John Buchanan has been involved in education and teacher education for a number of years. Apart from his current teaching area, he has teaching interests in a number of areas including English as an additional language, LOTE (Languages other than English), regional and global studies, civics and citizenship and studies of religion.
John's main research interests are in intercultural education. He is also interested in the experiences of early career teachers as they adjust to the new culture of their schools.
Can supervise: YES
Research interests focus on the constructs students and teachers have of themselves, of each other, of their educational institution and, particularly, of the topic at hand as they engage in education, and the impacts these variables have on educational outcomes. In particular, he is interested in Australian teachers' and students' potential constructs of an 'otherness' with regard to intercultural studies.
More broadly John's interests include sociology and social justice, intercultural education, studies of religion, literacy, Aboriginal education and local history.
John is currently President of the Primary Human Society and its Environment Teachers' Association (PHSIETA).
Current teaching areas are sociology and environmental education and English as an Additional Language in the BEd program at UTS.
Buchanan, JD 2013, History, geography and civics education: Teaching and learning in primary education, 1st, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne.
This book outlines and draws links between theory and practice behind the teaching and learning of socio-environmental education in the primary years, in the context of an emerging Australian Curriculum.
The recruitment and retention of new entrants to the teaching profession has long been an important aspect of education, as so often these new entrants renew and refresh practice in schools. At times there have not been enough recruits or there are high levels of attrition, at other times there have been too many teachers. This has often resulted in either emergency measures to educate them quickly or a pool of unemployed teachers. There have also been concerns about the quality of teaching, the content of the curriculum and the ever-present need for more rigorous assessment procedures. We have witnessed an unwarranted rise in government intervention in teacher education and the spiralling out of control of quality measurement through inspections, evaluations and long lists of standards to be met. Fortunately, despite these problems, many young people still aspire to be teachers and many experienced teachers remain in schools and in universities due to mainly altruistic reasons such as helping to realise others potential and providing a better life for young people
Buchanan, JD 2007, Macquarie Revision Guides: HSC Studies of Religion, Macmillan Educaton Australia Pty Ltd, South Yarra, Vic.
Stacey, M, Talbot, D, Buchanan, J & Mayer, D 2020, 'The development of an Australian teacher performance assessment: lessons from the international literature', Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, © 2019 Australian Teacher Education Association. The requirement for all Initial Teacher Education programs in Australia to include a capstone teacher performance assessment (TPA) is relatively new. However, TPAs are common in other countries, particularly the United States. In this article, we report on a review of the literature instigated by the authors’ involvement in the development of an Australian TPA. Through a systematic review of the international research literature, supplemented by a separate set of preliminary sources, we identify and explore a range of key considerations for the development of TPAs within the Australian context. We focus on common aspects of TPAs worldwide: planning and preparation, observations on and evidence of teaching practice, and student work samples. We then interrogate further issues related to TPAs including the role of schools, principals and teachers; relation to Initial Teacher Education coursework; fairness; validity and reliability; and rubric development. To conclude we present a series of guiding principles to support the development and implementation of such complex, high stakes, and increasingly mandated kinds of assessments.
Varadharajan, M, Buchanan, J & Schuck, S 2020, 'Navigating and negotiating: Career changers in teacher education programmes', Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Buchanan, J, Pressick-Kilborn, K & Maher, D 2019, 'Promoting environmental education for primary school-aged students using digital technologies', Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, vol. 15, no. 2.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
International professional experiences have long been esteemed by universities and pre-service teachers alike. This paper analyses the experiences of six academics who have supervised Australian pre-service teachers undertaking international professional experience (PE), with a view to better understanding the problems and prospects that they encounter during their overseas supervision. The respondents reported concerns about duty of care, blurring of relationship distinctions, and pre-service teachers' and the local supervising teachers' expectations. Using a narrative inquiry approach, this paper examines the interface between visiting academic supervisors or pre-service teachers, and the host culture, against a backdrop of globally normed, Western approaches to pedagogy. The paper also explores implications for support needed for international PE academic supervisors.
Buchanan, J & Maher, D 2018, 'The ‘foreign’ language teacher: negotiating the culture of a school when unfamiliar with the language of instruction', Teacher Development, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 519-536.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article examines and theorises the experiences of 12 primary pre-service teachers at an Australian university, undertaking a two week professional teaching experience in Bangkok. This qualitative ethnographic study of our students’ and to some extent our own experiences draws on interviews, questionnaires and observations from the students, as well as reflective notes from two participating supervisors, and sets out to account for and understand the sources of the achievements and frustrations experienced by our pre-service teachers. The findings illustrate differences between the students’ overseas experiences and Australian-based experiences. These differences include organisational structures, teacher mentoring and cultural understandings, and the effects these had on the students. In particular, we distinguish the more readily observable structural nature of the schools in which the pre-service teachers were teaching, and the less visible cultural aspects that underlie these structures. We propose ways of helping students, as part of pre-departure briefings, to become more aware of these cultural underpinnings, with a view to helping them become more at ease negotiating intercultural workplaces.
