Dr Jinghua Fang received her Masters of Science from the Yunnan University, China. She joined the teaching and research faculty at the Modern Analysis and Testing Centre, Yunnan University after completing her Masters. Her main focus was on the atomic force microscopy investigation of nanodiamond fabrication and applications. She was trained in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) at the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute and also received training in Japan. Jinghua secured a prestigious International Postgraduate Research Scholarship (IPRS) in 2007 and completed her PhD project “Fabrication, characterization, and applications of anodic aluminium oxide” at the University of Melbourne. With more than 10 years experience in materials characterization, Jinghua has developed expertise in materials science and in transmission electron microscopy(TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), High-Resolution Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) techniques.
Her newly developed techniques enabled her to win seed funding from the Melbourne Materials Institute in 2011. At the end of 2011, she joined the Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA) group at the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) after winning an Office of the Chief Executive (OCE) Postdoctoral Fellowship. At the CSIRO, Jinghua worked on one-dimensional nanostructure synthesis and applications using low-temperature plasmas. Her investigations have demonstrated that the nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide membranes are one of the best modern platforms for designing the new-generation nanoplasmonic metamaterials.
At the end of 2015, Jinghua joined the School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, at the Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow. In 2016, she won an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Early Career Researcher Award.
Her major interests are materials science and engineering, mainly focused on plasmonics, template-assisted nanostructure fabrication, characterization and applications.
Can supervise: YES
Material science and engineering, mainly focused on plasmonics, template-assisted nanostructure fabrication, characterization and applications.
- Chemistry and Materials
- Introduction to Materials
- Scanned probe and electron microscopy
Levchenko, I, Bazaka, K, Keidar, M, Xu, S & Fang, J 2018, 'Hierarchical Multicomponent Inorganic Metamaterials: Intrinsically Driven Self-Assembly at the Nanoscale', Advanced Materials, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 1-32.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Increasingly intricate in their composition and structural organization, hierarchical multicomponent metamaterials with nonlinear spatially reconfigurable functionalities challenge the intrinsic constraints of natural materials, revealing tremendous potential for the advancement of biochemistry, nanophotonics, and medicine. Recent breakthroughs in high-resolution nanofabrication utilizing ultranarrow, precisely controlled ion or laser beams have enabled assembly of architectures of unprecedented structural and functional complexity, yet costly, time- and energy-consuming high-resolution sequential techniques do not operate effectively at industry-required scale. Inspired by the fictional Baron Munchausen's fruitless attempt to pull himself up, it is demonstrated that metamaterials can undergo intrinsically driven self-assembly, metaphorically pulling themselves up into existence. These internal drivers hold a key to unlocking the potential of metamaterials and mapping a new direction for the large-area, cost-efficient self-organized fabrication of practical devices. A systematic exploration of these efforts is presently missing, and the driving forces governing the intrinsically driven self-assembly are yet to be fully understood. Here, recent progress in the self-organized formation and self-propelled growth of complex hierarchical multicomponent metamaterials is reviewed, with emphasis on key principles, salient features, and potential limitations of this family of approaches. Special stress is placed on self-assembly driven by plasma, current in liquid, ultrasonic, and similar highly energetic effects, which enable self-directed formation of metamaterials with unique properties and structures.
Seo, DH, Batmunkh, M, Fang, J, Murdock, AT, Yick, S, Han, Z, Shearer, CJ, Macdonald, TJ, Lawn, M, Bendavid, A, Shapter, JG & Ken Ostrikov, K 2018, 'Ambient air synthesis of multi-layer CVD graphene films for low-cost, efficient counter electrode material in dye-sensitized solar cells', FlatChem, vol. 8, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Graphene holds great promise as a substitute counter electrode (CE) material to replace the conventional Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, lengthy chemical processing with hazardous chemicals, high production cost and the poor quality of the graphene flakes produced impedes their utilization as a CE material in DSSCs. Herein, we demonstrate a low-cost synthesis of multi-layer graphene films using a thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process in an ambient-air environment without expensive compressed gases while using a renewable source namely soybean oil. Utilization of our low-cost graphene film in DSSCs exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and high electrical conductivity, and thus delivers superior photovoltaic (PV) efficiency compared to the devices fabricated with graphene films produced from commonly adopted chemical methods. Even though no additional treatments such as heteroatom doping are applied, our low-cost graphene showed great promise in DSSCs. Further enhancement in the efficiency of our multi-layer graphene film based DSSCs is readily achievable by applying simple functional treatments (for example SOCl2). Finally, material cost analysis of our multi-layer graphene film compared to commercial Pt electrode suggests that we can reduce the CE material cost by five fold, making our CVD graphene film a realistic option for application in commercial DSSC systems.
