Professor Juliet Willetts leads applied research to improve development policy and practice and to address social justice and sustainable development, including achievement of the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). She is a recognised expert in the field of water and sanitation in developing country contexts, and also works on issues related to gender equality, civil society role in development, governance and accountability, climate change, urban development, monitoring, evaluation and development effectiveness more broadly.
She is recipient of six professional awards for research excellence, and leads sectoral efforts to promote evidence-based approaches as Academic Co-Chair of the Research for Development Impact (RDI) Network and as a founding member of the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) policy reference group. Her work includes independent research, evaluation and consultancy for the Australian aid program, bilateral and multilateral agencies and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Professor Willetts leads the Institute’s international development research team and supervises several doctoral students focused on innovation in aid effectiveness, particularly in the water and sanitation sector.
Can supervise: YES
Juliet conducts research and supervises higher degree research students in the following areas:
· Innovation in monitoring and evaluation, evidence and development effectiveness
· Social justice, poverty and gender equality
· Urban development, governance and accountability and climate change adaptation
· Theory and practice of applied, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research
Carrard, N, Foster, T & Willetts, J 2020, 'Correction: Carrard, N., et al. Groundwater as a Source of Drinking Water in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: A Multi-Country Review of Current Reliance and Resource Concerns. Water 2019, 11, 1605', Water, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 298-298.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...]
Carrard, N, Kohlitz, J, Soeters, S, Halcrow, G, Murta, J & Willetts, J 2020, 'Reaching all in rural sanitation: experiences from inclusive programming in five countries', Development in Practice, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020, © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. There is a need to reflect on approaches to reaching all in rural sanitation, given evidence that disadvantaged groups often miss out on benefits from programmes. This article presents approaches from area-wide rural sanitation programming undertaken by SNV across five countries. Analysis identified ten strategies used in combination to support inclusion. The article describes the strategies and their application, then presents four implications for the rural sanitation sector: the value of a "toolbox" approach; co-creation of strategies with stakeholders; recognition of local government as a driver of inclusive services; and the need to strengthen evidence on how strategies contribute to success.
Mills, F, Willetts, J, Evans, B, Carrard, N & Kohlitz, J 2020, 'Costs, Climate and Contamination: Three Drivers for Citywide Sanitation Investment Decisions', FRONTIERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, vol. 8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Willetts, J, Mills, F & Al'Afghani, M 2020, 'Sustaining Community-Scale Sanitation Services: Co-management by Local Government and Low-Income Communities in Indonesia', FRONTIERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, vol. 8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Foster, T, Furey, S, Banks, B & Willetts, J 2020, 'Functionality of handpump water supplies: a review of data from sub-Saharan Africa and the Asia-Pacific region', International Journal of Water Resources Development, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 855-869.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Setty, K, Jiménez, A, Willetts, J, Leifels, M & Bartram, J 2020, 'Global water, sanitation and hygiene research priorities and learning challenges under Sustainable Development Goal 6', Development Policy Review, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 64-84.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Authors 2019. Development Policy Review © 2019 Overseas Development Institute Motivation: Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) is a global partnership addressing universal water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) access. Shortly after the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations, the research and learning (R&L) constituency of SWA undertook a systematic study to determine global research priorities and learning needs. Purpose: To identify priority topics where improved knowledge would aid achievement of Goal 6 by developing a global WaSH research agenda, and to describe evidence-use challenges among WaSH professionals. Approach and methods: We delivered a tailored, semi-structured electronic questionnaire to representatives from countries, R&L institutions, and other SWA partners (external support agencies, civil society, and private sector). The survey gathered views from 76 respondents working in an estimated 36 countries across all world regions. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to identify patterns and themes. Findings: Most responses indicated lower confidence in at least one Goal 6 target area, especially managing untreated wastewater and faecal sludge. To support learning, respondents valued a combination of both brief and lengthy information formats. WaSH information was perceived as contradictory or unreliable only among non-R&L constituencies. The R&L constituency saw ample learning and training opportunities, while others perceived barriers to participating. WaSH activities were frequently constrained by upward accountability to funders, while stakeholder inclusion was inconsistent. Policy implications: This study offers insight into perceived research and decision challenges related to Goal 6 targets. It develops a unified research agenda focused on high-priority topics, and recommends renewed attention to evidence synthesis, learning and implementation support, research engagement and multisectoral...
Al'afghani, MM, Kohlitz, J & Willetts, J 2019, 'Not Built to Last: Improving Legal and Institutional Arrangements for Community-Based Water and Sanitation Service Delivery in Indonesia', Water Alternatives, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 285-303.
Foster, T, Rand, E, Sami, E, Dance, B, Kohlitz, J & Willetts, J 2019, 'Does the source of water for piped supplies affect child health? Evidence from rural Vanuatu', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 591-595.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kohlitz, J, Chong, J & Willetts, J 2019, 'Analysing the capacity to respond to climate change: a framework for community-managed water services', Climate and Development, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 775-785.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for guiding interdisciplinary research on analysing the capacity of community-managed water services to respond to disturbances from climate change. Climate change poses a serious threat to the sustainable delivery of community-managed water services in developing countries. We synthesized key concepts from the latest research on vulnerability and resilience theories into a shared framework that functions as a heuristic for the analysis of different elements of the capacity to respond to climate disturbances and how they are related to community-managed water services. Primary elements of the framework include conceptualisations of the capacities to respond to specific hazards (e.g. through risk management and knowledge of thresholds) and to disturbances in general (e.g. through agency, social structure, and adaptive management practices), the potential for capacity to be differentiated across scales, and the social and biophysical system characteristics that influence capacity to respond to climate change. We describe how each these elements relate to sustaining community-managed water services against climate change throughout the paper. We also discuss subjective choices (temporal frame, system boundaries, scale of inquiry, and desired forms of capacity) that analysts must make when considering how capacity to respond to climate change is analysed.
Abeysuriya, K, Willetts, J, Carrard, N & Kome, A 2019, 'City sanitation planning through a political economy lens', Water Alternatives: an interdisciplinary journal on water, politics and development, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 907-929.
While citywide sanitation planning is perceived to be an enabler of coordinated improvements in sanitation services for developing countries, intended outcomes have often been elusive. In order to illustrate how political economy, chosen planning approaches, and ideas about change and development have acted as determinants of outcomes, this paper draws on three case study countries that took qualitatively different approaches to sanitation planning – Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia. The analysis found that the assumptions informing the planning methods were often not valid, which then undermined the potential for successful implementation. Based on the analysis, the paper argues that urban sanitation planning and implementation in developing countries needs to be transformed to reduce the emphasis on comprehensiveness and instead emphasise flexibility, a learning orientation and strategically chosen incentives. This approach demands tighter cycles of planning and action, direct testing of assumptions, and an in-depth understanding of the local- and national-level political economy and the links between them. It requires innovation to be enabled, with funding mechanisms that focus on outcome rather than input. In this way it would be possible to shift away from the typical emphasis on prescriptive procedural planning steps and towards delivery of the much-needed improved sanitation outcomes.
Carrard, N, Foster, T & Willetts, J 2019, 'Groundwater as a Source of Drinking Water in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: A Multi-Country Review of Current Reliance and Resource Concerns', Water, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Groundwater is widely acknowledged to be an important source of drinking water in low-income regions, and it, therefore, plays a critical role in the realization of the human right to water. However, the proportion of households using groundwater compared with other sources is rarely quantified, with national and global datasets more focused on facilities—rather than resources—used. This is a significant gap in knowledge, particularly in light of efforts to expand water services in line with the inclusive and integrated agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals. Understanding the prevalence of groundwater reliance for drinking is critical for those involved in water services planning and management, so they can better monitor and advocate for management of water resources that supports sustainable services for households. This paper contributes data that can be used to strengthen the integration of resource considerations within water service delivery and inform the work of development partners supporting this area. We approach this issue from two perspectives. Firstly, we collate data on the proportion of households using groundwater as their primary drinking water source for 10 Southeast Asian and Pacific nations, finding an average of 62% (range of 17–93% for individual countries) of households in urban areas and 60% (range of 22–95%) of households in rural areas rely on groundwater for drinking. Together, these constitute 79% of the total population across the case study countries. Secondly, we review current and emerging groundwater resource concerns within each country, using a systems thinking approach to assess how groundwater resource issues influence household water services. Findings support the case for governments and development agencies to strengthen engagement with groundwater resource management as foundational for achieving sustainable water services for all.
Carrard, N, Madden, B, Chong, J, Grant, M, Tuyen, PN, Ly, HB, Hue, TTH & Willetts, J 2019, 'Are piped water services reaching poor households? Empirical evidence from rural Viet Nam', WATER RESEARCH, vol. 153, pp. 239-250.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cunningham, I, Willetts, J, Winterford, K & Foster, T 2019, 'Participation and Power Dynamics Between International Non-Governmental Organisations and Local Partners: A Rural Water Case Study in Indonesia', Water Alternatives: an interdisciplinary journal on water, politics and development, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 953-974.
Foster, T, McSorley, B & Willetts, J 2019, 'Comparative performance evaluation of handpump water-supply technologies in northern Kenya and The Gambia', Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 535-551.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Safe drinking water for all is unlikely to be achieved without major improvements in the sustainability of rural water supplies in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite heavy dependence on groundwater across the African continent, there is little empirical evidence on the relative reliability of different water-lifting technologies. This study comparatively evaluated the operational performance of the BluePump against the Afridev, India Mark II and PB Mark II handpumps. The field assessment took place in Turkana County (northern Kenya) and The Gambia, contexts with contrasting environmental, social and institutional characteristics. When controlling for other variables, in both study sites the BluePump had significantly lower odds of a breakdown occurring over a 12-month period compared with other handpumps. The BluePump also had significantly lower odds of a nonfunctional status relative to the Afridev in Turkana, though no significant effect on functionality was observed relative to the India Mark II in either study site or the PB Mark II in The Gambia. In Turkana, the impact of fewer breakdowns on operational uptime and point-in-time functionality may have been moderated by a subsidised maintenance service for which communities pay a fixed annual fee irrespective of handpump type and breakdown frequency. In The Gambia, the BluePump had significantly longer breakdowns than Mark II handpumps because of a problematic maintenance model. The results indicate that technological innovations such as the BluePump can lead to operational improvements, but technology alone is no panacea and the long-term sustainability of water supplies ultimately depends upon the effectiveness of maintenance services.
Foster, T, Willetts, J & Kotra, KK 2019, 'Faecal contamination of groundwater in rural Vanuatu: prevalence and predictors', Journal of Water and Health, vol. 17, no. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Groundwater is an important source of water for coastal communities in Pacific Islands Countries. This study assessed the prevalence and predictors of faecal contamination in groundwater sources across 11 islands in Vanuatu. Escherichia coli was detected in 49% of sources and E. coli concentration exceeded 10 MPN (most probable number)/100 mL for 23% of sources. When adjusting for other variables, the detection of E. coli was significantly associated with severe pump stand corrosion, suggestive of contaminated run-off directly entering boreholes. E. coli concentration >10 MPN/100 mL was also significantly associated with (i) hand-dug wells (as compared to drilled boreholes); (ii) severe pump stand corrosion; (iii) water points underlain by volcanic rocks (as compared to coral limestone); and (iv) rainfall in the previous 24 h. Encasing pump stands in concrete – as some communities had done – was found to have a significant protective effect. While baseline statistics for Sustainable Development Goal target 6.1 suggest that 87% of Vanuatu's rural population have access to at least a basic (improved) water source, the results from this study point to extensive microbial water quality concerns linked to degraded water supply infrastructure in need of rehabilitation.
Grant, M, Soeters, S, Bunthoeun, IV & Willetts, J 2019, 'Rural piped-water enterprises in Cambodia: A pathway to women's empowerment?', Water (Switzerland), vol. 11, no. 12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 by the authors. This research examined the extent to which women's ownership and management of water supply schemes led to their empowerment, including their economic empowerment, in rural Cambodia. Privately managed water supply schemes in rural Cambodia serve over one million people. This study is the first of its kind to systematically investigate the experiences and needs of female water supply scheme owners, using well-established theoretical frameworks for women's empowerment, namely Longwe's stages of empowerment, and Rowlands, VeneKlasen and Miller's elaboration on different types of power. Business management frameworks relevant to the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector were also drawn on to assess operational constraints and enablers. Fifteen structured interviews were conducted with female water entrepreneurs in rural Cambodia. Female entrepreneurs reported encountering four key barriers to establishing and managing water supply schemes. The first were operational, and government and regulatory related issues, followed by financial issues and limited demand for water services. Three important enablers were reported by entrepreneurs: social enablers, economic enablers and program support from government, associations and non-government organisations (NGOs). This study found that, whilst there was evidence of empowerment reported by female water enterprise owners, the complexity of the ongoing empowerment process, challenges and limitations were also observed. Women's empowerment can be advanced through leadership of, and involvement in water enterprises, as evidenced by this study, however, gender norms constrained women, especially with respect to mobility (leaving the home for extended periods), and household and family duties impacting on income-generating work or vice versa. As such, targeted strategies are needed by a range of actors to address such constraints. The findings of this study can assist NGOs, donors and governments ince...
