Jenny Onyx (PhD) is Professor of Community Management in the Business School at the University Technology Sydney (UTS). She is Co-Director of Cosmopolitan Civil Societies research centre, and former Editor of Third Sector Review. She is particularly concerned with issues of advocacy, social capital, volunteering and civil society and has published widely in these fields.
Some recent publications include:
Hasan, S. and Onyx, J. (Eds) (2008) Comparative third Sector Governance in Asia: Structure, Process and Political Economy. New York, Springer.
Leonard, R. and Onyx, J. (2004) Spinning Straw into Gold: Social Capital in Everyday Life. London, Janus.
Dale, A. and Onyx, J (Eds) (2005) A Dynamic Balance: Social Capital and Sustainable Community Development. Vancouver, University of British Columbia Press.
Baker, E., Onyx, J. and Edwards, M. (2011) Emergence, social capital and entrepreneurship: Understanding networks from the inside. E:CO13, 3, (21-38)
Onyx, J., Ho, C., Edwards, M., Burridge, N. and Yerbury, H. (2011) Scaling up connections: Everyday cosmopolitanism, complexity theory and social capital. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: an Interdisciplinary Journal vol3, 3, 47-67.
Onyx, J., Kenny, S. and Brown, K. (2011) Active citizenship: An empirical investigation. Social Policy and Society, Cambridge University Press 11, 1, 1-12. Do ;10 1017/S1474746411000406
Onyx, J., and Leonard, R., (2011) Complex Systems leadership in emergent community projects. Community Development Journal 46, 4, 493-510 doi: 10.1093/cdj/bsq041
Member International Society for Third-Sector Research (ISTR)
Member Australia New Zealand third Sector Research Association (ANZTSR)
Member UTS Council
Can supervise: YES
community development, women, aging, social capital, measuring social impact
Community Management, Research Methods, supervision of PhD re Civil Society
This is the first comprehensive overview of third sector research in Australasia, prepared by leading researchers, Jenny Onyx in Australia and Garth Nowland-Foreman in Aotearoa New Zealand. It examines both the current state of knowledge of the sector and also the research infrastructure behind the sector. Part one documents the size and scope of the sector, as well as the development of the organisation ANZTSR and its journal. Part two examines relations with the state in each country, the rapid growth in funding services, but also effects of neo-liberal ideological and policy constraints. Part Three documents the current state of volunteering and philanthropy (giving) in both countries. Part Four examines the world of citizen action, building social capital within local communities, and also advocacy and political protest. The concluding Part Five examines some of the current developments in civil society, new emerging forms, and challenges for the future.
Schwabenland, C, Lange, C, Nakagawa, S & Onyx, JA 2017, Women's emancipation and civil society organisations: Challenging or maintaining the status quo?, Policy Press, University of Bristol.
Women are at the heart of civil society organisations. Through them they have achieved many successes, challenged oppressive practices at a local and global level and have developed outstanding entrepreneurial activities. Yet Civil Service Organisation (CSO) research tends to ignore considerations of gender and the rich history of activist feminist organisations is rarely examined.
This collection examines the nexus between the emancipation of women, and their role(s) in these organisations. Featuring contrasting studies from a wide range of contributors from different parts of the world, it covers emerging issues such as the role of social media in organising, the significance of religion in many cultural contexts, activism in Eastern Europe and the impact of environmental degradation on women's lives. Asking whether involvement in CSOs offers a potential source of emancipation for women or maintains the status quo, this anthology will also have an impact on policy and practice in relation to equal opportunities. - See more at: https://policypress.co.uk/womens-emancipation-and-civil-society-organis…
Bamforth, J, Gapps, B, Gurr, R, Howard, A, Onyx, J & Rawthorne, M 2016, Planning, Funding, and Community Action The Area Assistance Story, Common Ground Publishing, Champaign, USA.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This book celebrates the enormous achievement of the Area Assistance Scheme over its 30-year history in encouraging and resourcing community and social infrastructure, networks, support systems, and innovation. In sharing the history of the AAS in Western Sydney (where it began) and on the Central Coast, this book also provides community workers, activists, students, scholars, and policy makers with ideas, processes, and lessons for working collaboratively and respectfully with local communities.
Including eye witness accounts, extensive research, analysis, and discussion, the book connects influential ideas and perspectives shaping social policy and resource allocation with practical examples of how this can and does happen using different funding models.
If you work in the community sector, are part of a local group or organisation, or are interested in learning about work with local communities, this book will provide you with valuable examples of how participatory planning can be supported. If you are a policy maker, academic, student, or politician, this book will provide a critical analysis, which links key policy ideas with the practicalities of implementation at a local level. It answers the questions, what is possible when community participation is at the centre of planning and funding decisions, and what are the processes required to encourage this kind of participation?