Seo, DH, Pineda, S, Fang, J, Gozukara, Y, Yick, S, Bendavid, A, Lam, SKH, Murdock, AT, Murphy, AB, Han, ZJ & Ostrikov, KK 2017, 'Single-step ambient-air synthesis of graphene from renewable precursors as electrochemical genosensor.', Nature Communications, vol. 8, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Thermal chemical vapour deposition techniques for graphene fabrication, while promising, are thus far limited by resource-consuming and energy-intensive principles. In particular, purified gases and extensive vacuum processing are necessary for creating a highly controlled environment, isolated from ambient air, to enable the growth of graphene films. Here we exploit the ambient-air environment to enable the growth of graphene films, without the need for compressed gases. A renewable natural precursor, soybean oil, is transformed into continuous graphene films, composed of single-to-few layers, in a single step. The enabling parameters for controlled synthesis and tailored properties of the graphene film are discussed, and a mechanism for the ambient-air growth is proposed. Furthermore, the functionality of the graphene is demonstrated through direct utilization as an electrode to realize an effective electrochemical genosensor. Our method is applicable to other types of renewable precursors and may open a new avenue for low-cost synthesis of graphene films.
Baranov, O, Fang, J, Ostrikov, K & Cvelbar, U 2017, 'TiN deposition and morphology control by scalable plasma-assisted surface treatments', Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 188, pp. 143-153.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Elsevier B.V. A method to modify the mechanical properties and morphology of thin TiN films by controlling the ion fluxes via purposefully shaped magnetic field is developed to enhance the effectiveness of plasma-enhanced deposition of TiN on a large (up to 400 mm in diameter) substrate. For this purpose, the two main schemes of the plasma control are examined. When the substrate is a part of the plasma-generating circuit, TiN is deposited in the magnetron-like arc configuration of the magnetic field. This configuration is used to control ion fluxes for cleaning, etching, and heating of the substrate, and eventually, to control the mechanical properties and morphology of the deposits. When exposing the substrate to the plasma of an external plasma source, the magnetic traps of the bottle configuration with mirrors near the plasma source and substrate surface are created. It is shown that the ion fluxes from the external plasma source can be controlled by the location and powering of the control magnetic coils, which direct nitrogen and Ti ions to the surface. The proposed method is generic and could be used for controlling various nitride materials including but not limited to BN, NbN, W 2 N and TaN.
Levchenko, I, Keidar, M, Cvelbar, U, Mariotti, D, Mai-Prochnow, A, Fang, J & Ostrikov, K 2016, 'Novel biomaterials: Plasma-enabled nanostructures and functions', Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 49, no. 27, pp. 1-16.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.Material processing techniques utilizing low-temperature plasmas as the main process tool feature many unique capabilities for the fabrication of various nanostructured materials. As compared with the neutral-gas based techniques and methods, the plasma-based approaches offer higher levels of energy and flux controllability, often leading to higher quality of the fabricated nanomaterials and sometimes to the synthesis of the hierarchical materials with interesting properties. Among others, nanoscale biomaterials attract significant attention due to their special properties towards the biological materials (proteins, enzymes), living cells and tissues. This review briefly examines various approaches based on the use of low-temperature plasma environments to fabricate nanoscale biomaterials exhibiting high biological activity, biological inertness for drug delivery system, and other features of the biomaterials make them highly attractive. In particular, we briefly discuss the plasma-assisted fabrication of gold and silicon nanoparticles for bio-applications; carbon nanoparticles for bioimaging and cancer therapy; carbon nanotube-based platforms for enzyme production and bacteria growth control, and other applications of low-temperature plasmas in the production of biologically-active materials.
Ma, C, Xu, X, Wang, F, Zhou, Z, Wen, S, Liu, D, Fang, J, Lang, CI & Jin, D 2016, 'Probing the Interior Crystal Quality in the Development of More Efficient and Smaller Upconversion Nanoparticles', Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 7, pp. 3252-3258.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Optical biomedical imaging using luminescent nanoparticles as contrast agents prefers small size, as they can be used at high dosages and efficiently cleared from body. Reducing nanoparticle size is critical for the stability and specificity for the fluorescence nanoparticles probes for in vitro diagnostics and subcellular imaging. The development of smaller and brighter upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is accordingly a goal for complex imaging in bioenvironments. At present, however, small UCNPs are reported to exhibit less emission intensity due to increased surface deactivation and decreased number of dopants. Here we show that smaller and more efficient UCNPs can be made by improving the interior crystal quality via controlling heating rate during synthesis. We further developed a unique quantitative method for optical characterizations on the single UCNPs with varied sizes and the corresponding shell passivated UCNPs, confirming that the internal crystal quality dominates the relative emission efficiency of the UCNPs.
