I have been a midwife since 1996 and during that time I have gained a wealth of experience in clinical and academic positions. I am a consistent advocate for teaching excellence, innovation in midwifery practice and evidence-based practice. I contribute to the development of midwifery knowledge and enhance curriculum development and assessment by introducing progressive teaching and assessment processes to the curriculum to meet the demands and changes in service provision of midwifery.
Clinical and academic experience has taught me how to build and maintain strong relationships with all departments within the University and the hospital. I am aware of the importance of developing and fostering collegial relationships and work closely with my midwifery, medical and allied health colleagues to provide leadership. I have the ability to both lead or work within a team and I have had the opportunity to work with several agencies on various projects including statutory and third sector agencies and I have been successful in fostering and achieving collaborative interagency working.
I consider myself to be proactive in developing strong links with the development of professional practice.
- Australian College of Midwives
- Deputy chair of the Queensland Domestic Violence and Homicide Death Review Board
- Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Committee (ANMAC) Member
- Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation (ANMAC) Reviewer
- Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Committee (ANMAC) Midwifery Education Standards
- Editoral Board Member International Journal of Healthcare
Can supervise: YES
I have a commitment towards undertaking collaborative research with industry partners and community organisations.
I have successfully undertaken several funded research projects both independently and as part of a team. My research interest are linked with;
- Improving all aspects midwifery practice
- Continuity of midwifery care
- Social inequalities
- Family and domestic violence
I am committed to addressing diversity and improving the knowledge and experience of both students and qualified clinicans through formal and informal education pathways. I consider myself to be creative, contemporary, visionary, committed and a highly motivated academic.
Creedy, DK, Baird, K & Gillespie, K 2020, 'A cross-sectional survey of pregnant women's perceptions of routine domestic and family violence screening and responses by midwives: Testing of three new tools', Women and Birth.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Australian College of Midwives Background: Implementing Domestic and Family Violence (DFV) screening, support, and prevention within maternity services is becoming common practice but women's experiences of screening are not routinely evaluated. Aims: (1) Explore pregnant women's experiences of routine DFV screening and perceptions of responses by midwives; and (2) undertake preliminary testing of three new tools. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, pregnant women (n = 210) attending an antenatal service were surveyed. Three new measures: beliefs about DFV screening; non-disclosure of DFV; and midwifery support were tested. Results: Most women (92.3% n = 194) recalled being screened. Twelve (5.8%) respondents had/were experiencing DFV. A quarter (24.1% n = 49) had experienced or witnessed violence in the home as a child. The scales were reliable and factor analysis established validity. Women reported positive beliefs (mean 35.38, SD 3.63 range 19–40) and views about midwifery support (mean 24.88, SD 3.08 range 18–30). There was less agreement about why some women do not disclose DFV (mean 21.97, SD 4.27, range 8–30). Women who experienced or witnessed violence as a child, or were experiencing violence now were less comfortable with screening. Comments (n = 75) revealed support for routine enquiry that was confidential, explained, and occurred in a trusting relationship. Discussion: Women were supportive of screening, but actual rates of disclosure were low. Women acknowledged the importance of screening but did not want their information shared. Conclusions: Women value screening, even if DFV is not disclosed. Exploring women's experiences is central to ensuring quality care.
Deuba, K, Sapkota, D, Shrestha, U, Shrestha, R, Rawal, BB, Badal, K, Baird, K & Ekström, AM 2020, 'Effectiveness of interventions for changing HIV related risk behaviours among key populations in low-income setting: A Meta-Analysis, 2001–2016', Scientific Reports, vol. 10, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020, The Author(s). The aim of this review was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to reduce HIV-related risk behaviours among key populations: people who inject drugs, female sex workers, men who have sex with men and transgender in Nepal over the last two decades. Using four electronic databases, we performed a systematic search of the literature on HIV interventions implemented in Nepal and published from January 2001 to December 2016. In addition, grey literature was also scrutinised for potential articles. The search focussed specifically on behavioural interventions (peer education and HIV testing services) targeted for key populations. Random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled odds ratio for dichotomous outcomes (condom use in last sex or unsafe injection practices), pooled HIV prevalence and subgroup analyses by age groups and epidemic zones in Nepal. Forty-three studies with 15,642 participants were included (people who inject drugs: 7105; men who have sex with men and transgender: 2637; female sex workers: 5900). Pooled prevalence showed a higher occurrence of HIV among people who inject drugs (12%) followed by men who have sex with men/transgender (5%) and female sex workers (2%) respectively. There was a significant increase in the odds of condom use among female sex workers, men who have sex with men and transgender who received peer education interventions in both informal and formal setting compared to those who did not. Similarly, the odds of condom use among female sex workers, men who have sex with men and transgender improved significantly among those who received HIV counselling and testing services as compared to those who did not use such services. Subgroup analyses also verified the effectiveness of these interventions for both young and adult key populations and across all three epidemic zones. However, none of the included interventions were found to be effective for reducin...
Finnbogadóttir, H, Baird, K & Thies-Lagergren, L 2020, 'Birth outcomes in a Swedish population of women reporting a history of violence including domestic violence during pregnancy: A longitudinal cohort study', BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 20, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 The Author(s). Background: Victimisation of women is encountered in all countries across the world, it damages the mental and physical health of women. During pregnancy and the postpartum period, women are at a greater risk of experiencing violence from an intimate partner. The aim of this study was to explore childbirth outcomes in a Swedish population of women reporting a history of violence including domestic violence during pregnancy. Methods: A longitudinal cohort design was used. In total, 1939 pregnant women ≥18 years were recruited to answer two questionnaires, both questionnaires were administered in the early and late stages of their pregnancy. The available dataset included birth records of 1694 mothers who gave birth between June 2012 and April 2014. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, T-test and bivariate logistic regression. Results: Of 1694 mothers 38.7% (n = 656) reported a history of violence and 2% (n = 34) also experienced domestic violence during pregnancy. Women who were single, living apart from their partner, unemployed, smoked and faced financial distress were at a higher risk of experiencing violence (p = 0.001). They also had significant low scores on the SOC-scale and high EDS-scores ≥13 (p = 0.001) when compared to women without a history of violence (p = 0.001). Having a history of violence increased the woman's risk of undergoing a caesarean section (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.70). A history of emotional abuse also significantly increased the risk of having a caesarean section irrespective of whether it was a planned or an emergency caesarean section (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.09-2.06). Infants born to a mother who reported a history of violence, were at significant risk of being born premature < 37 weeks of gestation compared to infants born by mothers with no history of violence (p = 0,049). Conclusions: A history of violence and/or exclusively a history of emotional abuse has a negative impact on childbirth outcomes i...
