and overall improvement.The aim of this study is to explore the views and experiences of a range of stakeholders concerning the implementation of MASs in the United Kingdom.A qualitative approach was used to obtain data. Participants were recruited using purposeful and snowball sampling. Stakeholders from five different regions were included. Using the digital recordings of the interviews, thematic content analysis was undertaken.Thirty-three participants agreed to be interviewed. Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic content analysis yielded three major themes, including (1) benefits of MASs, (2) structural challenges associated with MAS design and (3) other implementation factors associated with MAS delivery. Stakeholders recognised the positive impact of the service to improve patient access and care, promote efficiencies, and promote the professional role of the pharmacist. Nevertheless barriers do exist to service delivery and implementation. Stakeholders identified the need to potentially increase the population groups served by MASs, increase the conditions treated and widen their formulary lists. Similarly, marketing strategies needed to be improved to enhance consumer awareness. Stakeholders presented mixed views about whether pharmacists needed to complete clinical training and the need to increase pharmacist's remuneration. In addition the level of healthcare collaboration needed to improve.Several concepts emerged from the investigation to facilitate service delivery. Barriers to service implementation had a variable impact on implementation. Service delivery should function to meet all stakeholder needs and can be...
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Benrimoj, SI & Williams, KA 2019, 'The development of a role description and competency map for pharmacists in an interprofessional care setting', International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Background Pharmacists are increasingly being included as members of general practice primary care teams. To date, there have been few published studies describing the competencies of general practice (GP) pharmacists and establishing their subsequent educational needs. Aim of the review The aim of this literature review is to establish the activities of pharmacists in general practice to inform the development of a comprehensive role description and competency map. Method A systematic literature search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, international pharmaceutical abstracts and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews was conducted from the start of the databases to August 2018. The search focused on studies investigating the roles performed by GP pharmacists. Full text peer-reviewed English language articles were included. A qualitative content analysis of included studies was performed. Two researchers reviewed studies to identify pharmacist roles. Subcategories of roles were then agreed by the research team and used to present the data. GP pharmacist's activities were mapped by two researchers to associated competencies. Any discrepancies between role descriptions and competency maps were resolved in consultation with a third member of the research team. Results The search conducted resulted in 5370 potential articles. Two hundred and twenty-seven full text articles were selected for review resulting in 34 articles that were included for analysis. Seven GP pharmacist role sub-categories and 48 GP pharmacist individual roles were identified. The seven GP pharmacist role sub-categories included medication management, patient examination and screening, chronic disease management, drug information and education, collaboration and liaison, audit and quality assurance and research. All FIP competency domains were included in the GP pharmacist competency map. Competencies related to compounding, dispensing and packaging of medications we...
Yong, FR, Garcia-Cardenas, V, Williams, KA & (Charlie) Benrimoj, SI 2019, 'Factors affecting community pharmacist work: A scoping review and thematic synthesis using role theory', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Werth, BL, Williams, KA, Fisher, MJ & Pont, LG 2019, 'Defining constipation to estimate its prevalence in the community: results from a national survey', BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 19, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Aly, M, Garcia Cardenas, MV, Williams, K & Benrimoj, S 2018, 'A review of international pharmacy-based minor ailment services and proposed service design model', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 14, pp. 989-998.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background: The need to consider sustainable healthcare solutions is essential. An innovative strategy used to promote minor ailment care is the utilisation of community pharmacists to deliver minor ailment services (MASs). Promoting higher levels of self-care can potentially reduce the strain on existing resources.
Aim: To explore the features of international MASs, including their similarities and differences, and consider the essential elements to design a MAS model.
Methods: A grey literature search strategy was completed in June 2017 to comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standard. This included (1) Google/Yahoo! search engines, (2) targeted websites, and (3) contact with commissioning organisations. Executive summaries, table of contents and title pages of documents were reviewed. Key characteristics of MASs were extracted and a MAS model was developed.
Results: A total of 147 publications were included in the review. Key service elements identified included eligibility, accessibility, staff involvement, reimbursement systems. Several factors need to be considered when designing a MAS model; including contextualisation of MAS to the market.
Stakeholder engagement, service planning, governance, implementation and review have emerged as key aspects involved with a design model.
Conclusion: MASs differ in their structural parameters. Consideration of these parameters is necessary when devising MAS aims and assessing outcomes to promote sustainability and success of
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Kmet, W, Benrimoj, SI & Williams, K 2018, 'Pharmacists in general practice: a focus on drug-related problems.', International journal of clinical pharmacy, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 566-572.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background Team based care has been used internationally to improve the delivery of best practice primary health care. The WentWest General Practice Pharmacist Project, involving the integration of pharmacists within general practice teams, was commissioned to improve medication management of general practice patients. A particular focus of the project was the performance of medication review to allow the detection and resolution of drug related problems (DRPs). Objective The objectives of this 6-month study (October 2016-March 2017) were to: (1) identify and classify the DRPs detected as a result of pharmacist activities within a general practice primary care setting. (2) compare the number of pharmacist recommendations and GP acceptance rates as a result of pharmacist patient consultations across multiple general practice sites. Setting 15 general practice primary care sites in Western Sydney NSW Australia. A multi-centre prospective observational study conducted over a 6-month period from October 2016 to March 2017. Main outcome measure Drug-related problems (DRPs). Results Six pharmacists recorded the results from 493 patient consultations. The pharmacists identified 1124 DRPs and made 984 recommendations, of which 685 (70%) were recorded as accepted by the GP. Conclusion Pharmacists have a valuable role to play in the detection and resolution of DRP as part of the general practice team.
