At UTS Pharmacy John assists in the development and presentation of the Primary Health Care stream of the curriculum – a stream which provides best practice strategies for responding to patients’ symptom-based and product-based requests in community pharmacy. John says “I believe the appropriate recommendation of effective evidence-based non prescription therapies can help to reinforce both the professional role and the financial viability of pharmacy”. John is also part of the team conducting tutorials and workshops aimed at enhancing student skills in the delivery of the recently established and remunerated community pharmacy services.
Essack, S, Bell, J, Burgoyne, DS, Duerden, M & Shephard, A 2019, 'Topical (local) antibiotics for respiratory infections with sore throat: An antibiotic stewardship perspective.', Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 829-837.View/Download from: Publisher's site
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE:The overuse and misuse of antibiotics, especially for viral, and self-limiting, respiratory tract infections such as sore throat, increases the risk of the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance within communities. Up to 80% of sore throat cases have a viral aetiology, and even when the infection is bacterial, most cases resolve without antibiotics. However, antibiotics are still frequently and often inappropriately prescribed for the treatment of sore throat. Furthermore, topical (local) antibiotics for treatment of sore throat are widely available over the counter. The objective of this systematic review was to establish the evidence for the benefits, risk of harm and antimicrobial resistance associated with topical (local) antibiotics used for patients with sore throat. METHODS:Eligible studies included those in patients with sore throat of any aetiology receiving the topical (local) antibiotics tyrothricin, bacitracin, gramicidin or neomycin where the antibiotic was topically/locally applied via the nasal cavity or throat. Nasal applications were included as these are occasionally used to treat upper respiratory tract infections that may involve sore throat. There was no restriction or requirement regarding comparator. The outcomes of interest included efficacy, safety, and in vitro culture and antimicrobial resistance data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:This systematic review found sparse and mainly poor-quality evidence relating to the use of topical (local) antibiotics for sore throat, and it was not possible to establish the benefits, risk of harm or impact of use on antimicrobial resistance. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS:Further research is necessary to ascertain the risks and benefits of topical (local) antibiotics, their contribution to antimicrobial resistance and the risk of harm. We do, however, question whether it is appropriate and rational to use topical (local) antibiotics for the treatment of sore throat caused by...
Essack, S, Bell, J & Shephard, A 2018, 'Community pharmacists—Leaders for antibiotic stewardship in respiratory tract infection', Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 302-307.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd What is known and objective: Hospital-based pharmacists are established antibiotic stewards, but the potential for community pharmacists is largely untapped. This commentary explores the potential leadership role of the community pharmacist in antibiotic stewardship using upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) as an example. Comment: Community pharmacists are well placed for antibiotic stewardship, possessing the capability (knowledge of medicines), opportunity (contact with prescribers and patients) and inherent commitment. Providing further motivation with information on patient education has great potential to change patient behaviour with respect to consulting a healthcare professional for an antibiotic prescription. A Global Respiratory Infection Partnership pharmacy-led educational initiative was shown to have a positive impact and can promote appropriate self-management of URTI and reduce levels of inappropriate antibiotic use. What is new and conclusion: Community pharmacists are ideally placed as antibiotic stewards to lead the quest to contain the threat of antibiotic resistance.
Bell, J 2016, 'A new solution for Pharmacy', Australian Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 97, no. 1157, pp. 24-25.
