Dr Katie Schlenker is an Associate Professor in the Management Department at the UTS Business School. Katie is the Program Director of the Master of Event Management and teaches both postgraduate and undergraduate event management subjects.
Katie's research interests and publications are in the areas of event evaluation, the social impacts of events, event legacies, events and social capital and business events.
Katie’s research is industry linked, with projects including the development of an event evaluation toolkit for the Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre (STCRC), inscope expenditure studies for the Sydney Entertainment Centre and Business Events Sydney, and a series of studies on the ‘beyond tourism’ benefits of business events commissioned by Business Events Sydney.
Can supervise: YES
- Social impacts of events
- Event legacies
- Events and social capital
- Business events
- Event Management
- Event Impacts and Legacies
Schlenker, K 2007, Understanding the social impacts of festivals on communities., University of Western Sydney, Sydney.
Unpublished PhD thesis
Schlenker, K 2002, Evaluating the socio-cultural impacts of a festival on a host community: a case study of the Australian festival of the book, University of Western Sydney, Australia., Sydeny, Australia.
Unpublished Honours thesis.
Joachim, G, Schulenkorf, N, Schlenker, K & Frawley, S 2020, 'Design thinking and sport for development: enhancing organizational innovation', Managing Sport and Leisure, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 175-202.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Rationale/purpose: To determine if the field of sport for development (SFD) presents opportunities for the employment of design thinking approaches toward enhancing organizational innovation. Design/methodology/approach: We undertook a scoping study to determine if and how SFD research and practice aligns with five established themes of design thinking practice. Findings: Design thinking indicators are present across the breadth of SFD research. A total of 14 SFD articles display total thematic alignment with design thinking practice, particularly in regard to five key indicators of such alignment: (a) deep user understanding, (b) diversity of perspectives, (c) testing for user feedback, (d) futuristic thinking, and (e) bias toward action. Practical implications: Five key indicators represent logical points of entry for the employment of design thinking in SFD research and practice. Research contribution: Design thinking has become popular in the broad field of management, but this is the first study of the concept in the sport management domain.
Dang, T, Jasovska, P, Rammal, HG & Schlenker, K 2019, 'Formal-informal channels of university-industry knowledge transfer: the case of Australian business schools', Knowledge Management Research & Practice, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 384-395.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The transfer of knowledge between university and industry is a significant activity that is facilitated by government policy and incentives. Australian universities have a global reputation for excellence in research and training. However, the country's low score in innovation ranking has prompted the government and industry bodies to emphasise the importance of and provide support to high-quality science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. We study the knowledge transfer practices of 10 Australian universities and provide insights into how these universities, and in particular the Business Schools, respond to the funding cuts faced by the university sector. We find that the universities use both formal (research centres, incubators, and contract-research and commercialisation) and informal channels (internships, mentoring, industry talks, transdisciplinary research platforms, collaborative Ph.D. programs, and industry training programs) to transfer knowledge with industry partners.
Harris, R & Schlenker, K 2018, 'An Exploratory Study of "Best Practice" in Environmentally Sustainable Event Management in Australian Public Events', Event Management, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1057-1071.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study seeks to provide insights into "best practice" in the area of environmentally sustainable event management in Australian public events. In performing this role, it aims to: determine forces acting to drive engagement with environmental management practices; identify the key challenges event owners and managers face in seeking to adopt such practices; determine types of environmentally sustainable practices currently in use; establish how events are measuring their environmental performance; and identify those factors serving to facilitate or inhibit engagement by events with an environmental agenda. The article begins with a literature review of research germane to the study, along with an overview of the methodology employed. Key findings emerging from the application of this methodology suggest that actions in this area: have increasingly become an aspect of overall event planning; target multiple areas with the potential to generate environmental impacts; are driven primarily by organizer values and attendee and community expectations; and face constraints linked largely to the availability of resources, expertise, and time. This article acknowledges that the planning and delivery of environmentally sustainable events has become one of the critical challenges facing public event management, and as such it seeks to make a meaningful contribution to both the growing academic literature in this area, and equally importantly, to industry practice.