Benson, H, Sabater-Hernández, D, Benrimoj, SI & Williams, KA 2018, 'Piloting the Integration of Non-Dispensing Pharmacists in the Australian General Practice Setting: A Process Evaluation.', International journal of integrated care, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 4-4.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This process evaluation examined the circumstances affecting implementation, intervention design and situational context of the twelve week pilot phase of a project integrating five pharmacists into twelve general practice sites in Western Sydney.This study used a mixed method study design using qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews and quantitative data collected by project pharmacists to analyse the process of the integrating pharmacists is general practice. Framework analysis of the interview transcripts was used to align the results with the key process evaluation themes of implementation, mechanism of impact and context. Preliminary quantitative data was used to provide implementation feedback and to support the qualitative findings.The interventional design included three phases, patient recruitment and selection, the pharmacist consultation and the communication and recording of recommendations. A number of barriers and facilitators affecting implementation were identified. Insight into the situational context of the intervention was gained from examining the differences between individual pharmacists and between practice sites.Conducting a process evaluation in the pilot phase of an integrated care project can allow adjustments to be made to the project procedures to improve the effectiveness and reproducibility of the intervention going forward.
Lucas, C, Williams, K, Tudball, J & Walpola, RL 2018, 'Community, hospital and industry preceptor perceptions of their role in experiential placements- the need for standardization of preceptor responsibilities and evaluations on students', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1447-1455.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Introduction: Appropriate evaluation processes are important in experiential placements. With the growing diversity between placements, consideration for standardization of some of these processes would be beneficial, particularly for those skills that are transferable regardless of the placement type. The objectives of this study was: (1) to explore the experiences, evaluation strategies, and feedback processes of Australian preceptor pharmacists from three primary experiential areas (community, hospital, and industry) in providing student placements; and (2) to inform the future development of the current local experiential program and future extended international experiential programs. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory study with three preceptor focus groups (community, hospital, and industry) were conducted, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Bazeley's 'describe – compare – relate' method for thematic analysis. Results: There were a total of 16 participants. Four themes emerged: (1) motivation and purpose of being a preceptor; (2) expectations of students and the university; (3) organizational planning and conduct of experiential placements; and (4) importance of appropriate evaluation and feedback processes to include evaluation of interpersonal skills, which were considered by all focus group members as highly desirable for future employability. Conclusions: The need for standardized processes across different experiential placements, although difficult given the diversity, is important particularly with respect to evaluation and feedback. As interpersonal attributes are transferable and desirable for all types of experiential settings including rural and international environments, standardizing the evaluation of students to include these could be beneficial and applicable for students on local experiential placements and/or cross globally on international experiential placements.
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Benrimoj, SI, Kmet, W & Williams, KA 2018, 'Pharmacists in general practice: Recommendations resulting from team-based collaborative care', Australian Journal of Primary Health, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 448-454.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 La Trobe University. The Western Sydney Primary Health Network (PHN), WentWest, has been working to improve patient and health system outcomes by commissioning projects that enhance patient-focussed, team-based care. One such project is the WentWest General Practice Pharmacist Project, involving the integration of pharmacists within general practice sites. The aim of this study is to describe, classify and analyse recommendations made by pharmacists to GPs, resulting from patient consultations between pharmacists and patients in a general practice setting. This study was a multi-centre prospective observational study (April 2017-September 2017) investigating recommendations made by pharmacists integrated in a general practice setting. Thirteen general practice sites located in Western Sydney, NSW, Australia were involved in the study. The main outcome measures of this study include the classification of pharmacist recommendations and the percentage of those recommendations accepted by GPs. The pharmacists recorded the results from 618 patient consultations. These consultations resulted in 1601 recommendations of which 1404 (88%) were recorded as accepted. This study demonstrated that the recommendations made by pharmacists in general practice are well accepted by GPs and may lead to improvements in medication management and patient care.
Werth, BL, Williams, KA & Pont, LG 2017, 'Laxative Use and Self-Reported Constipation in a Community-Dwelling Elderly Population: A Community-Based Survey From Australia', Gastroenterology Nursing, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 134-141.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 by the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates, Inc.The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the prevalence of laxative use and self-reported constipation and 2) identify risk factors associated with constipation in a community-dwelling elderly population. A retrospective cross-sectional survey using data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing was used to explore laxative use and constipation in a cohort of community-dwelling older persons. The prevalence of laxative use was 15% and the prevalence of self-reported constipation was 21%. Females were more likely to report constipation and use laxatives. Of those using laxatives, men were more likely to have their laxatives prescribed by a doctor whereas women were more likely to self-medicate. Poor self-rated health and a higher need for assistance with activities of daily living were identified as risk factors for constipation. Constipation is a common condition affecting the community-dwelling elderly. There is a need to optimize the management of constipation and use of laxatives in such populations.