Buchanan, J & Varadharajan, M 2018, 'Poor understanding? Challenges to global development education', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-25.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Buchanan, JD, Burridge, N & Chodkiewicz, A 2018, 'Maintaining Global Citizenship Education in Schools: A Challenge for Australian Educators and Schools', Australian Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 51-67.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Teaching students about global citizenship remains a
critical challenge for schools and communities, especially in a
developed country like Australia. With increasingly difficult national
and international contexts and its marginal place in the school
curriculum, there is an urgent need to help maintain support for
global citizenship education. Recognising the challenges and
limitations, key ways to raise its profile include considering available
pedagogies, drawing on the existing Australian Global Education
framework, taking up existing curriculum opportunities, accessing
quality educational resources and relevant teacher education
programs, and working in partnership with key Non-Government
Schuck, SR, Aubusson, P, Buchanan, J, Varadharajan, M & Burke, P 2018, 'The experiences of early career teachers: new initiatives and old problems', Professional Development in Education, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 209-221.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The task of supporting beginning teachers has received considerable attention in recent years, and numerous initiatives have been implemented. In this article we investigate the experiences of early career teachers (ECTs) in New South Wales, Australia, at a time when their employing authority mandated the provision of mentors and a reduction in face-to-face teaching for ECTs. The article draws on ECTs’ responses to survey items asking about their experiences as an ECT. It emerged that many of the issues of the early years that have caused problems for ECTs remain intractable, or at least unresolved for some. The research indicates that despite support that has been mandated by some employers, we cannot be complacent about the transition of ECTs into the profession. There remains a need to address the elements of school environments that impact on ECTs’ experiences.
Varadharajan, M, Buchanan, J & Schuck, SR 2018, 'Changing course: the paradox of the career change student-teacher', Professional Development in Education, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 738-749.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The article reports on career change student-teachers’ (CCSTs) views and experiences regarding their teacher education programs in Australia. Data were collected through an online survey distributed to universities for dissemination to enrolled CCSTs in teacher education programs. The responses from over 500 CCSTs were analysed using an interpretive lens of inquiry and analysis. Over 80% of the responses indicated tensions and paradoxes that exist in CCSTs’ lives as they come to terms with being students again. The article explores the impact on their student lives of the characteristics, experiences and expectations they bring to their studies, mediated by their previous careers and current circumstances. The findings discuss their perceptions of their teacher education programs and consider implications for CCSTs’ professional learning needs in the light of the paradoxes that emerge from the data.
Buchanan, J 2017, 'Are you more civically minded than a sixth grader? An investigation of pre-service teacher civics and citizenship knowledge, understandings and dispositions', Citizenship Teaching and Learning, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 321-340.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Intellect Ltd Article. English language. The process of civics and citizenship education is a complex and multifaceted affair. Research in Australia and elsewhere has indicated a dearth of civics and citizenship understanding. To assist their students, schoolteachers need to be in command of the knowledge, understandings and dispositions related to civics and citizenship education. This article discusses teacher readiness for teaching this subject in primary schools, by asking a cohort of first year pre-service teachers to respond to a test recently administered to a sample of year six children (aged about 11 years) in Australia. The results were somewhat disconcerting, with numbers of the pre-service teachers furnishing incorrect answers. Patterns of incorrect answers and reasons for these are analysed, in the context of the student cohort and the education they have received to date, and the education they are to provide upon graduation. Beyond this, the test paper itself, and some of the assumptions it appears to make, as well as some of its silences, are also put under scrutiny. Some brief implications for teacher education, teaching, learning, assessment and socially just futures are also included.
Universities encourage students to undertake international professional experiences so they can add international and intercultural dimensions to their development. This paper adopts a theoretical backdrop of neo-colonialism to investigate the experiences of four Australian pre-service teachers who jointly undertook an IPE in Bandung, Indonesia. Analysis of their journal entries illustrates how they struggled to make sense of their new cultural and organizational surroundings, and the new insights they gleaned. They were unprepared or under-prepared for the complexities of culture that they encountered. The paper also discusses the potential for IPE delegates to normalize typically "Western/Northern" ways of learning and teaching, and puts forth some recommendations for future IPEs. It aims to prompt discussion on the current and potential value, and possible pitfalls, of such programs.
Varadharajan, M & Buchanan, J 2017, 'Any small change?: Teacher education, compassion, understandings and perspectives on global development education', International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 33-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Increased migration of people(s), goods, ideas and ideologies necessitate global understanding, empathies and responses on the part of teachers and their students. This paper investigates the effects on 100 primary pre-service teachers' understandings of and attitudes toward a semester-long course exploring, inter alia, global development. The research was undertaken in Sydney, Australia. Near-identical surveys were administered at the course's beginning and end, for comparison. Additionally, four students volunteered to participate in a focus group for further discussion. Students' understandings, including misunderstandings, are examined in the context of their future professional responsibilities and of the related literature. While attitudes to those in underdeveloped countries appeared generally empathetic, this was premised on relatively limited or inaccurate 'knowledge'. The paper questions the adequacy of compassion as a motivating factor in global development education and action, and related subject shortcomings. Moreover, it examines the contribution of compassion as an enabler or impediment to global equities and justices, and considers other approaches. The paper also explores implications for teacher education and accordingly posits some recommendations.
Buchanan, J & Widodo, A 2016, 'Your place or mine? global imbalances in internationalisation and mobilisation in educational professional experience', Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 355-364.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 Education Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea International mobility programmes and opportunities have enthusiastically been embraced by universities as part of a growing demand for graduates with global, international and intercultural capital on the part of graduates. In this project, we take two universities, one Australian and one Indonesian, as illustrative case studies of some of the commonalities, differences and, in particular, imbalances, with regard to the conduct of international professional experience in the global north and south. Specifically, a recent visit by Indonesian pre-service teachers was used to inform an upcoming visit by Australian pre-service teachers to Indonesia. We used this opportunity to compare the accessibility of travel for Australian and Indonesian pre-service teachers, as illustrations of in/equality of access for northern and southern learners. We hope that this paper will prompt discussion about global imbalances of opportunity with regard to international experiences. We also hope that our mutual interview process adopted for this study might be a useful research tool.
