At the Institute for Sustainable Futures, Jo leads inter-disciplinary research projects, in Australian and internationally, across the areas of: urban water, climate change adaptation, international development, ecosystem services, and wetland, catchment and river basin management.
Jo has extensive experience working with utilities and governments to strategically plan and manage urban water systems, including drought planning, pricing, water recycling and water efficiency initiatives. Jo has also conducted cross-jurisdictional programme evaluations and designed monitoring and evaluation plans in Australia and internationally, including for wetlands management, climate change adaptation, and WASH sectors. Jo has applied participatory socio-economic research methods and stakeholder engagement in a range of contexts including designing and facilitating deliberative processes to value urban water externalities.
Prior to joining ISF, Jo worked for the Australian Government Department of Environment and Heritage and as a senior research economist at the Productivity Commission. Jo has also spent time as a volunteer and consultant for the Asia Regional Environmental Economics Programme of IUCN – The World Conservation Union. At IUCN, Jo undertook community-based participatory social research, economic analysis, and project management for several wetlands management projects in south-east and south Asia.
Can supervise: YES
- Application of economics to sustainability, environmental and natural resource management and policy issues
- Environmental and resource management policy analysis and development
- Urban water management, assessment and strategic planning
- Participatory socio-economic research and stakeholder engagement
Carrard, N, Madden, B, Chong, J, Grant, M, Nghiêm, TP, Bùi, LH, Hà, HTT & Willetts, J 2019, 'Are piped water services reaching poor households? Empirical evidence from rural Viet Nam', Water Research, pp. 239-250.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd The delivery of water services to the poor is lagging, yet local causes and manifestations of this are not well understood. Better data is needed to identify inequalities where they occur, explore underlying reasons, and develop strategies to achieve more equitable access. A focus on the local scale is important because this is where water services are delivered, and inequalities in access can be best observed. This paper presents a mixed-methods study of poor households' access to piped water in rural Viet Nam, providing insight into local dynamics of the water/poverty nexus. Findings pointed to lower rates of piped water access for poor households across areas served by government, private and community service providers. Connection fees were found to be the primary barrier to poor households accessing available piped services. The study also found that where financial support is provided, poor households can achieve comparable or even higher rates of access. Key implications of the study are the demonstrated value of, and yet challenges associated with, rigorous local-level monitoring to ensure equitable, quality service delivery.
Kohlitz, J, Chong, J & Willetts, J 2019, 'Analysing the capacity to respond to climate change: a framework for community-managed water services', Climate and Development.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for guiding interdisciplinary research on analysing the capacity of community-managed water services to respond to disturbances from climate change. Climate change poses a serious threat to the sustainable delivery of community-managed water services in developing countries. We synthesized key concepts from the latest research on vulnerability and resilience theories into a shared framework that functions as a heuristic for the analysis of different elements of the capacity to respond to climate disturbances and how they are related to community-managed water services. Primary elements of the framework include conceptualisations of the capacities to respond to specific hazards (e.g. through risk management and knowledge of thresholds) and to disturbances in general (e.g. through agency, social structure, and adaptive management practices), the potential for capacity to be differentiated across scales, and the social and biophysical system characteristics that influence capacity to respond to climate change. We describe how each these elements relate to sustaining community-managed water services against climate change throughout the paper. We also discuss subjective choices (temporal frame, system boundaries, scale of inquiry, and desired forms of capacity) that analysts must make when considering how capacity to respond to climate change is analysed.
Chong, J, Winterford, K & Lederwasch, A 2018, 'Community Engagement on Water Futures: Using creative processes, appreciative inquiry and art to bring communities' views to life', Water e-Journal, vol. 3, no. 3.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
New approaches to engaging the community are needed to navigate the increasing complexity of planning urban water systems in the face of uncertain climatic, social, economic and political futures. This paper shares an innovative approach developed in collaboration between the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, and the NSW Government's Metropolitan Water Directorate. Our approach integrated futures visioning, Appreciative Inquiry and creative processes to engage the community on their vision for the future. Participants' visions were also informed by technical information about the urban water system. The approach produced three 'futures scenarios', comprising annotated artworks and accompanying narrative statements
Plant, R, Boydell, S, Prior, J, Chong, J & Lederwasch, A 2017, 'From liability to opportunity: An institutional approach towards value-based land remediation', Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 197-220.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The remediation of contaminated sites impacts on stakeholders in potentially beneficial ways, yet stakeholder dialogue has historically been focussed on costs, risk, liability, stigma, and other negatives. Shedding light on stakeholders' remediation values can help reform remediation
policy towards more positive outcomes of site clean-up. We adopt institutional theory to elicit plural motivations and cognitive assumptions as embedded in stakeholders' expressions of
remediation values, objectives, and outcomes. We explore in four case studies with varying
size, complexity, cultural diversity, and geographical location (three in Australia, one in Fiji) how remediation values operate within remediation decisions. Our findings suggest that more than economic costs, liability, and risks are at play in decision-making on contaminated land. Our
research confirmed that different socio-ethical, environmental and sustainability values are evaluated differently by different types of actors (site owners, regulators, auditors, residents, local government, consultants). We found that remediation values often shift in the course of a
remediation decision-making process, suggesting learning and improved understanding.