Abdel Shaheed, C, Maher, CG, Williams, KA & Mclachlan, AJ 2017, 'Efficacy and tolerability of muscle relaxants for low back pain: Systematic review and meta-analysis', European Journal of Pain, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 228-237.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.Muscle relaxants are commonly prescribed for low back pain (LBP); however, there is limited evidence of their clinical efficacy and tolerability. This review evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of muscle relaxants in people with LBP. We searched online databases including Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL and PsycINFO (inception to end October 2015) and performed citation tracking for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias of randomized controlled trials of muscle relaxants. Pain outcomes were converted to a common 0-100 scale. Data were pooled using a random effects model with strength of evidence assessed using GRADE. Fifteen trials (3362 participants) were evaluated in this review. A total of five trials (496 participants) provide high quality evidence that muscle relaxants provide clinically significant pain relief in the short term for acute LBP; MD -21.3, [-29.0, -13.5]. There was no information on long-term outcomes. The median adverse event rate in clinical trials for muscle relaxants was similar to placebo 14.1% IQR (7.0-28.7%) and 16.0% (4.1-31.2%); p = 0.5, respectively. There is no evidence for the efficacy of benzodiazepines in LBP. For people with acute LBP, muscle relaxants provide clinically significant short-term pain relief. For chronic LBP, the efficacy of muscle relaxants is largely unknown. There was no eligible RCT evidence to support the efficacy of benzodiazepines in LBP. Prolonged use of these medicines in LBP cannot be guided by trial evidence. What does this review add?: Muscle relaxants provide clinically significant pain relief for acute low back pain. Caution must be taken with the interpretation of the findings as the evidence comes from specific muscle relaxant medicines.
Abdel Shaheed, C, Maher, CG, Williams, KA & McLachlan, AJ 2016, 'Pharmacists' views on implementing a disease state management program for low back pain.', Australian journal of primary health, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 211-217.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pharmacists have the potential to take a lead role in the primary care management of people with acute low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacists' views on implementing a care program for people with acute low back pain in the community pharmacy. Recruitment of pharmacists for this study took place between July 2012 and March 2013. A convenience sample of 30 pharmacists who collaborated in recruiting participants for a low back pain clinical trial in Sydney (n=15 pharmacist recruiters and n=15 non-recruiters) completed an open-ended questionnaire. There was no marked variation in responses between the two groups. Participating pharmacists were receptive to the idea of implementing a care program for people with low back pain, highlighting the need for adequate reimbursement and adequate training of staff to ensure it is successful. Pharmacists identified that the follow up of people receiving such a service is dependent on several factors such as effective reminder systems and the proximity of patients to the pharmacy.
Abdel Shaheed, C, Maher, CG, Williams, KA, Day, R & McLachlan, AJ 2016, 'Efficacy, Tolerability, and Dose-Dependent Effects of Opioid Analgesics for Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.', JAMA Internal Medicine, vol. 176, no. 7, pp. 958-968.View/Download from: Publisher's site
IMPORTANCE: Opioid analgesics are commonly used for low back pain, however, to our knowledge there has been no systematic evaluation of the effect of opioid dose and use of enrichment study design on estimates of treatment effect. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of opioids in the management of back pain; and investigate the effect of opioid dose and use of an enrichment study design on treatment effect. DATA SOURCES: Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and PsycINFO (inception to September 2015) with citation tracking from eligible randomized clinical trials (RCTs). STUDY SELECTION: Placebo-controlled RCTs in any language. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled using a random effects model with strength of evidence assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was pain. Pain and disability outcomes were converted to a common 0 to 100 scale, with effects greater than 20 points considered clinically important. RESULTS: Of 20 included RCTs of opioid analgesics (with a total of 7925 participants), 13 trials (3419 participants) evaluated short-term effects on chronic low back pain, and no placebo-controlled trials enrolled patients with acute low back pain. In half of these 13 trials, at least 50% of participants withdrew owing to adverse events or lack of efficacy. There was moderate-quality evidence that opioid analgesics reduce pain in the short term; mean difference (MD), -10.1 (95% CI, -12.8 to -7.4). Meta-regression revealed a 12.0 point greater pain relief for every 1 log unit increase in morphine equivalent dose (P = .046). Clinically important pain relief was not observed within the dose range evaluated (40.0-240.0-mg morphine equivalents per day). There was no significant effect of enrichment study design. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: For people with chronic low back ...
Probably the best known definition of health promotion is in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) - slightly modified at their Bangkok meeting in 2005 to the Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World (2005): 'Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and thereby improve their health'.
Abdel Shaheed, C, McFarlane, B, Maher, CG, Williams, KA, Bergin, J, Matthews, A & McLachlan, AJ 2016, 'Investigating the Primary Care Management of Low Back Pain: A Simulated Patient Study.', The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 27-35.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A limitation of existing studies of primary care for low back pain (LBP) is that they are not based on direct observation of the clinical encounter and so may underestimate or overestimate the extent of evidence-practice gaps. This was a cross-sectional observational study that observed the management recommendations for LBP provided in primary care using a simulated patient approach. Trained actors requested an over-the-counter medicine or asked for management advice for 1 of 2 simulated patient scenarios: nonspecific LBP (NSLBP) or vertebral compression fracture. Visits were audiorecorded to allow data capture, validation, and review. We evaluated concordance with key recommendations provided in evidence-based LBP guidelines on pain medicines, patient self-care advice, and referral. Visits were conducted across 534 pharmacies comprising 336 nonspecific scenarios and 198 fracture scenarios. Recommendations for pain medicines, but not patient self-care advice and referral, were typically consistent with guidelines. For the NSLBP scenario, the concerns were infrequent provision of reassurance of favorable outcome (8%), advice to stay active (5%), advice to avoid bed rest (0%), advice to use superficial heat (24%), and excessive endorsement of referral (57.4%) and imaging (22.7%). For the fracture scenario, the concerns were a low rate of prompt medical referrals (50.0%) and low endorsement of rest (1.0%).We observed primary care that aligned closely with some aspects, but was at odds with other aspects, of evidence-based LBP guidelines. Problems included inadequate self-care advice and failing to appropriately recommend imaging or prompt medical review when indicated. These results can inform implementation strategies to improve primary care management of LBP.
