Jeremy is a Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) researcher with special interest in Pacific island countries and territories and the wider Asia region. His primary areas of expertise include interdisciplinary and applied research on sustainability of rural water, rural sanitation, and urban sanitation services, and climate change impacts on WASH services.
Al'afghani, MM, Kohlitz, J & Willetts, J 2019, 'Not Built to Last: Improving Legal and Institutional Arrangements for Community-Based Water and Sanitation Service Delivery in Indonesia', Water Alternatives, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 285-303.
Foster, T, Rand, E, Sami, E, Dance, B, Kohlitz, J & Willetts, J 2019, 'Does the source of water for piped supplies affect child health? Evidence from rural Vanuatu', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 591-595.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kohlitz, J, Chong, J & Willetts, J 2019, 'Analysing the capacity to respond to climate change: a framework for community-managed water services', Climate and Development, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 775-785.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for guiding interdisciplinary research on analysing the capacity of community-managed water services to respond to disturbances from climate change. Climate change poses a serious threat to the sustainable delivery of community-managed water services in developing countries. We synthesized key concepts from the latest research on vulnerability and resilience theories into a shared framework that functions as a heuristic for the analysis of different elements of the capacity to respond to climate disturbances and how they are related to community-managed water services. Primary elements of the framework include conceptualisations of the capacities to respond to specific hazards (e.g. through risk management and knowledge of thresholds) and to disturbances in general (e.g. through agency, social structure, and adaptive management practices), the potential for capacity to be differentiated across scales, and the social and biophysical system characteristics that influence capacity to respond to climate change. We describe how each these elements relate to sustaining community-managed water services against climate change throughout the paper. We also discuss subjective choices (temporal frame, system boundaries, scale of inquiry, and desired forms of capacity) that analysts must make when considering how capacity to respond to climate change is analysed.
Kohlitz, JP, Rostiani, R, Indarti, N, Murta, J & Willetts, J 2018, 'Sludge removal enterprises in Indonesia: Factors affecting entrepreneurial success', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 246-256.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© IWA Publishing 2018. Faecal sludge removal is critical for the long-term functionality of on-site sanitation facilities and sustained sanitation outcomes. Private enterprises are important players in providing sludge removal services in Indonesia and other countries where government does not do so. However, the extent to which sludge removal entrepreneurs can fulfil this role depends on the viability, or success, of their enterprises. This paper investigates factors linked to the success of sludge removal enterprises in Indonesia, including traits of the entrepreneurs, characteristics of the enterprises and contextual challenges. These factors and levels of success were examined from data collected from structured interviews with 24 sludge removal enterprises across six cities in Indonesia. This research found that higher levels of success were significantly associated with entrepreneurs that had previous work experience of any kind, made higher upfront investments and did not involve their family members in the management of the enterprise. Participants most frequently identified high costs of capital, high levels of competition and insufficient time to spend on the enterprise as challenges to success. These findings provide important evidence for how civil society organisations and governments in Indonesia and elsewhere may best provide a conducive enabling environment for enterprise roles in sludge removal.
This paper explores the contemporary issues associated with informal settlements in the Pacific in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly SDG 11—Sustainable Cities and Communities. We explore the challenges of water and sanitation service provision in informal settlements, and describe steps being made to address these challenges. Finally, we look at the future of informal settlements in the Pacific in the context of sustainable development, examining specific examples of progress in Solomon Islands and Fiji. As urban populations grow, so too have rates of urban poverty and populations residing in informal settlements. Given the lack of suitable housing, large numbers of new settlers have no choice but to live in temporary shelters or on marginal land. Informal settlements are characterised by overcrowding, poor access to services (including water, sanitation and electricity), roads and drainage. Settlement areas are also more highly prone to natural hazards such as flooding due to their location on marginal land including mangroves, riverbanks, floodplains and steep slopes (ADB 2016). Informal settlements can exist in many different forms, from newly established settlements of disparate individuals, to those mimicking rural villages through their more mature governance and micro-economic systems (ibid). This, along with the heterogeneity of Pacific Island countries in general, highlights the need for careful consideration in supporting the sustainable development of informal settlements—an issue that cuts across many of the SDGs. As for all complex development challenges, an inclusive approach is required, as advocated by the SDGs. Governments, civil society, the private sector, donors, multilateral organisations and other actors have roles to play to ensure development progress is made for people residing in informal settlements.