Schulenkorf, N & Schlenker, K 2017, 'Leveraging sport events to maximize community benefits in low-and middle-income countries', Event Management, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 217-231.View/Download from: Publisher's site
For many years, special events have played an important role as strategic elements within community development. However, to date little work has been conducted on how to maximize the social potential of special events in low-and middle-income countries. In addressing this issue, we reflect on event management processes and leverage mechanisms that have underpinned a community sport event in the Pacific Island nation of Samoa, and identify strategies for maximizing beneficial event outcomes. We present findings related to previously identified leverage areas, including sociocultural and participatory leverage, and also suggest new areas that seem particularly relevant in the context of community development, including educational, health-related, and reputational leverage. Finally, key challenges and opportunities for event managers and local communities are discussed, implications for event leverage are provided, and areas for future research are outlined.
Jonson, PT, Small, J, Foley, C & Schlenker, K 2015, '"All Shook Up" at the Parkes Elvis festival: The role of play in events', Event Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 479-493.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp. Leisure in the postmodern environment is often regarded as superficial, depthless, and meaningless, dominated by simulation and hyperreality. Many aspects of the Parkes Elvis Festival fall clearly into the category of simulation and hyperreality as attendees imitate Elvis Presley (and other associated characters) and are willing to accept the fake and contrived as real. However, the simulation does not, in the case of the Parkes Elvis Festival, lead to a depthless, meaningless, or inauthentic experience. Using Huizinga's ideas of play and Bateson's play frame we present the Elvis Festival as a liminal social space that invites playfulness and creativity. The theory of Georg Simmel is explored to show how sociability is created at the event to facilitate play. Finally, Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow is used to demonstrate ways in which the enjoyment of the playful event experience is maximized for participants. We argue that play provides the substance that makes the Parkes Elvis Festival memorable and meaningful. An understanding of play theory may assist event managers to increase social facilitation at festivals and events, ensuring an enjoyable, sociable, creative, and authentic experience for attendees.
Edwards, DC, Foley, CT, Dwyer, A, Schlenker, K & Hergesell, A 2014, 'Evaluating the economic contribution of a large indoor entertainment venues: an inscope expenditure study', Event Management: an international journal.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Foley, CT, Edwards, DC & Schlenker, K 2014, 'Business Events and Friendship: Leveraging the Sociable Legacies', Event Management: an international journal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 53-64.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Business events are celebrated for their contributions to community and industry. They are understood to be shared social contexts in which people meet to advance knowledge, sell products, and network. Less celebrated and, arguably, less understood is that business events provide a context for the development of friendships. In 2011 an online survey was conducted with the delegates of five international business events held in Sydney, Australia in the period 2009–2011. The survey was designed to investigate business legacies of the events (such as investment opportunities, research collaborations) rather than sociable legacies. however, a surprising number of references to friendship were made in the "additional comments" sections of the questionnaire. reflecting on this finding, this article argues that friendships forged at business events contribute to, respectively: the well-being of delegates, association membership levels, conference attendance, retention of personnel in the profession, successful research and professional collaborations, and creativity and innovation in the sector. Business event planners can maximize opportunities for sociable outcomes among delegates by designing warm and inviting event spaces that facilitate interaction, and by providing social space for the development of relationships, optimal conditions for sociability, and opportunities for play to stimulate creativity and build community.
Foley, CT, Schlenker, K, Edwards, DC & Lewis-Smith, L 2013, 'Determining business event legacies beyond the tourism spend: an Australian case study approach', Event Management: an international journal, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 311-322.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Government and industry are aware that the full value of the business event sector needs to be established. To date, the sector has been evaluated on the economic contribution it makes to host destination tourism. The tourism contributions have been impressive in themselves; however, this narrow focus has failed to account for a more extensive set of contributions to economies and communities. Impacts from business events in areas such as innovation, education, networking, trade, research, and practice are generally considered to outweigh the financial returns of the tourism spend. Although anecdotal evidence of the value of business events beyond the tourism dimension has been evident for some time, empirical research in this area is limited. This article has four objectives: first, to highlight the research need for understanding the broader impacts of business events beyond the tourism spend; second, to identify the range and impact of contributions made by business events to host communities beyond the tourism spend; third, to examine five Australian business events utilizing a grounded theory approach and present a range of identified legacies in the categories of knowledge expansion; networking, relationships, and collaboration; educational outcomes; raising awareness and profiling; and showcasing and destination reputation. Finally, the article discusses the implications of these findings for the business events sector.