Remediation policy that better facilitates and aligns stakeholders' articulations of initial and
emergent outcomes sought from site clean-up is likely to enhance both economic and social value outcomes of remediation. Further research is needed on how remediation policy could better incorporate remediation value dynamics in stakeholder consultation and engagement.
Kohlitz, JP, Chong, J & Willetts, J 2017, 'Climate change vulnerability and resilience of water, sanitation, and hygiene services: a theoretical perspective', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 181-195.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Chong, J, Willetts, J, Abeysuriya, K, Hidayat, L & Sulistio, H 2016, 'Strengthening Governance Arrangements for Small City and Town Sanitation', Prakarsa - Journal of the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative, no. 23.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Turner, AJ, Mukheibir, P, Mitchell, C, Chong, J, Retamal, M, Murta, J, Carrard, N & Delaney, C 2016, 'Recycled water – lessons from Australia on dealing with risk and uncertainty', Water Practice and Technology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 127-138.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Much can be learned from the numerous water recycling schemes currently in operation in Australia, especially with respect to making investment decisions based on uncertain assumptions. This paper illustrates through a number of case studies, that by considering the contextual and project related risks, a range of business related risks become apparent. Shifts in the contextual landscape and the various players' objectives can occur over the life of a project, often leading to unforeseen risk and uncertainty. Through a thorough consideration of the potential risks presented in this paper, proponents as well as owners and managers might make better recycled water investment decisions, enhancing the benefits and minimizing the costs of water recycling schemes. This paper presents an overview and discussion of seven key factors to consider when planning a recycling scheme.
Kohlitz, J, Willetts, JR & Chong, J 2016, 'Monitoring the human rights to water and sanitation: an analysis of policy in Pacific Island countries', Water Policy, vol. 18, no. 5.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Government monitoring of water and sanitation services is a critical step in realising the human rights to water and sanitation (HRWS). In this study we investigated the national water and sanitation policies of 13 Pacific island countries (PICs) to understand how they envision monitoring the water and sanitation service delivery dimensions put forth by the HRWS framework. In particular, we analysed the policies for fundamental aspects of good monitoring governance and sought to learn how strongly monitoring of each service delivery dimension was represented in the policies. We found that delineation of roles and responsibilities and defined information flows are generally underdeveloped, and that the policies tend to give precedence to monitoring the service delivery dimensions of availability, quality, and sustainability over accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and equality. Donors have considerable influence on which dimensions receive the most emphasis in the policies. If realisation of the HRWS is to be effectively supported in PICs, PIC governments and supporting donors must continue to refine national policy to clarify aspects of good monitoring governance and to be more inclusive of monitoring a wider range of service delivery dimensions.
Chong, J, Gero, A & Treichel, P 2015, 'What Indicates Improved Resilience to Climate Change? A Learning and Evaluative Process Developed From a Child-Centered, Community-Based Project in the Philippines', New Directions for Evaluation, vol. 2015, no. 147, pp. 105-116.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cordell, D, Turner, A & Chong, J 2015, 'The hidden cost of phosphate fertilizers: mapping multi-stakeholder supply chain risks and impacts from mine to fork', Global Change, Peace & Security: formerly Pacifica Review: Peace, Security & Global Change, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 323-343.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Without phosphorus, we could not produce food. Farmers need access to phosphate fertilizers to achieve the high crop yields needed to feed the world. Yet growing global demand for phosphorus could surpass supply in the coming decades, and the world currently largely relies on non-renewable phosphate rock that is mined in only a few countries. Morocco alone controls 75% of the remaining reserves, including those in the conflict territory of Western Sahara. While some argue that the market will take care of any scarcity, the market price of phosphate fertilizers fails to account for far-ranging negative impacts. Drawing on multi-stakeholder supply chain risk frameworks, the article identifies a range of negative impacts, including the exploitation and displacement of the Saharawi people, the destruction of aquatic ecosystems by nutrient pollution, and jeopardizing future generations' ability to produce food. This paper fills a crucial gap in understanding phosphorus impacts by mapping and discussing the nature of phosphorus supply chain risks, and the transmission of such risks to different stakeholder groups. It also identifies a range of potential interventions to mitigate and manage those risks. In addition, the paper highlights that while risks are diverse, from geopolitical to ecological, those groups adversely affected are also diverse – including the Saharawi people, farmers, businesses, food consumers and the environment. Potential risk mitigation strategies range from resource sparing (using phosphorus more sparingly to extend the life of high quality rock for ourselves and future generations), to resource diversification (sourcing phosphorus from a range of ethical sources to reduce dependence on imported phosphate, as a buffer against supply disruptions, and preferencing those sources with lower societal costs), and sharing the responsibility for these costs and consequences.