Scott, JA, Totonjian, D, Martin, AA, Tran, TT, Fang, J, Toth, M, McDonagh, AM, Aharonovich, I & Lobo, CJ 2016, 'Versatile method for template-free synthesis of single crystalline metal and metal alloy nanowires.', Nanoscale, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 2804-2810.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Metal and metal alloy nanowires have applications ranging from spintronics to drug delivery, but high quality, high density single crystalline materials have been surprisingly difficult to fabricate. Here we report a versatile, template-free, self-assembly method for fabrication of single crystalline metal and metal alloy nanowires (Co, Ni, NiCo, CoFe, and NiFe) by reduction of metal nitride precursors formed in situ by reaction of metal salts with a nitrogen source. Thiol reduction of the metal nitrides to the metallic phase at 550-600 °C results in nanowire growth. In this process, sulfur acts as a uniaxial structure-directing agent, passivating the surface of the growing nanowires and preventing radial growth. The versatility of the method is demonstrated by achieving nanowire growth from gas-phase, solution-phase or a combination of gas- and solution-phase precursors. The fabrication method is suited to large-area CVD on a wide range of solid substrates.
Fang, J, Levchenko, I, Yan, W, Aharonovich, I, Aramesh, M, Prawer, S & Ostrikov, KK 2015, 'Plasmonic Metamaterial Sensor with Ultra-High Sensitivity in the Visible Spectral Range', Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 750-755.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A metamaterial-based plasmonic sensor composed of thin metal and polymer layers deposited on top of a highly ordered porous alumina exhibits a sensitivity of more than 4800 nm per refractive index unit in the visible spectral range. The device is robust, cheap, has a large functional area of about 2 cm2, and the overall transmission is tunable by varying the film thickness.
Tran, TT, Fang, J, Zhang, H, Rath, P, Bray, K, Sandstrom, RG, Shimoni, O, Toth, M & Aharonovich, I 2015, 'Facile Self-Assembly of Quantum Plasmonic Circuit Components.', Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), vol. 27, no. 27, pp. 4048-4053.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A facile and cost-effective self-assembly route to engineering of vital quantum plasmonic circuit components is reported. By modifying the surface energy of silver nanowires, the position and density of attached nanodiamonds can be maneuvered leading to silver nanowire/nanodiamond(s) hybrid nanostructures. These structures exhibit strong plasmonic coupling effects and thus hold promise to serve as quantum plasmonic components.
Fang, J, Levchenko, I, Lu, X, Mariotti, D & Ostrikov, K 2015, 'Hierarchical bi-dimensional alumina/palladium nanowire nano-architectures for hydrogen detection, storage and controlled release', International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 40, no. 18, pp. 6165-6172.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Copyright © 2015, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. We report on the fabrication of bi-dimensional alumina/palladium nanowire nanoarchitectures for hydrogen detection, storage and controlled release. This nanostructured material was fabricated by growing the palladium nanowires directly in the nanosized channels of nanoporous alumina membrane followed by atmospheric-plasma jet treatment to fabricate the interconnected surface structure mostly suitable for hydrogenrelated applications such as controlled release and sensing. Several interesting properties are demonstrated, including high sensitivity levels (up to 0.1% of H2 in air) and short response times. Large resistance response reaching 100% for 0.5% of H2 in air makes it possible to use the fabricated sensors without complex and expensive amplifying circuits.
Levchenko, I, Keidar, M, Mai-Prochnow, A, Modic, M, Cvelbar, U, Fang, J & Ostrikov, KK 2015, 'Plasma treatment for next-generation nanobiointerfaces.', Biointerphases, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 029405.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Energy deficiency, global poverty, chronic hunger, chronic diseases, and environment conservation are among the major problems threatening the whole mankind. Nanostructure-based technologies could be a possible solution. Such techniques are now used for the production of many vitally important products including cultured and fermented food, antibiotics, various medicines, and biofuels. On the other hand, the nanostructure-based technologies still demonstrate low efficiency and controllability, and thus still are not capable to decisively address the global problems. Furthermore, future technologies should ensure lowest possible environmental impact by implementing green production principles. One of the most promising approaches to address these challenges are the sophisticatedly engineered biointerfaces. Here, the authors briefly evaluate the potential of the plasma-based techniques for the fabrication of complex biointerfaces. The authors consider mainly the atmospheric and inductively coupled plasma environments and show several examples of the artificial plasma-created biointerfaces, which can be used for the biotechnological and medical processes, as well as for the drug delivery devices, fluidised bed bioreactors, catalytic reactors, and others. A special attention is paid to the plasma-based treatment and processing of the biointerfaces formed by arrays of carbon nanotubes and graphene flakes.