© 2019 Australian College of Midwives Background: A clinical environment that provides meaningful and productive learning experiences is essential for students of all health care professions. To support the learning needs of undergraduate midwifery students and facilitate the continuity of care experiences a student led clinic was established in one South East Queensland maternity unit. Aim: This study explored the experiences and learning processes of previous and current midwifery students undertaking clinical practice within a student led clinic. Method: Qualitative descriptive. Ten students that elected to work in the midwifery student led clinic were invited to participate in a one off digitally recorded face to face or telephone interview. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data set. University ethical approval was granted (NRS/17/15/HREC). Findings: Findings suggest the student led clinic positioned students in the 'driver's seat'. Overwhelmingly students described the clinic as providing them with an array of opportunities to 'lead' care rather than being forced to 'sit and watch'. Students believed the experience of working in the clinic increased their midwifery knowledge, skills, confidence, critical thinking, and the ability to advocate for and empower women. Conclusion: High quality and supportive clinical teaching and learning experiences are vital for ensuring the student midwife develops into a competent practitioner who is fit for registration. The evidence from this small study highlights the benefits afforded to students of working in partnership not only with pregnant women but also with their university midwifery lecturer. The student's continuity of care learning experiences appeared to foster and cultivate their capability, identity, purpose, resourcefulness and connection; all the five senses of success.
Islam, MJ, Broidy, L, Mazerolle, P, Baird, K, Mazumder, N & Zobair, KM 2020, 'Do Maternal Depression and Self-Esteem Moderate and Mediate the Association Between Intimate Partner Violence After Childbirth and Postpartum Suicidal Ideation?', Archives of Suicide Research.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, © 2019 International Academy for Suicide Research. Intimate partner violence (IPV) during the perinatal period is believed to have an adverse effect on maternal mental health. Given the risks of suicide and related public health concerns, the aim of this study is to examine (1) the association of experiencing physical, psychological, and sexual IPV after childbirth on postpartum suicidal ideation (SI), and (2) whether postpartum depression and self-esteem act to mediate or moderate the relationship between IPV and postpartum SI. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2015 to January 2016 in the Chandpur District of Bangladesh among 426 new mothers, aged 15 to 49 years, who were in the first 6 months postpartum. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between experiencing IPV and postpartum SI, controlling for a range of other known influences. The prevalence of postpartum SI was 30.8%. Accounting the influence of other confounders, the odds of postpartum SI were significantly higher among women who reported physical IPV victimization (adjusted odds ratio: 2.65; 95% confidence interval = 1.36, 5.18) at any point during the first 6 months following childbirth as opposed to those who did not. In addition, postpartum depression increased postpartum SI, while high self-esteem significantly reduced reports of SI. Both postpartum depression and maternal self-esteem notably mediate and moderate the effect of physical IPV after childbirth on postpartum SI. The findings illuminate that IPV victimization after childbirth significantly increases the odds of postpartum SI. This study reinforces the need to detect women with a history of IPV who may be at risk for SI, not only to offer them help and support but also to prevent or reduce SI.
Mainey, L, O'Mullan, C, Reid-Searl, K, Taylor, A & Baird, K 2020, 'The role of nurses and midwives in the provision of abortion care: A scoping review', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, vol. 29, no. 9-10, pp. 1513-1526.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sapkota, D, Baird, K, Saito, A, Budhathoki, SS, Pokharel, R, Basnet, S & Anderson, D 2020, 'Development and Validation of an Information Booklet Aimed at Promoting Mental Health for Pregnant Women with a History of Abuse', Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 456-462.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: Mental health needs of victims of domestic and family violence are often overlooked. A booklet was designed to help women update their knowledge and skills in effective coping with domestic and family violence and support them in developing effective stress reduction and problem management techniques. In addition, this booklet is believed to serve as a reference for further use. This paper describes the development process and validation of the information booklet. This booklet was used during an intervention trial conducted in Nepal to educate abused pregnant women. METHODS: This methodological study involved three stages: bibliographical survey, development of the booklet, and validation by specialists in the relevant fields and representatives of the target audiences. A total of eight experts, currently working in the field of domestic violence and/or midwifery, and 15 representatives of the target participants were involved in the validation process. A minimum Content Validity Index of 0.78 was considered for content validation, and minimum agreement of 75% for face validation. RESULTS: The booklet presented a global Content Validity Index of 0.92. The overall level of agreement within the target participants was 86.3%, which was higher than the minimum recommended level. Both subject experts and participants positively evaluated the adequacy, coverage and readability of contents of the booklet. CONCLUSIONS: The booklet was validated using content and face validity. This validated booklet is expected to be an effective tool for communication that would help pregnant women cope better with domestic and family violence and adopt strategies to remain emotionally healthy.