Buchanan, J & Varadharajan, M 2016, ''Give Me Liberty, or Give Me ... Nice, New, Shiny Things': Global Development Aid Education in Australia', PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 319-336.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Burridge, N & Buchanan, J 2016, 'Education for human rights: Opportunities and challenges arising from Australian Curriculum reform', Curriculum Perspectives, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 41-51.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Buchanan, J, Schuck, S & Aubusson, P 2016, 'In-School Sustainability Action: Climate Clever Energy Savers', Australian Journal of Environmental Education, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 154-173.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Copyright © The Author(s) 2016 The mandate for living sustainably is becoming increasingly urgent. This article reports on the Climate Clever Energy Savers (CCES) Program, a student-centred, problem- and project-based program in New South Wales, Australia, aimed at enabling school students to identify ways of reducing their schools’ electricity consumption and costs. As part of the program, students apply for Department of Education and Communities funds to address issues of electricity usage, such as building or appliance modifications, or education campaigns. In particular, this article focuses on the systemic approach used to assist teachers and students in meeting the aims of the CCES program, the Sustainability Action Process (SAP). To ascertain the contribution and value of such a framework in achieving project outcomes and associated learning and attitudinal change, we investigated teachers’ and some students’ uses and opinions of the SAP via surveys (n = 434), 16 interviews, and analysis of documents such as student work samples and lesson outlines. Our research indicates that the SAP has been a highly effective, enabling and engaging tool in helping students to identify ways and means of reducing electricity consumption and evaluating their effectiveness, as well as identifying allies and other sources of assistance in carrying out their projects.
Buchanan, J, Ljungdahl, L & Maher, D 2015, 'On the borders: adjusting to academic, social and cultural practices at an Australian university', Teacher Development, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1-17.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Adjustment to university is challenging for students as they navigate a path through new academic, social and cultural practices. Some may feel on the borders, marginalised by their background. Issues such as adjustment to university life, independence, performance expectations, establishing friendships, technological competence, cultural capital, engaging with others and financial difficulties are addressed. Widening participation and the establishment of equitable access are worthy goals for higher education. This paper investigates cultural characteristics typical of universities, and of students from lower socio-economic backgrounds, and, implicitly, influences such as the schools, communities and families that have shaped these students. The paper reports on perceptions of first-year teacher education students at a university in Sydney, Australia, and explores ways of responding to potential cultural mismatches. It reveals their experiences of university life and sheds light on resources, services and cultural changes that could help in their adjustment and success.
Buchanan, JD 2015, 'Metaphors as two-way mirrors: Illuminating pre-service to in-service teacher identity development', Australian Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 33-50.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The transition from pre-service to in-service can be difficult for teachers. One means of looking into the minds and hearts of such teachers is to elicit the metaphors they adopt for themselves. Previous studies have indicated that during this transition much of the confidence, idealism and optimism of teacher metaphors is displaced by bleak and defeatist visions. These changes are usually explained by ‘praxis shock’ – a result of unrealistic prior views of teaching and equally unrealistic workloads and challenges. This research project asks if metaphors might reveal more about pre-service teachers’ views and vulnerabilities, and help avert or mitigate problems encountered in the early years. Metaphors provided by one cohort of pre-service teachers were distinguished according to ‘locus of pedagogy’ (student-centred or teacher-centred) and ‘degree of agency/efficacy’ in an attempt to gauge perceptions of control in the profession. The results have implications for incoming teachers, teacher educators and the profession
Burridge, N, Buchanan, JD & Chodkiewicz, AK 2015, 'Human Rights and History Education: An Australian Study', The Australian Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 17-36.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
An Analysis of the coverage and teaching of human rights issues in the History curriculum in Australian schools. Includes a focus on the new Australian curriculum
Burridge, N, Chodkiewcz, A, Payne, AM, Oguro, S, Varnham, S & Buchanan, J 2015, 'Human Rights Education in the Australian School Curriculum', Human Rights Education in Asia-Pacific, vol. 5, pp. 167-202.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Australian education systems, at state and federal levels, have been undergoing major reforms to their governance structures and to the nature of their curriculum. At the same time over the last decade there has been a national conversation about our knowledge and understanding of human rights (NHRCC 2009). In this context, it is an opportune time to review the place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum. The study reported on in this paper outlines and examines the findings of a nationwide investigation into the capacity of each state and territory school education system and their individual curricula to provide opportunities to educate and motivate school students about human rights. It also engages in a discussion of the curriculum reforms being introduced as a result of the national Australian curriculum framework and the extent to which it caters for human rights perspectives.
Our data derive from four main sources: a review of the literature; input from roundtable discussions with participants involved in the advocacy for and the delivery of, human rights education in schools; analysis of curriculum and policy documents at the state, territory and national levels; and resources and technologies being used in the teaching of human rights in schools.
Burke, PF, Aubusson, PJ, Schuck, SR, Buchanan, JD & Prescott, AE 2015, 'How do early career teachers value different types of support? A scale-adjusted latent class choice model', Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 47, no. April, pp. 241-253.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
O'Dea, B, Glozier, N, Purcell, R, McGorry, PD, Scott, J, Feilds, KL, Hermens, DF, Buchanan, J, Scott, EM, Yung, AR, Killacky, E, Guastella, AJ & Hickie, IB 2014, 'A cross-sectional exploration of the clinical characteristics of disengaged (NEET) young people in primary mental healthcare', BMJ Open, vol. 4, no. 12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Objective: Youth with mental health problems often have difficulties engaging in education and employment. In Australia, youth mental health services have been widely established with a key aim of improving role functioning; however, there is little knowledge of those who are not engaged in employment, education or training (NEET) and the factors which may influence this. This study aimed to examine NEET status and its correlates in a sample of such youth. Design: Cross-sectional data from a longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Between January 2011 and August 2012, young people presenting to one of the four primary mental health centres in Sydney or Melbourne were invited to participate. Participants: Young adults (N=696) aged between 15 and 25 years (M=19.0, SD=2.8), 68% female, 58% (n=404) attended headspace in Sydney. Measures: Individuals 'Not in any type of Education, Employment or Training' in the past month were categorised as NEET. Demographic, psychological and clinical factors alongside disability and functioning were assessed using clinical interview and self-report. Results: A total of 19% (n=130/696) were NEET. NEETs were more likely to be male, older, have a history of criminal charges, risky cannabis use, higher level of depression, poorer social functioning, greater disability and economic hardship, and a more advanced stage of mental illness than those engaged in education, training or work. Demographics such as postsecondary education, immigrant background and indigenous background, were not significantly associated with NEET status in this sample. Conclusions: One in five young people seeking help for mental health problems were not in any form of education, employment and training. The commonly observed risk factors did not appear to influence this association, instead, behavioural factors such as criminal offending and cannabis use appeared to require targeted intervention.
