Luong, S, Ung, AT, Kalman, J & Fu, S 2014, 'Transformation of codeine and codeine-6-glucuronide to opioid analogues by urine adulteration with pyridinium chlorochromate: potential issue for urine drug testing', RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY, vol. 28, no. 14, pp. 1609-1620.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tahtouh, M, Scott, SA, Kalman, JR & Reedy, BJ 2011, 'Four Novel Alkyl 2-Cyanoacylate Monomers And Their Use In Latent Fingermark Detection By Mid-Infrared Spectral Imaging', Forensic Science International, vol. 207, no. 1-3, pp. 223-238.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Four novel alkyl 2-cyanoacrylate monomers (alkyl = 1-cyanoethyl, 2-cyanoethyl, trideuteromethyl and pentadeuteroethyl) have been tested for their ability to develop latent fingermarks that can then be visualized usingmid-infrared spectral (chemical) imaging. Each of the fourmonomers was chosen for its potential to produce a strong, isolated infrared spectral band in its corresponding polymer (to provide spectral contrast against most backgrounds), as well as for its potential ability to be fumed onto fingermarks in the manner of conventional ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate (superglue). With the exception of the 2-cyanoethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, which had to be fumed under reduced pressure, all of themonomers were found to be sufficiently volatile to be fumed in a conventional fuming cabinet. All four monomers polymerized selectively on fingermark ridges on a variety of non-porous and semi-porous surfaces, leading to excellent development of the fingermarks. Unfortunately, although high quality mid-infrared spectral images of the fingermarks could be formed for all of the polymers at various frequencies, the new CBBN or CD stretching vibrations did not give rise to strong enough absorption intensities for good contrast on difficult backgrounds such as polymer banknotes. However, in the 1-cyanoethyl 2- cyanoacrylate polymer, the presence of the additional nitrile group had the unintended but desirable effect of shifting the strong C55O absorption to higher frequencies, moving it away from interfering banknote absorptions. This enabled fingermark contrast to be achieved even against the intaglio printing on the banknotes.
Tahtouh, M, Kalman, JR & Reedy, BJ 2011, 'Synthesis and characterization of four alkyl 2-cyanoacrylate monomers and their precursors for use in latent fingerprint detection', Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 257-277.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Four novel cyanoacrylates, 2-cyanoethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, 1-cyanoethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, trideuteromethyl 2-cyanoacrylate and pentadeuteroethyl 2-cyanoacrylate have been synthesized using a Die Is-Alder protection/deprotection route involving anthracene. The common route for the synthesis of alkyl 2-cyanoacrylates was found to be unsatisfactory for the production of small quantities of the targeted cyanoacrylates, which have potential as reagents for the mid-infrared spectral imaging of fingerprints on difficult surfaces.
Tahtouh, M, Despland, P, Shimmon, R, Kalman, JR & Reedy, BJ 2007, 'The Application Of Infrared Chemical Imaging To The Detection And Enhancement Of Latent Fingerprints: Method Optimization And Further Findings', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1089-1096.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) chemical imaging allows the collection of fingerprint images from backgrounds that have traditionally posed problems for conventional fingerprint detection methods. In this work, the suitability of this technique for the
Tahtouh, M, Kalman, JR, Roux, CP, Lennard, CJ & Reedy, BJ 2005, 'The detection and enhancement of latent fingermarks using infrared chemical imaging', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 64-72.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The use of a new technique, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) chemical imaging, has been demonstrated for the enhancement of latent fingermarks on a number of surfaces. Images of untreated fingermarks on glass backgrounds with excellent ridge detail were
Bowles, KC, Tiltman, MD, Apte, SC, Hales, LT & Kalman, JR 2004, 'Determination of butyltins in environmental samples using sodium tetraethylborate derivatisation: characterisation and minimisation of interferences', Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 509, no. 2, pp. 127-135.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Interferences affecting the determination of butyltin species by sodium tetraethylborate (STEB) derivatisation followed by purgetrap preconcentration were systematically studied using synthetic solutions, natural water samples and sediment extracts. Substances that did not cause interferences included most common cations (apart from those metal ions listed below), anions, metalloids and polar organic compounds. Natural organic matter (NOM) specifically interfered with tributyltin (TBT) due to a mechanism involving partitioning of the butyltin to the hydrophobic portions of the NOM. The metal ions Ag(I) (?2 ?M), Cd(II) (?2 ?M), Cu(II) (?0.5 ?M) interfered predominantly with the determination of monobutyltin (MBT) due to catalytic degradation of the STEB reagent. Pb(II) (?14 ?M) interfered with butyltin determination by an unknown mechanism. Other interferences to the purgetrap method were shown to occur in the presence of chelating agents (e.g. EDTA) or hydrophobic liquids such as diesel fuel. A mixture comprising methanol (MeOH), EDTA and Mn(II) was used to partially mask the effect of interfering NOM and metals. Spike recoveries (mean±S.D. of n=7 different samples) of MBT, dibutyltin (DBT) and TBT in contaminated natural water samples were improved from 70±36,90±11 and 91±24 to 102±10,98±3 and 98±4%, respectively. Spike recoveries (mean±S.D. of n=5 different samples) of MBT, DBT and TBT in aliquots of sediment extracts were improved from 86±17,79±18 and 59±32 to 97±6.2,103±3.6 and 103±5.0%, respectively. The ability to analyse larger aliquots of sediment extracts in the presence of the masking mixture improved the detection limit four-fold if MBT and DBT determination was required and 10-fold if only TBT determination was required.
Materials which pack in the form of small rod shapes are of technological interest since they can exhibit considerable strength. In the past decade, we have seen an enormous level of activity in nanostructured materials, fuelled in particular by carbon nanotubes which are closed elongated structures of pure carbon. In our laboratory we have made efforts to synthesise these materials from sources other than graphite and in particular, coal. The work complements a similar program in our laboratory in synthesising fullerenes from coal. Because coal is a molecular solid, and graphite is a lattice solid, there are distinct differences in processing mechanisms between the two materials. Unlike coal, which has weak bonds, graphite, since there are no weak links, has to proceed through a mechanism where single carbon units must be involved, and hence, the products can differ from those derived from coal. The presence of other elements in coal produces a different type of nanotube distribution. Coal also produces other products such as microfilaments and polycyclic hydrocarbons
Kalman, JR, Nordlund, CA, Patney, HK, Evans, LA & Wilson, MA 2001, 'Order in Carbons Produced by Plasma Arcing in the Presence of Cobalt', Carbon, vol. 39, pp. 137-144.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Campbell, R, Mulholland, M & Kalman, JR 2000, 'Full and Fractional Experimenal Design for Robustness Testing in the High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Codeine Phosphate, Pseudophedrine Hydrocloride and Chlorpheniramine Maleate in a Pharmaceutical Preparation', Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 870, no. 0, pp. 45-51.