Chong, J 2014, 'Climate-readiness, competition and sustainability: An analysis of the legal and regulatory frameworks for providing water services in Sydney', Water Policy, vol. 16, no. 2014, pp. 1-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper examines whether key legislative and regulatory frameworks for the provision of water services in Sydney, Australia, successfully support the complex task of planning and managing urban water systems to balance water security, cost and sustainability considerations. The challenges of managing urban water systems under a changing and uncertain climate became starkly apparent during Australia's 'Millennium Drought', a decade-long period of extremely dry conditions throughout the 2000s. As the drought progressed, several state and territory governments assumed control of planning and approvals processes in order to implement large water-supply infrastructure projects with great urgency. However, at the end of the decade La Niña rains saturated catchments, spilled over dam walls and devastated several communities with flooding. Analysis of the frameworks for third-party access, private-sector participation, planning, and water-conservation initiatives reveals that the rules, roles and responsibilities of the many actors are interlinked but not always effectively integrated. The introduction and expansion of competition in the urban water industry are an ongoing experiment with great influence on the governance of the sector and the ways in which water services are planned for and provided.
Chong, J 2014, 'Ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation: progress and challenges', International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 17-41.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The concept of 'ecosystem services' aims to encapsulate the reliance of human lives and wellbeing on nature, in order to inform decisions about how humankind interacts with and uses the natural environment. The now well-recognised term underpins various frameworks for identifying, quantifying and linking the health of ecosystems and social and economic outcomes. However, operationalising this apparently fundamental concept in a useful way is far from straightforward in the complex situation of allocating water resources between apparently irreconcilable demands in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. The Water Act 2007 (Cth), which forms the basis for the latest water reforms in the MDB, includes express reference to the importance of ecosystem services. However, there is much uncertainty as to whether and how analysis of these benefits has influenced water allocation planning and decisions. This article critically examines whether legislative arrangements support the integration of ecosystem services analysis into water resources planning in the Basin, examining in tum the National Water Initiative, the Water Act 2007 (Cth), and state water planning arrangements. It finds that there is limited specific guidance about how to reflect ecosystems in water planning, and that in practice ecosystem services are generally analysed as an outcome of, rather than an explicit input to, decision-making. The article concludes that the greatest potential for the ecosystem services concept to inform decision-making lies in its role as a tool to inform an earlier stage of planning for water resource areas: as a taxonomy and 'language' to articulate and describe the range of potential benefits and beneficiaries of water resources and water-dependent ecosystems.
This paper presents a case study of the decision-making processes for the rehabilitation and reuse of Lami dump, Fiji, closed in 2005 after 60 years of contributing negative effects on human health, amenity and the condition of the surrounding environment. Using semi-structured interviews, this research investigated the value creation opportunities of reuse sought by a diverse range of parties including government ministries, local governments, the donor, NGOs and civil society, researchers, the private sector, and communities. The analysis is based on the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which defines institutions as the rules-in-place influencing whether and how actors are involved in a decision situation. The conversion of the site into a recreational park was the only feasible redevelopment option, constrained as it was by the amount of European Commission funding available for the site. Another significant factor was the low level and extent of stakeholder engagement. There are many institutions in place, stemming from legislation, which although emergent, have the potential to enable a wider range of values to be represented in future decision-making processes.
The concept of 'ecosystem services' aims to encapsulate the reliance of human lives and wellbeing on nature, in order to inform decisions about how humankind interacts with and uses the natural environment. The now well-recognised term underpins various frameworks for identifying, quantifying and linking the health of ecosystems and social and economic outcomes. However, operationalising this apparently fundamental concept in a useful way is far from straightforward in the complex situation of allocating water resources between apparently irreconcilable demands in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. The Water Act 2007 (Cth), which forms the basis for the latest water refonns in the MDB, includes express reference to the importance of ecosystem services. However, there is much uncertainty as to whether and how analysis of these benefits has influenced water allocation planning and decisions.
White, S, Noble, K & Chong, J 2008, 'Reform, risk and reality: challenges and opportunities for Australian urban water management', The Australian Economic Review, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 428-434.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper we review recent challenges to the water industry in Australia and describe a set of risks and opportunities in the form of a set of response measures. Some of these are being implemented or are being actively discussed within industry circles. These response measures are analysed for their potential benefits and their potential to be implemented in ways that yield either positive or negative social outcomes.
Chong, J & Ladson, A 2003, 'Analysis And Management Of Unseasonal Flooding In The Barmah-millewa Forest, Australia', River Research And Applications, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 161-180.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The Barmah-Millewa Forest is the largest red gum forest in the world and lies adjacent to the middle reaches of Australia's River Murray. Regulation of the River Murray, to supply water for irrigation, has changed the watering regime of the forest and th
Chong, J. & Ladson, A. 2003, 'Management and analysis of unseasonal surplus flows in the Barmah-Millewa forest, Australia.', River Research and Applications, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 161-180.
Chong, J, Cooley, H, Dickinson, M, Turner, AJ & White, S 2018, 'Managing drought in urban centres – Lessons from Australia' in Wilhite, DA & Puwarty, RS (eds), Drought and Water Crises: Science Technology and Management Issues, Taylor and Francis, pp. 359-367.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Because of a comprehensive drought response effort, Australian cities did not run out of water. This chapter draws on the experiences of a range of stakeholders including water utilities, government agencies, businesses, and communities across Australia to examine how this was achieved, as well as how these efforts could have been improved. From around 1997 to 2012, however, Australia endured the "Millennium Drought", which affected a larger area of Australia, and in many locations it lasted far longer than any previous drought on record. The Millennium Drought provided an opportunity to leverage community concern and political will for change and innovations in the way that urban water systems were managed and planned. Communication and public engagement on drought conditions and water savings programs were instrumental to success of water savings initiatives. During the Millennium Drought, Australian cities faced a significant issue that confronts all water-scarce urban regions: tension between investing in demand management programs and investing in water supply infrastructure.