Werth, BL, Williams, KA & Pont, LG 2015, 'A longitudinal study of constipation and laxative use in a community-dwelling elderly population', Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 418-424.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background: Little is known about laxative use, the association of constipation with laxative use, risk factors for constipation and how each of these changes over time in the community-dwelling elderly. Objective: The aim was to explore the prevalence of laxative use and of self-reported constipation, and identify risk factors (including age) associated with constipation, in a cohort of community-dwelling elderly residents. Methods: Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA) was used to compare differences in constipation and laxative use in the community-dwelling elderly between 1992-1993 and 2003-2004. Results: Relevant data was available for 239 ALSA participants. The prevalence of self-reported constipation increased from 14% in 1992-1993 to 21% in 2003-2004. There was a corresponding increase in the prevalence of laxative use from 6% to 15% over the same period. At both time points, females reported a higher prevalence of both constipation and laxative use however the female:male prevalence ratios decreased over time indicating higher increases in the prevalence of each among males. Persistent chronic constipation occurred in 9% of the cohort. The association between laxative use and self-reported constipation was poor and laxative use was associated with self-reported constipation in less than a third of cases. Conclusion: The prevalence of both constipation and laxative use increases with age in the elderly, and these increases are greater for males than for females. Discrepancies between self-reported constipation and laxative use may suggest sub-optimal management of constipation in the community-dwelling elderly and further work is needed to fully understand this.
Basyouni, MH, BinDhim, NF, Saini, B & Williams, KA 2015, 'Online Health Information Needs for Patients with Asthma in Saudi Arabia', Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 13-24.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015, Published with license by Taylor & Francis. This study aims to identify the online asthma informational needs of patients with asthma in Saudi Arabia, explore participants' previous use of and interest in online asthma health information, and explore factors associated with online information-seeking and needs. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on similar studies of asthma patients' education and completed by a convenient sample of 83 asthma patients attending the outpatient pulmonary clinic at the Security Forces Hospital Program in Riyadh. Approximately two-thirds of participants who use the Internet have searched for asthma information online. Thirteen percent of the participants reported that the Internet was their main source of information about asthma, and 33.7% reported that the Internet was their favorite additional source of information about asthma. Seventy-eight percent of the participants were interested in an asthma information Web site in the Arabic language. Employment and higher income were associated with participants who chose the Internet as the favorite source of additional information about asthma (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.6–12.7) and (OR 4.2, 95%CI 1.4–12.5), respectively, and an education level higher than high school was associated with participants who previously had looked for online information about asthma (OR 11.2, 95%CI 3.8.6–33.5).
Abdel Shaheed, C, Maher, CG, Mak, W, Williams, KA & McLachlan, AJ 2015, 'The effects of educational interventions on pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards low back pain', International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 616-625.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background Practitioner beliefs and attitudes towards low back pain (LBP) influence treatment decisions. Little is known about pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards LBP. Objectives To investigate the effect of educational interventions on pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards LBP. Setting Sydney Metropolitan Area. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs was measured using the 'Pharmacists' Back Beliefs Questionnaire', with items from two previously reported questionnaires on back beliefs. Responses from pharmacists attending a 2-h educational workshop on LBP (n = 204) and pharmacists recruiting participants for a LBP clinical trial (n = 66) were compared to responses from a control group of pharmacists (n = 65) to allow an evaluation of the two interventions. Responses from workshop participants were also evaluated before and after the session. Participants indicated their agreement with statements about LBP on a 5-point Likert scale. Preferred responses were based on guidelines for the evidence-based management of LBP. The primary analysis evaluated total score on the nine-inevitability items of the Back Beliefs Questionnaire ('inevitability score'). Main outcome measure Inevitability score. Results There was no significant difference in inevitability score between LBP clinical trial pharmacists and the control group [mean difference (MD) 0.47 (95 % CI −1.35 to 2.29; p = 0.61)]. The educational workshop led to a significant and favourable change in inevitability score (MD 7.23 p < 0.001) and notable changes in responses to misconceptions regarding bed rest and the need for imaging (p < 0.001) among participating pharmacists. Conclusions Pharmacists attending the educational workshop provided the most compelling evidence that education specifically aimed at delivering evidence-based information can be successful in changing practitioner knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards LBP.