Indarti, N, Rostiani, R, Megaw, T & Willetts, J 2019, 'Women's involvement in economic opportunities in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in Indonesia: Examining personal experiences and potential for empowerment', Development Studies Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 76-91.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. The involvement of women in economic activity in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in Indonesia is increasing, and yet this is the first study to examine empowerment in this context. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 18 women business owners, mobilizers, and public sector employees in WASH-related activities. The women were observed to have strong social motivations, and only those responsibile for household income expressed economic motivations. Women's experiences were analyzed against four dimensions of empowerment: 'power within,' 'power to,' 'power over,' and 'power with.' Significant evidence of empowerment was found, and in some cases, economic empowerment. Equally, the complexity of the empowerment process as well as challenges, contradictions, and negotiations were observed. Evidence of self-belief and recognition that women had capabilities equal to men was tempered by adherence to gender norms concerning men's roles in technical matters and decision-making. While some women experienced support from close family relatives, others were limited by household duties, restricted mobility, and limited financial independence. Based on the results, the WASH programs and policies promoting involvement in economic activities need more nuanced consideration of women's empowerment, and to develop multi-pronged strategies that can support women in negotiating pathways towards greater gender equality.
Kohlitz, JP, Rostiani, R, Indarti, N, Murta, J & Willetts, J 2018, 'Sludge removal enterprises in Indonesia: Factors affecting entrepreneurial success', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 246-256.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© IWA Publishing 2018. Faecal sludge removal is critical for the long-term functionality of on-site sanitation facilities and sustained sanitation outcomes. Private enterprises are important players in providing sludge removal services in Indonesia and other countries where government does not do so. However, the extent to which sludge removal entrepreneurs can fulfil this role depends on the viability, or success, of their enterprises. This paper investigates factors linked to the success of sludge removal enterprises in Indonesia, including traits of the entrepreneurs, characteristics of the enterprises and contextual challenges. These factors and levels of success were examined from data collected from structured interviews with 24 sludge removal enterprises across six cities in Indonesia. This research found that higher levels of success were significantly associated with entrepreneurs that had previous work experience of any kind, made higher upfront investments and did not involve their family members in the management of the enterprise. Participants most frequently identified high costs of capital, high levels of competition and insufficient time to spend on the enterprise as challenges to success. These findings provide important evidence for how civil society organisations and governments in Indonesia and elsewhere may best provide a conducive enabling environment for enterprise roles in sludge removal.
Abeysuriyaa, K, Khawaja, N, Mills, F, Carrard, N, Kome, A & Willetts, J 2018, 'Faecal sludge reuse in birendranagar, nepal: A case study of the world health organisation's multiple barrier approach', Water Practice and Technology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© IWA Publishing. This case study presents an innovative initiative to facilitate safe reuse of faecal sludge (FS) by introducing the World Health Organisation's multi-barrier approach within a Farmer Field Schools framework for participatory experiential learning. A novel FS treatment process based on fermentation by 'effective organisms' (EM) was piloted to test the feasibility, safety and acceptability of the resulting fertilizer. Fermented FS in agricultural application was found to perform at least as well as other common fertilizers it was compared with, while its lower cost delivered higher profits per cultivated hectare. Participating farmers found it easy to prepare and use, and viewed it favourably overall. EM-based fermentation was, however, found to be insufficient as an FS treatment to render safe reuse, particularly with respect to helminth inactivation. The paper discusses strengthening the treatment barrier, and improving the application of the multi-barrier approach by the systematic consideration of non-treatment barriers using guidance from the WHO's Sanitation Safety Planning Manual. Further research to enable effective monitoring and support systems for maintaining treatment and non-treatment barriers, and for understanding long term impacts of fermented FS application is recommended. In combination, adequately treated fermented FS may be a candidate for scale up necessary for meeting the Sustainable Development Goals.
Mills, F, Willetts, J, Petterson, S, Mitchell, C & Norman, G 2018, 'Faecal Pathogen Flows and Their Public Health Risks in Urban Environments: A Proposed Approach to Inform Sanitation Planning.', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 1-26.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Public health benefits are often a key political driver of urban sanitation investment in developing countries, however, pathogen flows are rarely taken systematically into account in sanitation investment choices. While several tools and approaches on sanitation and health risks have recently been developed, this research identified gaps in their ability to predict faecal pathogen flows, to relate exposure risks to the existing sanitation services, and to compare expected impacts of improvements. This paper outlines a conceptual approach that links faecal waste discharge patterns with potential pathogen exposure pathways to quantitatively compare urban sanitation improvement options. An illustrative application of the approach is presented, using a spreadsheet-based model to compare the relative effect on disability-adjusted life years of six sanitation improvement options for a hypothetical urban situation. The approach includes consideration of the persistence or removal of different pathogen classes in different environments; recognition of multiple interconnected sludge and effluent pathways, and of multiple potential sites for exposure; and use of quantitative microbial risk assessment to support prediction of relative health risks for each option. This research provides a step forward in applying current knowledge to better consider public health, alongside environmental and other objectives, in urban sanitation decision making. Further empirical research in specific locations is now required to refine the approach and address data gaps.
Foster, T & Willetts, J 2018, 'Multiple water source use in rural Vanuatu: are households choosing the safest option for drinking?', International Journal of Environmental Health Research, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 579-589.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Households in low- and middle-income countries commonly make use of multiple water sources. However, it remains unclear to what extent their drinking water choices are optimal from a health perspective. This matched cohort study across 10 islands in Vanuatu examined communities with both a groundwater and rainwater source to determine whether their preferred drinking option was the safest in microbial terms. In communities that preferred to drink rainwater, 56.5% of rainwater sources had 'high-risk' or 'very high risk' Escherichia coli contamination (> 10 MPN/100 mL) compared with 26.1% of groundwater sources (p = 0.092). Moreover, a preference for drinking rainwater was significantly associated with rainwater sources having 'high-risk' or 'very high risk' levels of E. coli contamination (p = 0.045). Results show that communities do not necessarily choose the safest water source for drinking. Findings also highlight the need to bolster local capacity to manage water quality risks and for Sustainable Development Goal monitoring to distinguish between protected and unprotected rainwater tanks.
Foster, T, Shantz, A, Lala, S & Willetts, J 2018, 'Factors associated with operational sustainability of rural water supplies in Cambodia', Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1577-1588.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Royal Society of Chemistry. Improving the sustainability of rural water supplies in low- and middle-income countries will be critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goal target of safe drinking water for all. This investigation assessed the factors associated with rural water supply operation and maintenance outcomes in rural Cambodia, with a particular focus on the influence of handpump technology and ownership arrangements. The analysis drew on a comprehensive dataset of water points in Chum Kiri district and examined three operational outcomes: functionality, reliability and repairability. Results show that handpump type, ownership, perceptions of water quality, handpump age and distance to the provincial capital were all significant predictors of operational outcomes. The odds of a handpump being functional were significantly higher when the handpump was privately owned, was located closer to the provincial capital, was installed more recently, and supplied water perceived to be of good quality. Less frequent breakdowns were significantly associated with Afridev handpumps and water perceived to be of good quality. If a breakdown occurred, the odds of a repair being carried out were significantly higher when the handpump was a VN6 suction pump, was privately owned, was located closer to the provincial capital, and the water was perceived to be of good quality. The results indicate that technology, ownership, water quality and geography all contribute to the operational performance of rural water supplies, and that effective maintenance systems are a prerequisite for sustainability.
Foster, T, Willetts, J, Lane, M, Thomson, P, Katuva, J & Hope, R 2018, 'Risk factors associated with rural water supply failure: A 30-year retrospective study of handpumps on the south coast of Kenya.', The Science of the total environment, vol. 626, pp. 156-164.View/Download from: Publisher's site
An improved understanding of failure risks for water supplies in rural sub-Saharan Africa will be critical to achieving the global goal of safe water for all by 2030. In the absence of longitudinal biophysical and operational data, investigations into water point failure risk factors have to date been limited to cross-sectional research designs. This retrospective cohort study applies survival analysis to identify factors that predict failure risks for handpumps installed on boreholes along the south coast of Kenya from the 1980s. The analysis is based on a unique dataset linking attributes of >300 water points at the time of installation with their operational lifespan over the following decades. Cox proportional hazards and accelerated failure time models suggest water point failure risks are higher and lifespans are shorter when water supplied is more saline, static water level is deeper, and groundwater is pumped from an unconsolidated sand aquifer. The risk of failure also appears to grow as distance to spare part suppliers increases. To bolster the sustainability of rural water services and ensure no community is left behind, post-construction support mechanisms will need to mitigate heterogeneous environmental and geographical challenges. Further studies are needed to better understand the causal pathways that underlie these risk factors in order to inform policies and practices that ensure water services are sustained even where unfavourable conditions prevail.
Leahy, C, Winterford, K, Willetts, J, Nghiem, PT, Leong, L & Kelleher, J 2018, 'Research collaboration for impact evaluation: A study of gender andWASH in central Vietnam', Development Bulletin, vol. 79, pp. 39-42.
This paper explores the contemporary issues associated with informal settlements in the Pacific in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly SDG 11—Sustainable Cities and Communities. We explore the challenges of water and sanitation service provision in informal settlements, and describe steps being made to address these challenges. Finally, we look at the future of informal settlements in the Pacific in the context of sustainable development, examining specific examples of progress in Solomon Islands and Fiji. As urban populations grow, so too have rates of urban poverty and populations residing in informal settlements. Given the lack of suitable housing, large numbers of new settlers have no choice but to live in temporary shelters or on marginal land. Informal settlements are characterised by overcrowding, poor access to services (including water, sanitation and electricity), roads and drainage. Settlement areas are also more highly prone to natural hazards such as flooding due to their location on marginal land including mangroves, riverbanks, floodplains and steep slopes (ADB 2016). Informal settlements can exist in many different forms, from newly established settlements of disparate individuals, to those mimicking rural villages through their more mature governance and micro-economic systems (ibid). This, along with the heterogeneity of Pacific Island countries in general, highlights the need for careful consideration in supporting the sustainable development of informal settlements—an issue that cuts across many of the SDGs. As for all complex development challenges, an inclusive approach is required, as advocated by the SDGs. Governments, civil society, the private sector, donors, multilateral organisations and other actors have roles to play to ensure development progress is made for people residing in informal settlements.
Kohlitz, JP, Chong, J & Willetts, J 2017, 'Climate change vulnerability and resilience of water, sanitation, and hygiene services: a theoretical perspective', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 181-195.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Carrard, N & Willetts, J 2017, 'Environmentally sustainable WASH? Current discourse, planetary boundaries and future directions', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 209-228.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The significant challenge of achieving safe, reliable and continuous service delivery has been a focus of the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector in recent years, with less attention given to other important sustainability considerations such as environmental sustainability. The agenda set by the Sustainable Development Goals prompts a wider lens, bringing water resource management and ecosystem conservation together with water and sanitation access targets in one integrated goal. As we grapple with our approach to this new agenda, it is timely to reflect on how we, as a sector, engage with environmental sustainability. This paper reviews recent literature at the intersection of WASH and environmental sustainability to identify current themes and future directions. Analysis of academic and non-academic sources was undertaken and then situated with reference to the planetary boundaries framework as a useful lens to ground the socio-ecological systems and processes upon which environmental sustainability depends. Findings point to both opportunities and gaps within current sector thinking, which can drive leadership from knowledge and research institutions towards better integration of access and environmental sustainability imperatives.
Willetts, J, Gero, A, Susamto, AA, Sanjaya, R, Trieu, TD, Murta, J & Carrard, N 2017, 'Sanitation value chains in low density settings in Indonesia and Vietnam: impetus for a rethink to achieve pro-poor outcomes', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 445-454.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study examined the sanitation hardware supply chain in rural, low density settings in Indonesia and Vietnam. Actual costs along the chains were investigated to understand the challenges and opportunities to support affordable sanitation in remote, rural locations. Data were collected from four remote districts in Indonesia and Vietnam through a systematic value-chain analysis comprising 378 interviews across households and supply chain actors and both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Three main findings are presented. Firstly, poor households, often located in remote areas and with lower sanitation access, often experienced higher costs to build durable latrines than households in accessible areas or district capitals. Second, locally sourced materials (sand, bricks or gravel) had a greater influence on price than externally sourced materials (cement, steel and toilet pans), even accounting for cost increases of these materials along the supply chain. Thirdly, transport and labour costs represented considerable proportions of the overall cost to build a toilet. These findings highlighted logistical and financial barriers to poor, remote households in accessing sanitation. Findings can inform strategies to improve the availability and affordability of sanitation products and services, in particular key issues that need to be addressed through government and non-government pro-poor market-based interventions.
Leahy, C, Winterford, K, Nghiem, T, Kelleher, J, Leong, L & Willetts, J 2017, 'Transforming gender relations through water, sanitation, and hygiene programming and monitoring in Vietnam', Gender and Development, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 283-301.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article presents the results of empirical research conducted in Central Vietnam in 2016 into water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) initiatives. It uncovered changes in gender relations and power dynamics at both household and community levels, aiming to explore the extent to which both practical and strategic interests of women can be influenced and changed by WASH policies and programming. In particular, we were interested in assessing the impact of a Gender and WASH Monitoring Tool (GWMT), developed by Plan International Australia and Plan Vietnam, on women's strategic gender needs. In this article, we discuss the types of changes reported by women and men of different ages and ethnicities and the reasons for their occurrence. There were a wide range of reported reasons for change, with implications for our understanding of the relationship between changes in gender relations at the household and community levels. We also consider the relationship between wider shifts in social norms in the context of rural Vietnam. The Vietnam research highlights the roles that WASH initiatives can play in furthering strategic gender needs and hence promoting gender equality and women's empowerment. It also shows the importance of addressing Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5 (on gender equality) and SDG 6 (on water and sanitation) together.