Bell, J, Dziekan, G, Pollack, C & Mahachai, V 2016, 'Self-Care in the Twenty First Century: A Vital Role for the Pharmacist.', Advances in therapy, vol. 33, pp. 1691-1703.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In order for the global healthcare system to remain sustainable, healthcare spending needs to be reduced, and self-treating certain conditions under the guidance of a pharmacist provides a means of accomplishing this goal. This article was developed to describe global healthcare trends affecting self-care with a specific focus on the role of the pharmacist in facilitating over-the-counter (OTC) medication management. Potential healthcare-related economic benefits associated with the self-care model are outlined. The importance of the collaboration between healthcare providers (HCPs), including specialists, primary care providers, and pharmacists, is also discussed. The evolving role of the pharmacist is examined and recommendations are provided for ways to successfully engage with other HCPs and consumers to optimize the pharmacist's unique qualifications and accessibility in the community. Using the management of frequent heartburn with an OTC proton-pump inhibitor as a model, the critical role of the pharmacist in patient self-treatment of certain symptoms will be discussed based on the World Gastroenterology Organization's recently published guidelines for the community-based management of common gastrointestinal symptoms. As the global healthcare system continues to evolve, self-care is expected to have an increasing role in treating certain minor ailments, and pharmacists are at the forefront of these changes. Pharmacists can guide individuals in making healthy lifestyle choices, recommend appropriate OTC medications, and educate consumers about when they should consult a physician.Pfizer Inc.
Probably the best known definition of health promotion is in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) - slightly modified at their Bangkok meeting in 2005 to the Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World (2005): 'Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and thereby improve their health'.
Altiner, A, Bell, J, Duerden, M, Essack, S, Kozlov, R, Noonan, L, Oxford, J, Pignatari, AC, Sessa, A & Van Der Velden, A 2015, 'More action, less resistance: Report of the 2014 summit of the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership', International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 370-377.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society. 'Antimicrobial resistance is a global health security threat that requires concerted cross-sectional action by governments and society as a whole,' according to a report published by the WHO in April 2014. On 24-25 June 2014, the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership (GRIP) met in London, UK, together with delegates from 18 different countries to discuss practical steps that can be taken at a local level to address this global problem in an aligned approach. This was the second annual summit of GRIP. The group, formed in 2012, includes primary care and hospital physicians, microbiologists, researchers, and pharmacists from nine core countries. GRIP aims to unite healthcare professionals (HCPs) around the world to take action against inappropriate antibiotic use, focussing on one of the most prevalent therapy areas where antibiotics are inappropriately prescribed - upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Chaired by GRIP member, Professor John Oxford (UK), the 2014 summit included engaging presentations by guest speakers examining the latest science regarding the impact of inappropriate antibiotic use.
Bell, J 2015, 'Treating colds and flu: An evidence based approach', Australian Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 96, no. 1140, pp. 64-67.
Antibiotics are often an ineffective and unnecessary treatment option for the majority of patients when alternative symptomatic relief options are available.
Van Der Velden, A, Bell, J, Sessa, A, Duerden, M & Altiner, A 2013, 'Sore throat: effective communication delivers improved diagnosis, enhanced self-care and more rational use of antibiotics', International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 67, no. s180, pp. 10-16.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The majority of throat infections are of viral origin and resolve without antibiotic treatment. Despite this, antibiotic use for sore throat infections remains high, partly because it is difficult to determine when antibiotics may be useful, on the basis
van der Velden, A, Duerden, MG, Bell, J, Oxford, JS, Altiner, A, Kozlov, R, Sessa, A, Pignatari, AC & Essack, SY 2013, 'Prescriber and patient responsibilities in treatment of acute respiratory tract infections - essential for conservation of antibiotics', Antibiotics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 316-327.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Inappropriate antibiotic use in normally self-limiting acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs), such as sore throat and the common cold, is a global problem and an important factor for increasing levels of antibiotic resistance. A new group of international experts-the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership (GRIP)-is committed to addressing this issue, with the interface between primary care practitioners and their patients as their core focus. To combat the overuse of antibiotics in the community, and facilitate a change from prescribing empiric antibiotic treatment towards cautious deferment combined with symptomatic relief, there is a need to introduce and enhance evidence-based dialogue between primary care practitioners and their patients. Communication with patients should focus on the de-medicalisation of self-limiting viral infections, which can be achieved via a coherent globally endorsed framework outlining the rationale for appropriate antibiotic use in acute RTIs in the context of antibiotic stewardship and conservancy. The planned framework is intended to be adaptable at a country level to reflect local behaviours, cultures and healthcare systems, and has the potential to serve as a model for change in other therapeutic areas. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.