Abdel Shaheed, C, Maher, CG, Mak, W, Williams, KA & McLachlan, AJ 2015, 'Knowledge and satisfaction of pharmacists attending an educational workshop on evidence-based management of low back pain.', Australian journal of primary health, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 126-131.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pharmacists are well positioned to provide quality care to people with low back pain (LBP). Education and training can equip pharmacists with the knowledge to optimally manage LBP in primary care. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and satisfaction of pharmacists who attended a 2-h educational workshop on the evidence-based management of LBP. Case-based learning, underpinned by key adult learning principles, was one teaching method used to deliver important educational messages. Knowledge was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice, true/false questions and a written vignette based on a real-life clinical case scenario. Written feedback from pharmacists was used to gauge the success and limitations of the intervention. One hundred and ninety-three pharmacists completed the in-house assessment. Pharmacists demonstrated an accurate understanding of evidence-based pharmacological management of LBP, with all identifying paracetamol as the first-line drug choice for non-specific LBP. Ninety-nine per cent of pharmacists identified the symptoms presented in the vignette as a syndrome representing a significant clinical red flag requiring urgent referral. This educational intervention has delivered key messages on LBP management to pharmacists. There is a continued need for educational interventions addressing common conditions.
Abdel Shaheed, C, Maher, CG, Williams, KA & McLachlan, AJ 2014, 'Participation of pharmacists in clinical trial recruitment for low back pain.', International journal of clinical pharmacy, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 986-994.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clinician involvement in clinical trials research represents a significant contribution to addressing important research questions in primary care.This study aimed to explore the experiences of pharmacists recruiting patients to a low back pain (LBP) clinical trial conducted in Australia, the challenges they experienced and screening and management of people with acute LBP.This study received ethical approval (No. 13799) through the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee.A convenience sample of 15 pharmacists who successfully recruited people to the clinical trial and 15 pharmacists who collaborated on the trial but did not recruit any participants were invited to complete an open ended questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of six items framed to evaluate pharmacists' views on participation in the LBP clinical trial, ideas for addressing the challenges they experienced and screening and management of people with LBP who present to the pharmacy.A total of 30 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Pharmacists identified lack of time and patient reluctance to participate as the major challenges to recruiting participants to the LBP clinical trial. Greater patient incentives and a more efficient paperwork system have been recommended as strategies to overcome these challenges. The recruiters and non-recruiters held similar views on pharmacological management of acute LBP and complied with guideline recommended care; although their views on the non-pharmacological management of acute LBP were less consistent with the guidelines.The experiences of pharmacists evaluated in this study has broadened the understanding around challenges to recruitment for a placebo controlled trial and identified gaps which can be addressed in future training and education of pharmacists.This study has identified time pressure as the major barrier to recruitment of participants to the LBP clinical trial. Education of pharmacists on the appropriate non-pharmacological ma...
Moghe, R, Cheung, JMY, Saini, B, Marshall, NS & Williams, K 2014, 'Consumers using the Internet for insomnia information: The who, what, and why', Sleep and Biological Rhythms, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 297-304.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Information obtained from the Internet often influences the treatment choices of patients with insomnia. This study explored patterns of online information seeking and utilization among patients with insomnia. A total of 1013 participants took part in an online survey about sleep health information between July 2012 and March 2013. Participants also completed the Insomnia Severity Index and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale. The results showed that those seeking insomnia-related information resources frequently searched online, and the information found appeared to influence important health behaviors such as treatment decisions, taking medication and whether to seek professional care. Information of interest revolved around insomnia treatment options and symptomology. While no predictors for Internet use were identified, the Internet does represent an important health-care portal for insomnia patients and warrants further investigation as targeted e-health interventions become more prominent in the routine management of insomnia.
Shaheed, CA, Maher, CG, Williams, K & McLachlan, AJ 2014, 'Interventions Available Over the Counter and Advice for Acute Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis', The Journal of Pain, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 2-15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Queddeng, K, Chaar, B & Williams, K 2011, 'Emergency contraception in Australian community pharmacies: a simulated patient study', Contraception, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 176-182.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background: Australia joined the worldwide movement to increase the availability of the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) by rescheduling from Prescription to Pharmacist Only status in 2004. However a protocol developed to aid in the provision of the ECP placed extensive requirements on the pharmacist. This study investigated the provision of the ECP by community pharmacists in Sydney, Australia. Study Design: Using a simulated patient methodology, 100 community pharmacies were visited over a five week period (AugOct 2008). The simulated patient specifically requested the ECP, and details of the consultation were recorded on a standardised data collection form. Results: The ECP was supplied in 95% of the pharmacies visited. Patient privacy was observed in 90% of consultations, which in general were succinct and friendly. Clinical assessment of the patient that met all the requirements was observed in 18%, partial assessment in 69%, and inadequate assessment in 13% of consultations. Provision of required information to the patient was sufficient in 42%, partial in 55%, and inadequate in 3% of consultations. Conclusions: This study highlighted a need to standardize procedures in regard to the ECP service to present a more consistent level of service to the public. Suggestions to improve the service include complete revision and simplification of the current protocol and improved training. Additionally, mandatory provision of private consultation areas and continuing professional education may facilitate and enhance quality counselling.