Buchanan, J, Dymski, G, Froud, J, Johal, S, Leaver, A & Williams, K 2013, 'Unsustainable employment portfolios', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 396-413.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This Debates and Controversies contribution introduces the notion of an employment portfolio to explore how economies create combinations of employment. It is not simply the number of jobs but the factor share distributed to labour and the sectoral mix and composition that matter. Three case studies of employment portfolio (Australia, California and the UK) are used to show how previous attempts at structural reform failed to deliver sustainable employment, even though economies need to offer a portfolio of jobs as a hedge against an uncertain future. The article argues that new ideas and non-standard policies are required to help create employment of sufficient quality and quantity in the current difficult conditions. © The Author(s) 2013.
Scott, J, Fowler, D, McGorry, P, Birchwood, M, Killackey, E, Christensen, H, Glozier, N, Yung, A, Power, P, Nordentoft, M, Singh, S, Brietzke, E, Davidson, S, Conus, P, Bellivier, F, Delorme, R, Macmillan, I, Buchanan, J, Colom, F, Vieta, E, Bauer, M, McGuire, P, Merikangas, K & Hickie, I 2013, 'Adolescents and young adults who are not in employment, education, or training: Their problems are more than economic', BMJ (Online), vol. 347, no. 7925.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Buchanan, JD, Prescott, AE, Schuck, SR, Aubusson, PJ, Burke, PF & Louviere, JJ 2013, 'Teacher retention and attrition: Views of early career teachers', Australian Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 112-129.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The provision and maintenance of quality teachers is a matter of priority for the profession. Moreover, teacher attrition is costly to the profession, to the community and to those teachers who leave feeling disillusioned. There is a need to investigate the experiences of early career teachers to consider how these issues contribute to decisions about staying in or leaving the profession. This paper reports on an aspect of a larger study on teacher retention. It describes and analyses the experiences of teachers participating in the study and highlights implications for teacher retention. The study proposes the notion of `resilient stayers, and how beginning teachers resilience might be strengthened and supported. It asks what combination of circumstances in the school and the system, and individual resources of resilience on the part of early career teachers, might maximise the chances of teachers choosing to remain in the profession.
Burke, PF, Schuck, SR, Aubusson, PJ, Buchanan, JD, Louviere, JJ & Prescott, AE 2013, 'Why do early career teachers choose to remain in the profession? The use of best-worst scaling to quantify key factors', International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 259-268.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Many countries report high attrition rates among beginning teachers. The literature cites many factors that influence a teachers decision to remain in the profession. These include remuneration, workload, support, administration and parents. It is unclear, however, which factors matter most to teachers and, consequently, where best to direct limited resources. This study uses Best-worst Scaling (BWS) and complementary experimental design methods to quantify the relative importance of these factors. The results suggest that improving student engagement, experiencing professional challenges and enjoying collegial support are the most important factors influencing teacher decisions to stay in the profession. Beginning teachers nominate remuneration, recognition, and external factors (e.g., class size; location) as playing a lesser role in their decision to remain teachers.
Buchanan, J 2012, 'Sustainability education and teacher education: Finding a natural habitat?', Australian Journal of Environmental Education, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 108-124.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sustainability education competes for curricular space, both in schools and in teacher education. Opportunities and barriers for the inclusion of sustainability education in an Australian university primary teacher education program are examined in this article. The study focused on the roles, practices and perceptions of teacher educators in promoting sustainability education. Three focus groups were conducted with members of faculty staff from each of the K-6 Key Learning Areas to gather data, which were analysed according to three frameworks: espoused/aspirational and actual practices of staff members; barriers to and affordances for teaching sustainability education; and the nature of initiatives, in terms of teaching/learning activities, assessment tasks, and resources. Beyond the Social Sciences, and Science and Technology, we found that inclusion of sustainability education is somewhat sporadic. The article proposes some ways forward to promote and abet sustainability education in a tertiary context. Copyright © The Authors 2013.
Buchanan, JD 2012, 'Improving the Quality of Teaching and Learning: A Teacher-as-learner-centred Approach', International Journal of Learning, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 345-356.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Much of what is called quality management is imposed on teachers from above. This paper adopts the argument that if we accept the mantra of student-centred learning (however we might define that), we should be willing to apply it to teacher professional development, assuming the needs and existing expertise of the teacher to be central to the process. In short, such an approach seems to ignore what many believe to be central to effective learning, in this case, professional learning. Much current teacher professional development is imposed on teachers, with little acknowledgement of the expertise, experience and professional knowledge they bring to their work. Such is likely to undermine teacher confidence and leave teachers feeling disempowered, which would appear to be contrary to an enhancement of their work. The paper proposes some elements of teacher professional development that are designed to build community among teachers, and to provide a safe forum in which they can experiment and take risks
Buchanan, JD 2012, 'Telling tales out of school: Exploring why former teachers are not returning to the profession.', Australian Journal of Education, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 205-217.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Teacher attrition is a cost to the community and, often, to the teachers concerned. One ready potential source of teachers is those having left the profession, particularly recently, and who may be willing to return. For this article, 22 former teachers were interviewed about their journey into and out of teaching. Understanding what made teachers leave may inform us on what it might take to get them back. This paper reports on these former teachers' professional intentions in light of their changing constructs of teaching through time, comparing, where possible, their former and current constructs of teaching and of their teacher-selves. The study constitutes a series of 'before and after' pictures, providing stark contrast at times. The findings generate theory on factors leading to these changes. One emerging inference is that the teaching profession fails to apply some of its corporate pedagogical knowledge to its own newcomers.
