Associate Professor Jingqing Yang joined UTS in 2003 after he had completed his PhD in Chinese Studie with University of Sydney. He also has a PhD in Sociology with UNSW which he received in 2009. He has supervised more than 20 higher degrees research students, and taught a wide variety of subjects in social sciences and Chinese language.
Can supervise: YES
- Sociology of professions
- Chinese health care system and reforms
- Chinese cultural politics
- Chinese culture
- Chinese literature
- Chinese philosophy
© The Author(s) 2017.This text addresses the key issue of informal payments, or ‘red packets’, in the Chinese Healthcare system. It considers how transactions take place at the clinical level as well as their regulation. Analysing the practice from the perspectives of institutions and power structure, it examines how institutional changes in the pre-reform and reform era have changed the power structure between medical professions, patients and the Party-state, and how these changes have given rise and perpetuate the practice. Drawing from qualitative data from interviews of medical professionals, the author recognises the medical profession as a major player in the health care system and presents their perception of the practice as the taker of ‘red packets’ and their interactions with the patient and the state surrounding the illegal practice in an authoritarian power structure. The books considers the institutional reasons that motivate doctors to take, patients to give, and the government to “tolerate” red packets, arguing that the bureaucratization of the medical profession, society of acquaintances and shortage of quality of medical services jointly create an institutional setting that has given rise to these informal payments. Contributing to a rounded understanding of the problems of healthcare reform in China, this book is a key read for all scholars interested in the issue of informal payments and healthcare politics in transition economies.
Yang, J 2007, The Chan Interpretations of Wang Wei's Poetry: A Critical Review, 1, The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong.
Prior, N 2000, 沼泽中的尸体/Bog bodies/澳大利亚丛书, Yunan Meishu Chubanshe, Kunming, Yunnan.
Waller, L 1998, 瑞士帐号, 译林出版社, Nanjing, China.
© 2019, Springer Nature Limited. This study revisited the sick role theory and proposed that the doctor–patient dyadic system be expanded to include state as a major actor to extend the applicability of the theory to other political systems. I argue that state not only exercises coercive power in the social control mechanism, but also practices persuasion in the socialisation mechanism. Drawing on evidence from China, the paper notes that the establishment of the state medicine in the 1950s and 1960s significantly changed illness behavioural patterns of the people covered by public health insurances. To counteract abuse of health insurance and secondary gains, the Chinese Party-state propagated official sick role expectations and norms through sick models—sick persons who thought and behaved as the Party-state expected. Two types of sick models were identified: the cooperative and the ‘defiant’. These models were propagated to serve the Party-state’s political and economic agenda.
Patient-centred medicine is being adopted as national policies in many countries, encouraged by positive outcomes of the practice at clinical and organisational levels. This study examines the patient-centred health care reform in China, which has adopted the approach as a national policy for two decades but has yet to achieve the intended goals. Focusing on conflicting interpretations of the nature of patients at national, organisational, and individual levels, this article argues that such conflicts lead to clashes between the political agenda of the state, priorities of health organisations, professional choices of individual practitioners, and expectations of patients in the process of implementing, practicing, and receiving patient-centred health care in China. It reveals that the national health authority has intended patient-centredness as a universal, anti-market, people-centred approach, based on the health ideology of serving the people. But hospitals, compelled by financial restraints, have implemented it as a market approach centring on patients as consumers. Medical professionals and patients also possess contradictory views towards whether a patient should be perceived as a consumer. The discordance in the interpretation of the patient identity has caused great confusion in the implementation and provision of patient-centred health care. The study points out that the success of patient-centredness as national policy cannot be assumed on the basis of its success at clinical and organisational levels. More efforts are needed to coordinate the fundamental understanding of patient-centredness by different actors.
Yang, J 2013, 'The impact of informal payments on quality and equality in the Chinese health care system: A study from the perspective of doctors', Health Sociology Review, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 268-281.
Informal payments are prevalent in the health care systems in the post-communist economies. Some scholars attribute the emergence of the phenomenon to the tension between patients' rising expectations for quality and the shortages due to government failure, and accuse it of exacerbating inequality in health care. However, existing literature does not identify which part of medical services is affected by poor quality. Drawing on evidence from interviews with Chinese doctors, this research shows that the informal payment system has only limited impact on the technical core of medical procedures but can considerably improve the quality of the peripheral components of medical practice. It further argues that the influence of informal payments on inequality is also limited because evidence indicates that Chinese doctors maintain their professionalism
Yang, J 2010, 'Serve the people: understanding ideology and professional ethics of medicine in China', Health Care Analysis, vol. 18, pp. 294-309.
The article explores the communist ideology that has guided the formation of professional ethics of medicine in China. It first explores the constitutions of the Peoples Republic of China and the Chinese Communist Party and codes of practice for medicine enforced since 1949, showing that the core of the ideology in relation to health provision and doctorpatient relationship has always been `serving the people wholeheartedly. The ideological undertaking, however, has never been successfully exercised. In the pre-reform era, the bureaucratisation of health professionals led to the emergence of `bureaucratic medicine featuring negligence of patients interests. In the reform era, the prevailing commercialisation of health care is in fundamental conflict with the ideological commitment to serving the people. As a result, the socialist professional ethics of medicine has not been satisfactorily practiced in reality.