Williams, K, Emmerton, L, Taylor, R, Werner, J & Benrimoj, C 2011, 'Non-prescription medicines and Australian community pharmacy interventions: Rates and clinical significance', International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 156-165.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Objective To quantify pharmacy intervention rates for non-prescription medications (pharmacist-only and pharmacy medicines), to document the clinical significance of these interventions and to determine the adverse health consequences and subsequent heal
Gu, P, Williams, K, Aslani, P & Chaar, B 2011, 'Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines on the internet: An Australian consumer perspective', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 196-202.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background: In Australia there are strict regulations in place to protect the consumer from directtoconsumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. However, the degree of infallibility of these restrictions is unclear. Aim: To investigate the DTCA encountered by Australian consumers when searching the Internet for common health- or medicine-related questions. Method: 2 health topics, weight loss and impotence, were chosen and explored from 2 perspectives the health condition and a commonly used medicine (brand name). Key words were chosen to simulate the language and search style of a consumer. The first 10 hits from each search were evaluated using the validated DISCERN scale, and a descriptive report of each web site was conducted with a specific focus on evidence for DTCA. Results: Of the 70 web sites visited, 10 sites originating from the USA or New Zealand exhibited DTCA. The scale and intensity of DTCA varied between search topics and strategies and ranged in appearance from simple, pictorial advertising to subtle forms of persuasive language. DTCA of some pharmaceuticals was often hidden within disease awareness campaigns, ePharmacy web pages and online communities. Conclusion: Australian consumers are exposed to DTCA of prescription medicines on the Internet. Clearly, DTCA restrictions in Australia are not infallible. Australian policy makers in the interests of public health must take measures to address the gaps.
Peterson-Clark, G, Aslani, P & Williams, K 2010, 'Pharmacists' online information literacy: an assessment of their use of Internet-based medicines information', Health Information And Libraries Journal, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 208-216.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Introduction: Pharmacists Need Effective Skills In Accessing And Using Internet-Based Medicines Information (Ibmi) For Themselves And Their Consumers. However, There Is Limited Information Regarding How Pharmacists Use The Internet. Objectives: To Develo
Taylor, S, Maharaj, P, Williams, K, Chetty, M & Sheldrake, C 2010, 'Pharmacy students' perspectives and performance following inter-campus lecture delivery via video conferencing', FOCUS ON HEALTH PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION: A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY JOURNAL, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 39-51.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The University of Sydney offered the Bachelor of Pharmacy (Rural) from 2003 at its campus in Orange, New South Wales. The degree was designed to help address a shortfall in the rural pharmacy workforce by training pharmacists in a rural setting and by providing greater rural content in the curriculum. Where appropriate, lectures given to students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy in Sydney were delivered via video-conferencing to the campus in Orange. Aims: To evaluate four units of study with respect to students' views on video-conferencing of lectures, and to compare students' performance to determine whether students receiving tuition via video-conferencing were disadvantaged compared to students receiving face-to-face tuition. Methods: Students in Sydney and Orange were surveyed using a six-item questionnaire. All statements focused on video-conferencing and required students to score their responses on a 5-point Likert-type rating scale. Means were calculated for each item. End of semester mean marks were compared, as well as the proportion of students passing in each cohort. Results: Students in Orange felt it was difficult to ask questions via video-conferencing. They also felt that lectures needed to be supplemented with face-to-face tutorials and that some lectures should be delivered from Orange. Students in Sydney felt that video-conferencing to Orange disrupted their classes and did not want to receive lectures video-conferenced from Orange. Marks for students in Orange were generally lower than those of the Sydney cohort, but there were no statistically significant differences in the proportion of students who passed each unit. Conclusion: The configuration of the lecture theatre and the opportunity for the remote students to interact with lecturers strongly affects student satisfaction. In addition, there is a need for expert technical back-up at all sites and for staff development and support on ways to effectively use this technology
Ajjawi, R, Thistlethwaite, J, Williams, K, Ryan, G, Seale, PJ & Carroll, P 2010, 'Breaking down professional barriers: Medicine and pharmacy students learning together', FOCUS ON HEALTH PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION: A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY JOURNAL, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Background: This paper reports findings of a pilot interprofessional problem based learning (PBL) study in the faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Sydney, New South Wales. The aim of the research was to investigate whether small group interprofessional learning activities with medical and pharmacy students can lead to: changes in attitude toward each other and toward interprofessional education (IPE); added value when learning together; and better understanding of each other's professional roles. Methods: Nineteen medical and 20 pharmacy students participated in two, 2-hour PBL tutorials focussed on conducting a Home Medicines Review. The Attitudes to Health Professionals Questionnaire (AHPQ) was used to measure attitude change pre- and postinterprofessional PBL. Paired t-tests were used to analyse pre- and post-IPE data. Focus groups were conducted with the students after the PBL sessions. These were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed. Results: Students reported added value from the IPE experience. Pharmacy students reported a small but significant change in attitude toward the medical students on the AHPQ caring scale, rating them as more caring post-IPE (p=0.001). Although medical students rated the pharmacy students more caring after the intervention, this was not statistically significant (p=0.08). Medical students valued the pharmacy students' input and knowledge. Conclusion: There was evidence of a positive change in students' attitudes to the other profession after only two sessions. Aspects of IPE design such as explicit interprofessional learning outcomes, the use of PBL processes, and relevant learning activities were important to the success of this pilot study
Williams, K. 2010, 'Non-prescription NSAIDs: What are the risks?', Geriatric medicine in general practice, vol. 6, pp. 22-24.