Fang, J, Levchenko, I, Mai-Prochnow, A, Keidar, M, Cvelbar, U, Filipic, G, Han, ZJ & Ostrikov, KK 2015, 'Protein retention on plasma-treated hierarchical nanoscale gold-silver platform.', Scientific reports, vol. 5, p. 13379.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Dense arrays of gold-supported silver nanowires of about 100 nm in diameter grown directly in the channels of nanoporous aluminium oxide membrane were fabricated and tested as a novel platform for the immobilization and retention of BSA proteins in the microbial-protective environments. Additional treatment of the silver nanowires using low-temperature plasmas in the inductively-coupled plasma reactor and an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet have demonstrated that the morphology of the nanowire array can be controlled and the amount of the retained protein may be increased due to the plasma effect. A combination of the neutral gold sublayer with the antimicrobial properties of silver nanowires could significantly enhance the efficiency of the platforms used in various biotechnological processes.
Fang, J, Levchenko, I & Ostrikov, K 2015, 'Atmospheric Plasma Jet-Enhanced Anodization and Nanoparticle Synthesis', IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 765-769.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 1973-2012 IEEE. Atmospheric-pressure discharge in the tubular capillary plasma jet was studied to reveal the possibility to accelerate anodization of aluminum foils and fabricate alumina nanoparticles in liquid acids. Two different positions of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet relatively to the acid electrolyte and aluminum electrode were studied. Whereas at larger distances, only slight oxidation was obtained, the nanoporous surface and alumina nanoparticles were produced at closer (3-5 mm) distances. The mode with arcing (sparking) resulted in the film of alumina nanoparticles. The obtained results could be useful for the cheap and convenient synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured surfaces for various applications, including medical, biological, energy conversion, and nanoelectronic devices.
Yick, S, Mai-Prochnow, A, Levchenko, I, Fang, J, Bull, MK, Bradbury, M, Murphya, AB & Ostrikov, K 2015, 'The effects of plasma treatment on bacterial biofilm formation on vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays', RSC Advances, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 5142-5148.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be fabricated with an ordered microstructure by controlling their growth process. Unlike dispersed carbon nanotubes, these vertically-aligned arrays have the ability to support or inhibit bacteria biofilms. Here, we show that by treating the carbon nanotube arrays with plasma, different effects on biofilms of Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) can be observed.
Levchenko, I, Mai-Prochnow, A, Yick, S, Bilek, MMM, Kondyurin, A, Han, Z-J, Fang, J, Cvelbar, U, Mariotti, D & Ostrikov, K 2015, 'Hybrid Carbon-Based Nanostructured Platforms for the Advanced Bioreactors', JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 10074-10090.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fang, J, Levchenko, I, Van Der Laan, T, Kumar, S & Ostrikov, K 2014, 'Multipurpose nanoporous alumina-carbon nanowall bi-dimensional nano-hybrid platform via catalyzed and catalyst-free plasma CVD', Carbon, vol. 78, pp. 627-632.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Simple, rapid, plasma-assisted synthesis of large-area arrays of vertically-aligned carbon nanowalls on highly-porous, transparent bare and gold-coated alumina membranes with the two pore sizes is reported. It is demonstrated that the complex patterns of vertically aligned nanowalls can nucleate and form different morphologies in the low-temperature plasmas. The process is stable, and the twofold change in the gas flow (10 and 20 sccm) does not noticeably influence the morphology of the nanowall pattern. Application of a thin (5 nm) gold layer to nanoporous membrane prior to the nanowall growth allows controlling the network morphology. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fang, J, Levchenko, I, Kumar, S, Seo, D & Ostrikov, KK 2014, 'Vertically-aligned graphene flakes on nanoporous templates: morphology, thickness, and defect level control by pre-treatment.', Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Various morphologies of the vertically-aligned graphene flakes were fabricated on the nanoporous templates treated with metal ions in solutions, as well as coated with a thin gold layer and activated in the low-temperature Ar plasma. The thickness and level of structural defects in the graphene flakes could be effectively controlled by a proper selection of the pre-treatment method. We have also demonstrated that various combinations of the flake thickness and defect levels can be obtained, and the morphology and density of the graphene pattern can be effectively controlled. The result obtained could be of interest for various applications requiring fabrication of large graphene networks with controllable properties.