Sapkota, D, Baird, K, Saito, A, Rijal, P, Pokharel, R & Anderson, D 2020, ''We don't see because we don't ask': Qualitative exploration of service users' and health professionals' views regarding a psychosocial intervention targeting pregnant women experiencing domestic and family violence', PLoS ONE, vol. 15, no. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 Sapkota et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Introduction Given the relative recency of Domestic and Family Violence (DFV) management as a field of endeavour, it is not surprising that interventions for addressing DFV is still in its infancy in developing countries. In order to maximise the success of an intervention, it is important to know which aspects of the intervention are considered important and helpful by service providers and service users. This study, therefore, examined the acceptability of an antenatal-based psychosocial intervention targeting DFV in Nepal and explored suggestions for improving the program in future. Materials and methods Intervention participants and health care providers (HCPs) were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data were audio-recorded and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Final codes and themes were identified using an iterative review process among the research team. Results Themes emerging from the data were grouped into domains including perceptions towards DFV, impact of the intervention on women's lives and recommendations for improving the program. DFV was recognised as a significant problem requiring urgent attention for its prevention and control. Intervention participants expressed that they felt safe to share their feelings during the counselling session and got opportunity to learn new skills to cope with DFV. The majority of the participants recommended multiple counselling sessions and a continued provision of the service ensuring the intervention's accessibility by a large number of women. Discussion This is the first study to document the perspectives of women and HCPs regarding an antenatal-based intervention targeting psychosocial consequences of DFV in Nepal. There was a cl...
Sidebotham, M, Walters, C, Baird, K & Gamble, J 2020, 'Simulated employment interviews: A collaborative approach to gaining understanding of the graduate midwife employment process.', Women and Birth.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Graduating midwives unsuccessful in gaining employment in their preferred model/location; or finding a job within a year of graduation are more likely to leave the profession. Obtaining post-graduate midwifery employment is competitive with midwifery students needing to confidently sell themselves to potential employers. Whilst midwifery students may be prepared with the requisite midwifery skills and knowledge, there is no guarantee of attaining a midwifery position upon graduation. Increasingly employers are requiring 'soft skills' including communication, teamwork, reflexivity and personal attributes of the individual to be able to effectively respond within different contexts. Demonstrating these skills within an employment interview requires confidence and knowledge in how to prepare. Designed with health service partners, simulated employment interviews were introduced into the final year of a Bachelor of Midwifery program as part of a suite of employability strategies connected to the student lifecycle. An exploratory evaluation study of students 'experiences of a simulated employment interview was undertaken. The simulated interview emulated real employment interviews with students receiving immediate written and oral feedback. Evaluation through surveys, focus groups and individual interviews provided rich data around the effectiveness of this approach. Students, health service partners and academics found the simulated employment interview provided a valuable learning experience, assisting students to reflect, explore and further develop skills sought by employers. Collaboration with health service partners created an authentic process enabling students to receive feedback relevant to the real world of practice. Students were able to work through anxiety, gain confidence and exposure to employers in preparation for employment interviews.
Baird, K, Carrasco, A, Gillespie, K & Boyd, A 2019, 'Qualitative analysis of domestic violence detection and response in a tertiary hospital', Journal of Primary Health Care, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 178-184.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 CSIRO Publishing Journal Compilation. INTRODUCTION: Domestic and family violence is a public health problem of epidemic proportions and a significant issue facing the Australian community. It knows no boundaries, is indiscriminate to geographical location, social class, age, religious or cultural background. AIM: This study aimed to analyse the processes currently used to identify and respond to domestic and family violence in a large tertiary hospital in Australia, and to classify the benefits and weaknesses of these existing systems. METHODS: A qualitative method used semistructured, face-to-face and telephone interviews with key informants in 16 key areas across the hospital. Thematic analysis of the interviews was used to define the key issues and areas of interest identified by participants. RESULTS: There was a dearth of existing guidelines or pathways of care for patients experiencing domestic violence. Several strengths and weaknesses were identified in relation to the protocols and systems used by the hospital, including limited training for staff and a lack of standardisation of processes, workplace instructions and clinical guidelines. With the exception of maternity services, no clinical service area used a guideline or work instruction. Most interviewees highlighted the need for the safety and protection of staff and victims as a priority. DISCUSSION: Domestic and family violence is an enormous burden on the health system. However, many staff have little or no guidance on dealing with it or are unaware of existing protocols or guidelines for detection or response. Participants recommended further education and training for staff, consistent guidelines, specialist liaison and more educational and information resources for staff and patients. Further investigation and discussions with patients affected by violence is warranted to provide robust recommendations for policy change.
Sapkota, D, Baird, K, Saito, A & Anderson, D 2019, 'Interventions for reducing and/or controlling domestic violence among pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.', Systematic reviews, vol. 8, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND:Domestic violence (DV) during pregnancy is recognized as a global health problem associated with serious health consequences for both the mother and her baby. Several interventions aimed at addressing DV around the time of pregnancy have been developed in the last decade, but they are primarily from developed countries. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are facing both a mounting burden of DV as well as severe resource constraints that keep them from emulating some of the effective interventions implemented in developed settings. A systematic review was conducted to examine the approaches and effects of interventions designed for reducing or controlling DV among pregnant women in LMICs. METHODS:Electronic databases were systematically searched, and the search was augmented by bibliographic reviews and expert consultations. Two reviewers assessed eligibility and quality of the studies and extracted data independently. The third reviewer was involved to resolve any discrepancies between the reviewers. Due to the limited number of studies and varied outcomes, a meta-analysis was not possible. Primary outcomes of this review included frequency and/or severity of DV and secondary outcomes included mental health, safety behaviours, and use of community resources. In addition, findings from the critical appraisal of studies were utilised to inform the initial draft of Theory of Change (ToC). RESULTS:Only five studies (two randomized trials and three non-randomized trials) met the eligibility criteria. The interventions consisting of supportive counselling demonstrated a reduction in DV and an improvement in use of safety behaviours. One study has embedded the DV intervention into an existing program on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Limited evidence could be drawn for outcomes such as quality of life and the use of community resources. DISCUSSION:This review attempted to address the knowledge gap by collating evidence on interventions aimed at add...