Kohlitz, JP, Chong, J & Willetts, J 2017, 'Climate change vulnerability and resilience of water, sanitation, and hygiene services: a theoretical perspective', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 181-195.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kohlitz, J, Willetts, JR & Chong, J 2016, 'Monitoring the human rights to water and sanitation: an analysis of policy in Pacific Island countries', Water Policy, vol. 18, no. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Government monitoring of water and sanitation services is a critical step in realising the human rights to water and sanitation (HRWS). In this study we investigated the national water and sanitation policies of 13 Pacific island countries (PICs) to understand how they envision monitoring the water and sanitation service delivery dimensions put forth by the HRWS framework. In particular, we analysed the policies for fundamental aspects of good monitoring governance and sought to learn how strongly monitoring of each service delivery dimension was represented in the policies. We found that delineation of roles and responsibilities and defined information flows are generally underdeveloped, and that the policies tend to give precedence to monitoring the service delivery dimensions of availability, quality, and sustainability over accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and equality. Donors have considerable influence on which dimensions receive the most emphasis in the policies. If realisation of the HRWS is to be effectively supported in PICs, PIC governments and supporting donors must continue to refine national policy to clarify aspects of good monitoring governance and to be more inclusive of monitoring a wider range of service delivery dimensions.
Kohlitz, JP & Smith, MD 2015, 'Water quality management for domestic rainwater harvesting systems in Fiji', WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-WATER SUPPLY, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 134-141.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kohlitz, J, Hasan, T, Khatri, K, Sokota, A, Iddings, S, Bera, U & Psutka, R 2013, 'Assessing reported use and microbiological performance of a point-of-use household water filter in rural Fiji', JOURNAL OF WATER SANITATION AND HYGIENE FOR DEVELOPMENT, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 207-215.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Carrard, N, Kohlitz, J, Soeters, S, Halcrow, G, Murta, J & Willetts, J, 'Reaching all in rural sanitation: experiences from inclusive programming in five countries', Development in Practice, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kohlitz, J, Chong, J & Willetts, J, 'Rural Drinking Water Safety under Climate Change: The Importance of Addressing Physical, Social, and Environmental Dimensions', Resources, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 77-77.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper explores the physical, social, and environmental dimensions of how climate change impacts affect drinking water safety in a rural context in developing countries. Climate impacts, such as contamination or the reduced availability of preferred drinking water sources due to climate-related hazards, threaten water safety in rural areas and these impacts will likely worsen as climate change accelerates. We qualitatively examined these impacts in a community in rural Vanuatu using three approaches side-by-side: adaptation, vulnerability, and resilience. We employed a mixed methods case study methodology that combined semi-structured interviews, technological and environmental surveys, and observations. We demonstrate the influence of physical infrastructure design, social structures mediating water access, and the availability of multiple sustainable water resources on water safety with respect to climate impacts. We also show how the initial problematization of how climate affects water safety can influence subsequent actions to address, or overlook, issues of infrastructure design and maintenance, social equity, and natural resource management for water access. Improvements to rural drinking water safety management in the context of climate change should take a pluralistic approach, informed by different conceptualizations of climate impacts, to account for the varied causal pathways of reduced water safety for different members of a community.
Kohlitz, J, Carrard, N & Foster, T 2019, 'Social-ecological system resilience for WASH' in Neely, K (ed), Systems Thinking and WASH: Tools and Case Studies for a Sustainable Water Supply, Practical Action Publishing, Rugby, Warwickshire, pp. 79-91.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In a rapidly changing world, WASH services are often exposed to a range of unpredictable social, environmental, economic, and physical disturbances that disrupt WASH access. Social-ecological system (SES) resilience thinking can inform WASH service delivery approaches that adapt to changing conditions in order to sustain access for users rather than resist change. In this chapter, we familiarize readers with SES resilience thinking and consider its application to WASH services. We outline three key processes that practitioners can follow to get themselves and other stakeholders into an SES resilience mindset: mapping WASH systems, considering SES resilience principles, and identifying areas for interventions. We provide illustrative examples and resources to assist practitioners in thinking about how SES resilience concepts can be used to plan for WASH services that are flexible and adaptive. We also consider some limitations and pitfalls to SES resilience concepts to encourage readers to take a critical approach.
Uitto, J, Kohlitz, J & Todd, D 2017, 'Evaluating Sustainable Development in SIDS - Lessons from the Pacific and the Caribbean' in van den Berg, R, Naidoo, I & Tamondong, S (eds), Evaluation for Agenda 2030: Providing Evidence on Progress and Sustainability, International Development Evaluation Association (IDEAS), Exeter, United Kingdom, pp. 119-133.
Kohlitz, J, Carrard, N & Willetts, J 2019, Support mechanisms to strengthen equality and non-discrimination (EQND) in rural sanitation (Part 2 of 2), Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights, no. 13, Institute for Development Studies.
Kohlitz, J ISF-UTS 2018, Sustaining rural water services against climate change in Vanuatu: A project brief, Sydney, Australia.
Kohlitz, J 2018, 'Responding to climate change to sustain community-managed water services in Vanuatu'.