In this conceptual paper we discuss the value of doubt in teacher education for ourselves and, by implication, more broadly. We develop an argument for the value of doubt in teacher education that grows out of the recognition of the complexity of teaching. We interrogate meanings of doubt in this context and debate the value of doubt and certainty. We also indicate the challenges of fostering and nurturing doubt in teaching and teacher education. We suggest that doubt is a necessary element of teacher education as its presence helps to prepare our students for their careers as teachers in a complex and uncertain world. It is also more fundamentally honest than a professed certainty on the part of the teacher educator.
The imperative for education sustainable development (ESD) is surely stronger than at any point in the intertwined history of humans and the planet (Fien, 2004; Reynolds, 2009; UNESCO, 2004), given rising populations and an increasing impact of each individual on the environment. This paper, largely conceptual in nature, attempts to set out a framework of effective characteristics for ESD, with some illustrative examples. The paper is informed by a research report contributed to by the author (Steele, 2010) on mainstreaming education for Sustainable Development into a Bachelor of Education (Primary) curriculum (Littledyke, Taylor & Eames, 2009), incorporating knowledge, values and skills (Summers, Childs & Corney, 2005), in the hope and expectation that this will assist our students in doing likewise in their P-6 teaching. This paper derives principally from staff focus groups on inclusion of ESD, and, to a lesser extent, student responses on the potential of campus-based sustainability projects.
The pursuit of enhancing quality in tertiary education and educators is noble. Increasingly, however, universities are resorting to stark, reductionist representations of educational quality, such as decontextualised mean figures generated by student surveys, to measure and report on this. This paper questions the validity and reliability of such mean scores. Universities are using these results for high-stakes ends, and disclose them to ever-broader audiences. This paper focuses on the broader publication of these mean scores pertaining to individual staff members. The paper investigates forces that drive such an approach and the attractions thereof, and enumerates its outcomes and effects, while investigating potential theory-method mismatches. The paper evaluates this evaluation method against four criteria: (measurement of) quality teaching; ethical practice; managerial relations; and research methodology and methods. The paper also proposes some alternative approaches to interrogate and enhance teacher quality.
Even in totalitarian regimes, freedom of thought presumably cannot be outlawed, provided that such thought remains unspoken and unwritten. In Australia, freedom of expression is taken-for-granted. This paper sets out to theorise my teaching practice/s, a
TEACHER ATTRITION COMES AT A PROFESSIONAL, social and individualcost. The seeds of professional contentment or discontent are potentially sown early in one's career. Of the considerableresearch into teacher attrition, and into the early years of teaching
Two religious education modes have co-existed in public education for 'some time. In NSW, these are known as General Religious Education (GRE) and Religious Instruction (RI). GRE is seen as non-sectarian in nature. Teaching of GRE is typically conducted by the classroom teacher, perhaps supported by visiting experts. Its aim is primarily to inform about the faith and its adherents; education by outsiders, catering for outsiders. RI, by contrast, is usually conducted by a visiting faith adherent, and is persuasive in purpose. This paper compares each approach, and asks who is best positioned to instruct on religion/s, in terms of the subject's audience and purposes. It investigates what faith 'insiders', or outsiders bring and fail to bring to GRE pedagogy. Can outsiders transcend 'textbook knowledge'? This dichotomy is illustrated by encounters between the (outsider) author and an insider-colleague. Three strands intertwine in this paper: my discussions with a colleague; my understanding of my teaching; the implications for related curriculum.
Considerable research has been conducted into teacher retention. Less is known of ex-teachers' circumstances: salary, workload, working conditions, ojob prestigeo. For this study, telephone interviews were used to ask 21 ex-teachers about their journey f
Buchanan, JD & Griffin, JM 2010, 'Finding a place for environmental studies: Tertiary institutions as a locus of practice for education for sustainability', Journal of Teacher Education for sustainability, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Education for sustainability involves not only curriculum, but also demands responses in terms of management of resources and of grounds. It is asserted here that inclusion of education for sustainability in the curriculum, whether in a school or university context, is hollow and insincere in the absence of practical and social action on site and perhaps beyond. The present study focuses on students. views of opportunities and barriers with regard to maintenance of grounds and management of resources in a tertiary institution context. A cohort of approximately 140 third year primary teacher education students were surveyed to ascertain their views on the value of, barriers to and opportunities for practical sustainability projects conducted by students in their tertiary context. Such projects are a precursor to similar endeavours that could be undertaken in the students. school contexts.
Considerable research has been conducted into teacher retention and attrition (Huberman, 1989; Dinham, 1995; Ewing & Smith, 2002). Little is known, though, of the circumstances of ex-teachers, in terms of factors such as salary, workload, working conditions and 'job prestige'. For this paper, telephone interviews were conducted with 22 ex-teachers, asking what led them into and out of teaching, and views on their current working conditions compared to those of teaching. The interview protocol for this project foreshadows a questionnaire that could be used more broadly, nationally and internationally. This paper reports on respondents' perceptions of their current circumstances compared with those of teaching. Few of these ex-teachers regret their decision to leave the profession, and few consider their current circumstances inferior, even those whose raw salary is lower. The findings have implications for teacher recruitment, education, the provision of working conditions in the teaching profession, and for the public perceptions and promotion of teaching.