Events legacies have become a common feature in the public policy rhetoric surrounding sport events of all sizes. Public policy planners and event organizers are increasingly promoting the legacies of sport events to justify significant investments required to host them. Within the context of special events, legacy is most often recognized as the long-term or permanent outcomes for a host city from staging an event. These outcomes include potential economic, tourism, social, physical, and/or environmental factors. However, the justification of legacies from events remains complicated due to inconsistent conceptualizations of legacy across academic and industry practice. While legacy is an increasing component of event bids as well as funding justifications and postevent reports, the concept itself has attracted limited critical analysis. This article puts forth a comprehensive review of literature that has sought to define legacy, from 1991-2008, drawing on event management, sport management, and urban planning contexts. An inductive interpretive analysis of definitions was undertaken, in which key considerations were identified and definitions assessed against these. The analysis revealed five key considerations of legacy in application to the sport event management context. In doing so, this article contributes to both theoretical debate and improved strategic practice surrounding the emergence of legacy as justification for staging sport events.
Schulenkorf, N, Thomson, AK & Schlenker, K 2011, 'Intercommunity sport events: Vehicles and catalysts for social capital in divided societies', Event Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 105-119.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sport events are believed to promote dialogue, integration and peaceful understanding among disparate groups, even when other forms of negotiation have not been successful (Croft, 2005; Sugden, 2006). However, the social outcomes from sport events are largely anecdotal and there is a need to empirically examine the active engagement of groups with âothersâ in participatory sport event projects (Auld & Case, 1997; Chalip, 2006). This paper investigates the potential of an intercommunity sport event in contributing to intergroup development and social capital building in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. It follows an interpretive mode of inquiry where findings are derived from the analysis of 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. By providing evidence of the varying socio-cultural experiences at the event, this paper discusses the eventâs impact on intergroup relations and its influence on the stock of social capital available to communities. Findings can assist governments, policymakers and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in advancing policies and practical measures that build on events as vehicles and catalysts for enhanced intergroup relations and the creation of social capital.
Schlenker, K 2007, 'Social dimensions of community festivals: an application of factor analysis in the development of the Social Impact Perception (SIP) scale', Event Management, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 45-55.
The increasing popularity of festivals and events, coupled with their positive and negative impacts on host communities, has led to a growing body of research on the social impacts of festivals and events. To date, work by several authors represents research in impact scale development specifically related to the social impacts of festivals and events. This article reports on the scale developed by Small and Edwards in 2003, now known as the Social Impact Perception (SIP) scale, which measures residents perceptions of the social impacts resulting from community festivals. The aim of this study was to test the SIP scale using a larger sample, allowing for further refinement of the scale using exploratory factor analysis. This research represents development of the SIP scale, and is in line with the refinement of other event impact scales, to which factor analysis has also been applied. This represents the most recent stage of this research, which has the aim of refining the SIP scale and identifying the underlying dimensions of the social impacts of community festivals. Factor analysis identified six underlying dimensions of the social impacts of community festivals: inconvenience, community identity and cohesion, personal frustration, entertainment and socialization opportunities, community growth and development, and behavioral consequences.
Small, K 2007, 'Social dimensions of community festivals: An application of factor analysis in the development of the social impact perception (SIP) scale', Event Management, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 45-55.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The increasing popularity of festivals and events, coupled with their positive and negative impacts on host communities, has led to a growing body of research on the social impacts of festivals and events. To date, work by several authors represents research in impact scale development specifically related to the social impacts of festivals and events. This article reports on the scale developed by Small and Edwards in 2003, now known as the Social Impact Perception (SIP) scale, which measures residents' perceptions of the social impacts resulting from community festivals. The aim of this study was to test the SIP scale using a larger sample, allowing for further refinement of the scale using exploratory factor analysis. This research represents development of the SIP scale, and is in line with the refinement of other event impact scales, to which factor analysis has also been applied. This represents the most recent stage of this research, which has the aim of refining the SIP scale and identifying the underlying dimensions of the social impacts of community festivals. Factor analysis identified six underlying dimensions of the social impacts of community festivals: inconvenience, community identity and cohesion, personal frustration, entertainment and socialization opportunities, community growth and development, and behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Schlenker, K, Edwards, DC & Sheridan, L 2005, 'A flexible framework for evaluating the socio-cultural impacts of a small festival', International Journal of Event Management Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 66-77.