Fang, J, Levchenko, I, Han, ZJ, Yick, S & Ostrikov, KK 2014, 'Carbon nanotubes on nanoporous alumina: from surface mats to conformal pore filling.', Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Control over nucleation and growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the nanochannels of porous alumina membranes by several combinations of posttreatments, namely exposing the membrane top surface to atmospheric plasma jet and application of standard S1813 photoresist as an additional carbon precursor, is demonstrated. The nanotubes grown after plasma treatment nucleated inside the channels and did not form fibrous mats on the surface. Thus, the nanotube growth mode can be controlled by surface treatment and application of additional precursor, and complex nanotube-based structures can be produced for various applications. A plausible mechanism of nanotube nucleation and growth in the channels is proposed, based on the estimated depth of ion flux penetration into the channels.63.22.Np Layered systems; 68. Surfaces and interfaces; Thin films and nanosystems (structure and non-electronic properties); 81.07.-b Nanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization.
Fang, J, Levchenko, I & Ostrikov, KK 2014, 'Free-standing alumina nanobottles and nanotubes pre-integrated into nanoporous alumina membranes.', Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A novel interfacial structure consisting of long (up to 5 m), thin (about 300 nm), highly-ordered, free-standing, highly-reproducible aluminum oxide nanobottles and long tubular nanocapsules attached to a rigid, thin (less than 1 m) nanoporous anodic alumina membrane is fabricated by simple, fast, catalyst-free, environmentally friendly voltage-pulse anodization. A growth mechanism is proposed based on the formation of straight channels in alumina membrane by anodization, followed by neck formation due to a sophisticated voltage control during the process. This process can be used for the fabrication of alumina nanocontainers with highly controllable geometrical size and volume, vitally important for various applications such as material and energy storage, targeted drug and diagnostic agent delivery, controlled drug and active agent release, gene and biomolecule reservoirs, micro-biologically protected platforms, nano-bioreactors, tissue engineering and hydrogen storage.
Baranov, O, Fang, J, Keidar, M, Lu, X, Cvelbar, U & Ostrikov, KK 2014, 'Effective control of the arc discharge-generated plasma jet by smartly designed magnetic fields', IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 2464-2465.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2014 IEEE. Control of ion current directed to a substrate is a key feature of plasma processing reactors. Magnetic field has been used to enhance the plasma setups. Two magnetic coils placed under the substrate together with the coils near the plasma source, generate magnetic traps for the plasma electrons in a vacuum chamber, to confine them and generate electric field to influence the ion motion. Images of the plasma jet patterns for different configurations of the magnetic field are presented.
Baranov, O, Zhong, X, Fang, J, Kumar, S, Xu, S, Cvelbar, U, Mariotti, D & Ostrikov, K 2014, 'Dense plasmas in magnetic traps: Generation of focused ion beams with controlled ion-to-neutral flux ratios', IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 2518-2519.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2014 IEEE. Customized magnetic traps were developed to produce a domain of dense plasmas with a narrow ion beam directed to a particular area of the processed substrate. A planar magnetron coupled with an arc discharge source created the magnetic traps to confine the plasma electrons and generate the ion beam with the controlled ratio of ion-to-neutral fluxes. Images of the plasma jet patterns and numerical vizualizations help explaining the observed phenomena.
Seo, DH, Yick, S, Han, ZJ, Fang, JH & Ostrikov, KK 2014, 'Synergistic fusion of vertical graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.', ChemSusChem, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 2317-2324.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive electrode materials for supercapacitors. However, challenges such as the substrate-limited growth of CNTs, nanotube bundling in liquid electrolytes, under-utilized basal planes, and stacking of graphene sheets have so far impeded their widespread application. Here we present a hybrid structure formed by the direct growth of CNTs onto vertical graphene nanosheets (VGNS). VGNS are fabricated by a green plasma-assisted method to break down and reconstruct a natural precursor into an ordered graphitic structure. The synergistic combination of CNTs and VGNS overcomes the challenges intrinsic to both materials. The resulting VGNS/CNTs hybrids show a high specific capacitance with good cycling stability. The charge storage is based mainly on the non-Faradaic mechanism. In addition, a series of optimization experiments were conducted to reveal the critical factors that are required to achieve the demonstrated high supercapacitor performance.
Aramesh, M, Cervenka, J, Roberts, A, Djalalian-Assl, A, Rajasekharan, R, Fang, J, Ostrikov, K & Prawer, S 2014, 'Coupling of a single-photon emitter in nanodiamond to surface plasmons of a nanochannel-enclosed silver nanowire', Optics Express, vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 15530-15541.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A finite element method is applied to study the coupling between a nitrogen vacancy (NV) single photon emitter in nanodiamond and surface plasmons in a silver nanowire embedded in an alumina nanochannel template. We investigate the effective parameters in the coupled system and present detailed optimization for the maximum transmitted power at a selected optical frequency (650 nm). The studied parameters include nanowire length, nanowire diameter, distance between the dipole and the nanowire, orientation of the emitter and refractive index of the surrounding. It is found that the diameter of the nanowire has a strong influence on the propagation of the surface plasmon polaritons and emission power from the bottom and top endings of the nanowire. © 2014 Optical Society of America.