Chong, J, Treichel, P & Gero, A 2017, 'Evaluating climate change adaptation in practice: A child-centred, community-based project in the Philippines' in Uitto, JI, Puri, J & van den Berg, RD (eds), Evaluating Climate Change Action for Sustainable Development, Springer, Germany, pp. 289-304.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This authoritative book reviews the evaluation of the development and implementation of climate change strategies.
Chong, J & White, S 2017, 'Urban—Major Reforms in Urban Water Policy and Management in Major Australian Cities' in Hart, B & Doolan, J (eds), Decision Making in Water Resources Policy and Management, Elsevier, The Netherlands, pp. 85-96.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The urban water sector in Australia is quite diverse. Service providers range from large integrated
utilities, such as Sydney Water, Melbourne Water and the Water Corporation of Western Australia,
through to disaggregated retail and bulk water utilities, and local government water authorities. Their
responsibilities range from water supply only, to also include sewerage service provision and bulk
stormwater management. Some utilities rely exclusively on local surface water, while sources used
in other areas include large-scale intercatchment transfers, groundwater and desalination plants.
The scales involved range from a few hundred connections to nearly two million users
Fane, S, Mukheibir, P, Chong, J, Prickett, L & Ravalico, J 2018, 'Disruptors and megatrends; identifying external factors for the Melbourne sewerage strategy 2018', OzWater18, Brisbane.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The Melbourne Sewerage Strategy is a 50 year strategy for sewerage management in Melbourne. Identification of potential disruptors that could significantly alter the system is a critical part of the strategy. Consideration was given to global 'megatrends' such as climate change, resource scarcity, new technologies and rising inequity. This project scanned futures from a range of sectors including: urban water, cities, agriculture, energy, transport, and communications. Building on existing knowledge, innovative thinking was stimulated through futures methods. During two workshops industry practitioners identified novel future factors, prioritised disruptors and assessed their possible manifestation as risks or opportunities for the system.
Recycled water pricing poses significant challenges, with utilities struggling to balance establishing markets, recovering costs and creating a nexus between beneficiaries and who pays for reuse schemes. Historical pricing legacies, regulatory and institutional frameworks and environmental conditions all contribute to the complexity.
This paper outlines preliminary findings from the Water Research Foundation-supported project 'Challenges and Practical Approaches to Water Reuse Pricing,' from the Australian perspective. It explores two Victorian utilities experience with reuse pricing.
Chong, J, Atherton, A, Leahy, C & White, S 2017, 'Universities as facilitators of change:The role of research in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals', International Conference on Sustainable Development, Columbia University, New York.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chong, J, Winterford, K & Lederwasch, AJ 2017, 'Community engagement on water futures: using creative processes, appreciative inquiry and art to bring communities' views to life', OzWater 2017, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chong, J, Abeysuriya, K, Hidayat, L, Sulistio, H & Willetts, JR 2016, 'Strengthening local governance arrangements for sanitation: case studies of small cities in Indonesia', Aquatic Procedia, Annual World Water Week (WWW), Elsevier: Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No-Derivatives License, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 64-73.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Local governments in Indonesia have the primary responsibility for delivering sanitation (wastewater) services. However, in large part due to governance factors, local governments invest little in sanitation services and delivery of services is weak. This research adopted a participatory, case study approach to investigate governance and institutional arrangements for planning, budgeting and implementing sanitation services in small cities and towns in Sumatra, Indonesia. The research focused on the effectiveness of city/regency planning for sanitation, the effectiveness of pokja sanitasi (sanitation committees), the links between planning and investment, and local government roles and responsibilities. This paper presents the findings of three case studies. Barriers to effective delivery of sanitation services include: prescriptive local budgeting and approval systems; lack of local government ownership of assets; and policy, funding and technical arrangements that are biased against strategic delivery.
Abeysuriya, KR, Wedahuditama, F, Chong, J & Willetts, J 2016, 'Strengthening local government governance for long-term sanitation service delivery', WASH Futures Conference, Brisbane.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chong, J, Abeysuriya, K, Hidayat, L, Sulistio, H, Suartana, N, Ross, K & Willetts, J 2015, 'Strengthening institutional and governance arrangements for small city sanitation, Indonesia', Stockholm World Water Week 2016, Stockholm, Sweden.
Treichel, P, Chong, J & Gero, A 2015, 'Child-centred, community-based adaptation: An evidence-based process to understand project impacts', CBA9: 9th conference on community-based adaptation to climate change, Nairobi, Kenya.