Kelly, FS, Williams, K & Benrimoj, C 2009, 'Does Advice From Pharmacy Staff Vary According To The Nonprescription Medicine Requested?', The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 1877-1886.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background: Community Pharmacy Has Long Been Advocated As An Appropriate Gateway Of Supply For Nonprescription Medicines And Health-Related Advice. Consumers Sometimes Self-Treat The Symptoms Of Minor Illness, Yet There Is Conflicting Evidence Over Their
Taylor, S, Maharaj, P, Williams, K & Sheldrake, C 2009, 'Pharmacy students' intention to practise in a rural setting: Measuring the impact of a rural curriculum, rural campus and rural placement on a predominantly metropolitan student cohort', Australian Journal of Rural Health, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 305-309.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Objective: To Compare Pharmacy Students' Intention To Practise In A Rural Setting Expressed In Their First Year Of University With That Expressed During Their Final Year. Design: Longitudinal Survey Of Students In Their First And Final Years. Setting: Te
Williams, K 2009, 'Strategies to reduce the impact of osteoarthritis', Australian Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 90, no. 1067, pp. 71-73.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic progressive disease of the synovial joints, characterised by destruction of joint cartilage leading to eventual joint destruction. It is the most common form of arthritis and a major cause of chronic pain and disability. 1 As there is currently no cure for OA, management is focused on reducing pain, maintaining or improving function and mobility of affected joints, and increasing the quality of life of the patien
Roberts, A, Benrimoj, C, Chen, T, Williams, K & Aslani, P 2008, 'Practice Change In Community Pharmacy: Quantification Of Facilitators', The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 861-868.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background: There Has Been An Increasing International Trend Toward The Delivery Of Cognitive Pharmaceutical Services (Cps) In Community Pharmacy. Cps Have Been Developed And Disseminated Individually, Without A Framework Underpinning Their Implementatio
Williams, K 2008, 'Spray it again, Sam', Pharmacy News, no. 17/JAN., p. 16.
Williams, K 2008, 'Aspirin advice: Treating a child's sore throat symptoms', Pharmacy News, no. 22/MAY, p. 22.
Williams, K 2008, 'Double trouble', Pharmacy News, no. 10/APR., p. 19.
Williams, K 2008, 'Fertility put at risk', Pharmacy News, no. 25/SEPT., p. 20.
Williams, K 2008, 'An inflammatory issue', Pharmacy News, no. 3/JULY, p. 23.
Williams, K 2008, ''Natural' therapies', Pharmacy News, no. 6/NOV., p. 21.
Williams, K 2008, 'Migraine matters', Pharmacy News, no. 28/FEB., p. 20.
Williams, K 2007, 'Risky business', Pharmacy News, no. 27/NOV., p. 22.
Williams, K 2007, 'Treating muscle sprains', Pharmacy News, no. SUPPL. SEPT., pp. 36-37.
Williams, K 2007, 'Computer error', Pharmacy News, no. 26/APR., p. 23.
Williams, K 2007, 'Facing up to sunsafe skin: Benzoyl peroxide and photosensitivity: A clinical intervention', Pharmacy News, no. 1/FEB., p. 22.
Williams, K 2007, 'Patient has that sinking feeling', Pharmacy News, no. 11/OCT., p. 20.
Williams, K 2007, 'Ease the sneeze', Pharmacy News, no. 30/AUG., p. 21.
Williams, K 2007, 'Inappropriate orlistat - Women and weight loss: Clinical intervention', Pharmacy News, no. 15/MAR., p. 22.
Williams, K 2007, 'Double trouble', Pharmacy News, no. 7/JUNE, p. 28.
Williams, K 2007, 'Diuretic dilemma: Thiazide diuretic in gout: Clinical interventior', Pharmacy News, no. 19/JULY, p. 24.
Roberts, A, Benrimoj, C, Williams, K & Aslani, P 2006, 'Implementing cognitive services in community pharmacy: a review of facilitators used in practice change', International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 163-170.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Albrecht, LC, Roberts, A, Benrimoj, SI, Williams, K, Chen, TF & Aslani, P 2006, 'Cognitive Pharmaceutical Services: Financial Facilitators', Australian Pharmacist, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 809-816.
Roberts, A, Benrimoj, C, Chen, TF, Williams, K & Aslani, P 2006, 'Implementing cognitive services in community pharmacy: a review of models and frameworks for change', International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, vol. 14, pp. 105-113.
Williams, K 2006, 'Pain management: Unprescribed codeine causes constipation', Pharmacy News, no. 26/OCT., p. 24.
Williams, K 2006, 'Sleep deprivation: Managing insomnia during quit attempts', Pharmacy News, no. 7/DEC., p. 24.
Roberts, AS, Benrimoj, C, Chen, T, Williams, K, Hopp, T & Aslani, P 2005, 'Understanding practice change in community pharmacy: A qualitative study in Australia', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 546-564.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Background: Much of the research on cognitive pharmaceutical services has focused on understanding or changing community pharmacist behaviour, with few studies focusing on the pharmacy as the unit of analysis or considering the whole profession as an org
Roberts, A, Benrimoj, SI, Chen, TF, Williams, K & Aslani, P 2005, 'Implementation of Home Medicines Review (HMR) in Community Pharmacy', Australian Pharmacist, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 808-813.
Peterson-Clark, G, Aslani, P & Williams, K 2004, 'Consumer use of the internet for medicines information', International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 185-190.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Objective: To explore consumer opinion of the internet as a source of medicines information, the reasons consumers use this information, and the impact of this information on their use of medicines. Method: Focus groups (n = 6) were conducted in metropol
Williams, K, Gelgor, L & Aslani, P 2004, 'Use of non-prescription products.', Australian journal of pharmacy, vol. 85, pp. 492-493.