Onyx, JA, Darcy, S, Grabowski, S, Green, J & Maxwell, H 2018, 'Researching the social impact of arts and disability: Applying a new empirical tool and method', Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 574-589.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper has a twofold focus: to establish a method of assessing the potential social impact of arts and disability projects and to apply this method to ten such projects. It does so by using a newly developed 'ripple' model that conceptualises social impact in terms of the development of active citizenship on the part of all participants over time. The model identifies ten factors (programme activity, welcoming, belonging, programme social values, individual social values, programme networks, individual networks, skills and creativity, programme wider social impact, and individual wider social impact) which evolve through four progressive stages. The original model is empirically adapted for application to arts and disability projects. Qualitative data were collected in the form of interviews, surveys and media reports across ten case studies, each representing a major arts and disability project offering a professional outcome for an external audience. The qualitative data were coded to provide a simple scoring tool for each case. The results support the application of the model in this context. Furthermore, findings indicate three critical conditions which enable projects to generate considerable positive social impact beyond the individual; ensemble in nature; project embeddedness; and networks and partnerships.
Onyx, J, Coventry, L, Kenny, S & Fanany, I 2018, 'Third Sector Governance in Asia: Tracing hybridity', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Starting with the premise that modern western notions of good governance may be misdirected within a context of traditional Asian civil societies, this article investigates third sector governance practices in Southeast Asia. Case studies from different data sources are presented to suggest that there is no one ideal form of governance or accountability in Southeast Asian third sector organisations. Applying a western lens can serve to deflect attention away from the ways in which contextual factors affect the thinking and practices of accountability of local actors. The paper concludes that a process of hybridisation in governance models is taking place in Southeast Asian societies.
There has been a large growth in nonprofits in Australia over the past 30 years. This paper will chart some of the key current policy trends that have helped shape the sector. The huge investment in the nonprofit sector by government, particularly since the mid 1990's coincided with a strong ideological shift to a neoliberal economic agenda. There was a concerted effort to bring nonprofits under the control of government policy. This has lead to greater competition among nonprofits, the growth of large charities at the expense of small local organisations, and a greater emphasis on adopting business models. Those nonprofit organisations that provide a community development role have been particularly under threat. However while much of the nonprofit world in Australia is increasingly driven by neoliberal, business oriented demands, another alternative phenomenon is emerging, particularly among young people and largely out of the gaze of public scrutiny. As fast as the state finds a way of controlling the productive energy of the nonprofit sector, the sector itself finds a way of curtailing that control, or of creating new ways of operating that go beyond existing structures and rules of operating.
Edwards, M, Onyx, J, Maxwell, H, Darcy, S, Bullen, P & Sherker, S 2015, 'A Conceptual Model of Social Impact as Active Citizenship', Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1529-1549.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Participation in Civil Society Organizations (CSO) draws on and enriches social, cultural, and human capital. Social impacts of such participation as active citizenship are systemic and 'ripple' far beyond the immediate program outputs and outcomes. CSOs and the third sector as a whole must demonstrate and gage the difference they make in the social life of the broader community. This research offers a new approach to conceptualize CSO social impacts through an empirically derived model that accounts for the impacts of active citizenship for individuals, organizations, and the broader community. A conceptual model of systemic social impact is presented as it was developed through an exploratory study of a large Australian CSO using an abductive methodology combining focus groups and a survey. Considering the potential of the model that could account for impacts beyond program outputs and outcomes, we propose several propositions for future testing the conceptual model.
Malcolm, M-J, Onyx, J, Dalton, B & Penetito, K 2015, 'Nonprofit Management Education Down Under: Challenges and Opportunities', Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 219-243.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this article, we will explore the context within which two significant nonprofit management education programs developed in Australia and New Zealand. These tertiary education programs grew with relatively little reference to each other, yet both responded to nonprofit sector needs with similarities of vision and adult education philosophy and practice. Over time, the Australian program, based in a university business school, has been focused more on postgraduate programs, research, and more recently, social entrepreneurship and measuring social impact. The New Zealand program, with roots in a community development school, has grown with wide geographic coverage, alongside customized delivery for MÄori and Pacific communities. Nonprofit sector, cultural, institutional, and wider contextual factors have played a part in shaping their current forms of delivery. Just as the nonprofit sector is characterized by a high degree of diversity in terms of organizational form, industry, and organizations, these programs have responded in different ways to multiple and diverse stakeholder influences. Given the size, significance, and growth of the sector, the uptake across all programs is smaller than expected in either country. Why is this so? In this article, we will examine the growth of the first accredited tertiary education programs in Australia and New Zealand and highlight the challenges and opportunities of delivering nonprofit management education in this region.