Burridge, N, Buchanan, JD & Chodkiewicz, AK 2009, 'Dealing with Difference: Building Culturally Responsive Classrooms', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Jo..., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 68-83.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly in recent years. The current financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all intensified the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among their student and school communities. How effectively schools deal with difference and how well they are supported in their endeavours to build culturally responsive classrooms is a perennial issue for policy makers, teachers and teacher educators. A major challenge for teachers in particular, is to at a minimum, understand cultural differences as they manifest in their particular school settings. Also to draw on approaches that support student learning in culturally appropriate ways so to assist them to better realise their full potential. In this paper we will consider cultural diversity in the context of current school policies, and highlight a number of frameworks for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom. We draw on the findings from a recent qualitative study of representations of cultural diversity in a number of Sydney schools to discuss the need for greater resource and policy support for progressive and innovative teaching approaches that will support the development of inclusive communities.
Buchanan, J 2008, 'Labour market efficiency and fairness: Agreements and the independent resolution of difference', Economic and Labour Relations Review, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 85-96.
Buchanan, J, van Wanrooy, B, Oxenbridge, S & Jakubauskas, M 2008, 'Industrial Relations and Labour Market Reform: Time to build on Proven Legacies', Economic Analysis and Policy, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 9-16.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Buchanan, JD, Gordon, SE & Schuck, SR 2008, 'From mentoring to monitoring: the impact of changing work environments on academics in Australian universities', Journal of Further and Higher Education, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 241-250.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Universities in many western nations are experiencing increasing performance measures for academic accountability. This paper maps the pitted pathway that has led Australian universities from mentoring to monitoring and from performance enhancement to performance evaluation, and reviews implications for teaching and learning in higher education. We explore understandings of good mentoring and its effects and examine the social and political climate out of which quality assurance processes have arisen, to articulate the aims and philosophies underpinning these approaches. Drawing on the published literature, we critique processes that have as their main goals monitoring rather than mentoring, and performance evaluation rather than performance enhancement. From our perspectives as teachers in higher education in Australia we raise issues for consideration, including the tensions between practice and promise and the roles of mentors and monitors in promoting growth or compliance. We discuss criteria and models for evaluating mentoring and monitoring.
Schuck, SR, Aubusson, PJ & Buchanan, JD 2008, 'Enhancing teacher education practice through professional learning conversations', European Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 215-227.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The paper discusses the value of peer observation followed by professional learning conversations for the professional development of teacher educators. The authors analyse their shared learning experiences and articulate what challenged them in these experiences. They discuss the ways in which their perceptions of this process differed or were similar. The grounding of the experience in a context of trust and professional relationship was seen as an essential part of the learning process. The authors highlight the importance of the cognitive-emotional and personal-professional aspects of teacher educators' lives in supporting their learning through the combination of peer observation and ongoing professional learning conversations.
Schuck, SR, Gordon, SE & Buchanan, JD 2008, 'What are we missing here? Problematising wisdoms on teaching quality professionalism in higher education', Teaching in Higher Education, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 537-547.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this discussion paper we seek to challenge prevailing wisdoms in higher education regarding the value of measuring teaching quality, prescribing standards for professionalism and using student satisfaction as an indicator of teaching effectiveness. Drawing on the literature, we explore and probe four wisdoms in an attempt to identify and problematise popular assumptions about teaching and professionalism. We suggest that externalising procedures for assessing quality can be counter-productive to effective teaching and learning and propose core values we see as central to enhancing higher education practice: collegial reflection on practice, consideration of ethical issues and risk-taking.
Buchanan, JD 2006, 'What they should have told me: six beginning teachers' reflections on their pre-service education in the light of their early career experiences', Curriculum Perspectives, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 38-47.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Skinner, CA, Riordan, RL, Fraser, KL, Buchanan, JD & Goulston, KJ 2006, 'The challenge of locum working arrangements in New South Wales public hospitals', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 185, no. 5, pp. 276-278.
• Use of locum medical officers is increasing in the NSW hospital system. • Locums are expensive, and have highly variable expertise and experience. • Locum employment arrangements are ambiguous. • Locum work may divert junior doctors from participation in specialist training. • Attempts to regulate the locum workforce must be accompanied by measures that increase the appeal of public hospital work and vocational training positions.
Buchanan, J 2005, 'Recasting Australian employment law: implications for the health sector.', Australian health review : a publication of the Australian Hospital Association, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 264-269.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Buchanan, JD 2004, 'The Thais that bind: the contribution of an international practicum to students' intercultural understanding', Pacific-Asian Education, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 22-37.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Buchanan, JD & Harris, B 2004, 'The world is your oyster, but where's the pearl? Getting the most out of global education', Curriculum Perspectives, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Buchanan, J & Hall, R 2002, 'Teams and control on the job: Insights from the Australian metal and engineering best practice case studies', Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 397-417.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper analyses material from 19 case studies of best practice in the Australian metal and engineering sector to assess how teams affected workplace control structures in the first half of the 1990s. It argues that teams in these workplaces had only limited impact in democratising work and instead ended up weakening workplace union representation. These outcomes arose primarily from the context in which teams were introduced, especially chronic understaffing arising from workforce reductions and reduced layers of management. The team initiatives of this period are best understood as being one of the major workplace legacies of local productivity coalitions lead by management but supported by unions which legitimised the introduction of new management philosophies such as total quality management and lean production. © 2002, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
Buchanan, J & Pocock, B 2002, 'Responding to Inequality Today: Eleven Theses Concerning the Redesign of Policies and Agents For Reform', Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 108-135.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper addresses two questions: What can be done to address the forces driving inequality in Australia today? And who can do it? We suggest that we need better tools of analysis to understand the current situation and better categories to help understand the links between work, social, and economic life. We go on to suggest, more tentatively, that these categories can also provide important tools for developing new policy ideas. We also show how these categories can guide initiatives directed at mobilising support for a new approach to combating inequality today. The argument is structured around eleven theses. © 2002, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
The need for an understanding of Asia has attracted increasing attention in Australia in recent years. One strategy in response to the need for greater Asia literacy has been the development of networks of Access Asia schools. The Asia Education Foundation (AEF) supports Access Asia schools in their efforts to increase and improve the Asia content in their curricula. This paper reports on the development of studies of Asia in one western Sydney primary school, which is a member of an Access Asia network. The project adopts a case study approach and attempts to provide comprehensive observations on the forces which drive and constrain the introduction of curricular change in this school. The study also features dialectic hermeneutic circles, seeking diverse opinions of various staff members, such as the Access Asia coordinator and the librarian, ascertaining factors such as the amount and availability of resources, and the attitudes of the school staff. In particular, the research pointed to the centrality of teacher practice in implementing change in schools, and the interplay between teachers and curriculum. It found that while some staff members have expended great energy in producing resources and encouraging others to undertake studies of Asia, the teaching of Asia related material in the school is somewhat sporadic.