Aramesh, M, Fox, K, Lau, DWM, Fang, J, Ostrikov, K, Prawer, S & Cervenka, J 2014, 'Multifunctional three-dimensional nanodiamond-nanoporous alumina nanoarchitectures', Carbon, vol. 75, pp. 452-464.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hybrid composite nanomaterials provide an attractive and versatile material platform for numerous emerging nano- and biomedical applications by offering the possibility to combine diverse properties which are impossible to obtain within a single material. In this work, we present the fabrication of novel hybrid diamond and amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated nanoporous alumina materials that exhibit multiple functionalities, such as high surface area, quasi-ordered nanopore structure, tunable surface chemistry and electrical conductivity, excellent biological, chemical and corrosion resistance. These multifunctional nanohybrid materials are fabricated using the plasma-induced carbonization method that effectively modifies the surface and the inside of the nanopores of anodic alumina, producing a homogenous ultrathin DLC protecting layer over the whole external and internal surfaces of the membranes. We demonstrate that the interplay between internal and external carbon supply is a critical factor for the formation of the ultrathin sp 3 -bonded carbon layer in the nanopores. This study brings new insights in the DLC growth mechanisms in confined nanospaces and opens new avenues to fabricate hybrid, chemically resistant and biocompatible carbon-coated nanoarchitectures on other inorganic supports. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fang, J, Levchenko, I, Ostrikov, K & Prawer, S 2013, 'Sonochemical nanoplungers: Crystalline gold nanowires by cavitational extrusion through nanoporous alumina', Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 1727-1731.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Rapid, simple, catalyst-free, room-temperature sonochemical fabrication of long (up to 30 m), ultra-thin (about 20 nm), crystalline gold nanowires on nanoporous anodic alumina membranes is reported. It is demonstrated that the nanowires nucleate and grow inside the nanosized pores and then form a dense network on the bottom side of the membrane. A growth mechanism is proposed based on the formation of through channels in the Al2O3 membrane by sonochemical etching, followed by nanowire nucleation in the channels and their further extrusion out of the pores by acoustic cavitation. This process can be used for the fabrication of metal nanowires with highly controllable diameter and density, suitable for numerous applications such as nanoelectronic, nanofluidic, and optoelectronic components and devices. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Randeniya, LK, Shi, H, Barnard, AS, Fang, J, Martin, PJ & Ostrikov, KK 2013, 'Harnessing the influence of reactive edges and defects of graphene substrates for achieving complete cycle of room-temperature molecular sensing.', Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), vol. 9, no. 23, pp. 3993-3999.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Molecular doping and detection are at the forefront of graphene research, a topic of great interest in physical and materials science. Molecules adsorb strongly on graphene, leading to a change in electrical conductivity at room temperature. However, a common impediment for practical applications reported by all studies to date is the excessively slow rate of desorption of important reactive gases such as ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. Annealing at high temperatures, or exposure to strong ultraviolet light under vacuum, is employed to facilitate desorption of these gases. In this article, the molecules adsorbed on graphene nanoflakes and on chemically derived graphene-nanomesh flakes are displaced rapidly at room temperature in air by the use of gaseous polar molecules such as water and ethanol. The mechanism for desorption is proposed to arise from the electrostatic forces exerted by the polar molecules, which decouples the overlap between substrate defect states, molecule states, and graphene states near the Fermi level. Using chemiresistors prepared from water-based dispersions of single-layer graphene on mesoporous alumina membranes, the study further shows that the edges of the graphene flakes (showing p-type responses to NO and NH) and the edges of graphene nanomesh structures (showing n-type responses to NO and NH) have enhanced sensitivity. The measured responses towards gases are comparable to or better than those which have been obtained using devices that are more sophisticated. The higher sensitivity and rapid regeneration of the sensor at room temperature provides a clear advancement towards practical molecule detection using graphene-based materials.