Kohlitz, J, Chong, J & Willetts, J 2015, 'Government-led monitoring of water, sanitation and hygiene service adaptation to climate change', IDEAS Global Assembly 2015, Bangkok, Thailand.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Mukheibir, P, Turner, AJ, Mitchell, CA, Chong, J, Murta, J, Retamal, ML, Carrard, NR & Delaney, CC 2014, 'Shifts happen: Making better recycled water investment decisions', Sustainability in Public Works Conference 27 29 July 2014, Sustainability in Public Works Conference 27 29 July 2014, IPWEA, Tweed Heads.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
ABSTRACT: Recycled water has increasingly been considered as a means to deal with water supply-demand imbalances, treated wastewater disposal and stormwater management. It contributes to the sustainability of urban water systems and the regeneration of the urban landscape. However, recycled water schemes are not mainstream, and are often confronted with numerous challenges. By considering the contextual and project related risks associated with a diverse selection of recycling projects in Australia, a range of business related risks have become apparent. There is now evidence that shifts in both the contextual landscape and the objectives of the various players involved can occur over the life of a project, resulting in risk and uncertainty often not foreseen. Many guidelines on recycling have been produced which focus mainly on technical risk. Drawing on the experiences of a diverse selection of case studies in Australia, this paper contemplates the additional risks and uncertainties, often not initially considered at the inception of a recycling scheme. This paper presents an overview and discussion of six key issues to consider when planning a recycling scheme.
Treichel, P, Chong, J & Gero, A 2014, 'Adapting to the new normal: Lessons for measuring community resilience to climate change from the Philippines', 2nd International Conference on Evaluating Climate Change and Development, Washington, D.C..
Mitchell, CA, Murta, J, Retamal, M, Turner, A, Carrard, N & Chong, J 2013, 'Recycled water investment decisions: case studies in balancing the costs, benefits, and risks', Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Kuruppu, N, Mukheibir, P, Murta, J, Gero, A, Brennan, T & Chong, J 2012, 'Enhancing the adaptive capacity of Small-to-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Australia to climate change and variability', Climate Adaptation in Action 2012: Sharing knowledge to adapt, Climate Adaptation in Action 2012: Sharing knowledge to adapt, National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF), Melbourne, Australia.
Lederwasch, AJ, Prior, JH, Boydell, S, Chong, J & Plant, R 2011, 'Opportunities for value creation: An institutional analysis of remediation decision-making processes at three Australian sites', CleanUp 2011, Adelaide, South Australia.
Plant, R, Chong, J & McInnes, R 2009, 'Catchments as Assets: an Australian Case Study of Control Measures for Source Water Protection', 8th International Conference of the European Society for Ecological Economics (ESEE 2009): Transformation, Innovation and Adaptation for Sustainability, Ljubljana.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chong, J., Fyfe, J. & Fane, S.A. 2009, 'Estimating the sustainability benefits of water efficiency labeling and minimum standards', Proceedings of the 5th IWA Specialist Conference 'Efficient 2009', 'Efficient 2009': 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, International Water Association (IWA) and Australia Water Association (AWA), Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-11.
Chong, J. & Partridge, E.Y. 2009, 'Watering sportsgrounds during restrictions: perspectives from Melbourne Metropolitan Councils', Ozwater '09: From Challenges to Solutions, Ozwater: From Challenges to Solutions, Australlian Water Association (AWA), Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Restrictions on outdoor water use have been a key element of the response to drought in metropolitan Melbourne. When stage 3A restrictions were introduced in April 2007, managers of grassed sportsgrounds mainly local councils were limited to watering 1 in 4 sites, and were required to make a 25% saving in water used outdoors. In late 2007, an allocation scheme was introduced as an alternative option available to councils for watering sportsgrounds. This research aims to inform the development of future drought response mechanisms, by providing insight into recent perspectives from Melbournes metropolitan local councils on watering sportsgrounds during drought. Through a series of semi-structured interviews, this research explored the underlying drivers, barriers, constraints and opportunities for efficient water management for grassed sportsgrounds.
Chong, J. 2009, 'The role of restrictions in urban water management: reflections from the Australian drought', 2nd International Conference on Water Economics, Statistics, and Finance, International Conference on Water Economics, Statistics, and Finance, International Water Association (IWA), Alexandroupolis, Greece, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In many Australian cities, restrictions on water use have recently been in place for prolonged periods. This paper examines the role of residential restrictions in efficient urban water management. Gaps in empirical evidence on the costs of restrictions limit the achievement of efficient outcomes. A case study demonstrates the uncertainty of estimating the costs of restrictions using benefit transfer and consumer surplus methods. Scarcity-based pricing has potential as an alternative to restrictions, but more information would be required to assess equity and distributional concerns. The paper concludes that more empirical evidence about the impacts of restrictions is required to inform urban water management, and there is a need for extending the methods for eliciting preferences about and attitudes towards restrictions.
Carrard, NR, Chong, J, Atherton, AM, Mitchell, CA, Bishop, A, Donaldson, P & Wilson, M 2008, 'Costs and Benefits of a Green Village: Demonstrating Lochiel Park's Value', Proceedings of the 2008 World Sustainable Building Conference, World Sustainable Building Conference, www.sb08melbourne.com, Melbourne, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chong, J & White, S 2007, 'Decisions for the urban drought: paternalism or participation?', 2007 ANZSEE Conference. Re-inventing Sustainability: A Climate for Change, ANZSEE Conference. Re-inventing Sustainability: A Climate for Change, Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics, Noosa Lakes, Queensland, Australia, pp. 1-24.