Buchanan, J, O'keeffe, S, Bretherton, T, Arsovska, B, Meagher, G & Heiler, K 2000, 'Wages and Wage Determination in 1999', Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 109-145.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In 1999 wages in Australia continued to be set in a context ofstrong economic growth and increasing inequality. While employers at enterprise level generally held the upper hand in wage setting, employers as a group showed little interest in taking responsibility for system-wide innovation and renewal in the wages system. In the course of the year a number of challenges emerged to the upward trajectory of inequality in general and neo-liberal policies in particular. Important as these developments were, they did not seriously unsettle the ensemble of inequitable practices and policies that have underpinned economic development. These themes emerge from a consideration of the key developments in wages and wage determination in 1999. The article begins by considering the major political and economic developments of relevance to wage issues during the year. An overview is then provided of wage outcomes and key policy developments at national and state levels. This is followed by consideration of how these issues have been handled in leading industrial sectors. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of pay equity. The significance of changing workplace and labour market structures for wage determination is then considered. The paper concludes by noting the importance of understanding wages and wage determination in the context of larger circuits of consumption and investment. Without such an understanding too much policy and analytical attention is devoted to the more visible elements of the wage system and too little to the key forces shaping contemporary wage and employment structures. © 2000, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
Buchanan, J, Woodman, M, O'Keeffe, S & Arsovska, B 1998, 'Wages policy and wage determination in 1997', Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 88-118.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Buchanan, J, Barneveld Van, K, O'Loughlin, T & Pragnell, B 1997, 'Wages policy and wage determination in 1996', Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 96-119.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pragnell, B, O'Loughlin, T, O'Keeffe, S & Buchanan, J 1996, 'Wages policy and wage determination in 1995', Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 96-113.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Buchanan, J & Callus, R 1993, 'Efficiency and Equity at Work: The Need for Labour Market Regulation in Australia', Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 515-537.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The current reform objective of developing more competitive workplaces has been incorrectly identified with an alleged ‘need’ to ‘deregulate’ the labour market. An examination of current reform proposals reveals that there is an attempt to increase the importance of internal modes of regulation controlled by managers at the expense of external regulation such as awards. Such a development is likely to increase inefficiency and inequality in the labour market, as formal, external modes of regulation can promote both international competitiveness and fairness. Greater attention should be devoted to identifying better ways of linking external and internal modes of regulation to improve both efficiency and equity at work. © 1993, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
Proponents of voluntary exchange in labour markets place great reliance on the contract of employment as an appropriate vehicle for the practical implementation of their exchange model. This paper argues a contrary view and suggests that the contract of employment may not be an appropriate vehicle for the voluntary exchange of labour. © 1992, University of New South Wales. All rights reserved.
Print, M & Buchanan, J 2018, 'And its ghost may be heard: Policy and practice in civics and citizenship education in Australia over two decates.' in Pineda-Alfonso, J & De Alba-Fernandez, N (eds), Handbook of Research on Education for Participative Citizenship and Global Prosperity, IGI Global, pp. 89-107.
"This book explores the prevailing need for educating in the active exercise of the citizenship because this kind of education should give us the possibility of taking part actively in the processes of change and improvement.
Buchanan, JD 2017, 'How Do the Standards Stand up? Applying Quality Teacher Frameworks to the Australian Professional Standards' in Teacher Education Policy and Practice: Evidence of Impact, Impact of Evidence, Springer, Germany, pp. 115-128.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Buchanan, JD, Major, J, Harbon, L & Kearney, S 2017, 'Preparing Teachers through International Experience: A Collaborative Critical Analysis of Four Australian Programs' in Global Teaching: Southern Perspectives on Teachers Working with Diversity, Palgrave Macmillan, USA, pp. 167-188.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In an increasingly internationalized, interconnected and globalized world, characterized in many school education contexts by diverse classrooms and varied student needs, the importance for teachers to develop an intercultural competence has become urgent. International experiences, embedded within teacher education, are seen as one means to enhance this capability. In this Australian study, coordinators of international professional experiences from four NSW universities discuss and interrogate the strengths and weaknesses of their own and each other’s programs, guided by an established evaluation framework for such programs. Findings indicate that, while support for such programs is strong in the lead-up to and during such international experiences, subsequent evaluation of these programs and reflection remain underdeveloped. Implications for international professional experience programs are discussed.
Buchanan, JD & Schuck, S 2016, 'Preparing a 'classroom ready' teacher: The challenge for teacher educators.' in Gibbs, IS (ed), Teacher Education Assessment, Impact and Social Perspectives, New York, New York.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
These reviews have suggested changes to the structure, content and approaches in teacher education. However, little change seems to occur as a result of these reviews.