Ye, C & Onyx, JA 2015, 'Development Paths, Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Civil Society Organizations', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: an interdisciplinary journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Although the process of reform and opening-up accelerates continually in China, the speed of development for
Chinese Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) is still slow; most organizations still operate under the government
shadow and it is very difficult to cut relations with government. The autonomy of Chinese CSOs, to a large
extent, is affected by the constraints from government. Overall, Chinese CSOs are still in their infancy, and they
need to be further perfected and developed. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the field, with issues
and promise identified. Specifically, the paper focuses on the internal management of these organizations and
their existing problems in the development process, and some potential solutions for CSOs' future development.
Darcy, S, Maxwell, H, Edwards, M, Onyx, J & Sherker, S 2014, 'More than a sport and volunteer organisation: Investigating social capital development in a sporting organisation', Sport Management Review, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 395-406.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper presents the findings of a study that examines the development of social capital within an Australian sporting organisation, Surf Life Saving Australia (SLSA). The study draws on the social capital literature across the not-for-profit sector and specific sport management social capital research. The research design incorporated an interpretive approach with data collected nationally from eight focus groups with key SLSA staff, board members and 'toes in the sand' volunteers. The findings provide fresh insights into the development and understanding of social capital within a sporting organisation. Both bonding and bridging were important social capital outcomes of the organisation's activities, albeit with important implications for antecedents and process. The data presented strong evidence for arguing that within the organisation bonding within the club comes first, which importantly provides a very strong sense of belonging and mutual support for club members, from volunteers through to the board. The strength of bonding provides a powerful base for subsequent bridging capital to the local, regional and national stakeholder communities that are associated with the organisation. Further, social capital develops in both the collective and individual, with leveraging of individual skills contributing to human capital development, which is closely connected to and inseparable from social capital. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical implications for social capital generally and social capital in a sporting context.
Edwards, M, Onyx, J, Maxwell, H & Darcy, SA 2012, 'Meso level Social Impact: Meaningful Indicators of Community Contribution', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 18-37.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Social impact measures are not widely agreed, nor implemented by third sector organisations. Meso level indicators of social impact are underdeveloped. Financialised methods such as Social Return on Investment can only account for direct outcomes of defined programs and activities. The broader societal impacts of any such activities are undervalued. This paper outlines the findings of a grounded theoretical approach to determining measures of social impact within a large Australian iconic third sector organisation. Several key factors revealed in this study are discussed in regards to their potential for attributing social impact to organisational activities outside of a program specific outcome. Based on these findings the paper concludes that the development of a tool to measure meso level organisational social impact of third sector organisations may be attainable.
A study of what active citizenship means from the perspective of citizens who are active within third sector organisations. Based on an empirical study involving 1,610 respondents across 11 towns in six countries. Two themes emerged from the data. One theme is of active engagement, working sometiimes oppositionally working for a better world. the other is a preference for collaborative work at local level.
Baker, E, Onyx, J & Edwards, M 2011, 'Emergence, Social Capital And Entrepreneurship: Understanding Networks From The Inside', Emergence: Complexity and Organization, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 21-39.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Communities are a major research context for both social capital and entrepreneurship, and 'networks' is a core concept within both frameworks. There is need for conceptualizing network formation processes, and for qualitative studies of the relational aspects of networks and networking, to complement the existing mainly quantitative studies. Within complexity theory, emergence has been linked with formation of entities including networks, and with social entrepreneurship. In this paper, community networks are interpreted as an emergent dynamic process of action and interaction through an empirical case study conducted in an urban community setting. Interviews were conducted with experiential experts at networking. The study was designed within a social capital framework, but frequent reporting of entrepreneurship prompted additional analysis. Practical and theoretical implications of the network study findings are examined in light of the three frameworks together, and further empirical studies are suggested.
The literature on community development rarely addresses the issue of emergent leadership. Community development is a non-linear process which may arise from the initiatives of people within the community, utilizing their social capital with relatively few economic or human capital resources. Yet to answer the question of how the community is mobilized for development, the issue of leadership must be addressed. An individual or a group must mobilize the community for this purpose. As Barker et al. (in Leadership and Social Movements, Manchester Unity Press, Manchester, 2001) argue, leadership is an essential element of change. In this paper, we explore the issue of emergent leadership in five community case studies. The theoretical lens of complexity theory is used to analyse the ways in which leadership emerges. Seven themes emerged, some of which were consistent with complexity theory.
