Dr Jody Leone graduated in 2003 with a Bachelor of Applied Science in Orthoptics, class 1 honours. Jody worked clinically in various locations around Sydney before embarking on a PhD. She was funded through a NHMRC Dora Lush scholarship to undertake her doctoral studies and she completed her Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in 2013. Her PhD investigated the fundamental of vision screening in children, as part of the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study (SPEDS) of over 2,400 children. Jody has published a number of peer-reviewed papers in highly ranked international ophthalmic journals and presented at numerous national and international conferences. In addition to her involvement in research, Jody has experience in higher education teaching, having taught orthoptic students at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels of study.
Awards and Honours:
2009 Paediatric Orthoptic Award at the 66th Annual Scientific Conference of the Orthoptic Association of Australia inc. Brisbane
2008 Dr George Burniston-Cumberland Foundation Fellowship 2008
2008 Paediatric Orthoptic Award at the 65th Annual Scientific Conference of the Orthoptic Association of Australia inc. Melbourne
2007 Paediatric Orthoptic Award at the 64th Annual Scientific Conference of the Orthoptic Association of Australia inc. Perth
2003 The Orthoptic Association of Australia (NSW Branch) Prize for the highest marks for her honours report
Scholarship and Funding:
2007 NHMRC Dora Lush Scholarship
2006 Fiona Stanley Scholarship
Jody is a member of Orthoptics Australia and is the public officer for Orthoptics Australia since 2012. She is registered with the Australian Orthoptic Board.
Leone, JF, Mitchell, P, Kifley, A, Rose, KA & Sydney Childhood Eye Studies 2014, 'Normative visual acuity in infants and preschool-aged children in Sydney.', Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. e521-e529.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PURPOSE: To provide population-based normative visual acuity (VA) by age, in children participating in the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study aged 6 to <72 months. METHODS: Monocular VA was measured using the Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS HOTV) protocol (24 to <72 months). Some children were also tested using linear ETDRS or HOTV logMAR VA charts (30 to <72 months). If unable to perform recognition acuity, the Teller Acuity Cards II (TAC II) was performed (6 to <42 months). Children with significant refractive error or ocular disease were excluded. RESULTS: Improvement in VA with age was shown on all three vision tests (all p < 0.0001). Mean VA using ATS HOTV (n = 836) was 0.13 logMAR (6/8) at <36 months, which improved to -0.01 (6/6) at 66 to <72 months. Mean ETDRS/HOTV (n = 399) VA was 0.26 logMAR (6/11) at <36 months, which improved to 0.1 (6/7.5) at 66 to <72 months. Mean monocular TAC II (n = 442) was 5.7 cycles/degree (0.72 logMAR) at 6 to <9 months and improved to 12.4 cycles/degree (0.38 logMAR) at age 30 to <33 months. Associations with ATS HOTV VA included prematurity (p = 0.027) and socio economic status (SES) factors such as home ownership (p = 0.039) and employment of one (p = 0.019) or both parents (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: VA norms in children improved with age and were different according to the VA test used. Low SES was associated with poorer VA, supporting the need for test specific VA norms to be established for different populations. The ATS HOTV appears to be the best test to use for vision screening due to its lower false positive referral rate.
Afsari, S, Rose, KA, Gole, GA, Philip, K, Leone, JF, French, A & Mitchell, P 2013, 'Prevalence of anisometropia and its association with refractive error and amblyopia in preschool children.', The British journal of ophthalmology, vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 1095-1099.View/Download from: Publisher's site
AIM: To determine the age and ethnicity-specific prevalence of anisometropia in Australian preschool-aged children and to assess in this population-based study the risk of anisometropia with increasing ametropia levels and risk of amblyopia with increasing anisometropia. METHODS: A total 2090 children (aged 6-72 months) completed detailed eye examinations in the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study, including cycloplegic refraction, and were included. Refraction was measured using a Canon RK-F1 autorefractor, streak retinoscopy and/or the Retinomax K-Plus 2 autorefractor. Anisometropia was defined by the spherical equivalent (SE) difference, and plus cylinder difference for any cylindrical axis between eyes. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of SE and cylindrical anisometropia ≥1.0 D were 2.7% and 3.0%, for the overall sample and in children of European-Caucasian ethnicity, 3.2%, 1.9%; East-Asian 1.7%, 5.2%; South-Asian 2.5%, 3.6%; Middle-Eastern ethnicities 2.2%, 3.3%, respectively. Anisometropia prevalence was lower or similar to that in the Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study, Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and the Strabismus, Amblyopia and Refractive error in Singapore study. Risk (OR) of anisometropic amblyopia with ≥1.0 D of SE and cylindrical anisometropia was 12.4 (CI 4.0 to 38.4) and 6.5 (CI 2.3 to 18.7), respectively. We found an increasing risk of anisometropia with higher myopia ≥-1.0 D, OR 61.6 (CI 21.3 to 308), hyperopia > +2.0 D, OR 13.6 (CI 2.9 to 63.6) and astigmatism ≥1.5 D, OR 30.0 (CI 14.5 to 58.1). CONCLUSIONS: In this preschool-age population-based sample, anisometropia was uncommon with inter-ethnic differences in cylindrical anisometropia prevalence. We also quantified the rising risk of amblyopia with increasing SE and cylindrical anisometropia, and present the specific levels of refractive error and associated increasing risk of anisometropia.