Kohlitz, J, Willetts, JR & Chong, J 2016, 'Monitoring the human rights to water and sanitation: an analysis of policy in Pacific Island countries', Water Policy, vol. 18, no. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Government monitoring of water and sanitation services is a critical step in realising the human rights to water and sanitation (HRWS). In this study we investigated the national water and sanitation policies of 13 Pacific island countries (PICs) to understand how they envision monitoring the water and sanitation service delivery dimensions put forth by the HRWS framework. In particular, we analysed the policies for fundamental aspects of good monitoring governance and sought to learn how strongly monitoring of each service delivery dimension was represented in the policies. We found that delineation of roles and responsibilities and defined information flows are generally underdeveloped, and that the policies tend to give precedence to monitoring the service delivery dimensions of availability, quality, and sustainability over accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and equality. Donors have considerable influence on which dimensions receive the most emphasis in the policies. If realisation of the HRWS is to be effectively supported in PICs, PIC governments and supporting donors must continue to refine national policy to clarify aspects of good monitoring governance and to be more inclusive of monitoring a wider range of service delivery dimensions.
Grant, ML, Dominish, E, Carrard, N, Bui, L, Ha, H, Nghiem, T & Willetts, J 2016, 'Reducing or increasing inequalities? The role of private water enterprises in rural Viet Nam', Development Bulletin, vol. 77, no. August 2016, pp. 31-36.
Extreme inequalities are recognised as being detrimental to
human rights and economic development (Stiglitz 2012),
and in response, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
has explicitly included addressing inequalities as one
of the 17 Global Goals. In order to reduce inequalities an
integrated approach across multiple dimensions of human
development is required, including access to safe water.
This research investigated stakeholder perceptions of
rural piped water services in Viet Nam to better understand
issues of equality, access and affordability. It asked the
question: can poor households access piped water services
provided by small scale private enterprises in rural Viet
Nam? This question is important because little is known
about whether or not poor households access piped water
services, related issues of affordability of connection fees
and tariffs, and other potential barriers. It is also important
because private enterprises are increasingly providing piped
water services in Viet Nam, supported by incentives from
Government and international donors including some civil
society organisations (CSOs)
Chong, J, Willetts, J, Abeysuriya, K, Hidayat, L & Sulistio, H 2016, 'Strengthening Governance Arrangements for Small City and Town Sanitation', Prakarsa - Journal of the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative, no. 23.
Murta, JCD, Willetts, JRM & Triwahyudi, W 2016, 'Sanitation entrepreneurship in rural Indonesia: a closer look', Environment, Development and Sustainability, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 343-359.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 Springer Science+Business Media DordrechtEnterprises are playing increasing roles in facilitating access to sanitation products and services in Indonesia and other developing economies. This study investigated the factors affecting the sustainability of sanitation enterprises in rural Indonesia. Interviews with 33 organisations representing sanitation enterprises, associations of sanitation enterprises, national and international civil society organisations (CSOs), donor organisations and national and local government agencies were conducted to explore different stakeholder perceptions about enterprise roles. The research revealed factors specific to the sanitation entrepreneurs themselves, such as their skills, entrepreneurial traits, pro-social motivations and intrinsic motivations, as well as factors within their enabling environment. Insufficient customer demand, inadequate capacity building opportunities, lack of financing options for entrepreneurs and their customers, and limited government support were observed to undermine sanitation enterprise success. Industry associations were found to be a useful intermediary support mechanism, particularly in the absence of significant government support for enterprises. However, such associations could also stifle innovation, and their role needs to be carefully developed, including financially sustainable models for such associations. This study has implications for how governments and CSOs in Indonesia and elsewhere might best support the role of enterprises and entrepreneurship towards improved sanitation outcomes.
Rosenqvist, T, Mitchell, C & Willetts, J 2016, 'A short history of how we think and talk about sanitation services and why it matters', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 6, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gero, A, Fletcher, SM, Rumsey, M, Thiessen, J, Kuruppu, N, Buchan, J, Daly, J & Willetts, JR 2015, 'Disasters and climate change in the Pacific: Adaptive capacity of humanitarian response organisations', Climate and Development, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 35-46.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Climate change is likely to affect the pattern of disasters in the Pacific and, by extension, the organizations and systems involved in disaster response. This research focused on how immediate humanitarian health-related needs following disasters are met using the concept of adaptive capacity to investigate the resilience of organizations and the robustness of the broader system of disaster response. Four case study countries (Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and Vanuatu) were chosen for deeper investigation of the range of issues present in the Pacific. Key findings were that adaptive capacity was enhanced by strong informal communication and relationships as well as formal relationships, appropriate participation of traditional leaders and churches, and recognition and support for the critical role national disaster management offices play in disaster coordination. Adaptive capacity was found to be constrained by lack of clear policies for requesting international assistance, lack of coordinated disaster assessments, and limited human resources for health in disaster response. Limitations in psychosocial support and Australian medical services to meet specific needs were observed. Finally, the research revealed that both Pacific and Australian disaster-response agencies would benefit from a strengthened 'future' focus to better plan for uncertainty and changing risks.
Gero, A, Carrard, N, Murta, J & Willetts, J 2014, 'Private and social enterprise roles in water, sanitation and hygiene for the poor: a systematic review', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 331-342.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Micro, small and medium private and social enterprises are emerging as important players in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector. This paper provides a systematic review of literature on this topic. It assesses the current evidence base in three areas: factors affecting success of enterprise engagement; outcomes for the poor as a result of enterprise engagement; and lastly, how civil society organisations are engaging to support enterprise development. The review revealed significant variation in the level of rigour of available evidence on this topic, and reflected limited availability of highly rigorous studies. Across the literature, similar success factors were reported across the water and sanitation sub-sectors. These included constraints to business viability due to limitations in demand, lack of business and technical skills and financial challenges (e.g., access to credit). Policy, governance and institutional frameworks could either support or constrain businesses depending on the context. While some evidence was reported on the positive outcomes for the poor resulting from enterprise engagement, in general, businesses preferred servicing non-poor customers. Lastly, evidence on civil society organisation engagement was limited, and where reported, consisted dominantly of capacity building support to enterprises rather than a wider variety of roles which might be envisaged.
Willetts, JR, Asker, S, Carrard, N & Winterford, K 2014, 'The practice of a strengths-based approach to community development in Solomon Islands', Development Studies Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 354-367.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents empirical findings from research undertaken in Solomon Islands to examine the use of strengths-based approaches (SBAs) by a group of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). A summary framework was developed to underpin the analysis, drawing on literature in social work, organizational management, community development, and international development fields. The paper employs this framework to reflect on the practice of six NGOs working in partnership in Solomon Islands over 2009–2014. The findings demonstrate alignment between the NGO practice in Solomon Islands and SBA philosophy and practice as described in the literature, particularly in terms of adherence to beliefs about innate community capacity, the need to draw on community resources to create change, and the delicate balance between a strengths focus and repression of problems that might need to be surfaced. The findings diverged from the literature in how NGOs saw their role. Whilst they saw themselves as facilitators rather than experts, they also saw the development process as a partnership between themselves and communities rather than community led. This paper contributes empirical evidence of the characteristics, complexities and limitations of implementing a SBA in Solomon Islands, including reflections on the tension between self-help and advocacy development strategies
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR, Crawford, J, Rowland, C & Halcrow, G 2014, 'Working from strengths to assess changes in gender equality', Development in Practice, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 991-1006.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes an empirical application of a strengths-based approach (SBA) to assess changes in gender equality, and draws out implications for research, evaluation, and wider development practice. We outline what constitutes a strengths-based approach and present a case study where a participatory methodology informed by appreciative inquiry was used to investigate gender outcomes of two water, sanitation, and hygiene-focused development initiatives. We consider the value and limitations of taking an explicitly strengths-based approach to assessing gender outcomes, and also propose that there are important arguments for why SBAs might be usefully applied in addressing (not just assessing) gender equality.
Gero, A, Murta, J & Willetts, JR 2014, 'Incompatible philosophies or complementary roles? Civil society and business engagement in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector', Development Bulletin, vol. 76, pp. 39-43.
Partnership with the private sector is emerging as a new
pathway to address poverty. This is the result of recognition
that external support through aid is small relative to
other sources of finance and the scale of development
challenge at hand. This concept is well recognised and was
raised in the Australian Government's Independent
Review of Aid Effectiveness, noting the need to harness
the power of business and innovation (see Callan 2012).
Other organisations have recently emerged which hold this
as their core focus, for example Business for Millennium
Development. In addition, evolving notions of social
enterprise and entrepreneurship are blurring the boundaries
between private sector and civil society, and opening up
new possibilities for cooperation and partnership as
exemplified by the water, sanitation and hygiene sector
Rumsey, M, Fletcher, SM, Thiessen, J, Gero, A, Kuruppu, N, Daly, J, Buchan, J & Willetts, JR 2014, 'A qualitative examination of the health workforce needs during climate change disaster response in Pacific Island Countries', Human Resources for Health, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 2-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There is a growing body of evidence that the impacts of climate change are affecting population health negatively. The Pacific region is particularly vulnerable to climate change; a strong health-care system is required to respond during times of disaster. This paper examines the capacity of the health sector in Pacific Island Countries to adapt to changing disaster response needs, in terms of: (i) health workforce governance, management, policy and involvement; (ii) health-care capacity and skills; and (iii) human resources for health training and workforce development.
Wicken, J, Leong, L, Powell, B, Willetts, JR, Lovell, L & Kelleher, J 2014, 'The sum is more than the parts: Impacts of the Australian Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Reference Group', Development Bulletin, vol. 26.
Abeysuriya, K, Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR & Mitchell, CA 2013, 'Decentralised and distributed systems: What will it take to make them a sustainable option for urban sanitation in the 21st Century?', Water21, vol. June, pp. 42-44.
Carrard, NR, Crawford, J, Halcrow, G, Rowland, C & Willetts, JR 2013, 'A framework for exploring gender equality outcomes from WASH programmes', Waterlines: international journal of water, sanitation and waste, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 315-333.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper aims to assist practitioners and researchers in planning, identifying, and documenting gender outcomes associated with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programmes by proposing a conceptual framework for classifying gender equality changes. Gender outcomes that have been attributed to WASH initiatives encompass those directly related to improved services as well as outcomes that move into areas of relationships, power, and status. There is a growing body of literature identifying WASH-related gender outcomes; however the types of outcomes described vary considerably and further work is needed to inform a comprehensive picture of WASH and gender links. The framework proposed in this paper is based on a synthesis of outcomes reported in WASH literature to date, empirical research in Fiji and Vanuatu, and insights from gender and development literature. It is hoped that the framework will support practitioners to engage with the inherent complexity of gender inquiry, contributing to sector knowledge about the potential for WASH initiatives to advance gender equality.
Willetts, JR, Paddon, M, Nguyen, DGN, Nguyen, H & Carrard, NR 2013, 'Sustainability assessment of sanitation options in Vietnam: Planning with the future in mind', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 262-268.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes a participatory deliberative planning methodology employed in Can Tho, Vietnam to assess sanitation infrastructure options for a new peri-urban area with an expected population of 278,000 people. The study compared four options across a range of scales from centralised to decentralised treatment systems, and also included an innovative resource recovery option with urine collection and reuse in local agriculture. The study was undertaken in close collaboration with the local water utility, a local university, and several city government departments. In the sustainability assessment process key city stakeholders ranked the four options against criteria in five areas: (i) technical and risk, (ii) social and health, (iii) environmental, (iv) economic and financial, (v) city future. Stakeholders were provided with detailed information about each option, including quantitative data such as costs and energy use, and qualitative data against areas such as social acceptability. The assessment made evident the trade-offs between these five areas, and after their prioritisation, stakeholders agreed on the option that combined centralised treatment for the densely populated area to be inhabited earlier, and decentralised treatment for the remaining area. The methodology provided a robust way for stakeholders to engage in informed decision-making on this important planning issue.
Fletcher, SM, Thiessen, J, Gero, A, Kuruppu, N, Rumsey, M & Willetts, JR 2013, 'Traditional Coping Strategies and Disaster Response: Examples from the South Pacific Region', Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol. 2013, no. 1, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The Pacific Islands are vulnerable to climate change and increased risk of disasters not only because of their isolated and often low lying geographical setting but because of their economic status which renders them reliant on donor support. In a qualitative study exploring the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island Countries (PICs) across four countries, Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and Vanuatu, it was clear that traditional coping strategies are consistently being applied as part of response to disasters and climate changes. This paper describes five common strategies employed in PICs as understood through this research: recognition of traditional methods; faith and religious beliefs; traditional governance and leadership; family and community involvement; and agriculture and food security. While this study does not trial the efficacy of these methods, it provides an indication of what methods are being used and therefore a starting point for further research into which of these traditional strategies are beneficial. These findings also provide important impetus for Pacific Island governments to recognise traditional approaches in their disaster preparedness and response processes.
Carrard, NR, Willetts, JR, Mitchell, CA, Paddon, M & Retamal, ML 2011, 'Selecting sanitation solutions for Peri-urban areas: A case study of Can Tho, Vietnam', Water Practice & Technology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1-19.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In peri-urban areas where infrastructure investments have not yet been made, there is a need to determine the most context-appropriate, fit for purpose and sustainable sanitation solutions. Decision makers must identify the optimal system scale (on the spectrum from centralized to community to cluster scale) and assess the long-term costs and socio-economic/environmental impacts associated with different options. Addressing both cost-effectiveness and sustainability are essential to ensure that institutions and communities are able to continue to bear the costs and management burden of infrastructure operation, maintenance and asset replacement. This paper describes an approach to sanitation planning currently being undertaken as a research study in Can Tho City in southern Vietnam, by the Institute for Sustainable Futures and Can Tho University in collaboration with Can Tho Water Supply and Sewerage Company. The aim of the study is to facilitate selection of the most context-appropriate, fit for purpose, cost effective and sustainable sanitation infrastructure solution. As such, the study compares a range of sanitation alternatives including centralized, decentralized (at household or cluster scale) and resource recovery options. This paper provides an overview of the study and considers aspects of the Can Tho and Vietnamese regulatory, development and institutional context that present drivers and challenges for comparison of options and selection of fit for purpose sanitation systems
Hussain, H, Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR & Khan, F 2010, 'Knowledge networks and capacity building in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector in Southeast Asia and the Pacific', Knowledge Management for Development Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 21-36.