Roberts, A, Hopp, T, Sorensen, E, Benrimoj, C, Chen, T, Herborg, H, Williams, K & Aslani, P 2003, 'Understanding Practice Change In Community Pharmacy: A Qualitative Research Instrument Based On Organisational Theory', Pharmacy World & Science, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 227-234.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Introduction: The Past Decade Has Seen A Notable Shift In The Practice Of Pharmacy, With A Strong Focus On The Provision Of Cognitive Pharmaceutical Services (Cps) By Community Pharmacists. The Benefits Of These Services Have Been Well Documented, Yet Th
Peterson, G, Aslani, P & Williams, K 2003, 'How do Consumers Search for and Appraise Information on Medicines on the Internet? A Qualitative Study Using Focus Groups', Journal Of Medical Internet Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Background Many consumers use the Internet to find information about their medicines. It is widely acknowledged that health information on the Internet is of variable quality and therefore the search and appraisal skills of consumers are important for selecting and assessing this information. The way consumers choose and evaluate information on medicines on the Internet is important because it has been shown that written information on medicines can influence consumer attitudes to and use of medicines. Objective To explore consumer experiences in searching for and appraising Internet-based information on medicines. Methods Six focus groups (N = 46 participants) were conducted in metropolitan Sydney, Australia from March to May 2003 with consumers who had used the Internet for information on medicines. Verbatim transcripts of the group discussions were analyzed using a grounded theory approach.
Roberts, AS, Hopp, T, Sorensen, E, Benrimoj, SI, Chen, T, Herborg, H, Williams, K & Aslani, P 2003, 'Understanding practice change in community pharmacy: A qualitative research instrument based on organisational theory', Pharmacy World & Science, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 227-234.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Introduction: The past decade has seen a notable shift in the practice of pharmacy, with a strong focus on the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS) by community pharmacists. The benefits of these services have been well documented, yet th
Williams, K. & Wong, I. 2003, 'Searching for health information on the internet: a pilot evaluation of pharmacists' skills.', Australian Pharmacist, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 716-719.
Peterson, G, Aslani, P & Williams, K 2003, 'Consumers, medicine information and searching the internet - How does the internet influence the way consumers use their medicines?', Australian Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 84, pp. 186-189.
Pham, L, Langford, J & Williams, K 2003, '5-HT3 antagonists in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 275-278.
Peterson, G, Aslani, P & Williams, KA 2003, 'How do consumers search for and appraise information on medicines on the internet? A qualitative study using focus groups', Journal of Medical Internet Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 109-123.
Background: Many consumers use the Internet to find information about their medicines. It is widely acknowledged that health information on the Internet is of variable quality and therefore the search and appraisal skills of consumers are important for selecting and assessing this information. The way consumers choose and evaluate information on medicines on the Internet is important because it has been shown that written information on medicines can influence consumer attitudes to and use of medicines. Objective: To explore consumer experiences in searching for and appraising Internet-based information on medicines. Methods: Six focus groups (N = 46 participants) were conducted in metropolitan Sydney, Australia from March to May 2003 with consumers who had used the Internet for information on medicines. Verbatim transcripts of the group discussions were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results: All participants reported using a search engine to find information on medicines. Choice of search engine was determined by factors such as the workplace or educational environments, or suggestions by family or friends. Some participants found information solely by typing the medicine name (drug or brand name) into the search engine, while others searched using broader terms. Search skills ranged widely from more-advanced (using quotation marks and phrases) to less-than-optimal (such as typing in questions and full sentences). Many participants selected information from the first page of search results by looking for keywords and descriptions in the search results, and by looking for the source of the information as apparent in the URL. Opinions on credible sources of information on medicines varied with some participants regarding information by pharmaceutical companies as the "official" information on a medicine, and others preferring what they considered to be impartial sources such as governments, organizations, and educational institutions. It was clear tha...
Ashcroft, S., Langford, J. & Williams, K. 2001, 'A comparative study of sevoflurane and isoflurane in Australian Defence Force personnel undergoing elective surgery', Australian Military Medicine, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 6-11.
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Benrimoj, S & Williams, KA 2017, 'Integrating Pharmacists in General Practice: Drug Related Problems in the Patient Centred Medical Home', Pharmaceutical Society of Australia National Conference (PSA17), Sydney.
Woulfe, J, Williams, K & Ryan, G 2009, 'Evaluating pharmacy students' wiki-based collaboration', ASCILITE 2009 - The Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, pp. 1197-1199.
Final-year Master of Pharmacy (MPharm) students at The University of Sydney are required to submit a series of group-generated Problem-based Learning (PBL) cases. When submitted as word-processed, or paper-based documents, the cases are characterised by a fragmented approach, and academics often report that a patient-focus is lacking. Following a successful pilot in 2007, wiki format was introduced, with a view to encouraging a wholepatient approach to the task. In Semester 1 2008, students submitted their group cases on paper, and in Semester 2, via a wiki. At the end of each semester, students' views regarding the two case presentation formats were sought via self-completed questionnaires. At the end of the year, and independent of the students' course assessments and grading, an evaluation of the PBL assignments was carried out by an external evaluator. The overall performance using the wiki was much less than expected following the pilot. However overall scores indicated no significant difference between the two methods. © 2009 Jim Woulfe, Kylie Williams and Greg Ryan.