The increasing popularity of festivals and events, coupled with their positive and negative impacts on host communities, has led to a growing body of research on the impacts of festivals and events. As a substantial amount of this research has focused on assessing the economic impacts of festivals, there is growing demand for the measurement of the socio-cultural impacts of these festivals and events. To address this issue a study was conducted that developed a framework for the social impact evaluation of festivals and piloted a tool that measured the community perceptions of socio-cultural impacts.
Schlenker, K, Edwards, D & Watts-Seale, C 2019, 'Modelling Engagement of Small and Medium Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs) in Corporate Social Responsibility' in Lund-Durlacher, D, Dinica, V, Reiser, D & Fifka, MS (eds), Corporate Sustainability and Responsibility in Tourism., Springer, Switzerland, pp. 1-382.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This chapter presents the results of a study designed to provide insights into Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) engagement in Small and Medium Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs). The study sought to determine CSR engagement in relation to owner-managers' characteristics, the types of CSR practices SMTEs engage in, their motivations for doing so and the factors that affect their CSR engagement. The chapter begins with a review of literature relevant to this study, along with an overview of the methodology employed. Following this, key findings are presented. These suggest that whether an SMTE is owner-managed or not has the largest influence on a firm's CSR engagement including: the motivations and benefits sought; the use of resources for CSR; types of CSR practices; and the overall formality and organisation of the CSR approach. Additionally, a 'Fluid Model of SMTE Engagement in CSR' is presented that depicts three types of CSR engagement by SMTEs: reactive, proactive, and active, along with the factors that potentially affect CSR engagement. The chapter concludes with a reflection on the study's relationship to CSR 2.0.
Schulenkorf, N & Schlenker, K 2018, 'The role of highlight events in sport-for-development' in Dodds, M, Heisey, K & Ahonen, A (eds), Routledge Handbook of International Sport Business, Routledge International Handbooks, USA, pp. 356-363.
When strategically managed, sport can be an exciting and proactive space for economic, social, cultural, physical and educational development. Consequently, around the world government agencies, aid organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been implementing sport-for-development (SFD) projects in disadvantaged communities for several years. Most of these initiatives also include special events such as cultural festivals, sport tournaments and educational workshops as part of the overall program portfolio. In this chapter, we focus on discussing the opportunities and challenges of using 'highlight events' as a leverage strategy to reach – and benefit – participants and the wider community.
Thomson, A, Schlenker, K, Schulenkorf, N & Brooking, E 2017, 'The Social and Environmental Consequences of Hosting Mega-Sport Events' in Frawley, S (ed), Managing Sport Mega-Events, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 150-164.
The social and environmental consequences of sport mega-events have become increasingly important when trying to understand the benefits and costs of hosting such events for cities and their residents. Thus, event bids and related marketing campaigns often tell us about the benefits that mega-events may bestow on host cities, such as community pride, enhanced community cohesion and/or urban regeneration. However, many intangible, or soft, opportunities are not always backed up by evidence, or underpinned by an adequate understanding of how these outcomes are realised. This chapter presents an overview of recent research in the areas of social and environmental consequences of mega-events, including: a) civic pride and community cohesion; b) urban regeneration and displacement effects; and c) environmental impacts and legacies.
Schlenker, K, Foley, CT & Carroll-Dwyer, E 2016, 'The Parkes Elvis Festival: Attendee and host community perspectives' in Newbold, C & Jordan, J (eds), Focus on World Festivals Contemporary Case Studies and Perspectives, Goodfellow Publishers Limited, Oxford, pp. 299-308.
Each year, up to 20,000 people descend upon the rural town of Parkes, 365km
west of Sydney, to attend the Parkes Elvis Festival. Initiated in 1993 by a group
of locals who were Elvis Presley fans, the annual festival has grown from the
humble beginnings of a one-day event with a few hundred attendees to a five
In a bid to assist the festival organisers to understand the impacts of the Parkes
Elvis Festival on both attendees and the host community, researchers designed a
set of survey instruments to deliver a comprehensive evaluation of the social and
economic impacts of the festival. Research was carried out in 2010 and separate
surveys were conducted for festival organisers, attendees and local residents.
After a brief explanation of the festival, and the man it is inspired by, this chapter
explores the methods used to collect data before outlining the results. The results
are divided into two key sections, attendees' perceptions, and host community
First we profile the demographics, motivations and experience of festival attendees.