Sapkota, D, Baird, K, Saito, A, Rijal, P, Pokharel, R & Anderson, D 2019, 'Counselling-based psychosocial intervention to improve the mental health of abused pregnant women: a protocol for randomised controlled feasibility trial in a tertiary hospital in eastern Nepal.', BMJ open, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. e027436-e027436.View/Download from: Publisher's site
INTRODUCTION:The strong correlation between domestic and family violence (DFV) and mental health has been well documented in studies. Pregnancy is a period when both DFV and mental distress tend to occur and/or accentuate. Although limited, available evidence from developed countries has shown continual support and education as psychological first aid that can reduce DFV and improve mental health. However, there is significantly less number of studies from resource-constrained countries; thus, there continues to be a substantial gap in knowledge and awareness regarding effective interventions for DFV. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A two-arm randomised trial with a nested qualitative study has been planned to assess feasibility and treatment effect estimates of a counselling-based psychosocial intervention among pregnant women with a history of abuse. A total of 140 pregnant women who meet the inclusion criteria will be recruited into the study. Block randomisation will be used to allocate women equally into two groups. The intervention group will receive a counselling session, an information booklet and continuous support by a researcher, while women in the control group will receive contact information of local support services. Feasibility measures, such as rates of recruitment, consent and retention, will be calculated. Qualitative interviews with participants and healthcare providers will explore the acceptability and usability of the intervention. Outcome measures, such as psychological distress, quality of life, social support and self-efficacy, will be measured at baseline, 4 weeks postintervention and 6 weeks postpartum. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study has obtained ethical approval from the Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee, the Nepal Health Research Council and the Institutional Review Board of a tertiary hospital in Dharan, Nepal. The findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations and will be used ...
Baird, K 2018, 'Children's healthcare nurses should receive education in discussing intimate partner violence with new mothers', Evidence-Based Nursing, vol. 21, no. 4, p. 112.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Baird, K, Creedy, DK, Saito, AS & Eustace, J 2018, 'Longitudinal evaluation of a training program to promote routine antenatal enquiry for domestic violence by midwives', Women and Birth, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 398-406.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Background: Routine enquiry about domestic violence during pregnancy is accepted best practice. Training is essential to improve knowledge and practice. Few studies have undertaken a comprehensive evaluation of training impact over time. Aim: To evaluate the longitudinal impact of a domestic violence training and support program to promote midwives' routine antenatal enquiry for domestic violence using a mixed methods design. Method: Data sources included (1) surveys of midwives at 6 months post-training, (2) interviews with key stakeholders at 12 months, (3) chart audit data of screening, risk, and disclosure rates (for 16 months). Measures included midwives' knowledge, preparation for routine enquiry, knowledge of domestic violence and perceptions of impact of the training and support for practice change. Findings: Forty (out of 83) participant surveys could be matched and responses compared to baseline and post-training scores. Wilcoxon signed-rank test identified that all 6-month follow-up scores were significantly higher than those at baseline. Level of preparedness increased from 42.3 to 51.05 (Z = 4.88, p <.001); and knowledge scores increased from a mean of 21.15 to 24.65 (Z = 4.9, p <.001). Most participants (>90%) reported improved confidence to undertake routine inquiry. A chart audit of screening rates revealed that of the 6671 women presenting for antenatal care, nearly 90% were screened. Disclosure of domestic violence was low (<2%) with most women at risk or experiencing violence declining referral. Conclusions: Training, support processes, and referral pathways, contributed to midwives' sustained preparedness and knowledge to conduct routine enquiry and support women disclosing domestic violence.
Baird, KM, Saito, AS, Eustace, J & Creedy, DK 2018, 'Effectiveness of training to promote routine enquiry for domestic violence by midwives and nurses: A pre-post evaluation study', Women and Birth, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 285-291.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Background: Asking women about experiences of domestic violence in the perinatal period is accepted best practice. However, midwives and nurses may be reluctant to engage with, or effectively respond to disclosures of domestic violence due a lack of knowledge and skills. Aim: To evaluate the impact of training on knowledge and preparedness of midwives and nurses to conduct routine enquiry about domestic violence with women during the perinatal period. Method: A pre-post intervention design was used. Midwives and nurses (n = 154) attended a full day workshop. Of these, 149 completed pre-post workshop measures of knowledge and preparedness. Additional questions at post-training explored participants' perceptions of organisational barriers to routine enquiry, as well as anticipated impact of training on their practice. Training occurred between July 2015 and October 2016. Findings: Using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, all post intervention scores were significantly higher than pre intervention scores. Knowledge scores increased from a pre-training mean of 21.5–25.6 (Z = −9.56, p < 0.001) and level of preparedness increased from 40.8 to 53.2 (Z = −10.12, p < 0.001). Most participants (93%) reported improved preparedness to undertake routine enquiry after training. Only a quarter (24.9%) felt their workplace allowed adequate time to respond to disclosures of DV. Conclusions: Brief training can improve knowledge, preparedness, and confidence of midwives and nurses to conduct routine enquiry and support women during the perinatal period. Training can assist midwives and nurses to recognise signs of DV, ask women about what would be helpful to them, and address perceived organisational barriers to routine enquiry. Practice guidelines and clear referral pathways following DV disclosure need to be implemented to support gains made through training.
Islam, MJ, Broidy, L, Mazerolle, P, Baird, K & Mazumder, N 2018, 'Exploring Intimate Partner Violence Before, During, and After Pregnancy in Bangladesh', Journal of Interpersonal Violence.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018, The Author(s) 2018. Intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant or postpartum women is known to have multiple detrimental effects on women and their children. Although results from past research suggest much continuity in trajectories of IPV, it is unclear whether pregnancy interrupts or augments these patterns. Little is known about how physical, sexual, and psychological IPV change and overlap throughout a woman's transition to parenthood. Relying on population-based data, this study examines the prevalence, co-occurring nature, and the changing patterns of physical, sexual, and psychological IPV before, during, and after pregnancy in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional survey data were collected between October 2015 and January 2016 in the Chandpur District of Bangladesh from 426 new mothers, aged 15 to 49 years, who were in the first 6 months postpartum. IPV was assessed with a validated set of survey items. The frequencies of different types of IPV victimization according to the period of occurrence were calculated separately and in a cumulative, co-occurring manner. The prevalence of physical IPV before, during, and after pregnancy was 52.8%, 35.2%, and 32.2%, respectively. The comparative figures for psychological IPV were 67.4%, 65%, and 60.8%, and for sexual IPV were 21.1%, 18.5%, and 15.5%, respectively. The results demonstrate a notable continuity in IPV victimization before, during, and after pregnancy. Psychological IPV is the only type to exhibit a significant reduction during and after pregnancy, compared with before pregnancy, but it commonly overlaps with physical IPV, which shows a significant change during pregnancy and little change in the postpartum period. At the same time, pregnancy and childbirth offer little protection against IPV for women in relationships characterized by psychological or sexual victimization, both of which commonly overlap with physical IPV. Results reinforce the need to conduct routine screening during pregnancy ...