The Sanitation and Water Conference held in Melbourne Australia in November 2008 called attention to the need for strengthening of political leadership through evidence-based advocacy in this sector and strengthening capacity commensurate with the scale of the crisis. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) networks are a promising mechanism for both advocacy and building sustainable sector capacity. This paper reports on a research focused on selected WASH networks in this region, elucidating their functions, experiences and effectiveness through an online survey. The work was undertaken collaboratively by WESNet Pakistan, Institute for Sustainable Futures at University of Technology Sydney and International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC) in the Netherlands. The research revealed several country-level networks operational in the Southeast Asia region and a regional network in the Pacific. These networks were engaged in advocacy, sector coordination, knowledge sharing and capacity building, with varying priority depending on the network or region. This paper describes success stories of these networks and their views on the most effective approaches to the work they undertake. It also describes common challenges such as reliance on voluntary contributions of time and expertise and sustainability of financial resources. These networks are playing important and effective roles in the sector and greater recognition of the benefits they provide might ensure that governments and donors support such networks towards ongoing improvements in the WASH knowledge management in the region.
Willetts, J, Halcrow, G, Carrard, N, Rowland, C & Crawford, J 2010, 'Addressing two critical MDGs together: Gender in water, sanitation and hygiene initiatives', Pacific Economic Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 211-221.
Willetts, JR, Halcrow, G, Carrard, NR, Rowland, C & Crawford, J 2010, 'Addressing two critical MDGs together: gender in water, sanitation and hygiene initiatives', Pacific Economic Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 162-176.
Increasing access to water, sanitation and hygiene education and advancing gender equality are critical issues for Pacific island nations. This article proposes that water, sanitation and hygiene issues and gender equality can be constructively addressed together, with the former three providing an entry point for the latter.
Carrard, NR, Pedi, D, Willetts, JR & Powell, B 2009, 'Non-government organisation engagement in the sanitation sector: opportunities to maximise benefits', Water Science And Technology, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3109-3119.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Non-government organisations (NGOs) have long played a role in delivering sanitation services to communities in Southeast Asia and Pacific countries, particularly in rural areas. In contrast with large scale infrastructure focused initiatives, NGO programs commonly focus on building linkages between technical and social realms. Drawing on the breadth and depth of NGO experiences, there are opportunities for NGOs to play a greater role in the sanitation sector and to work in partnership with other actors including utilities and government agencies to ensure both `hardware and `software components of sanitation are built in to project design and delivery to maximise community benefits and ensure longer term system sustainability. This paper discusses these issues and considers how the contribution of NGOs to the sanitation sector in developing countries might be enhanced. The paper is based on recent research for the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) intended to guide investment in the water and sanitation sectors of Asia and Pacific partner countries, exploring the potential for increased NGO engagement. The paper presents findings of the research concerning NGO roles and approaches, discusses existing NGO activities in the sanitation sector in Vietnam and Timor Leste and identifies strategies for NGOs and for other sector actors including utilities and government agencies to maximise the benefits of NGO engagement in the sanitation sector.
Fam, D, Lopes, A, Willetts, J & Mitchell, C 2009, 'The Challenge of System Change: An Historical Analysis of Sydney's Sewer Systems', Design Philosophy Papers, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 195-208.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite the obvious health benefits of the sanitary revolution and construction of sewered systems, there are increasing doubts about the long term sustainability of centralised, water-based sanitation. Growing uncertainties such as rapid population growth, emergence of new pollutants, changing hydrological conditions in relation to climate change and global economic instability will require systems to be more open to `flexible and reflexive approaches1 in meeting future sanitation needs. The highly inflexible nature of existing sanitation systems burdened with over a century of capital infrastructure investment and assets that require 30-50 years to pay back, make centralised sanitation both economically unsustainable and institutionally rigid. Social practices associated with water borne sanitation have been embedded within western society for over a century making `radicalï½ system change and the introduction of alternative technologies and habits of practice challenging.
Willetts, JR 2009, 'New fact sheets provide practical guidance on how to become a successful responsible management entity', Onsite Journal, vol. Fall 2009, pp. 8-8.
Willetts, JR, Wicken, J & Swinton, E 2009, 'The Sanitation and Water Conference 2008, SE ASia and Pacific', Water, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 112-117.
Abeysuriya, K, Mitchell, CA & Willetts, JR 2008, 'Expanding economic perspectives for sustainability in urban water and sanitation', Development, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 23-29.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The economic principles and tools that are commonly applied to recover costs for urban water and sanitation arise from the dominant perspective of neo-classical economics, with its emphasis on 'full cost pricing' based on the 'user pays' principle. Kumudini Abeysuriya, Cynthia Mitchell and Juliet Willetts examine two other qualitatively different economic perspectives to demonstrate how they lead to different approaches: ecological economics takes a more holistic approach explicitly committed to sustainability, while Buddhist economics brings ethics to the fore and opens the possibility for cooperation between the various actors in creating solutions to benefit individuals, society and the environment. We propose a set of interconnected guiding principles based on an expanded economic perspective that integrates all three perspectives, to enable water and sanitation services for developing countries to align with sustainability
Sanitation systems need to be sustainable and consider not only health, but economy and eco-systems â and they must be suited to each context.
Smith, T, Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2007, 'An integrating framework for sustainable communities: exploring the possibilites and challenges', International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, vol. 2, pp. 1-9.
The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline a framework for sustainable communities and to introduce some of the ways that this framework can contribute to an integrated view of sustainability, incorporating both natural and social science perspectives. Several sustainability concepts derived from principles that govern the operation and organisation of ecosystems have been integrated and synthesised to create this theoretical framework. These concepts are drawn from diverse academic disciplines and practice-oriented endeavours, and they each address a different aspect of sustainability. Through the synthesis of these concepts, the framework offers a bridge of common terms and metaphors between the physical and social science perspectives on sustainability. Consequently, it can facilitate an approach that integrates the dimensions of environmental, cultural, social and economic sustainability. To demonstrate the elements of the framework and its potential to help overcome polarisation of the physical and social sciences, the framework is applied to two concepts that are fundamental to sustainability: social justice and environmental pollution. Using the lessons learned from this theoretical exercise and the authors experience to date of sharing the integrating framework with others, the possibilities and challenges of the proposed framework are examined.
Willetts, JR & Crawford, PW 2007, 'The most significant lessons about the most significant change technique', Development in Practice, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 367-379.
This article presents field-based insights into the application of the Most Significant Change (MSC) technique as a method to monitor social change resulting from a development intervention. Documentation of this innovative qualitative monitoring technique is slowly growing, but is mostly limited to grey literature. In particular, there is a lack of rigorous investigation to assess the complexities and challenges of applying the technique with integrity in the development context. The authors employ a conceptual model of monitoring and evaluation practicalities (the M&E Data Cycle) for a systematic examination of the challenges to, and key components of, successful application of the MSC technique. They provide a detailed analysis of how MSC was employed in two projects in Laos, extracting the lessons learned and insights generated. This practice-based information can inform future deployment of the MSC technique and contribute to its development
Willetts, JR, Fane, SA & Mitchell, CA 2007, 'Making decentralised systems viable: a guide to managing decentralised assets and risks', Water Science and Technology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 165-173.View/Download from: Publisher's site
ecentralised systems have the potential to provide a viable option for long term sustainable management of household wastewater. Yet, at present, such systems hold an uncertain status and are frequently omitted from consideration. Their potential can only be realised with improved approaches to their management, and improved methods to decision-making in planning of wastewater systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the value of a novel framework to guide the planning of decentralised systems so that asset management and risk management are explicitly considered. The framework was developed through a detailed synthesis of literature and practice in the area of asset management of centralised water and wastewater systems, and risk management in the context of decentralised systems. Key aspects of the framework are attention to socio-economic risks as well as engineering, public health and ecological risks, the central place of communication with multiple stakeholders and establishing a shared asset information system. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can guide a different approach and lead to different, more sustainable outcomes, by explicitly considering the needs and perspectives of homeowners, water authorities, relevant government agencies and society as a whole.
Fane, SA, Willetts, JR, Abeysuriya, K, Mitchell, CA, Etnier, C & Johnstone, S 2005, 'Decentralised wastewater systems: an asset management approach', Water Asset Management International, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 5-9.
Cheney, HE, Willetts, JR & Wilson, E 2004, 'It's more than the money: the relationship between social values and demographic change in sustaining a rural general practitioner workforce', Rural Society, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 256-274.
Historically, rural General Practitioners (GPs) in Australia tended to be male, Anglo, middle-class and in nuclear family structures, whereas the contemporary workforce demographic is increasingly female and of diverse ethnicity. Demographic trends and changing social values of university educated professionals directly affect services in rural communities. GPs are key providers of primary health care in rural Australia. Despite the dedication of significant resources to recruiting and retaining rural GPs, a significant problem remains. This research project focused on identifying and addressing the family and personal support needs of two cohorts of rural female GPs and rural registrars, as a means of increasing retention in rural areas. In response to the complex and diverse needs articulated by rural GPs and their spouses during the project, the research team worked collaboratively with the participants to implement and evaluate a number of strategies. The project found that the strategies to address family and personal needs could be grouped into three areas: individualised strategies: strategies to do with practice restructure (predominantly aimed at achieving increased family time); and rural development strategies.
Willetts, JR, Cheney, HE & Wilson, E 2004, 'Case studies of change: Addressing family support needs of rural GPs', Australian family physician, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 548-550.
Cheney, HE & Willetts, JR 2003, 'Not just for me: researching rural needs through dialogue', New Community Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 13-15.
Willetts, JRM, Ashbolt, NJ, Moosbrugger, RE & Aslam, MR 2000, 'The use of a thermophilic anaerobic system for pretreatment of textile dye wastewater', WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 42, no. 5-6, pp. 309-316.
Kohlitz, J, Chong, J & Willetts, J, 'Rural Drinking Water Safety under Climate Change: The Importance of Addressing Physical, Social, and Environmental Dimensions', Resources, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 77-77.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper explores the physical, social, and environmental dimensions of how climate change impacts affect drinking water safety in a rural context in developing countries. Climate impacts, such as contamination or the reduced availability of preferred drinking water sources due to climate-related hazards, threaten water safety in rural areas and these impacts will likely worsen as climate change accelerates. We qualitatively examined these impacts in a community in rural Vanuatu using three approaches side-by-side: adaptation, vulnerability, and resilience. We employed a mixed methods case study methodology that combined semi-structured interviews, technological and environmental surveys, and observations. We demonstrate the influence of physical infrastructure design, social structures mediating water access, and the availability of multiple sustainable water resources on water safety with respect to climate impacts. We also show how the initial problematization of how climate affects water safety can influence subsequent actions to address, or overlook, issues of infrastructure design and maintenance, social equity, and natural resource management for water access. Improvements to rural drinking water safety management in the context of climate change should take a pluralistic approach, informed by different conceptualizations of climate impacts, to account for the varied causal pathways of reduced water safety for different members of a community.
Mills, F, Willetts, J, Petterson, S & Mitchell, C 2019, 'Pathogen flows in urban environments and their public health risks: A new conceptual approach to inform sanitation planning' in Global Water Pathogen Project, Michigan State University.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Grant, M & Willetts, J 2019, 'Learning for adaptive management: using systems thinking tools to inform knowledge and learning approaches' in Systems Thinking and WASH Tools and Case Studies for a Sustainable Water Supply, Practical Action Publishing, UK, pp. 107-132.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This chapter explores how learning theory and systems thinking tools can help WASH organizations select the most appropriate processes and tools to facilitate learning, leverage greatest WASH impacts, and support their staff to optimize their learning potential. We draw on two key systems thinking tools: the Cynefin framework developed by David Snowden and Donella Meadows' leverage points. The Cynefin framework can be used to help actors identify what kind of WASH situation an organization is operating within, and which learning tools and processes might be most useful for each situation. The concept of 'leverage points' can support a process of stepping back to consider the kinds of changes needed and intended, which 'levers' could create such changes in a WASH situation, and which learning processes are best suited to a particular leverage point. By using these tools from the outset, organizations can make informed, strategic decisions about where to place scarce resources for knowledge and learning to increase leverage, and maximize WASH outcomes. This chapter concludes that learning can be a key driver of sustainability transformation and impact, but only if inequitable power dynamics are challenged, critical thinking is employed, and learning is truly shared and applied to real-world problems.