Plant, R, Herriman, J & Chong, J 2007, 'Valuing the health of the Yarra River: Contingent Valuation revisited by a Citizens' Jury', ANZSEE Conference: 'Re-inventing Sustainability: A climate for change', Noosa Lakes, Queensland, Australia.
Ladson, A. & Chong, J. 2005, 'Unseasonal flooding of the Barmah-Millewa forest', Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, Conference on the Barmah Forest, Melbourne.
Chong, J. 2005, 'Beyond the household survey: participatory approaches for wetland resource valuation', Multilateral Environmental Agreements - Economic Valuation Workshop, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
Raucher, R, Henderson, J, Atwater, R, Rosenblum, E, Watson, R, Chong, J, Basoli, D, Callow, D & Miles, E 2019, Challenges and Successful Strategies for Pricing Reuse Water - Final Report, Colorado, USA.
This report provides practical information to assist utilities and other water sector professionals, as the grapple with the challenges of setting prices, generating revenues and recovering costs from the provisions of reuse water, with a focus on non-potable reuse.
This research was funded by the Water Research Foundation under project 4662.
Existing water supplies in the Perth and Peel region of Western Australia are insufficient to meet projected unconstrained water demands for a city of 3.5 million people. Developing non-potable recycled water supplies can require significant investment, both in terms of time and funds. Investment in the development of recycled water is more likely to be attractive where the arrangements for securing the wastewater resource to be reused are as clear and predictable as possible, including the volumes available, the charges they will have to pay and the time period of the agreement. This reports investigates the current arrangements for securing wastewater (either treated or untreated) across Australia in terms of:
* The level of clarity and ease of process that they provide to potential non-potable water users;
* Any effects on the interests of the existing wastewater service providers and their existing customers.
It compares and contrasts the alternative methods of securing wastewater for recycling and provides a synthesis of lessons learnt and implications for implementation for both the public utility and the third parties seeking wastewater resources for the purposes of producing recycled water.
Chong, J, Kome, A, Murta, J, Willetts, JR & Grant, M 2017, Exploring smart enforcement within urban sanitation, Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wynne, L, Cordell, D, Chong, J & Jacobs, B Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) 2016, Planning tools for strategic management of peri-urban food production, pp. 1-44.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Using Sydney as a case study, this report aims to develop an understanding of what best practice looks for land-use planning on the urban fringe.
Peri-urban areas around the world have traditionally been the food bowls of our cities. Increasing urbanisation is threatening the existence of peri-urban agriculture, paving over the soils that have fed global city populations. Increasing conversion to commercial and residential uses, fragmentation, land-use conflicts and global challenges such as climate change pose a threat to the viability of food production in peri-urban areas.
This report considers responses that might emerge from the planning system to address threats to peri-urban agriculture. The report focuses on the experience of peri-urban planning and food production in the Sydney Basin, in New South Wales, Australia
The report reviews a range of planning responses to managing peri-urban areas for resilience and sustainability. These include strategic planning measures, financial incentives, property rights protections and improved methods for valuing the benefits that peri-urban agriculture provides to cities.
For many cities, perhaps including Sydney, a large proportion of peri-urban food production has already been lost, converted to residential use and supporting infrastructure. For that which remains, and for those cities that have sustainably managed their peri-urban agricultural lands, policy and initiatives are required to ensure that food production on the urban fringe can continue to contribute to urban resilience in the future.
Turner, A, White, S, Chong, J, Dickinson, M, Cooley, H & Donnelly, K the Alliance for Water Efficiency, the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney and the Pacific Institute 2016, Managing drought: Learning from Australia, pp. 1-93, University of Technology Sydney and the Pacific Institute for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
California is facing yet another year of unprecedented, record-breaking drought. At this time of need, US agencies have turned to Australia to identify the strategies that urban water utilities and water agencies adopted to survive its worst drought in recorded history, the Millennium Drought, which lasted from 1997 until it officially ended in 2012.
Plant, RA, Chong, J, Lederwasch, A, Prior, J, Asker, S & Boydell, S 2016, Value-based Land Remediation: Improved Decision-making for Contaminated Land (CRC CARE Technical Report No. 35), pp. 1-33, CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chong, J, Ross, K, Abeysuriya, K, Hidayat, L, Sulisto, H, Suartana, N, Carreiro, M & Willetts, J 2015, Strengthening governance arrangements for small city and town sanitation in Sumatra, Indonesia – a selection of key themes for local governments and policy makers. A Briefing Paper..View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This project brief summarises key themes from research that investigated local government governance and institutional arrangements for sanitation (wastewater) planning, budgeting and implementation in small cities and towns in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Chong, J, Willetts, J, Suartana, N & Hidayat, L 2015, Memperkuat tata kelola pemerintahan untuk kota dan kota kecil di Sumatra, Indonesia – pilihan tema-tema kunci untuk pemerintah daerah dan pengambil kebijakan. Makalah Singkat..View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chong, J, Treichel, P, Gero, A, Nuestro, R, McDonough, J, Azucena, W, Abes, J & Abogado, N 2015, Child-Centred Community-Based Climate Change Adaptation in the Philippines: Guidance document for Local-level indicators: A process to help understand how children and their communities are adapting to climate change.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
How do we know if a climate change program has helped children and their communities adapt to the impacts of climate change? What does successful adaptation look like from the perspective of children, youth and their communities? This guidance document provides details of a focus group discussion (FGD) process and tools, including additional interview questions and an analysis guide, to help practitioners answer these questions – specifically, to understand how children and their communities have been supported to adapt to climate change, through participation in the Australian Aid-funded Child-Centred Community-Based Climate Change Adaptation (CC-CBA) Project in the Philippines. The process in this guidance document, including FGD questions, has been field-tested with children and their communities and iteratively refined over the course of this project. The framework for answering these questions is based on local-level indicators of climate change adaptation. These indicators are intended to help understand changes and progress as a result of project activities. The FGD process is thus qualitative. Some indicators can also be translated through scalar (quantitative) measures.