Buchanan, JD, Aubusson, PJ & Schuck, SR 2014, 'A system-wide school-based program for sustainability: Climate Clever Energy Savers' in Thomas, K & Muga, H (eds), Handbook of Research on Pedagogical Innovations for Sustainable Development, IGI Global, USA, pp. 245-269.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This chapter reports on an external evaluation of a state-wide Education for Sustainability program conducted in NSW, Australia. This program, Climate Clever Energy Savers, conducted by the NSW Department of Education and Communities, invited students in primary and secondary schools (from years 3 to 10), under the guidance of their teachers, to submit proposals for funding projects to the value of up to $2000 aimed at reducing their school's electricity consumption and costs. The chapter situates the program in the context of the need for sustainable development, and the centrality of education in achieving this. The ongoing evaluation has been investigating outcomes of the school-based projects, as well as teachers' views on the support made available to the teachers and students undertaking them. More specifically, this chapter investigates three illustrative sites of practice of the Program, examining outcomes, commonalities and differences across these sites. One feature common to most if not all projects is the use of the Sustainability Action Process as a framework for guiding the progress of all projects. This will form one mode of comparison of implementation of the projects across the specific and diverse sites. The chapter will conclude with implications for practice and further research emerging from the case study investigations.
Buchanan, J & Jakubauskas, M 2010, 'The political economy of work and skill in Australia: Insights from recent applied research' in Beyond Skill: Institutions, Organisations and Human Capability, pp. 32-57.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Jane E. Bryson 2010. One of the major legacies of the ŉew right’ ascendancy was the denial of choices about the future. As Margaret Thatcher asserted frequently in the early 1980s: ‘there is no alternative’ (TINA) to increased reliance on market mechanisms. What once had to be asserted subsequently became conventional policy wisdom. We call this the TINA syndrome (see Watson et al, 2003). Authors such as Thomas Frank (2000) have shown this is now part of wider ‘market populism’ with deep roots in civil society.
Buchanan, JD 2008, 'I speak textbook Jewish: Authenticity in teaching studies of religion' in Conference Proceedings: SEAA Conference, Social Educators' Association of Australia, Carlton, Victoria.
Buchanan, JD 2006, 'Splashing in puddles? What my teaching and research tell me about my teaching and research' in Aubusson, P & Schuck, S (eds), Teacher Learning and Development: The Mirror Maze, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 131-144.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ljungdahl, L, Maher, D, Buchanan, JD, Currie, JL & Staveley, RM 2012, 'Swimming for new horizons: targeting retention and success for future teachers.', New Horizons. 15th International First Year in Higher Education (FYHE) Conference., The International First Year in Higher Education Conference. New Horizons. 15th International FYHE Conference 2012., First Year in Higher Education., Brisbane, pp. 91-91.
Strategies to maximise success and retention of first year pre-service teachers.
Buchanan, JD 2008, 'Internal discourse: What does Foucault have to tell us?', 11th International Conference on Experiential Learning (ICEL 2008): Identity of Experience: Challenges for Experiential Learning, ICEL, UTS, Sydney, pp. 1-11.
Aubusson, PJ, Buchanan, JD, Schuck, SR & Russell, T 2008, 'Making sense of teaching through shared observation and conversation', The seventh international conference on self-study of teacher education practices. Pathways to change in teacher education: Dialogue, diversity and self-study, International Conference on Self-study of Teacher Education practices., Self-study of teacher education practices special interest group, Herstmonceux Castle, East Sussex, England, pp. 18-21.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Schuck, SR, Buchanan, JD & Gordon, SE 2006, 'Improving student learning through teaching: Questions we should be asking', Improving Student Learning Through Teaching. Proceedings of the 2006 14th International Symposium., 14th Improving Student Learning International Symposium, Oxford Centre for Staff Learning and Development, Bath, UK, pp. 282-292.
Schuck, SR, Prescott, AE & Buchanan, JD 2006, 'Sharing and supporting through an online network: Four studies with newly appointed teachers.', Engaging pedagogies: AARE 2006 International Education Research Conference Proceedings, Australian Association for Research in Education, AARE, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 1-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The paper discusses the experiences, needs and concerns of newly appointed teachers in four separate studies conducted by UTS teacher educators over the years 1999-2006. Newly appointed teachers were invited to participate in an online support network in each of the studies. The studies were all small in scale, and allowed teachers to express their concerns, aspirations and experiences to others in the online network. Although participation in the online network was limited, those who did participate found the network to be supportive and helpful in providing much-needed advice and suggestions. Support was offered by mentor teachers, lecturers from the university and the other newly appointed teachers in the network. The paper will highlight the common issues regarding online access to support, as well as aspects of online interaction that were found to be beneficial to participants. It will also discuss issues of participation as highlighted by the different designs of the four studies, and indicate the strengths and weaknesses of each of the research designs with regard to meeting the needs of the participants.
Buchanan, JD World Vision Australia 2015, From a Place of Compassion. Global Development Education.
Burridge, N, Chodkiewicz, AK, Payne, A, Oguro, SG, Varnham, S & buchanan, J UTS Publishing Service 2013, Human Rights Education in the School Curriculum, pp. 1-75, Broadway, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Human Rights Education centres; Professional Teachers Associations; Australian Human Rights Commission
Schuck, SR, Aubusson, PJ, Buchanan, JD, Louviere, JJ, Burke, PF & Prescott, AE UTS: CRLC and CENSOC 2012, Retaining effective early career teachers in NSW schools, pp. 1-193, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This project was commissioned by the NSW Department of Education and Training. This four and a half year research project had the aims of tracking a cohort of final year (2005) preservice teacher education students through their post-graduation experience into 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, in order to understand more clearly the reasons why some early career teachers (ECTs) in NSW public schools choose to leave the profession, and why others choose to remain; and in order to develop strategies to increase the retention rate of effective teachers during their early years of teaching.