Islam, MJ, Mazerolle, P, Broidy, L & Baird, K 2018, 'Does the type of maltreatment matter? Assessing the individual and combined effects of multiple forms of childhood maltreatment on exclusive breastfeeding behavior', Child Abuse and Neglect, vol. 86, pp. 290-305.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with a range of adult health outcomes; however, extant research has focused more on exposure to a single form of abuse rather than multiple forms. Moreover, very few studies have specifically investigated the impact of CM on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) outcomes. Objectives: This study aims to examine: (1) the individual and combined effects of multiple forms of CM on EBF outcomes; and (2) whether postpartum depression and maternal stress act to mediate or moderate the association between CM and EBF. Method: Cross-sectional survey data were collected between October 2015 and January 2016 from 426 women of Bangladesh who were six months postpartum. Results: Based on the adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, women who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were significantly less likely to exclusively breastfeed babies than their non-abused counterparts (AOR: 0.38, 95% CI [0.15, 0.92]). When a composite measure was created to examine the additive effects of adverse childhood experiences, a dose-response association was observed between the reported number of different types of CM and early termination of EBF. Though experiencing postpartum depression and maternal stress do not mediate the effect of CSA on EBF, they do moderate them such that the odds of early termination of EBF are notably higher among women who experienced CSA in combination with postpartum depression or high levels of stress. Conclusions: Findings from this study offer some insight into the intergenerational effects associated with CM experiences, and underpin the need for effective policies and programs to prevent or reduce its occurrence and improve the EBF outcomes.
Sidebotham, M, Baird, K, Walters, C & Gamble, J 2018, 'Preparing student midwives for professional practice: Evaluation of a student e-portfolio assessment item', NURSE EDUCATION IN PRACTICE, vol. 32, pp. 84-89.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Baird, K, Creedy, D & Mitchell, T 2017, 'Intimate partner violence and pregnancy intentions: a qualitative study', Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 26, no. 15-16, pp. 2399-2408.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Aim and objective: In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Background: Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Design: Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Methods: Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Results: Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Conclusion: Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Relevance to clinical practice: Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim–perpetrator interactive spin theor...
Islam, MJ, Baird, K, Mazerolle, P & Broidy, L 2017, 'Exploring the influence of psychosocial factors on exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh', Archives of Women's Mental Health, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 173-188.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016, Springer-Verlag Wien. Exclusive breastfeeding is a proven benefit for both mothers and infants and is, therefore, an important public health priority. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is regarded as one of the potential psychosocial risk factors that may negatively affect exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This study aimed to explore the influence of psychosocial factors including IPV on EBF. Cross-sectional survey data was collected from October 2015 to January 2016 in Chandpur District of Bangladesh from 426 married women, aged 15–49 years, who had at least one child 6 months of age or younger. Multivariate logistic regression models were used in order to investigate whether women who experienced IPV after childbirth, as well as other risk factors such as postpartum depression (PPD) and childhood sexual abuse, were more likely to face difficulties with EBF compared with women who had not experienced these same risk factors. Whilst the initiation rate of breastfeeding was 99.3%, at the time of the woman's interview, the overall EBF rate had fallen to 43.7%. Based on the adjusted model, women who experienced physical IPV (AOR 0.17, 95% CI [0.07, 0.40]) and psychological IPV (AOR 0.51, 95% CI [0.26, 1.00]) after childbirth and women who reported childhood sexual abuse (AOR 0.32, 95% CI [0.13, 0.80]) and PPD (AOR 0.20, 95% CI [0.09, 0.44]) were significantly less likely to exclusively breastfeed their infants than those who had not reported these experiences. Moreover, women with an intended pregnancy and high social support exhibited a higher likelihood of EBF. Our results suggest that preventing or reducing the occurrence of physical IPV, PPD and childhood sexual abuse may improve the EBF duration. Support from family members can assist in this process.
Islam, MJ, Broidy, L, Baird, K & Mazerolle, P 2017, 'Exploring the associations between intimate partner violence victimization during pregnancy and delayed entry into prenatal care: Evidence from a population-based study in Bangladesh', Midwifery, vol. 47, pp. 43-52.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Objective Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy can have serious health consequences for mothers and newborns. The aim of the study is to explore: 1) the influence of experiencing IPV during pregnancy on delayed entry into prenatal care; and 2) whether women's decision-making autonomy and the support for traditional gender roles act to mediate or moderate the relationship between IPV and delayed entry into prenatal care. Design cross-sectional survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were estimated that control for various socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors to assess whether women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to delay entry into prenatal care compared with women who had not experienced IPV. The influence of traditional gender roles acceptance and decision-making autonomy were examined both as independent variables and in interaction with IPV, to assess their role as potential mediators or moderators. Setting Chandpur district, Bangladesh. Participants the sample comprised of 426 Bangladeshi women, aged 15–49 years. Postpartum mothers who visited vaccinations centres to receive their children's vaccinations constitute the sampling frame. Results almost 70% of the women surveyed reported patterns consistent with delayed entry into prenatal care. Accounting for the influence of other covariates, women who experienced physical IPV during pregnancy were 2.61 times more likely (95% CI [1.33, 5.09]) to have delayed entry into prenatal care than their counterparts who did not report physical IPV. Neither sexual nor psychological IPV victimization during pregnancy was linked with late entry into prenatal care. Both gender role attitudes and levels of autonomy mediate the effect of IPV on prenatal care. Key conclusions the results suggest that the high rates of IPV in Bangladesh have effects that can compromise women's health seeking behaviour during pregnancy, putting them and their developing fet...