Riedy, C, Mitchell, C, Willetts, J & Cunningham, I 2018, 'Nurturing transdisciplinary graduate learning and skills through a community of practice approach' in Fam, D, Gibbs, P & Neuhauser, L (eds), Transdisciplinary theory, practice and education: The art of collaborative research and collective learning, Springer, Germany, pp. 133-149.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Transdisciplinary (TD) research is increasingly recognized as a crucial response to global environmental and social challenges. To support this response, there is a growing need to create spaces where graduate researchers can learn the skills and dispositions needed for effective TD research. One way to develop such skills and dispositions is by building a supportive community of practice (CoP). In this chapter, we reflect on a nested set of CoPs established at the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF), University of Technology Sydney. ISF's postgraduate research programme established a TD CoP in 2002 as a way to draw together a diverse group of disparate, disconnected students. We briefly outline the activities that support a TD CoP within ISF's postgraduate programme and their links to TD skills and dispositions, before offering a detailed critical reflection on the role of our annual residential retreat in supporting mutual TD learning. Our reflection draws on feedback and evaluations conducted each year. Over the 2 days of the retreat, students and supervisors engage in thematic learning activities and discussions developed and facilitated collaboratively by the participants. Our reflections highlight the many tensions that need to be navigated in a TD CoP and point to the importance of nurturing social relations and trust as a foundation for collective TD learning. The landscape of TD research is rocky terrain for supervisors and students alike, and such terrain benefits enormously from, indeed, perhaps requires, an annual retreat or similar activity to nurture a thriving community of TD scholars.
Willetts, JR & Mitchell, C 2017, 'Assessing transdisciplinary doctoral research: quality criteria and implications for the examination process' in Fam, D, Palmer, J, Riedy, C & Mitchell, C (eds), Transdisciplinary Research and Practice for Sustainability Outcomes, Routledge, Britain, pp. 122-136.
Danby, S & Lee, A 2012, 'Preface', pp. xxiii-xxvii.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Willetts, JR, Mitchell, CA, Abeysuriya, K & Fam, DM 2012, 'Creative tensions: negotiating the multiple dimensions of a transdisciplinary doctorate' in Lee, A & Dnaby, S (eds), Reshaping Doctoral Education: International Approaches and Pedagogies, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 128-143.
Abeysuriya, K, Mitchell, CA & Willetts, JR 2010, 'Urban sanitation through the lens of Thomas Kuhn' in McNeill, JR, Padua, JA & Rangarajan, M (eds), Environmental History: As if Nature Existed, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India, pp. 65-84.
It is a commonly held idea that developing countries would follow the development path forged by industrialized countries, aided by these 'more developed' countries (McGranahan et al. 2001: 3). Thus, the urban sanitary practices of industrialized countries, which have contributed to the dignity, health, and wealth of people in those countries, have great bearing on the practices and the aspirations of developing countries.
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR & Herriman, J 2009, 'Transdisciplinarity: realising its potential to support effective postgraduate sustainability teaching and learning' in Leal Filho, W (ed), Sustainability at Universities - Opportunities, Challenges and Trends, Peter Lang, Germany, pp. 299-312.
This chapter provides a review of transdisciplinary teaching and learning approaches in postgraduate university sustainability courses. The authors present desirable graduate attributes associated with sustainability teaching and learning including problem identification and solving, appreciation of multiple perspectives, skills to manage change processes and capacity for critical reflection. Drawn from a review of literature and practice, the authors propose transdisciplinary approaches such as systemic inquiry, futures thinking and problem-based learning as effective for achieving desirable graduate attributes. In these approaches, the role of the teacher typically shifts to that of facilitator, reflecting an emphasis on self-directed learning and engagement with 'real world' complex problems and often resulting in transformative learning experiences. Transdisciplinary teaching and learning approaches remain the exception rather than the norm in the higher education sector, however are increasing in their prevalence in both Australia and elsewhere, presenting a welcome development to address sustainability challenges.
Palmer, JM, Smith, T, Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2009, 'Creativity, ethics and transformation: key factors in a transdisciplinary application of systems methodology to resolving wicked problems in sustainability' in Sheffield, J (ed), Systemic Development: Local solutions in a global environment, ISCE Publishing, USA, pp. 69-77.
Sustainability is a wicked problem that requires a transdisciplinary approach. The deining characteristics of transdisciplinarity include collaborative, creative, higher order thinking which transcends discipline boundaries, the explicit contribution of an ethical or moral perspective to problem resolution, and the generation of new knowledge and new resolutions not available in multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary environments. These characteristics align well with theories on transformative learning and Wilbers theories on consciousness evolution. However we need ways to translate this thinking into practice. Soft systems methodology could provide this practical element, but does not necessarily emphasise transformative learning, or moral perspectives aligned with sustainability i.e. valuing of ecologically restorative, socially just, economically proitable resolutions. This paper explores how integration of a transformative learning process with soft systems methodology might provide a useful transdisciplinary approach to sustainability.
Abeysuriya, K, Mitchell, CA & Willetts, JR 2007, 'Cost recovery for urban sanitation in Asian countries: insurmountable barrier or opportunity for sustainability?' in Nair, P (ed), Urban Public Services: A Development Perspective, The Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India (ICFAI) University Press, Hyderabad, India, pp. 312-332.
Willetts, JR, Cheney, HE & Crawford, PW 2007, 'Defining and Refining Effectiveness: Applying Narrative and Dialogue Methods in Aid Monitoring and Evaluation' in University, AMNRD (ed), Measuring Effectiveness in Humanitarian and Development Aid: Conceptual Frameworks, Principles and Practice, Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA, pp. 51-68.
The study examined the extent to which women's involvement in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector businesses led to their empowerment in Cambodia and Indonesia. This qualitative study was the first of its kind to systematically investigated the experiences and needs of female WASH entrepreneurs with reference to women's empowerment frameworks. This research presents examples of The findings provide evidence of gender equality outcomes and as well as revealing the inherent complexity of empowerment processes, which include challenges and negotiation as societal norms are questioned and evolve experiences by individuals involved in WASH markets, and the implications of these for improving WASH programming. A range of evidence-based recommendations are provided for governments, NGOs and donors to support women working in WASH enterprises to improve related programming were developed from this study.
Mitchell, C, Abeysuriya, K, Ross, KE, Eales, K, Willetts, J & Mills, F 2017, 'Achieving safe management: A case for strengthening the attention to liquid streams in on-site and local sanitation', Fecal Sludge Management 4 Conference, Chennai.
This research demonstrates the existence of inequitable outcomes in provision of piped water services by both private and other service providers in rural Vietnam. This study is the first of its kind in Vietnam, providing robust scientific evidence on who accesses water services from private enterprises. Qualitative research in 60 communes was followed by a quantitative study in six locations. A policy and regulatory review was also conducted, in addition to an assessment of enterprise motivators, enablers and challenges. The study highlights the need for effective regulatory mechanisms to ensure inclusive water service delivery in rural Vietnam.
Carrard, N, Grant, M, Willetts, JR, Bui Ha, L, Nghiem, T, Thu Ha, N & Tran, N 2016, 'Are poor households connecting? Private water enterprises in rural Viet Nam', WASH Futures International Conference.
Chong, J, Abeysuriya, K, Hidayat, L, Sulistio, H & Willetts, JR 2016, 'Strengthening local governance arrangements for sanitation: case studies of small cities in Indonesia', Aquatic Procedia, Annual World Water Week (WWW), Elsevier: Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No-Derivatives License, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 64-73.
Local governments in Indonesia have the primary responsibility for delivering sanitation (wastewater) services. However, in large part due to governance factors, local governments invest little in sanitation services and delivery of services is weak. This research adopted a participatory, case study approach to investigate governance and institutional arrangements for planning, budgeting and implementing sanitation services in small cities and towns in Sumatra, Indonesia. The research focused on the effectiveness of city/regency planning for sanitation, the effectiveness of pokja sanitasi (sanitation committees), the links between planning and investment, and local government roles and responsibilities. This paper presents the findings of three case studies. Barriers to effective delivery of sanitation services include: prescriptive local budgeting and approval systems; lack of local government ownership of assets; and policy, funding and technical arrangements that are biased against strategic delivery.
Chong, J, Abeysuriya, K, Hidayat, L, Sulistio, H, Suartana, N, Ross, K & Willetts, J 2015, 'Strengthening institutional and governance arrangements for small city sanitation, Indonesia', Stockholm World Water Week 2016, Stockholm, Sweden.
Foster, T, McSorley, B & Willetts, J 2016, 'Preliminary results from an evaluation of the Blue Pump in Turkana, Kenya', 7 th RWSN Forum "Water for Everyone", Rural Water Supply Network Forum (RWSN), RWSN, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
This paper presents the preliminary results of an evaluation of the Blue Pump in Turkana County, Kenya. Field work was carried out at 142 waterpoints to comparatively assess the operational performance and water user experiences for the Blue Pump. In order to appraise the broader factors affecting the suitability and sustainability of the Blue Pump, a group of key stakeholders was also convened to apply the Technology Applicability Framework. While 1 in 3 Blue Pumps in Turkana was found to be nonfunctional, breakdowns were less frequent than for the India Mark II and Afridev. Users of the Blue Pump were more satisfied with the reliability of their water service than those using other handpump types, but the difficulty of operation was a prominent complaint. In the Turkana context, the Blue Pump appears to be a more reliable handpump than the India Mark II and Afridev, bearing in mind its higher upfront cost. However, its full value will only be realised if coupled with effective and sustainable maintenance arrangements for which users are willing and able to pay.
Willetts, JR, Murta, J, Gero, A, Carrard, N & Harris, D 2015, 'Political economy influences on enterprise engagement in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste', https://wedc-knowledge.lboro.ac.uk/search.html?q=collection%3A%22WEDC+C…, Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) International Conference, WEDC Loughborough University, UK, Loughborough University, UK, pp. 1-7.
Abeysuriya, KR, Kome, A & Willetts, J 2015, 'Enabling investment in urban sanitation services through the sustainable full cost recovery principle', Website proceedings of 38th WEDC International Conference, Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) International Conference, WEDC, Loughborough University, UK, pp. 1-7.
Limited access to capital to invest in sanitation is key amongst a range of complex reasons that result in
extensive lack of adequate sanitation services. Financing upfront investment has been identified as a
particular knowledge gap for many sanitation practitioners. This paper discusses a project to enable
participatory learning about financing investment in sanitation infrastructure services for sector
practitioners. Findings from a desktop review were deliberated upon through an online discussion
leading to fresh insights. The study recognised that leveraging revenue sources beyond tariffs is key to
securing the relatively large amounts of upfront finance required, reflecting a departure from the 'full
cost recovery through tariffs' paradigm. The new paradigm calls for greater commitment from local and
national governments to support ongoing sanitation service provision, and 'sustainable full cost
recovery' of lifecycle costs through a combination of four potential revenue streams (4Ts) – Tariffs from
users, Taxes from government, Transfers from donors and Trade profits from the reuse of waste-derived
Gero, A, Doan Trieu, T, Mohr, SH, Rickwood, P, Halcrow, G & Willetts, JR 2014, 'Sustainable Water and Sanitation Services for all in a Fast Changing World: Relying on markets to address human rights: sanitation supply chain analysis in low-density settings', Water, Engineering and Development Centre Knowledge Base, Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) International Conference, WEDC International Conferences, Hanoi, Vietnam, pp. 1-6.
Market-based approaches to improving sanitation coverage have increased in recent years, however the equity implications of these approaches, particularly in the face of the recently established human right to sanitation in 2010, requires a closer examination of the costs of sanitation products and services in remote, rural locations. This paper presents results from a recent study examining the sanitation supply-chain in the province of Dien Bien in north-west Vietnam, a low-density rural setting with high rates of poverty. It was found that current toilet coverage is lower in areas of high poverty, and that these areas also experience the highest costs of sanitation products due to the impact of distance and transport costs. We conclude that market-based approaches require nuanced application and that other forms of support or significant market intervention are likely required to ensure equitable outcomes in remote rural contexts.
Gero, A, Murta, J, Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR & Leong, L 2013, 'Incompatible philosophies or complementary roles? Civil society and business engagement in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector', Development Futures: Alternative pathways to end poverty, Fourth ACFID University Network Conference, University of Technology, Sydney.
Bailey, B, Willetts, JR & Crawford, P 2013, 'Reflections on monitoring a large-scale civil society WASH initiative: lessons for sector monitoring and potential contributions from NGOs', Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Monitoring Symposium, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
This paper draws on the experience of monitoring a large-scale civil society Fund to provide insight into some of the challenges facing sector monitoring and how non-governmental organisations (NGOs) might play roles to support government in developing and implementing such systems. Structured reflection was undertaken by the Monitoring Review Panel, authors of this paper, who had oversight of the monitoring arrangements of this AusAID Fund that covered 20 countries in Asia, Africa and the Pacific. The reflection addressed two areas: (i) innovative aspects and key success factors that held relevance for sector monitoring, and(ii) use of a `strategy map to consider the ways in which NGOs are currently, and might in the future, support sector monitoring. The findings were that an explicit learning focus, use of models to conceptualise `theories of change and a well-structured performance framework that balanced prescription with flexibility were innovative and important elements that should be replicated in sector monitoring. Two key success factors were also attributed to the purpose-built simple yet effective information system and a strong `people focus to the monitoring arrangements and how people understand and use information. Concerning potential NGO roles to support sector monitoring, a range of roles and strategies were identified. These ranged from sharing localised monitoring information or building local skills for monitoring to supporting local government, service providers or schools with the necessary skills and capacity. Additional potential roles that address the broader environment included leading advocacy efforts to generate demand for sector monitoring, documenting and sharing their own learning on WASH monitoring, and supporting multi-stakeholder sector coordination groups to demand, develop, implement or use sector monitoring systems. We conclude that there is significant learning potential from donor-funded monitoring to inform sector monito...