Chong, J, Abeysuriya, K, Hidayat, L, Sulistio, H, Ross, K & WIlletts, J Report prepared by the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, Kemitraan Partnership for Governance Reform and SNV Indonesia for the Australian Aid Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII). 2015, Strengthening governance arrangements for small city and town sanitation..View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Winterford, K, Downes, J & Chong, J Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2015, World Vision's Global Advocacy Campaign Child Health Now: A review of the campaign model and contribution to World Vision advocacy capacity. Phase 1 Evaluation Report., pp. 1-64, Sydney.
Gero, A. & Chong, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2013, Child centered-Community based climate change adaptation in the Philippines. Local indicators research: A review of literature on local indicators of adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change, pp. 1-36, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Kuruppu, N, Murta, J, Mukheibir, P, Chong, J & Brennan, T National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility 2013, Understanding the adaptive capacity of Australian small-to-medium enterprises to climate change and variability, Understanding the adaptive capacity of Australian small-to-medium enterprises to climate change and variability.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) comprise 96 per cent of all private businesses in Australia. The SME sector is the economys largest employer and the largest contributor to GDP. Moreover, SMEs play a significant role within socio-economic systems: they provide employment, goods and services and tax revenue for communities. Climate change may result in adverse business outcomes including business interruptions, increased investment and insurance costs, and declines in financial indicators such as measures of value, return and growth. After natural disasters, SMEs face greater short-term losses than larger enterprises, and may have lower adaptive capacity for various reasons. This study examines the underlying factors and processes shaping adaptive capacity of Australian SMEs to climate change and associated sea level rise. Specifically, the research asks the following questions: 1) How have SMEs considered and integrated adaptation into business planning? 2) What are the key underlying processes that constrain and influence the adaptive capacities of SMEs? and 3) What types of support are required to promote SME business continuity under a changing climate? The study adopts theories from Political Ecology and draws on literature on vulnerability and hazards to understand the processes that mediate the adaptive capacity of SMEs. The empirical research involved an online survey targeting SMEs, attending business engagement events hosted by chambers of commerce, 30 semi-structured interviews with secondary stakeholders, five case studies involving SMEs and secondary stakeholders, and finally a stakeholder workshop which brought together participants from both groups
Chong, J, Asker, SA, O'Rourke, A & White, S Australian Business Foundation Ltd 2012, Green Chrysalis - Small and medium-sized enterprises: innovation and transformation towards Australia's low-carbon economy, pp. 1-91, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Herriman, J & Chong, J Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2012, Advice for Managing and Facilitating Community Reference Panels.
Paddon, M, Prior, JH, Herriman, J, Chong, J, Moore, D & Boyle, T 2011, Australian tourism sustainability performance indicators report: Presenting the framework, no. 1, prepared for Sustainable Tourism CRC, by Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS, Sydney, Australia.
Paddon, M, Prior, JH, Herriman, J, Chong, J, Moore, D & Boyle, T 2011, Australian tourism sustainability performance indicators: Preparing the framework, no. 2, prepared for Sustainable Tourism CRC, by Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS, Sydney, Australia.
Paddon, M, Prior, JH, Herriman, J, Chong, J, Moore, D & Boyle, T 2011, Australian tourism sustainability performance indicators: Detailed indicator framework, no. 3, prepared for Sustainable Tourism CRC, by Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS, Sydney, Australia.
McInnes, R, de Groot, J, Plant, R, Chong, J & Olszak, C Water Quality Research Australia (WQRA) 2011, Managing catchments as business assets: An economic framework for evaluating control measures for source water protect (Research Report No. 83), pp. 1-69, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fane, SA, Turner, AJ, McKibbin, JL, May, D, Fyfe, J, Chong, J, Blackburn, N, Patterson, JJ & White, S Australian National Water Commission 2011, Integrated resource planning for urban water - resource papers, pp. 1-206, Canberra.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Partridge, EY, Chong, J, Herriman, J, Daly, JG & Lederwasch, AJ Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2011, City of Sydney indicator framework, Sydney, Australia.
Turner, AJ, Willetts, JR, Fane, SA, Giurco, D, Chong, J, Kazaglis, A & White, S Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) 2010, Guide to Demand Management and Integrated Resource Planning (update on original 2008 Guide), pp. 1-174, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This Guide lays out a way to undertake urban water planning, using a consistent framework, which creates benefits for the whole community. It was originally developed by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney for the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) and has been updated with the support of the Australian Governments National Water Commission (NWC). The Guide is intended for both WSAA members and the broader Australian water industry
Plant, R, Chong, J, Prior, JH & Boydell, S 2010, Value-based land remediation: Improved decision-making for contaminated land. Discussion Paper, CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, Australia.