Islam, MJ, Broidy, L, Baird, K & Mazerolle, P 2017, 'Intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy and postpartum depression: The experience of women of Bangladesh', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Islam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Background and objectives: Intimate partner violence (IPV) around the time of pregnancy is a serious public health concern and is known to have an adverse effect on perinatal mental health. In order to craft appropriate and effective interventions, it is important to understand how the association between IPV and postpartum depression (PPD) may differ as a function of the type and timing of IPV victimization. Here we evaluate the influence of physical, sexual and psychological IPV before, during and after pregnancy on PPD. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data was collected between October 2015 and January 2016 in the Chandpur District of Bangladesh from 426 new mothers, aged 15-49 years, who were in the first six months postpartum. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between IPV and PPD, adjusted for socio-demographic, reproductive and psychosocial confounding factors. Results: Approximately 35.2% of women experienced PPD within the first six months following childbirth. Controlling for confounders, the odds of PPD was significantly greater among women who reported exposure to physical (AOR: 1.79, 95% CI [1.25, 3.43]), sexual (AOR: 2.25, 95% CI [1.14, 4.45]) or psychological (AOR: 6.92, 95% CI [1.71, 28.04]) IPV during pregnancy as opposed to those who did not. However, both before and after pregnancy, only physical IPV evidences a direct effect on PPD. Results highlight the mental health consequences of IPV for women of Bangladesh, as well as the influence of timing and type of IPV on PPD outcomes. Conclusions and implications: The findings confirm that exposure to IPV significantly increases the odds of PPD. The association is particularly strong for physical IPV durin...
Islam, MJ, Mazerolle, P, Broidy, L & Baird, K 2017, 'Exploring the Prevalence and Correlates Associated With Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy in Bangladesh', Journal of Interpersonal Violence.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017, The Author(s) 2017. Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is known to have multiple detrimental consequences for the woman and potentially for her unborn child. However, little is known about the nature and extent of IPV during pregnancy, particularly in developing countries, which compromises efforts to address the problem. Relying on population-based data, this article examines the extent, patterns, and correlates associated with physical, sexual, and psychological IPV during pregnancy in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional survey data were collected between October 2015 and January 2016 from 426 new mothers, aged 15 to 49 years, who were in the first 6 months postpartum. IPV was assessed with a validated set of survey items. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate correlates associated with different types of IPV. Overall, 66.4% of women experienced any IPV during pregnancy. The prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological IPV was 35.2%, 18.5%, and 65%, respectively. These forms of IPV often overlap, particularly physical and psychological IPV. Pregnant women who report limited social support and have controlling husbands are at significantly increased risk for all three types of IPV during pregnancy. Women who cling to traditional gender roles and those with low self-esteem exhibit increased risk for physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy. Psychological IPV during pregnancy is also correlated with low decision-making autonomy and childhood exposure to violence. Women whose husband's demand a dowry at marriage are at increased risk of sexual IPV during pregnancy. Results reinforce the need to conduct routine screening during pregnancy to identify women with a history of IPV and to be able to offer help and support. The findings also reinforce calls for gender equity and women's equal access to family and social resources thereby increasing women's social support networks, their self-esteem, and autonomy, an...
Jones, K, Baird, K & Fenwick, J 2017, 'Women's experiences of labour and birth when having a termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality in the second trimester of pregnancy: A qualitative meta-synthesis', Midwifery, vol. 50, pp. 42-54.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Objective to explore women's experiences of labour and birth in the context of a termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality in the second trimester of pregnancy. Design meta-synthesis of 10 qualitative studies which included the experiences of 581 women. Data analysis was informed by van Manen's four lifeworld existentials (lived body, lived space, lived time and lived human relationships) and focused only on women's experiences of their labour and birth when terminating a pregnancy in the second trimester for fetal abnormality. Key findings eight themes were generated by the analysis. In my head: a storm of emotion reflected the lived or felt space. In this space women make meaning of the experience. Too late to turn back time and Living and escaping the moment considered lived time; it is lived time that enables a woman to reinterpret who they once were and who they are becoming. The existential concept of lived body represented the women's physical or bodily presence and was reflected in the themes; The language of labour: un-describable torture, The meaning of pain; punishment and protection and Being a mother in the space where birth meets death. Relational or the lived human relationship is reflected in See me... talk to me...hear me... be with me and Sorry baby. These themes describe the women's lived sense of others in the interpersonal space that they share with them. Key conclusions the findings of this meta-synthesis provide insight into how emotionally and physically traumatic a woman's labour and birth experiences can be in this context. Women wanted to spend time with their baby constructing lasting memories that they could hold onto and share. They needed acknowledgment that their baby existed and their loss was tangible and real. What happened within the space of the relationship women shared with care providers was seen as vital, especially when respectful and dignified interaction was experienced. The women's need for human con...
Mainey, L, Taylor, A, Baird, K & O'Mullan, C 2017, 'Disclosure of domestic violence and sexual assault within the context of abortion: Meta-ethnographic synthesis of qualitative studies protocol', Systematic Reviews, vol. 6, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 The Author(s). Background: One third of women will have an abortion in their lifetime (Kerr, QUT Law Rev 14:15, 2014; Aston and Bewley, Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 11:163-8, 2009). These women are more likely to have experienced domestic violence or sexual assault than women who continue with their pregnancies. Frontline health personnel involved in the care of women seeking abortions are uniquely positioned to support patients who choose to disclose their violence. Yet, the disclosure of domestic violence or sexual assault within the context of abortion is not well understood. To enhance service provision, it is important to understand the disclosure experience, that is, how frontline health personnel manage such disclosures and how victims/survivors perceive this experience. This review aims to provide a systematic synthesis of qualitative literature to increase understanding of the phenomena and identify research gaps. Methods: A meta-ethnography of qualitative evidence following PRISMA-P recommendations for reporting systematic reviews will be performed to better understand the experiences of domestic violence and sexual assault disclosure from the perspective of frontline health personnel providing support and women seeking an abortion. A three-stage search strategy including database searching, citation searching and Traditional Pearl Growing will be applied starting with the terms "domestic violence", "sexual assault", "disclosure" and "abortion", their common synonyms and MeSH terms. The database search will include CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO. Published studies from 1970, written in English and from all countries will be included. Two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts and if suitable will then perform a full-text review. To attribute weight to each study, two reviewers will perform the critical appraisal using a modified version of the "Guidelines for Extracting Data and Quality Assessing Primary Studies in Educational Research"...