Gero, A, Fletcher, SM, Rumsey, M, Thiessen, J, Kuruppu, N, Daly, J, Buchan, J & Willetts, JR 2013, 'Disaster response and adaptive capacity in the Pacific', Climate Adaptation 2013: Knowledge + Partnerships, National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF) National Conference, Sydney, Australia.
Fletcher, S, Gero, A, Rumsey, M, Willetts, JR, Daly, J, Buchan, J, Thiessen, J & Kuruppu, N 2012, 'Understanding adaptive capacity to emergencies in the Pacific in the context of climate change', National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility's (NCCARF's) Climate Adaptation in Action 2012: Sharing knowledge to adapt, Melbourne, Australia.
Retamal, ML, Nguyen, DGN, Willetts, JR, Mitchell, CA & Carrard, NR 2011, 'Comparing household water end-use data from Vietnam and Australia: Implications for water and wastewater planning', Proceedings from Efficient '11 - 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Water, Efficient '11 - 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Water. Water Demand Management: Challenges & Opportunities, International Water Association, Dead Sea, Jordan, pp. 1-12.
Retamal, ML, Willetts, JR, Mitchell, CA & Carrard, NR 2011, 'Modelling costs for water and sanitation infrastructure: Comparing sanitation options for Can Tho, Vietnam', Proceedings of the 35th WEDC International Conference, 2011. The Future of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Low-Income Countries: Innovation, adaption and engagement in a changing world, WEDC International Conference, Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC): Loughborough University, Loughborough University, UK, pp. 1-8.
Cost effectiveness analysis is a useful tool for comparing water and sanitation infrastructure options. This method was used to compare a range of sanitation options for the rapidly developing area of South Can Tho in Vietnam. The costs of centralised, semi-centralised and decentralised sewer systems were analysed along with several different treatment and stream separation technologies. The process of estimating and modelling costs can be challenging as considerable data is required, however, by using a variety of cost estimation methods it was possible to undertake a detailed costing assessment to compare very different infrastructure options over their lifetimes and with reference to the service they provide. The results, which detail net present values and levelised costs in addition to a range of financial perspectives can provide a valuable basis for decision making.
Willetts, JR 2011, 'Working effectively with women and men to improve the sustainability of WASH Programs (audio of presentation)', WASH 2011 Conference: Towards sustainability in water, sanitation and hygiene, Brisbane, Australia.
Willetts, JR 2011, 'Working effectively with women and men to improve the sustainability of WASH Programs (slide presentation)', WASH 2011 Conference: Towards sustainability in water, sanitation and hygiene, Brisbane, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Crawford, PW & Bailey, B 2011, 'Evaluator-evaluatee: Broadening the engagement', The Australasian Evaluation Society (AES) 2011 International Conference: Evaluation and Influence, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Crawford, PW & Bailey, B 2011, 'Increasing influence through broadening the engagement between evaluator and evaluated', The Australasian Evaluation Society (AES) 2011 International Conference: Evaluation and Influence, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Crawford, PW & Winterford, KH 2011, 'The place of appreciative approaches in evaluation', The Australasian Evaluation Society (AES) 2011 International Conference: Evaluation and Influence, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR & Carrard, NR 2010, 'Decision making for sustainable infrastructure in the context of rapid urbanisation: A case study of Can Tho, Vietnam', Advancing a sustainable future: strategies for cross-disciplinary practice around the Indian Ocea, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR, Retamal, ML, Mitchell, CA, Nguyen, H, Nguyen, DGN & Paddon, M 2010, 'Cost-effectiveness analysis as a methodology to compare sanitation options in peri-urban Can Tho, Vietnam', Pumps, Pipes and Promises. Costs, Finances and Accountability for Sustainable WASH Services. A collection of papers from the IRC Symposium 2010., IRC WASH Cost Symposium, IRC (International Water and Sanitation Centre), Den Haag, Netherlands, pp. 144-159.
It is challenging to make decisions about sanitation scale and technology choice for urban areas, however costing analyses have an important role to play in assisting determination of the most appropriate systems for a given context. The most appropriate technological system is the one that finds a locally acceptable balance between social (e.g., public health) outcomes, environmental (e.g., pollution, resource use and resource recovery) outcomes, and financial and economic outcomes (i.e. the costs and benefits for individuals, public and private organisations, and local society). There are many costing methods available. This paper describes the use of a cost-effectiveness analysis built on integrated resource planning principles. This method is suited to situations where the overall goal is already clear (in this case, that a wastewater service is required) and the analysis is conducted to identify the least cost solution to reach this goal. This costing method was used in conjunction with a deliberative sustainability assessment process that addressed non-monetary factors. The paper outlines the analytical approach adopted in the cost analysis as well as providing detailed discussion of the many decisions inherent in undertaking such an analysis
Kilham, S & Willetts, JR 2009, 'Transdisciplinary Research: a new opportunity for understanding Timor-Leste', Understanding Timor-Leste, Timor-Leste Studies Association's Understanding Timor-Leste: A Research Conference, Swinburne Press, Dili, Timor-Leste, pp. 335-340.
This paper will provide a broad overview of transdisciplinary research, wicked problems and the potential opportunities that may be associated with using a transdisciplinary approach in Timor-Leste. To illustrate the potential challenges of conducting research in Timor-Leste, and the potential benefits of a transdisciplinary framework, the authors use one of the author`s research topic of Social Sustainability in Biofuel Production: a study of Timor-Leste and Brazil to provide examples and illustrate points.
Mitchell, CA, Abeysuriya, K, Willetts, JR & Fam, DM 2010, 'Enabling decentralized urban sewage infrastructure by facilitating successful organisations to provide long-term management', Cities of The Future 2010, Cities of the Future 2010, IWA, Marriott Hotel, Boston, USA.
Herriman, J, Willetts, JR & Carrard, NR 2009, 'Engaging with sustainability in higher education in Australia', Presentation to the 5th World Congress of Environmental Education, "The Earth, our common home", 5th World Congress of Environmental Education, "The Earth, our common home", Secretariat of the World Environmental Education Congresses, Montreal, Canada, pp. 1-6.
Higher education institutions have an important role to play in shaping societyâs response to ecological challenges and critical sustainability issues. Organizational responses are shaped by many dimensions of the institutional environment including the commitment of academics and managers to environmental issues, student interest and activism and perceptions around market demand for engagement with sustainability. In Australian higher education institutions there has been widespread interest in and movement towards engaging with sustainability as a core issue in teaching and learning, research and facilities management. This paper draws on recent research from the Institute for Sustainable Futures within the University of Technology, Sydney undertaken to inform development of a postgraduate transdisciplinary (TD) sustainability program. Using a case study approach, the paper reviews responses from Australian universities to sustainability education and considers how transdisciplinary approaches can inform environmental education at the tertiary level.
Willetts, JR, Halcrow, G, Carrard, NR, Rowland, C & Crawford, J 2009, 'Two MDG's for the price of one: Gender in Pacific WASH initiatives', MDG Conference 2009. 'Meeting the Millennium Development Goals: Old Problems, New Challenges', La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
Mitchell, CA, Abeysuriya, K, Willetts, JR & Macrellis, A 2009, 'New 'How to' guidance for successful responsible management entities', National Onsite Wastewater Recycling Association (NOWRA) 18th Annual Technical Education Conference and Exposition, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.
Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2009, 'Impact of transdisciplinary research on doctoral education: Implications for supporting students and for judging quality', Grad School Forum - The Future of Doctoral Education at UTS, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR & Wicken, J 2009, 'Using multiple points of leverage: Engendering action on water and sanitation', Proceedings of the MDG Conference 2009. 'Meeting the Millennium Development Goals: Old Problems, New Challenges', MDG Conference 2009. 'Meeting the Millennium Development Goals: Old Problems, New Challenges', Australian Council for International Development and La Trobe University, La Trobe University, Melbourne.
Turner, AJ, Willetts, JR & White, S 2008, 'Integrated resource planning: how do we know if our water planning and management is best practice? (paper)', Conference Proceedings & Participant List, 3rd National Water Efficiency Conference, AWA, Surfers Paradise, Australia.
Fam, DM, Mitchell, CA & Willetts, JR 2008, 'The co-evolution of technology and society: a retrospective analysis of the development of Sydney's sewer system', 10th Annual Postgraduate Research Students Conference, Postgraduate Research Students Conference, University Graduate School, UTS, Sydney.
McKibbin, JL, Willetts, JR, Hagare, P & White, K 2008, 'Valuing sustainable sanitation: the economic assessment of alternative sanitation programs', 8th IWA Specialized Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems (SWWS) and 2nd IWA Specialized Conference on Decentralised Water and Wastewater International Network (DEWSIN), IWA, Coimbatore, India, pp. 1-4.
Mitchell, CA, Abeysuriya, K & Willetts, JR 2008, 'Institutional arrangements for onsite and decentralised systems: needs and opportunities for key players in the field of distributed wastewater management', Proceedings of Onsite and Decentralised Sewerage & recycling Conference Comming Clean: Sustainable Backyards and Beyond!, Onsite and Decentralised Sewerage and Recycling Conference, Australian Water Association, Benalla, Victoria, pp. 150-157.
Mitchell, CA, Retamal, ML, Fane, SA, Willetts, JR & Davis, C 2008, 'Decentralised water systems - creating conducive institutional arrangements (paper)', Enviro 08 Australasia's Environmental & Sustainability Conference & Exhibition, Enviro 08 Australasia's Environmental & Sustainability Conference & Exhibition, Auatralian Water Association and Waste Management Association of Australia, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-9.
Decentralised water systems make economic and environmental sense but are only slowly being taken up across Australia. This paper discusses the points in favour of decentralisation and the drivers and enablers which have led to projects being accepted in the Australian context. Further, by comparing and contrasting experiences in Australia and the US, where decentralised systems are prevalent, this paper makes recommendations on steps Australia might take to provide more conducive institutional arrangements for decentralised systems.
Mitchell, CA, Retamal, ML, Fane, SA, Willetts, JR & Davis, C 2008, 'Decentralised water systems - creating conducive institutional arrangements (slides)', Enviro 08 Australasia's Environmental & Sustainability Conference & Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia.
Turner, AJ, Willetts, JR, White, S & Gonzalez, FC 2007, 'The International Demand Management Framework: outcomes of Stage 1', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju island, Korea, pp. 421-423.
Palmer, JM, Smith, T, Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2007, 'Creativity, ethics and transformation: key factors in a transdisciplinary application of systems methodology to resolving wicked problems in sustainability', Systemic Development: Local Solutions in a Global Environment, Annual Australia and New Zealand Systems Conference, ISCE Publishing, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 1-10.
Smith, T, Stephens, A, Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2008, 'A systemic framework for intervening in a current, local sustainability issue - Traveston crossing dam', Conference of the Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics, Conference of the Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics, Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics, Noosa, QLD.
Smith, T, Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2007, 'Implications of the synergies between systems theory and permaculture for learning about and acting towards sustainability', 2007 ANZSEE Conference. Re-inventing Sustainability: A Climate for Change, Conference of the Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics, Australia New Zealand Society of Ecological Economics, Noosa, Queensland, Australia, pp. 1-29.
Willetts, JR 2007, 'Transdisciplinarity and action research within a postgraduate student and supervisor community of practice', UTS Action Researchers and Learners Seminar, University of Technology, Sydney.
Willetts, JR 2007, 'Transdisciplinary teaching and learning for sustainability in the tertiary sector', Australian Campuses Towards Sustainability (ACTS) Conference 2007: 7th Australian Conference of Sustainable Tertiary Education, Australia.
Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2007, 'Transdisciplinarity as a source of insights for sustainable sanitation', International Water Association (IWA) Advanced Sanitation Conference, International Water Association (IWA) Advanced Sanitation Conference, Aachen, Germany.
Willetts, JR, Crawford, PW & Mitchell, CA 2007, 'Learning about learning: critical to improving development outcomes', Measuring Effectiveness Conference 2007: Communities and Development, Measuring Effectiveness Conference 2007: Communities and Development, Melbourne, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Fane, SA & Mitchell, CA 2007, 'Making decentralised systems viable: a guide to managing decentralised assets and risks', International Water Association (IWA) Advanced Sanitation Conference, International Water Association (IWA) Advanced Sanitation Conference, Aachen, Germany.
Abeysuriya, K, Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2006, 'Kuhn on sanitation: dignity, health and wealth for the children of the revolution', Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics: Ecological Sustainability and Human Well-being, The International Society for Ecological Economics and The Indian Society for Ecological Economics, New Dehli, India, pp. 1-23.
The urban sanitation practices of industrialised countries greatly influence the aspirations of most of the developing world for western style sewerage. The practices in industrialised countries arose out of a particular history: the set of economic, social and environmental conditions prevailing in industrialising Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. Examining that history and its logical trajectory may provide insights for resolving problematic sanitation for developing countries. Kuhn's analysis of the history of science, as a series of scientific revolutions whereby scientific paradigms rise and fall in the trajectory of scientific advancement, is a useful framework for examining the history of urban sanitation. It allows us to see a pattern in the history of sanitation and to map past sanitation practices of industrialised countries to various stages in the trajectory. Furthermore, it illuminates the present as leading up to the next paradigm revolution, indicated by the burgeoning of new problems and the emergence of a number of alternative approaches to resolving them consistent with the values of sustainability. We identify emerging concepts aligned with ecological economics that could potentially define the successor to the currently dominant paradigm for urban sanitation. The opportunity for innovation through the application of these concepts is greatest where no substantial investment in conventional sanitation has already been made, namely, cities in developing countries.