Baranov, OO, Fang, J, Rider, AE, Kumar, S & Ostrikov, K 2013, 'Effect of ion current density on the properties of vacuum arc-deposited TiN coatings', IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 3640-3644.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The influence of ion current density on the thickness of coatings deposited in a vacuum arc setup has been investigated to optimize the coating porosity. A planar probe was used to measure the ion current density distribution across plasma flux. A current density from 20 to 50 A/m2 was obtained, depending on the probe position relative to the substrate center. TiN coatings were deposited onto the cutting inserts placed at different locations on the substrate, and SEM was used to characterize the surfaces of the coatings. It was found that low-density coatings were formed at the decreased ion current density. A quantitative dependence of the coating thickness on the ion current density in the range of 20-50 A/m2 were obtained for the films deposited at substrate bias of 200 V and nitrogen pressure 0.1 Pa, and the coating porosity was calculated. The coated cutting inserts were tested by lathe machining of the martensitic stainless steel AISI 431. The results may be useful for controlling ion flux distribution over large industrial-scale substrates. © 1973-2012 IEEE.
Kondyurin, A, Levchenko, I, Han, Z-J, Yick, S, Mai-Prochnow, A, Fang, J, Ostrikov, K & Bilek, MMM 2013, 'Hybrid graphite film-carbon nanotube platform for enzyme immobilization and protection', CARBON, vol. 65, pp. 287-295.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Fang, J, Aharonovich, I, Leychenko, I, Ostrikov, K, Spizzirri, PG, Rubanov, S & Prawer, S 2012, 'Plasma-enabled growth of single-crystalline SiC/AlSiC core-shell nanowires on porous alumina templates', Crystal Growth and Design, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 2917-2922.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
We report the catalyst-free synthesis of the arrays of core-shell, ultrathin, size-uniform SiC/AlSiC nanowires on the top of a periodic anodic aluminum oxide template. The nanowires were grown using an environmentally friendly, silane-free process by exp
Baranov, O, Romanov, M, Fang, J, Cvelbar, U & Ostrikov, K 2012, 'Control of ion density distribution by magnetic traps for plasma electrons', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 112, no. 7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The effect of a magnetic field of two magnetic coils on the ion current density distribution in the setup for low-temperature plasma deposition is investigated. The substrate of 400 mm diameter is placed at a distance of 325 mm from the plasma duct exit, with the two magnetic coils mounted symmetrically under the substrate at a distance of 140 mm relative to the substrate centre. A planar probe is used to measure the ion current density distribution along the plasma flux cross-sections at distances of 150, 230, and 325 mm from the plasma duct exit. It is shown that the magnetic field strongly affects the ion current density distribution. Transparent plastic films are used to investigate qualitatively the ion density distribution profiles and the effect of the magnetic field. A theoretical model is developed to describe the interaction of the ion fluxes with the negative space charge regions associated with the magnetic trapping of the plasma electrons. Theoretical results are compared with the experimental measurements, and a reasonable agreement is demonstrated. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Fang, JH, Spizzirri, P, Lin, L, Roberts, A & Prawer, S 2010, 'Template controlled fabrication of silver nano-structures using porous anodic aluminium oxide', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 46-52.
A simple method for fabricating various silver nano-structures using porous anodic aluminium oxide templates is described in this work. Highly ordered, high aspect ratio, silver nano-wire arrays were successfully prepared using wet chemical processing and thermal annealing. In addition to the fabrication of nano-wires, silver nano-particles with dimensions around 5-10 nm have also been prepared using the same procedure. Preliminary optical transmission measurements of the nano-wire arrays are presented in this work for their consideration as a meta-material.
Fang, J-H, Spizzirri, P, Cimmino, A, Rubanov, S & Prawer, S 2009, 'Extremely high aspect ratio alumina transmission nanomasks: their fabrication and characterization using electron microscopy.', Nanotechnology, vol. 20, no. 6, p. 065706.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Free standing, nanoporous alumina templates were fabricated as transmission masks from aluminium using a two-step anodization process followed by acid etching. The resulting membrane comprises self-ordered, periodic arrays of non-connecting circular channels which can be prepared with pore diameters <100 nm and with minimal occlusion. Aspect ratios greater than 300:1 were measured directly using electron transmission and the channels were shown to be highly aligned (angular) over membrane thicknesses of tens of microns. Also evident is some local order associated with both azimuthal and angular domain structure giving rise to local channel tilt which has not previously been reported. Transmission electron microscopy has been shown to be an important characterization tool for these nanomasks as the channels are transparent to electrons, providing a means of directly measuring their thickness and aspect ratio. Expressions for determining their thickness and aspect ratio are also presented and evaluated in this work. These membranes are well suited for use as nanotemplates in transmission lithography applications including ion implantation and ion or electron beam collimation.
Fang, J, Xiang, J, Hu, Y, Xin, S, Li, M & Wu, X 2004, 'Preparation of nanocrystalline (Ni, Zn)Fe2O4composite material with coprecipitation and its characteristics', Fuhe Cailiao Xuebao/Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 12-16.