Second, we profile the perceptions of the host community with respect to
both the economic and social impacts of the festival. The surveys demonstrate the
overwhelming goodwill and enthusiasm for the festival, by both the host community
and attendees. Results show that the festival attracts a mix of first time
and repeat visitors, and that many of the returning attendees do so to catch up
with friends made at previous festivals. For residents, regardless of whether they
attend or not, the large majority understand the economic, tourism and community
benefits generated by the festival.
An event workforce comprises a range of different types of employees including paid staff, external suppliers, contractors and volunteers. Event organisers depend on volunteers who are recognised as an integral part of the workforce at local, regional, national and international events. This chapter describes how event organisations face a series of unique challenges and additional complexity when they are recruiting, training, managing, rewarding and retaining a volunteer workforce. With events increasingly depending on the volunteer worker, it has become essential to develop mechanisms of management that ensure the provision of a positive and satisfying volunteer experience, and the retention of volunteers.
Schulenkorf, N, Schlenker, K & Frawley, SM 2017, 'Leveraging Sport Events to Maximise Community Benefits in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Experiences from Samoa', ", 22nd European College of Sport Science (ECSS) Congress, Essen.
Schulenkorf, N & Schlenker, K 2015, 'Spectacle meets Sustainability: The Relationship between Events and Sport-for-Development Programs', European College of Sport Science (ECSS) Congress, Malmö, Sweden.
Foley, CT, Schlenker, K & Edwards, DC 2013, 'Beyond Tourism Benefits - Measuring the social legacies of business events', Making Waves, ICE 2013 - International Conference on Events, Bournemouth, United Kingdom.
Schlenker, K, Foley, CT & Edwards, DC 2013, 'Events at the Sydney Entertainment Centre: economic and social contributions', Making Waves, ICE 2013 - International Conference on Events, Bournemouth, United Kingdom.
Barton, C, Schlenker, K & Edwards, DC 2012, 'Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Tourism Businesses', The new Golden Age of Tourism Hospitality. Proceedings of the 22th Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, CAUTHE, CAUTHE Conference, CAUTHE, Melbourne, Victoria, pp. 59-76.
It is widely believed that Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) face many constraints in engaging in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It is also believed that SMEs require guidelines and tools to successfully implement CSR. One commonly acknowledged gap in research on CSR in SMEs is that it needs to be sector and region specific, as the tools and guidelines needed by SMEs will differ depending on their industry and geographic location. This research addresses this gap, by examining CSR engagement in Small and Medium Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs) based in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia. A mixed methods approach was used, revealing that owner-managed SMTEs engage in CSR for personal reasons, whereas non owner-managed businesses engage in CSR mainly for the business benefits they may realise. Finally, a model is presented that reflects three types of CSR engagement identified in SMTEs: reactive, proactive and active.
Edwards, DC, Foley, CT & Schlenker, K 2012, 'The Sydney Entertainment Centre: Measuring the inscope expenditure into Chinatown, Darling Harbour and the City of Sydney.', Sydney Entertainment Centre Leadership Team, Sydney.
Edwards, DC, Foley, CT & Schlenker, K 2012, 'The Sydney Entertainment Centre: Measuring the inscope expenditure into Chinatown, Darling Harbour and the City of Sydney.', Darling Harbour Convention and Exhibition (DHCE) Executive Committee, Sydney, Australia.
Foley, CT, Edwards, DC & Schlenker, K 2011, 'Event legacies: Beyond the tourism spend', Proceedings from the 2011 Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Leisure in Transition: People, Policy and Places., Leisure Studies Association, Southampton, England, UK.
Foley, CT, Schlenker, K & Edwards, DC 2011, 'The sociable aspects of conferences: Lessons for associations and business event organisers', Challenging Leisure: Australia and New Zealand Association of Leisure Studies 10th Biennial Conference, Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies, Dunedin, New Zealand, pp. 56-57.
Schlenker, K, Edwards, DC, Hayllar, BR & Griffin, T 2010, 'City spaces, functional places: Functions of urban tourism precincts', Proceedings of the 20th Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, CAUTHE, Hobart, Australia, pp. 1-12.