Cheney, HE & Willetts, JR 2006, 'Collaborative validation of qualitative evaluation', Proceedings of the 2006 ACSPRI Social Science Methodology Conference, ACSPRI Social Science Methodology Conference, Australian Consortium for Social and Political Research, Inc. (ACSPRI), University of Sydney, NSW, pp. 1-1.
Herriman, J, Willetts, JR & Partridge, EY 2006, 'Learning together for sustainability: the value of group based peer learning', Proceedings of the 12th ANZSYS Conference, Sustaining Our Social and Natural Capital, ANZSYS Conference, Sustaining Our Social and Natural Capital, ANZSYS, Katoomba, Australia, pp. 406-420.
Smith, T, Mitchell, CA & Willetts, JR 2006, 'An Ecological Framework for Sustainable Communities:Exploring the Possibilities and Limitations', 2nd International Conference on Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, Second International Conference on Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, Common Ground Publishing, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Smith, T, Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2006, 'Permaculture as a systems ecology approach to enhancing well-being and ecosystems services: aligning practice, theory and outcomes', Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Conference of International Society for Ecological Economics on Ecological Sustainability and Human Well-being, Ninth Biennial Conference of International Society for Ecological Economics on Ecological Sustainability and Human Well-being, International Society of Ecological Economics, New Delhi, India.
Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2006, 'Learning to be a transdisciplinary researcher: a community of practice approach', Proceedings of the 12th ANZSYS Conference, Sustaining Our Social and Natural Capital, ANZSYS Conference, Sustaining Our Social and Natural Capital,, ANZSYS, Katoomba, Australia, pp. 1-8.
This paper utilises a `community of practice model to reflect on the post-graduate research program at the Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS. Our work at the Institute involves resolution of complex problems in todays society, a task which requires insights generated through multiple disciplines. Over the last five years we have conducted an evolving program of activities for our post-graduate students to equip them with the necessary skills for this challenge. This program has been transformational for both individuals and the group, which now operates as a cohesive, mutually learning team. In this paper we look to the `community of practice model as a critical lens to examine our program and assist in identifying new opportunities to improve our approach to transdisciplinary research training.
Abeysuriya, K, Mitchell, CA & Willetts, JR 2005, 'Cost recovery for urban sanitation in Asian countries: insurmountable barrier or opportunity for sustainability?', Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics Conference Proceedings, Ecological Economics in Action, Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics, Palmerston North, NZ, pp. 17-29.
Urban sanitation and waste management services are in crisis in many Asian countries, attributed to a number of factors. In this paper we argue that the crisis is exacerbated by the application of inappropriate economic and technological models for urban sanitation. We examine why the dominant models, including full-cost pricing driven by neoclassical economics, are inappropriate in the context of Asian countries. On the basis of Ecological Economics and Buddhist Economics, we identify a set of principles for arriving at more sustainable solutions. Sanitations role as a service for waste removal and disposal is expanded to a synergistic group of economically feasible services provided through cooperation between service providers, community and government. The STEEP framework is shown to be a useful way to tailor the sanitation options on the basis of contextual factors.
Nelson, C, Willetts, JR & Bryce, P 2005, 'Transdisciplinarity and development research: new ways of thinking about development', AEGIS Conference, SOAS, London, UK.
This was a paper prepared for the AEGIS conference.
Nelson, C, Willetts, JR & Bryce, P 2005, 'Transdisciplinary research and Mozambique: finding a new pathway to old problems', AFSAAP Conference, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
Willetts, JR & Mitchell, CA 2005, 'What does "best practice" mean for managing on-site systems?', Onsite 05: Performance Assessment for On-site Systems: Regulation, operation and monitoring Proceeding of On-site '05 Conference., Onsite 05: Performance Assessment for On-site Systems: Regulation, operation and monitoring, Lanfax Laboratories, Armidale, NSW.
Willetts, JR, Mitchell, CA & Fane, SA 2005, 'Ideas and tools to shape long-term management and investment in decentralised wastewater infrastructure', Performance Assessment for On-site Systems: Regulation, operation and monitoring - Proceedings of On-site '05 Conference., Onsite 05: Performance Assessment for On-site Systems: Regulation, operation and monitoring, Lanfax Laboratories, University of New England, Armidale.
Fane, SA, Willetts, JR, Abeysuriya, K, Mitchell, CA, Etnier, C & Johnstone, S 2004, 'Evaluating reliability and life-cycle cost for decentralised wastewater within the context of asset management', Proceedings of 6th Specialist Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems and 1st International Conference on Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Recycling, 6th Specialist Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems and 1st International Conference on Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Recycling, IWA, Fremantle, Australia, pp. 1-8.
Willetts, JRM & Ashbolt, NJ 1999, 'Understanding anaerobic decolourisation of textile dye wastewater: mechanism and kinetics', WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 7th International Conference of the Israel-Society-for-Ecology-and-Environmental-Quality-Sciences, I W A PUBLISHING, JERUSALEM, ISRAEL, pp. 409-415.
This publication presents key issues pertinent to the relationship between SDG 5 and SDG 6, including:
• water governance and gender inequalities;
• climate change, resilience and disaster-risk reduction and gender equality;
• sustainable cities, human settlements and gender;
• water data and gender;
• valuing water and gender; and
• gender and universal access to safe water and sanitation.
Winterford, K, Panday, PK, Baroi, HS, Ahsan, AHMK, Megaw, T & Willetts, J Prepared for World Vision Bangladesh 2020, Learning Report from the Nobo Jatra Program: Gender-transformative social accountability for inclusive WASH, Sydney.
Kohlitz, J, Carrard, N & Willetts, J 2019, Support mechanisms to strengthen equality and non-discrimination (EQND) in rural sanitation (Part 2 of 2), Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights, no. 13, Institute for Development Studies.
In 2015 there were an estimated 300 privately managed water supply schemes in rural Cambodia, serving over onemillion people (World Bank, 2015,p. 15). In recent years, a range of policies has been put in place by the Cambodian Government to promote gender equality within the rural water and sanitation sector. One such policy is theCambodian National Strategy for Rural Water Supply (2011–2025),whichincludesprovisions to increase gender equality. One of the ways the Strategy aims to do this is by: 'Mainstream[ing]gender in the [rural water supply] sector' (Cambodian Government, 2011, p.10). However, there are major knowledge gaps related to how gender norms intersect with the rural water sector, and with the growth of water enterprises in Cambodia. These gaps include:a lack of knowledge about how gender influences who becomes a water entrepreneur; what the experiences, challenges and opportunities of water entrepreneurs are; and how water entrepreneurship relates towomen's empowerment, including economic empowerment. To begin to address these knowledge gaps, this study examined the extent to whichwomen's ownership and management of water supply schemes led to their empowerment, including economic empowerment. This study, and a related concurrent study in Indonesia,arethe first of their kind to systematically look into the experiences and needs of female water supply scheme entrepreneurs(henceforth referred to as "entrepreneurs"), and the first to explore their experiences with reference to women's empowerment frameworks.
Abeysuriya, K, Khawaja, N, Mills, F, Carrard, N, Kome, A & Willetts, JR 2017, Applying the WHO's multi-barrier approach to faecal sludge reuse, Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney.
AlÁfghani, M, Prayitno, D, Mills, F & Willetts, JR 2017, Increasing local government responsibility for communal scale sanitation Part 2: Using Regional Budget (APBD) to support postconstruction sustainability of communal sanitation, Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney.
Mills, F, Willetts, JR & AlÁfghani, M 2017, Increasing local government responsibility for communal scale sanitation Part 1: Review of national program guidelines and two city case studies, Institute for Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology Sydney.
This discussion paper is intended to contribute to the implementation of the High Level Panel on Water
(HLPW) Action Plan. It should be read alongside other framing notes commissioned by the Australian
Water Partnership.4 The key points of intersection with the High Level Panel on Water Action Plan are
shown in Figure 1. This Discussion Paper identifies and explains key areas of action for the High Level
Panel on Water and other international development actors and governments. The paper provides a
range of case studies, and the implications for improving policy and practice are outlined. This paper
focuses primarily on the HLPW Action Plan's 'Water Governance' and 'Universal Access to Safe Water and
Leahy, C, Lunel, J, Grant, M & Willetts, JR 2017, Women in WASH Enterprises: Learning from female entrepreneurship in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR, Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney.
During 2012-2014, SNV did four country reviews of legal arrangements for urban sanitation and hygiene (Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Indonesia).
Based on this experience, this document was developed to provide guidance on how to undertake a legal scan for urban sanitation.
Over time, the ultimate objective of this work and related activities is that WASH professionals will be able to undertake a high-level assessment of legal arrangements for urban sanitation in order to both:
1. use the frameworks and tools offered by legal and policy arrangements to improve urban sanitation and hygiene outcomes; and
2. advocate for improvements in legal, policy and institutional arrangements to facilitate sustainable sanitation and hygiene outcomes for all.
Our aim is to provoke practitioners, policy makers and development agencies to reflect on their approaches to city sanitation planning and the assumptions that underlie them. The document is not intended as a critique, and it does not recommend a particular planning approach. Nor does it add to existing stocks of guidance materials on how to develop sanitation plans (e.g. Sanitation 21, WHO Sanitation Safety Planning Guide 2015, Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning (CLUES), guidance for City Sanitation Strategies (SSK) in Indonesia and City Sanitation Plans (CSPs) in India etc). Rather, our premise is that raising awareness of underlying assumptions in sanitation planning may lead to better targeted approaches to sanitation planning, if and when those assumptions are shown not to match realities.
Clark, K & Willetts, J 2016, Evaluation of the Bobonaro Open Defecation Free Initiative in Sanitaton.
Grant, M, Huggett, C, Willetts, J & Wilbur, J Australian Water Partnership 2016, Gender and SDG 6: The Critical Connection. A Framing Paper developed for the High Level Panel on Water, Sydney, Australia.
Leahy, C, Winterford, K, Kelleher, J, Leong, L, Nghiem, T, Hoa, NQ & Willetts, J Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS. 2016, From practical to strategic changes: Strengthening gender in WASH. Final research report, pp. 1-54, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, J 2016, Synthesis Report on Market-based Approaches to Sanitation.
Willetts, JR 2016, Principles and Guidelines for ethical research and evaluation in development.
Willetts, JR 2016, Sanitation, human rights and social protection: Briefing Paper.
Chong, J, Abeysuriya, K, Hidayat, L, Sulistio, H, Ross, K & WIlletts, J Report prepared by the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, Kemitraan Partnership for Governance Reform and SNV Indonesia for the Australian Aid Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII). 2015, Strengthening governance arrangements for small city and town sanitation..
Chong, J, Ross, K, Abeysuriya, K, Hidayat, L, Sulisto, H, Suartana, N, Carreiro, M & Willetts, J 2015, Strengthening governance arrangements for small city and town sanitation in Sumatra, Indonesia – a selection of key themes for local governments and policy makers. A Briefing Paper..
This project brief summarises key themes from research that investigated local government governance and institutional arrangements for sanitation (wastewater) planning, budgeting and implementation in small cities and towns in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Chong, J, Willetts, J, Suartana, N & Hidayat, L 2015, Memperkuat tata kelola pemerintahan untuk kota dan kota kecil di Sumatra, Indonesia – pilihan tema-tema kunci untuk pemerintah daerah dan pengambil kebijakan. Makalah Singkat..
Murta, J, Gero, A & Willetts, J Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2015, Motivators and barriers for water enterprises in Vietnam, Enterprise in WASH – Research Report 4.
Murta, J, Indarti, N, Rostiani, R & Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2015, Motivators and barriers for water sanitation enterprises in Indonesia, Enterprise in WASH – Research Report 3.
Willetts, J & Murta, J Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2015, Motivations, barriers and opportunities for water and sanitation enterprises in Timor-Leste, Enterprise in WASH – Research Report 6.
Willetts, JR, Gero, A, Murta, J, Trieu Thanh, D & Mohr, S Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2015, Sanitation value chains in low density settings in Vietnam, Enterprise in WASH – Research Report 2.
Enterprise in WASH is a joint research project led by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology, Sydney, which investigates the role of private and social enterprises in the delivery of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services for the poor. In particular, the research aims to support civil society organisations (CSOs) engaged at the interface of public sector, private and social enterprise, and civil society.
Murta, J & Willetts, J 2014, Incentives for enterprise engagement in Timor-Leste', Private and social enterprise engagement in water and sanitation for the poor – Working Paper 2c, Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS.
Murta, J & Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2014, Incentives for enterprise engagement in Indonesia, Private and social enterprise engagement in water and sanitation for the poor - Working Paper 2a, pp. 1-34.
Enterprise in WASH is a joint research project led by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology, Sydney, which investigates the role of private and social enterprises in the delivery of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services for the poor. In particular, the research aims to support civil society organisations (CSOs) engaged at the interface of public sector, private and social enterprise, and civil society.
Prepared by the Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS for the World Health Organisation
Fletcher, SM, Gero, A, Thiessen, J, Willetts, JR, Rumsey, M, Daly, J, Buchan, J & Kuruppu, N Institute for Sustainable Futures, and WHO Collaborating Centre, UTS 2013, Understanding the Pacific's adaptive capacity to emergencies in the context of climate change: Country Report - Fiji, pp. 1-35, Sydney.
Fletcher, SM, Gero, A, Thiessen, J, Willetts, JR, Rumsey, M, Daly, J, Buchan, J & Kuruppu, N Institute for Sustainable Futures, and WHO Collaborating Centre, UTS 2013, Understanding the Pacific's adaptive capacity to emergencies in the context of climate change: Country Report - Samoa, pp. 1-30, Sydney.