Yang, J 2008, '9 Professors, doctors, and lawyers', The New Rich in China: Future Rulers, Present Lives, pp. 148-148.
The development of medical practices in the non-public sector in the Peoples Republic of China has undergone three major periods of reform since 1978. The first period between 1980 and 1988 saw the reappearance of private practice. The major policy thrust of this period was to provide a basic regulatory framework to govern the reappeared private practice. From 1988 to 2000, corollary to the decreasing government health spending on health care, the collapse of public health insurance schemes, the increase of migrant workers in urban areas, and the increasing number of laid-off medical personnel, the private medical sector expanded tremendously. The state and local governments initiated policies aiming at more structured and stricter regulation of the private medical market. Since 2000, the medical market has further opened to non-public investment due to changes in ideology and the recognition of the rights to profit of private practices.
Jingqing, YANG 2006, 'Governing Private Practice in China’s Health Care Sector', Institute for International Studies Working Paper, University of Technology Sydney.
Yang, J 2006, 'The privatisation of professional knowledge in the public health care sector in China', Health Sociology Review, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 16-28.
Yang, J 2006, 'The Problematic Wage Reforms in China's Public Health Sector', Policy and Society: Special Issue, Social Change ad Policy Making in China, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 109-132.
Yang, J 2006, 'Wage Reforms, Fiscal Policies and their impact on Doctors' Clinical Behaviour in China's Public Health Sector', Policy and Society, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 109-132.
Yang, J 2017, 'Governing Informal Payments by Market in the Chinese Healthcare System' in Polese, A, Williams, C, Horodnic, I & Bejakovic, P (eds), The Informal Economy in Global Perspective: Varieties of Governance, Palgrave Macmillan, USA, pp. 233-254.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Informal payments are an illegitimate practice that has been endemic in the Chinese healthcare system for decades. This chapter examines two market mechanisms that the government has used to contain it, namely, internal competition and differential pricing. It reveals that due to market failures, internal competition pushed up the demand for the services of elite practitioners and led to the concentration of informal payments in their hands. Differential pricing not only concentrated informal payments in the hands of senior surgeons, but also exacerbated health inequality and subverted the government’s ideological commitment to social justice. Both mechanisms did not achieve the purpose of controlling informal payments and have been abandoned either by hospitals or by the government.
Yang, J 2015, 'Governing informal payments in healthcare: lessons from China' in Morris, J & Polese, A (eds), Informal Economies in Post-Socialist Spaces Practices, Institutions and Networks, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 1-302.
Informed by in-depth case studies focusing on a wide spectrum of micro and macro post-socialist realities from Lithuania to Kosovo, from Ukraine to China, this volume demonstrates the multi-faceted nature of informality and suggests that it ...
Yang, J 2011, '澳大利亚及新西兰职业资格证书体系分析研究' in 国际职业资格体系概况 2010, pp. 166-188.
Yang, J 2008, 'Professors, doctors, and lawyers: the variable wealth of the professional class' in Goodman, DSG (ed), The New Rich in China: Future Rulers, Present Lives, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 148-167.
Yang, J 2006, 'Red packet: A Study of Chinese doctors' informal incomes', First Forays into Sensory Realms (Institute for International Studies Workshop), UTS Graduate School of Business, Sydney, Australia.
Yang, J 2007, 'Personnel System Reform and Chinese Public Doctors', Queer Agencies and Social Change in International Perspectives, IIS, Sydney, Australia.
Yang, J 2004, 'Globalization and State-Controlled Professionalization in China', Regional Integration in the Pacific Rim: Imagining the Pacific, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico.
The reform era has seen the rise of professionals and a clear tendency of professionalization in some privileged occupations as a response to impacts of globalization. Professionalization in China has relied heavily on institutional changes initiated by the state. Whether the state would bring in institutional changes to a particular profession relies to a great extent on the political risk and economic benefit of such changes. This paper examines the state's policies towards three professions-law, medicine and accounting, and the consequences of the policies.
Yang, J 2004, 'Health reforms and health professionals in China', Exile and Social Change, Institute for International Studies Annual workshop, IIS, Sydney, Australia.
This paper will look at how health reforms launched in the past twenty years have influenced the ethics of health professionals. The focus will be on the changes that these reforms brought to doctors' work terms and economic rewards, and analyse the connection between these changes and the alleged abuse of professional power in China's health care system.
Yang, J 2003, 'Privatization of Professional Knowledge and the Rise of Professionals in China', Institute for International Studies Annual Workshop (Art and Social Change), IIS, Sydney, Australia.
Yang, J 2008, 'The power relationships between doctors, patients and the Party-state under the impact of red packets in the Chinese health-care system'.