Tourism precincts form an important part of the phenomenon of urban tourism. The pattern of tourist visitation in an urban destination tends to be concentrated in specific tourism precincts, where tourists tend to spend a large proportion of their time (Griffin, Hayllar, & King, 2006; Hayllar & Griffin, 2006). Precincts perform a range of functions that play an important role in providing visitors with a satisfying and fulfilling experience of the city overall. Previous research suggests a range of precinct functions relating to providing visitors with a connection to the city and its people; providing contrast and respite from a citys CBD; acting as a meeting place, or place of orientation for tourists (Griffin & Hayllar, 2006, 2007; Griffin, et al., 2006; Hayllar & Griffin, 2005; Hayllar & Griffin, 2006).
Thomson, AK, Leopkey, B, Schlenker, K & Schulenkorf, N 2010, 'Empirical Investigation of Sport Event Legacy in Australian and Canadian Contexts', 16th Annual SMAANZ Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Thomson, AK, Leopkey, B, Schlenker, K & Schulenkorf, N 2010, 'Sport Event Legacies: Implications for Meaningful Legacy Outcomes', Global Events Congress IV - Events and Festivals Research State of the Art, Global Events Congress, UK Centre for Events Management, Leeds University, Leeds, UK, pp. 1-22.
Within the sport and event management context, legacy has emerged as an important justification for public sector involvement and investment since the late 1980s. Legacy is recognised as the long-term economic, tourism, social, and/or environmental outcomes for a host city from staging events (Gratton & Preuss, 2008; Hiller, 2003; Preuss, 2007). Despite the growing popularity, the concept of legacy has largely evaded any meaningful critique for the planning, implementation and evaluation of sport event outcomes. This paper aims to address this gap in the literature by empirically testing five key considerations of legacy, identified in previous work (Thomson, Schlenker, & Schulenkorf, 2009). The five key considerations include;
Foley, CT & Schlenker, K 2009, 'Progressing event evaluation: global trends and indicators for triple bottom line reporting', Sustainable Development and Events - Proceedings of ACEM 5th International Event Management Summit, Australian Centre for Event Management, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 1-1.
Schulenkorf, N, Thomson, AK & Schlenker, K 2009, 'Beyond anecdotes: The development of social capital through inter-community sport events', Sustainable Development and Events - Proceedings of ACEM 5th International Event Management Summit, International Event Management Research Conference, Australian Centre for Event Management, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 435-456.
Sport events are believed to promote dialogue, integration and peaceful understanding among groups, even when other forms of negotiation have not been successful (Croft, 2005; Sugden, 2006). At the same time, sport events are thought to play a role in the construction, reproduction or consolidation of social identities in politically, socially or ethnically divided societies. Better publicised events, such as the Olympics, may demonstrate this social utility of sport, where diverse communities stand and feel together as one. However, the social outcomes from sport events are largely anecdotal. This paper argues that for disparate communities to experience lasting benefits from sport events there is the need to move beyond symbolism and anecdotes. There is a need to examine the active engagement of groups with `others in participatory sport event projects where they experience first hand the impacts of cooperation and diversity
Thomson, AK, Schlenker, K & Schulenkorf, N 2009, 'Event legacies: An Empirical Testing of the Legacy Concept.', Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand (SMAANZ), Gold Coast, Australia.
Thomson, AK, Schlenker, K & Schulenkorf, N 2009, 'The legacy-factor: Towards conceptual clarification in the sport event context', Sustainable Development and Events - Proceedings of ACEM 5th International Event Management Summit, International Event Management Research Conference, Australian Centre for Event Management, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 360-374.
Public policy planners and event organisers are increasingly promoting potential economic, tourism, social, and/or environmental legacies to justify significant investments required to host special events. Within the context of special events, legacy is recognised as the long-term outcomes for a host city from staging an event (Hiller, 2003; Preuss, 2007). The notion of legacy has emerged in the events field surrounding the strategic use of events in achieving outcomes for host cities. However, this is complicated by inconsistent conceptualisations of legacy across academic and industry practice.
Edwards, DC, Schlenker, K, Griffin, T & Hayllar, BR 2008, 'Sites of experience: The functions of urban tourism precincts', Tourism and Hospitality Research, Training and Practice: 'Where the `bloody hell' are we?' Proceedings of the 18th Annual Council for the Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, CAUTHE, Conference, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Training and Practice: "Where the 'bloody hell' are we?", Griffith University and CAUTHE, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 1-24.