Sapkota, D, Baird, K, Saito, A & Anderson, D 2017, 'Interventions for domestic violence among pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review protocol', Systematic Reviews, vol. 6, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Violence during pregnancy is a global problem, associated with serious health risks for both the mother and baby. Evaluation of interventions targeted for reducing or controlling domestic violence (DV) is still in its infancy, and the majority of findings are primarily from high-income countries (HICs). Therefore, there is an urgent need for generating evidence of DV interventions among pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines will be employed to structure the review. A comprehensive search will be carried out via electronic databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane library. Gray literature will also be scrutinized for potential articles. An optimal search strategy has been developed following consultations with subject-matter experts and librarians. This search strategy will be adapted to the different databases. Experimental studies evaluating DV interventions among pregnant women from LMICs will be included in the review. The review will only include literature written in English. Two reviewers will independently screen and assess studies for inclusion in the review. A third author will resolve any discrepancies between the reviewers. Risk of bias will be assessed based on the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool, and overall quality of the evidence will be judged using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Findings will be presented with the narrative synthesis, and if applicable, they will be further quantified using random-effects meta-analysis. Effect size, risk ratio for dichotomous variables, and standardized mean differences for continuous variables will be calculated for each outcome using Review Manager 5.3. Discussion: Systematic reviews to evaluate the efficacy of interventions to address DV within the...
Baird, K, Gamble, J & Sidebotham, M 2016, 'Assessment of the quality and applicability of an e-portfolio capstone assessment item within a bachelor of midwifery program', Nurse Education in Practice, vol. 20, pp. 11-16.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016. Education programs leading to professional licencing need to ensure assessments throughout the program are constructively aligned and mapped to the specific professional expectations. Within the final year of an undergraduate degree, a student is required to transform and prepare for professional practice. Establishing assessment items that are authentic and able to reflect this transformation is a challenge for universities. This paper both describes the considerations around the design of a capstone assessment and evaluates, from an academics perspective, the quality and applicability of an e-portfolio as a capstone assessment item for undergraduate courses leading to a professional qualification. The e-portfolio was seen to meet nine quality indicators for assessment. Academics evaluated the e-portfolio as an authentic assessment item that would engage the students and provide them with a platform for ongoing professional development and lifelong learning. The processes of reflection on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, comparison of clinical experiences with national statistics, preparation of professional philosophy and development of a curriculum vitae, whilst recognised as comprehensive and challenging were seen as highly valuable to the student transforming into the profession.
Eustace, J, Baird, K, Saito, AS & Creedy, DK 2016, 'Midwives' experiences of routine enquiry for intimate partner violence in pregnancy', WOMEN AND BIRTH, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 503-510.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Baird, K 2015, 'Primary care professionals and abused women have differing awareness of domestic abuse: A new framework may help facilitate discussions', Evidence-Based Nursing, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 88.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Baird, K 2015, 'Women's lived experiences of domestic violence during pregnancy (1)', Practising Midwife, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 27-31.
© 2015 Medical Education Solutions Ltd. All rights reserved. This paper reports on a qualitative study, which explored women's experiences of domestic violence before, during and after pregnancy. During pregnancy the women were physically attacked, including blows and kicks to the pregnant abdomen; they were punched, slapped, kicked, bitten, pushed around, held by the throat, and attempts at strangulation occurred for two of the women. The women were sexually abused, experienced enforced isolation and financial hardship. They experienced extreme psychological distress, including depression before, during and after pregnancy. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and their unborn babies were intensified by their partners' continuing violence and abuse. The findings from this research will support midwives to recognise the warning signs of domestic violence and abuse during pregnancy and to be able to offer an appropriate response.
Baird, K 2015, 'Women's lived experiences of domestic violence during pregnancy (2)', Practising Midwife, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 37-40.
© Medical Education Solutions Ltd. All rights reserved. This paper is a follow up paper to a study which explored women's experiences of domestic violence before, during and after pregnancy. Findings from this study suggested that women would like midwives to be able to recognise the signs of domestic violence and to be able to offer them an appropriate response and support. Midwives are well placed to recognise the signs of domestic violence and provide appropriate support. This paper addresses some of the challenges and dilemmas for midwives when identifying and supporting women who have experienced domestic violence and provides some key messages for midwifery practice.
Baird, KM, Saito, AS, Eustace, J & Creedy, DK 2015, 'An exploration of Australian midwives' knowledge of intimate partner violence against women during pregnancy', WOMEN AND BIRTH, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 215-220.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Salmon, D, Baird, KM & White, P 2015, 'Women's views and experiences of antenatal enquiry for domestic abuse during pregnancy', HEALTH EXPECTATIONS, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 867-878.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Schwartz, L, Toohill, J, Creedy, DK, Baird, K, Gamble, J & Fenwick, J 2015, 'Factors associated with childbirth self-efficacy in Australian childbearing women', BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 15, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Schwartz et al. Background: Childbirth confidence is an important marker of women's coping abilities during labour and birth. This study investigated socio-demographic, obstetric and psychological factors affecting self-efficacy in childbearing women. Method: This paper presents a secondary analysis of data collected as part of the BELIEF study (Birth Emotions - Looking to Improve Expectant Fear). Women (n = 1410) were recruited during pregnancy (≤24 weeks gestation). The survey included socio-demographic details (such as age and partner support); obstetric details including parity, birth preference, and pain; and standardised psychological measures: CBSEI (Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory), W-DEQ A (childbirth fear) and EPDS (depressive symptoms). Variables were tested against CBSEI first stage of labour sub-scales (outcome expectancy and self-efficacy expectancy) according to parity. Results: CBSEI total mean score was 443 (SD = 112.2). CBSEI, W-DEQ, EPDS scores were highly correlated. Regardless of parity, women who reported low childbirth knowledge, who preferred a caesarean section, and had high W-DEQ and EPDS scores reported lower self-efficacy. There were no differences for nulliparous or multiparous women on outcome expectancy, but multiparous women had higher self-efficacy scores (p<.001). Multiparous women whose partner was unsupportive were more likely to report low self-efficacy expectancy (p<.05). Experiencing moderate pain in pregnancy was significantly associated with low self-efficacy expectancy in both parity groups, as well as low outcome expectancy in nulliparous women only. Fear correlated strongly with low childbirth self-efficacy. Conclusion: Few studies have investigated childbirth self-efficacy according to parity. Although multiparous women reported higher birth confidence significant obstetric and psychological differences were found. Addressing women's physical and emotional wellbeing and perceptions of the upcoming birth may highli...