By using FeSO4·7H2O, NiSO4·6H2O and ZnSO4·7H2O as raw materials, with a coprecipitation method, the basic carbonate precursor containing fine crystalline grain is synthesized and nanocrystalline (Ni, Zn)Fe2O4composite particles followed by sintering for one hour can be obtained. The microstructure was measured by using XRD and TEM. The infrared absorption and gas-sensitization of the samples have been investigated. The results show that the diameter of the nano-particles is about 50 nm at 800°C.
Xin, SS, Xiang, JZ, Fang, JH, Yang, LF & Wu, XH 2004, 'The preparation of hexagonal SrFe12O19 by sol-gel technique', RARE METAL MATERIALS AND ENGINEERING, vol. 33, pp. 26-28.
Xin, S, Xiang, J, Fang, J, Yang, L & Wu, X 2004, 'The preparation of hexagonal SrFe12O19 by sol-gel technique', Xiyou Jinshu Cailiao Yu Gongcheng/Rare Metal Materials and Engineering, vol. 33, no. SUPPL. 2, pp. 26-28.
Hexagonal SrFe12O19 was successfully made by sol-gel technique. The time of forming wet gel was examined under different temperatures and different pH values respectively. And the result shows that the gel has the good characteristics at 60°C. TG-DTA analysis also shows that the lost weight of sample is large. Ferric oxide crystal was synthesized at 750°C. By X-ray analysis, besides SrFe12O19, there are some other substances such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4 at 850°C. Pure powder of SrFe12O19 is achieved at 950°C. Through TEM analysis, Hexagonal SrFe12O19 is found but a little of stick ones.
Liu, X, Fang, J, Gao, M & Lin, T 2013, 'Nanocrystal TiO2 as scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cells', Fiber Society Spring 2013 Technical Conference.
Aramesh, M, Cervenka, J, Rajasekharan, R, Garrett, D, Fang, J, Ostrikov, K & Prawer, S 2012, 'Optical properties of silver nanowires grown electrochemically in nanoporous alumina', 2012 Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, Proceedings, COMMAD, Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, IEEE, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, pp. 143-144.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
We report fabrication and optical properties of electrochemically deposited silver nanowires into nanoporous alumina template. A finite element method is used to study plasmonic coupling of dipole emitters with the silver nanowires. © 2012 IEEE.
Fang, JH, Spizzirri, P, Lin, L, Roberts, A & Prawer, S 2008, 'Template controlled fabrication of silver nano-structures using porous anodic aluminium oxide', Materials Forum, pp. 73-78.
A simple method for fabricating various silver nano-structures using porous anodic aluminium oxide templates is described in this work. Highly ordered, high aspect ratio, silver nano-wire arrays were successfully prepared using wet chemical processing and thermal annealing. In addition to the fabrication of nano-wires, silver nano-particles with dimensions around 5-10 nm have also been prepared using the same process. Preliminary optical transmission measurements of the nano-wire arrays are presented in this work for their consideration as a meta-material. © Institute of Materials Engineering Australasia Ltd.
Spizzirri, PG, Fang, JH, Rubanov, S, Gauja, E & Prawer, S 2008, 'Nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon surfaces', Materials Forum, pp. 161-166.
Near-field enhanced, nano-Raman spectroscopy has been successfully used to probe the surface chemistry of silicon prepared using standard wafer cleaning and processing techniques. The results demonstrate the utility of this measurement for probing the local surface chemical nano-environment with very high sensitivity. Enhancements were observed for the vibrational (stretching) modes of Si-H, F-Si-H and possibly also B-Si-O consistent with the surface treatments applied. The nano-probes did not enhance the phononic features of the silicon substrate. © Institute of Materials Engineering Australasia Ltd.
Seo, DH, Yick, S, Han, ZJ, Fang, JH & Ostrikov, KK 2014, 'Inside Back Cover: Synergistic Fusion of Vertical Graphene Nanosheets and Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes'.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The Inside Back Cover shows the synergistic integration of highly porous micropatterns of vertically aligned graphenes and carbon nanotubes and their application for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This is achieved by fusing the carbon nanotubes in the basal plane of the vertical graphenes, which was synthesized from natural precursors by using an environmentally benign plasma process. The high electrochemical activity of the edge plane is retained, and the relatively inactive basal planes are filled with highly conducting carbon nanotubes. This combination of interconnected nanostructures substantially enhances the supercapacitor performance, thus making hybrid multidimensional nanoarchitectures promising energy storage devices for the future. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Han etal. on page2317 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402045).
- CSIRO, Australia
- The University of Melbourne, Australia
- The University of Sydney, Australia
- Queensland University of Technology, Australia
- Nanyang Techological University, Singapore
- Shandong University, China