Chong, J., Brennan, T. & Asker, S.A. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, Issues Paper: Innovation and transformation: SMEs and the low-carbon economy, Sydney.
Chong, J., Mason, L.M., Pillora, S.D. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2009, Briefing Paper - Product stewardship schemes in Asia: China and Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, pp. 1-22, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This document summarises the main features and outcomes of product stewardship schemes in Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and China. Information was obtained from English-language documents. An overview of the types of schemes, key drivers and lessons for Australia is presented in this summary section, followed by more detailed information tables for each country in subsequent sections.
Chong, J., Kazaglis, A. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney 2008, Cost-effectiveness analysis of WELS: the Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards scheme, pp. 1-91, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards Scheme (WELS), introduced in July 2006, is a key program in the suite of options recently implemented by government agencies and water utilities to address water scarcity. WELS primarily influences water consumption by providing consumers with information about the water efficiency of all washing machines, dishwashers, toilets, urinals, taps and showers sold in Australia â thus enabling consumers to consider water efficiency as a factor in their purchase decisions. However, the WELS program is not without costs. Governments, suppliers, retailers and consumers of WELS-products potentially incur costs due to WELS activities and requirements. The Department of the Environment, Heritage, Water and the Arts, in its capacity as the WELS Regulator, commissioned the Institute of Sustainable Futures to analyse the cost-effectiveness of WELS in contributing to the overarching objective of water security, compared to other urban water management options. Consistent with the regulatory impact statement conducted in 2003, this analysis uses a time horizon of 2005-06 to 2020-21.
Herriman, J, Plant, R & Chong, J Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2007, Yarra River Values Forum - A Citizens' Forum held in Ivanhoe, Melbourne 1-3 December 2006 (Volumes 1 & 2), pp. 1-71, Sydney.
Chong, J., Dwyer, G., Douglas, R., Peterson, D. & Maddern, K. Productivity Commission Staff Working Paper 2006, Irrigation Externalities: Pricing and Charges, Melbourne.
Chong, J IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group Asia 2005, Valuing the role of aquatic resources in livelihoods: Economic aspects of community wetland management in Stoeng Treng Ramsar Site, Cambodia, pp. 1-59, Colombo.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wetlands are vital to the livelihoods of hundred of millions of people residing in the Lower Mekong region, and particularly to the food security of many of the rural poor. There are many stakeholders with interest in the management of these precious resources including government agencies across different sectors and at different levels, private businesses, international and local non-governmental organisations, and local communities. In Cambodia, however, there exist a number of barriers to effective wetland management. These barriers include: lack of co-ordination between different sectoral approaches; weak policy frameworks and unsupportive economic environments; inadequate information on which to base wetland planning and management decisions and policies; inadequate human and technical resources; and lack of options for resource use by local communities. Economic assessments can help us manage wetland resources by improving our understanding of what drives resource-use decisions and why, and to what extent, wetlands are valuable to local communities. This document reports on a study which illustrated how economic assessments can improve wetland management. The aim of the study was to provide guidance on the use of environmental economic assessment methodologies to support wetlands management for poverty alleviation outcomes in Stoeng Treng Ramsar site. Village-level economic valuation techniques were employed to conduct livelihoods assessments in Veun Sean (one village within the Ramsar site) in order to draw more general conclusions about wetland resource use and management. The study extended beyond quantitative assessment to explore the context in which resource-use decisions are made and the linkages between poverty and the importance of wetland resources
Chong, J. ICUN - The World Conservation Union, Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group Asia 2004, Veun Sean village, Stung Treng Ramsar site, Cambodia: Rapid, participatory assessment for wetland valuation, Colombo.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chong, J. & Murtough, G. Productivity Commission 2001, The Private Benefits of Being Green, Research Memorandum GA505, Melbourne.
Chong, J 2005, 'Protective values of mangrove and coral ecosystems: A review of methods and evidence'.
Mangrove and coral ecosystems have many values. Providing habitats for a wide range of species, coastal ecosystems are a source of food, medicines, and forestry products. In many regions, the tourism and recreational value of coastal ecosystems is significant, and if this value is realised can contribute significantly to financing the management of the ecosystems for local communities. In addition to these direct-use values, mangrove and coral ecosystem functions also indirectly support economic activity – for example through nutrient recycling, water purification, and flood control. One key indirect value is the protective function of coastal ecosystems against wave and storm energy, both in terms of ongoing coastal erosion and from potentially destructive cyclones or typhoons. However, decision-makers often undervalue these shoreline protection services (Burke 2004). This paper reviews evidence and methodologies for assessing the shoreline protective values of mangrove and coral ecosystems. These studies tend to be based on hypothetical situations, comparing current situations to that if the protective values were destroyed. In tsunami-affected coastal areas, however, there is an opportunity to assess the protective values of mangrove and coral ecosystems, supported by field-based evidence, to promote conservation of these ecosystems for the livelihoods of coastal communities.