Baird, KM & Mitchell, T 2014, 'Using feminist phenomenology to explore women's experiences of domestic violence in pregnancy', British Journal of Midwifery, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 418-426.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article presents the philosophical and theoretical dimensions of a doctoral study which aimed to explore women's experiences of domestic violence in pregnancy. The intention is to share some contributions from the literature that enabled the researcher to prepare to collect and analyse sensitive data. A qualitative methodology underpinned by feminist values and the philosophy of interpretive phenomenology was employed. The researcher aimed to locate the most congruent approach and method which would allow the women's voices to be heard and facilitate an understanding of the women's experiences of domestic violence and the impact on their general health and wellbeing during pregnancy. An overview of the context of domestic violence is provided to demonstrate the need for a gender sensitive philosophical foundation and theoretical framework for the research.
Baird, K, Salmon, D & White, P 2013, 'A five year follow-up study of the Bristol pregnancy domestic violence programme to promote routine enquiry', MIDWIFERY, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1003-1010.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Baird, K & Salmon, D 2012, 'An enquiry of 'Every3Days' a drama-based workshop developing professional collaboration for women experiencing domestic violence during pregnancy in the South East of England', MIDWIFERY, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. E886-E892.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Feder, G, Davies, RA, Baird, K, Dunne, D, Eldridge, S, Griffiths, C, Gregory, A, Howell, A, Johnson, M, Ramsay, J, Rutterford, C & Sharp, D 2011, 'Identification and Referral to Improve Safety (IRIS) of women experiencing domestic violence with a primary care training and support programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial', LANCET, vol. 378, no. 9805, pp. 1788-1795.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gregory, A, Ramsay, J, Agnew-Davies, R, Baird, K, Devine, A, Dunne, D, Eldridge, S, Howell, A, Johnson, M, Rutterford, C, Sharp, D & Feder, G 2010, 'Primary care Identification and Referral to Improve Safety of women experiencing domestic violence (IRIS): protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial', BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The following article aims to describe the findings from a piece of research which examined whether a sample of senior midwifery students, close to registration, believed that their pre-registration midwifery education had prepared, empowered and enabled them to be autonomous practitioners upon qualification. Most of the participants believed that their midwifery education had in the most part prepared them to be qualified midwives, but it had failed to equip them for professional autonomy. They believed that the concept and realization of midwifery autonomy had not been explicit enough in their educational programme. Any perceived barriers which the students felt inhibited qualified midwives from practising with professional autonomy will also be discussed, as many of the participants interviewed considered that they had only witnessed midwifery autonomy in midwifery-led birthing units and that it was almost invisible in obstetric led units. They considered that the medicalization of childbirth had prevented most of their midwifery mentors practising autonomous midwifery.
Price, S, Baird, K & Salmon, D 2007, 'Does routine antenatal enquiry lead to an increased rate of disclosure of domestic abuse? Findings from the Bristol Pregnancy and Domestic Violence Programme', Evidence Based Midwifery, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 100-106.
Background. Domestic violence (DV) during pregnancy is especially serious, but can be a challenging and difficult subject for midwives to raise with women. The Bristol Pregnancy and Domestic Violence Programme was introduced in an NHS Trust in the south-west of England to equip community midwives with the knowledge and confidence to enquire effectively about DV in the antenatal period.Aim. To evaluate the effect of routine antenatal enquiry about domestic abuse on disclosure outcomes. Method. Semi-structured self-completion questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and focus groups were used to collect data from a group of community midwives. An audit was also conducted to assess changes in levels of DV reporting after the introduction of routine enquiry.Results. Eight instances of DV were identified in the 17-month period prior to the programme, and 25 cases of current DV were identified in the nine months following its introduction - an almost six-fold increase. The midwives viewed routine enquiry as important and believed that they have a key role to play. They also identified a lack of pre- and post- registration training and of previous experience in dealing with issues relating to DV.Conclusions. This study supports previous evidence that routine enquiry may increase the number of disclosures of DV during pregnancy. It also implies that any programme of enquiry must include support, appropriate referral and follow-up mechanisms for women, and that midwives require pre- and post-registration education, training and support if they are to be confident and effective in routine antenatal enquiry. © 2007 The Royal College of Midwives.
Salmon, D, Murphy, S, Baird, K & Price, S 2006, 'An evaluation of the effectiveness of an educational programme promoting the introduction of routine antenatal enquiry for domestic violence', MIDWIFERY, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 6-14.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Baird, K 2005, 'Domestic violence: Learning to ask the question', Practising Midwife, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 18-22.
Price, S, Baird, K & Salmon, D 2005, 'Asking the question: Antenatal domestic violence', Practising Midwife, vol. 8, no. 3.
Price, S & Baird, K 2003, 'Tackling domestic violence. An audit of professional practice.', The practising midwife, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 15-18.
Price, S & Baird, K 2001, 'Domestic violence in pregnancy.', The practising midwife, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 12-14.
Adjunct Professor Griffith University, Queensland
Adjunct Professor University of the West of England, Bristol, UK