A key element of a successful tourism industry is the ability to recognize and deal with change across a wide range of key factors and the way they interact. Key drivers of global change can be classified as Economic, Social, Political, Technological and Environmental. This paper explores the way in which these key drivers could affect the global tourism industry to the year 2020. An exploration of these trends allows important change agents, on both the supply side and the demand side of tourism, to be highlighted and discussed. In response, innovative strategies can be formulated by destination managers and tourism operators to avoid strategic drift for their organisations and to develop tourism in a sustainable way.
Schlenker, K 2007, 'Residents' perceptions of the social impacts of community festivals: a cluster analysis', Proceedings of the Fourth International Event Research Conference, International Event Research Conference, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-11.
This paper reports on the findings from a wider PhD study which examines residents' perceptions of the social impacts of community festivals. A survey of residents was undertaken in two communities, which each host a small community festival. Residents were clustered based on their demographic and behavioural characteristics, to identify distinct subgroups of the community who feel differently about a festival. This research examines the usefulness of demographic and behavioural segmentation of the host community rather than segmentation based on perceptions of impacts, where much previous research in the field has been conducted to date (Davis, Allen & Cosenza, 1988; Ryan & Montgomery, 1994; Madrigal, 1995; Fredline & Faulkner, 2000; Weaver & Lawton, 2001; Williams & Lawson, 2001).
Schlenker, K 2006, 'Application of factor analysis in the development of the social impact perception (SIP) scale', CAUTHE 2006 "to the city and beyond...", Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, Victoria University, Melbourne, pp. 595-606.
Schlenker, K & Edwards, DC 2006, 'Residents' expectations and perceptions of the social impacts of community festivals', Cutting Edge Research in Tourism: new directions, challenges and applications, Cutting Edge Research in Tourism, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, pp. 1-15.
Edwards, DC, Reid, S & Schlenker, K 2005, 'Methodological considerations in pretesting social impact questionnaires: Reporting on the use of focus groups', The Impact of Events: Triple Bottom Line Evaluation and Event Legacies - Proceedings of International Event Management Research Conference, International Event Management Research Conference, ACEM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 144-157.
Schlenker, K 2003, 'Connecting with Community - Creating Events that Inspire and Engage Local Stakeholders', Festivals and Events Association National Events Conference, Sydney, Australia.
Schlenker, K & Edwards, DC 2003, 'Community perceptions of socio-cultural impacts arising from festivals and events.', Festivals and Events Association (FEA) National Events Conference, "Shaping the Landscape, Creating Inspiration", Sydney.
Schlenker, K & Edwards, DC 2003, 'Evaluating the socio-cultural impacts of a festival on a host community: a case study of the Australian Festival of the Book', Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference of the Asia Pacific Tourism Association, School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, pp. 580-593.
Schlenker, K & Edwards, DC 2003, 'The Delphi technique as a tool for the evaluation of socio-cultural impacts of festivals and events on host communities', International Festival and Events Association Research Symposium, Anaheim, California.
This is a study of Business Events held in Seoul, Sydney,
Toronto and Durban by the University of Technology,
Sydney (UTS), on behalf of the Future Convention Cities
Initiative (FCCI). The methodology adopted and sources
of information used by the authors are outlined in this
report. While all care and diligence has been exercised
in the preparation of this report, the authors assume
no responsibility for any inaccuracies or omissions. No
indications were found during our investigations that
information contained in this report as provided is false.
Edwards, DC, Foley, CT & Schlenker, K UTS 2012, The Sydney Entertainment Centre: Measuring the inscope expenditure into Chinatown, Darling Harbour and the City of Sydney, The Sydney Entertainment Centre, pp. 1-50, Australia.
The purpose of this study is to provide an empirically-based assessment of the range and impact of contributions made by business events to host communities beyond the tourism dimension. This project is classified as a scoping study, delivering baseline data on which future stages of research could be built. Future stages of the project could be designed to deliver quantitative data on the contributions made by business events to complement the more qualitative focus of this study. It is well established that business events make a substantial contribution to the Australian economy from a tourism perspective. However, the Business Events Council of Australia (2009a) argues that impacts from business events in areas such as innovation, education, networking, trade, research and practice are likely to far outweigh the financial returns of the tourism spend. They have called for evidence-based research to be undertaken in this area (Business Events Council of Australia 2009b)
- Business Events Sydney
- Sydney Entertainment Centre
- Future Convention Cities Initiative