Fletcher, SM, Rumsey, M, Thiessen, J, Gero, A, Kuruppu, N, Buchan, J, Daly, J & Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, and WHO Collaborating Centre, UTS 2013, Disaster response systems in the Pacific: Policy Brief, pp. 1-4, Sydney.
Fletcher, SM, Rumsey, M, Thiessen, J, Gero, A, Kuruppu, N, Buchan, J, Daly, J & Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, and WHO Collaborating Centre, UTS 2013, Disaster response systems in the Pacific: Policy Brief for Regional Organisations, pp. 1-4, Sydney.
Gero, A, Fletcher, SM, Rumsey, M, Thiessen, J, Kuruppu, N, Buchan, J, Daly, J & Willetts, JR National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility 2013, Disaster response and climate change in the Pacific, pp. 1-216, Sydney.
Disasters, and therefore disaster response, in the Pacific are expected to be affected by climate change. This research addressed this issue, and focused on the immediate humanitarian needs following a disaster, drawing upon adaptive capacity as a concept to assess the resilience of individual organisations and the robustness of the broader system of disaster response. Four case study countries (Fiji, Cook Islands, Vanuatu and Samoa) were chosen for deeper investigation of the range of issues present in the Pacific. The research process was guided by a Project Reference Group, which included key stakeholders from relevant organisations involved in Pacific disaster response to guide major decisions of the research process and to influence its progression
Gero, A, Fletcher, SM, Rumsey, M, Thiessen, J, Kuruppu, N, Buchan, J, Daly, J & Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Furtures and WHO Collaborating Centre, UTS 2013, Disaster response systems in the Pacific: Policy Brief for Pacific Island Countries, pp. 1-4, Sydney.
Gero, A, Fletcher, SM, Thiessen, J, Willetts, JR, Rumsey, M, Daly, J, Buchan, J & Kuruppu, N Institute for Sustainable Futures, and WHO Collaborating Centre, UTS 2013, Understanding the Pacific's adaptive capacity to emergencies in the context of climate change: Country Report - Vanuatu, pp. 1-36, Sydney.
Gero, A, Fletcher, SM, Thiessen, J, Willetts, JR, Rumsey, M, Daly, J, Buchan, J & Kuruppu, N National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF) 2013, Understanding the Pacific's adaptive capacity to emergencies in the context of climate change: Country Report- Cook Islands, pp. 1-33, Australia.
Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2013, Supporting the poor to access sanitation in Bokeo Province, Laos, pp. 1-27, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR & Howard, M 2013, Third Water and Sanitation for Low Income Communities Project and theWater Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning (WASPOLA) Facility..
Carrard, NR, Paddon, M, Willetts, JR & Moore, DD Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Poverty dimensions of water and sanitation services and climate vulnerability in Can Tho City, pp. 1-42, Sydney.
Crawford, P & Willetts, JR 2012, Past reflections: future plans. An independent evaluation of AusAID's support to rural WASH in Timor Leste.
Fletcher, SM, Gero, A, Rumsey, M, Willetts, JR, Daly, J, Buchan, J, Kuruppu, N & Thiessen, J WHO Collaborating Centre and the Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Review of Australia's Overseas Disaster and Emergency Response, pp. 1-30, Sydney.
Gero, A, Willetts, JR, Daly, J, Buchan, J, Rumsey, M, Fletcher, SM & Kuruppu, N Institute for Sustainable Futures and WHO Collaborating Centre, UTS 2012, Background Review: Disaster Response System of Four Pacific Island Countries, pp. 1-66, Sydney, Australia.
Gero, A, Willetts, JR, Daly, J, Buchan, J, Rumsey, M, Fletcher, SM & Kuruppu, N Institute for Sustainable Futures and WHO Collaborating Centre, UTS 2012, Projected climate change impacts in the Pacific: A summary, pp. 1-22, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, A service delivery approach for rural water supply in Timor-Leste: Institutional options and strategy, pp. 1-49, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Bailey, B & Crawford, PW Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Civil Society Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Fund - Independent completion review, pp. 1-93, Sydney, Australia.
This Learning Paper is about mechanisms and processes for participation and accountability (P&A) in the Solomon Islands (SI) community development sector. The paper draws on experiences of six non- government organisations (NGOs) under the AusAID-funded Solomon Islands NGO Partnership Agreement (SINPA) running from 2009-2014.
Willetts, JR & Wicken, J Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2011, WASH Conference 2011 Report, pp. 1-17, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Bailey, B & Crawford, PW Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2011, Civil Society Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Fund - Independent progress report, pp. 1-40, Sydney, Australia.
Turner, AJ, Willetts, JR, Fane, SA, Giurco, D, Chong, J, Kazaglis, A & White, S Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) 2010, Guide to Demand Management and Integrated Resource Planning (update on original 2008 Guide), pp. 1-174, Sydney, Australia.
This Guide lays out a way to undertake urban water planning, using a consistent framework, which creates benefits for the whole community. It was originally developed by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney for the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) and has been updated with the support of the Australian Governments National Water Commission (NWC). The Guide is intended for both WSAA members and the broader Australian water industry
Halcrow, G, Rowland, C, Willetts, JR, Crawford, J & Carrard, NR International Women's Development Agency (IWDA) and Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, Working effectively with women and men in water, sanitation and hygiene programs: Learnings from research on gender outcomes from rural water, sanitation and hygiene projects in Vanuatu and Fiji, pp. 1-68, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR, Retamal, ML, Nguyen, DGN, Paddon, M, Do, XTD, Nguyen, HTT & Mitchell, CA Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, Cost effectiveness and sustainability of sanitation options: A case study of South Can Tho - Technical Report, pp. 1-49, Sydney, Australia.
The Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF), from the University of Technology Sydney, in collaboration with Can Tho University (CTU) and Can Tho Water Supply and Sewerage Company (WSSC) completed a 2-year collaborative research project assessing the wastewater infrastructure options for Can Tho City. The comparison of alternatives was made on the basis of cost-effectiveness and on the relative sustainability of the options, as determined through a participatory stakeholder sustainability assessment process with several government agencies in Can Tho.
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR, Retamal, ML, Nguyen, DGN, Paddon, M, Do, XTD, Nguyen, HTT & Mitchell, CA Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, Selecting sanitation options: A case study of South Can Tho - Technical report, pp. 1-50, Sydney, Australia.
Hussain, H, Willetts, JR & Carrard, NR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2009, Knowledge networks in the water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector in south east Asia and the Pacific, pp. 1-54, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS (Australia) and Stone Environmental Inc. (USA) 2009, Responsible management entities guidance fact sheets, pp. 1-50, Sydney, Australia.
Fact sheets to help US businesses better manage their decentralized wastewater systems, i.e. Responsible Management Entities or RME's.
Willetts, JR, Wicken, J & Robinson, A International Water Centre 2009, Meeting the sanitation and water challenge in South-East Asia and the Pacific: Synthesis report on the Sanitation and Water Conference 2008, pp. 1-31, Brisbane, Australia.
The publication, titled Meeting the Sanitation and Water Challenge in South-East Asia and the Pacific has been compiled for the purpose of keeping the issues of water and sanitation high on national and international agendas. It is a report of the actions discussed by the participants who gathered at the Sanitation and Water Conference held in Melbourne in 2009 as part of Australias contribution to the International Year of Sanitation. The publication captures and presents ten key strategies identified by the participants in their Conference Statement. It aims to disseminate the messages of the conference and to provide a useful resource document for the water and sanitation sector. This International WaterCentres publication and associated Sanitation and Water conference are funded by AusAID, the Australian Governments international development agency, and reflects the work of a team of dedicated non-government organisations and research institutions who are working together to enhance Australian-based sanitation and water initiatives overseas. The International WaterCentre is committed to helping achieve the Millennium Development Goals and is one of the founding members of the Water and Sanitation Reference Group. The Water and Sanitation Reference Group comprises representatives from WaterAID Australia, World Vision Australia, OxFam, the Institute of Sustainable Futures and many other organisations that come together to share perspectives and valuable experiences, to develop proposals and solutions, and to raise the profile of this human tragedy.
Herriman, J, Willetts, JR & Carrard, NR Institute for Sustainable Futures 2008, UTS new options: Postgraduate program in Leadership for Sustainability and the Environment. Draft course outline, Sydney.
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR, Abeysuriya, K, Macrellis, A, Mitchell, CA, Johnstone, S & Pinkham, R Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2008, Guidance for establishing successful responsible management entities (RME's): scoping paper, Sydney.
Willetts, JR, Herriman, J & Carrard, NR Institute for Sustainable Futures 2008, UTS new options: Discussion of market potential. A postgraduate program in Leadership for Sustainability and the Environment, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Pedi, D, Carrard, NR, Powell, B & de Lacy, I The International Water Centre (IWC) and the Institute for Sustainable Futures 2008, NGO partnerships and capacity development in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector, pp. 1-111, Australia.
Mitchell, CA, Willetts, JR & Carrard, NR World Vision Australia and WaterAid Australia 2007, Getting the basics right: Water and sanitation in South East Asia and the Pacific, pp. 1-20, Melbourne, Australia.
Paddon, M, Carrard, NR, Herriman, J, Partridge, EY & Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and Organizational Capacity Development (OCD) 2007, Developing City Development Strategies (CDS) for Vietnamese cities: a guide to assist city leaders, pp. 1-138, Sydney, Australia.
This Guide explains a methodology to develop City Development Strategies (CDS). It has been developed to assist city leaders in Viet Nam along with the other relevant stakeholders develop a CDS for their city.
Mitchell, CA, Fane, SA, Willetts, JR, Plant, R & Kazaglis, A Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS/The Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality & Treatment 2007, Costing for sustainable outcomes in urban water systems - a guidebook, pp. 1-86, Sydney.
Research Report 35
This report forms part of a larger study (Stage 1 of the International Demand Management Framework (IDMF)) which has been undertaken under the auspices of the International Water Association Task Force 7 of the Specialist Group Efficient Operation and Management. Current practice often utilises litres per capita per day (LCD) to describe and forecast water demand; however this practice has been found to be limited for planning purposes within water utilities. In its place, an emerging way forward is based on disaggregation of demand and robust comparison of both demand and supply options to improve reliability. Disaggregation of demand into sectors and end uses allows accurate forecasting of demand and strategic design of demand management options which may be used in complement to supply options. The findings indicate that Canal de Isabel II has completed excellent work in certain areas, such as drought and risk management, management of water losses, knowledge of supply and distribution system, and sector and end use data collection. There remains significant opportunity for Canal de Isabel II to incorporate other improvements toward best practice, including the following: Â·approach the planning process in a coherent way that considers both demand and supply options and works through a logical sequence of steps Â·utilise in-depth knowledge of sector and end-uses to strategically identify and design demand management options Â·compare demand and supply options using a consistent economic analysis so that the solutions with the lowest cost to society can be selected and implemented Â·involve a larger group of stakeholders at appropriate points in the planning process Â·conduct pilot and implementation of chosen demand management options to initiate on-going learning about what works and doesn't in the local context & Â·monitor and evaluate pilot and implementation programs using robust statistical methods.
Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Life skills resource manual: schools total health program, Sydney.
Etnier, C, Willetts, JR, Fane, SA, Mitchell, CA & Johnstone, S Stone Environmental, Inc. 2005, Decentralized wastewater system reliability analysis handbook (Project No. WU-HT-03-57), pp. 1-181, Vermont, USA.
Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2004, Most Significant Change pilot project: evaluation report, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR Vikas Publishing 2004, Schools total health program: international version, India.
Cheney, HE, Willetts, JR & Wilson, E Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2003, The practice of flexible practice: discussion paper, pp. 1-11, Sydney.
The term flexible practice describes a way of addressing the needs of GPs to spend time with family or on activities outside their time at work. It has been reported that GPs spend an average of 51.4 hours working per week (CDHFS, 1996) and other data suggest that rural general practitioners work in excess of this. However, it is not just an issue of total working hours. Flexible practice also relates to issues such as quality of life, ability to take leave at short notice, the option to work parttime, ways of dispersing on call duties between different practitioners and health services, easy entry and graceful exit from practices. Other terms used to describe flexible practice arrangements are sustainable practice or sustainable model of practice. Women rural GPs, in particular, have noted that their greatest stress was the conflict between their career and their personal life (Tolhurst et al., 1998, Kilmartin et al., 2002) as they most often carry the main responsibility for the care and rearing of children (Levitt and McEwin, 2001). The three issues contributing to this stress were described as total hours worked, time on call and not finding enough time to keep up their professional knowledge (Tolhurst et al., 1998). Women also commented that the least satisfying part of medical practice was lack of time for family and personal life. Childcare options are often very limited in rural areas, which further contributes to the problem (Tolhurst et al., 1998). In response to these issues, âflexibility was identified as the key to the development and construction of policies and programs to support female GPs in rural and remote practiceâ (Levitt and McEwin, 2001). Lippert (2002) reiterates this from her own research, noting the need for greater flexibility in practice and training arrangements and valuing varied working styles and practice arrangements.
Willetts, JR, Cheney, HE & Wilson, E Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2003, Working from home: a solution to the employment of rural medical spouses? Discussion paper, pp. 1-6, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, J 2014, 'Imagine life without a proper toilet: that's the reality for 1 in 3 people', The Conversation Media Group.
It's 2014. So why do we still need World Toilet Day? Because 2.5 billion people still need one. World Toilet Day remains a critical means to raise awareness globally about one of the many important things we take for granted. Every day, 1400 children die from preventable diseases, like diarrhoea, caused by unclean water and inadequate sanitation.
Willetts, JR 2014, 'Based on what evidence? Ensuring aid works in ASEAN and elsewhere'.