Onyx, J, Ho, C, Edwards, M, Burridge, N & Yerbury, H 2011, 'Scaling Up Connections: Everyday Cosmopolitanism, Complexity Theory & Social Capital', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 47-67.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
One of the key questions of contemporary society is how to foster and develop social interactions which will lead to a strong and inclusive society, one which accounts for the diversity inherent in local communities, whether that diversity be based on differences in interest or diversity in language and culture. The purpose of this paper is to examine three concepts which are used in the exploration of social interactions to suggest ways in which the interplay of these concepts might provide a richer understanding of social interactions. The three concepts are everyday cosmopolitanism, complexity theory and social capital. Each provides a partial approach to explanations of social interactions. Through focussing on social networking as a significant example of social interactions, we will demonstrate how the concepts can be linked and this linking brings potential for a clearer understanding of the processes through which this inclusive society may develop.
Casey, JP, Dalton, BM, Melville, R & Onyx, J 2010, 'Strengthening government-nonprofit relations: International experiences with compacts', Voluntary Sector Review, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 59-76.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Governments around the world have sought to strengthen their relations with nonprofit organisations. In many jurisdictions this has led to the development of written framework agreements between government and the nonprofit sector, most commonly known as compacts. They have had widely differing impacts â some are seen as successful initiatives that have significantly strengthened relations between government and nonprofits, while others have had little effect and have been quickly discarded or ignored. This paper documents the recent evolution of such processes in the UK, Canada, Australia, the US, France, Estonia and Spain, and explores the parallels between them. The narratives from these countries illustrate an emerging common discourse, but also that the peculiarties of each polity have led to significantly different substantive outcomes.
Onyx, J & Edwards, M 2010, 'Community Networks and the nature of emergence in civil society.', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-20.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
this paper challenges the limitations of extant knowledge of social formation by its focus on the ordinary, everyday lived reality of maintaining community and on identifying its operations from the internal perspective of civil society. We aim to explore the actual mobilising processes and structures that underpin the formation of social capital in the community. We examine how networks emerge and operate.
Onyx, J & Leonard, R 2010, 'The conversion of social capital into community development: an intervention in Australia's outback', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 1-17.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The research presented in this article employed a deliberate intervention to mobilize social capital and then studied the dynamics of the way in which it influenced community development.
Onyx, J, Armitage, LM, Dalton, BM, Melville, R, Casey, JP & Banks, R 2010, 'Advocacy with Gloves on: The 'Manners' of Strategy Used by Some Third Sector Organizations Undertaking Advocacy in NSW and Queensland', Voluntas - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organisations, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 41-61.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article examines the strategies used by some third sector organizations in Australia to advocate. The purpose of this article is to identify the kinds of activities that organizations in New South Wales and Queensland use to promote advocacy, the kinds of language that is used to describe these activities, and the reasons given for the particular strategies adopted. The extent to which the organizations adopt ï½softerï½ (that is more institutional forms of advocacy) rather than more openly challenging forms of activism is examined, particularly in light of a neo-liberal political and economic environment. In this analysis emergent strategies are identified that are not easily categorized as either ï½institutionalï½ or ï½radicalï½ advocacy. The article presents an exploratory analysis of some of the implications of the strategies adopted, in terms of their democratic effects and potential to strengthen the capacity of third sector organizations. The article is informed by the findings of a qualitative research project involving interviews with 24 organizations in the community services and environmental fields.
Existing literature documents the advantages of network formation but also the challenging nature of collaborative networks. In this papet; we propose that there are five dualities that are central to understanding effective management within non-profit networks. These dualities relate to governance, performance, values, employees and leadership. We draw upon the relevant literature as well as the findings of a case study conducted over a two-year period. The case study tracked the implementation oftwo interventions aimed at improving performance, and included interviews at two network levels. We also outline some strategies that address these dualities.
Leonard, R & Onyx, J 2009, 'Volunteer Tourism: The Interests and motivations of grey nomads', Annals of leisure research, vol. 12, no. 3 and4, pp. 315-332.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Volunteer tourism is increasingly being recognized as a distinct phenomenon which needs to draw on an understanding of both tourism and volunteer motivations.
McClean, S.M. & Onyx, J. 2009, 'Institutions and social change: Implementing co-operative housing and environmentally sustainable development at Christie Walk', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 109-131.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
How can institutions contribute to the building of civil society in the twenty- first century? It is clear that the old laissez-faire approach and the more recent neo-conservative reliance on the market have failed to deliver housing for many people. On the other hand the state-based welfare housing model espoused by the Australian Labor Party over the twentieth century has also been beset by problems. Social alienation, and the crisis in affordable housing make the case that individualist approaches to urban living are not working. More communal solutions are needed - solutions attuned to a complex view of civil society outlined by Michael Edwards' tripartite definition. At the same time the onset of global warming now prompts Australians to create more environmentally sustainable ways of living. Addressing the theme of responsibility, this paper focuses on citizenship in its broader environmental, social and active forms. It analyses interviews and documentary evidence concerning the planning and development of Christie Walk, an innovative, medium density eco-city development in Adelaide. The investigation reveals the effects of some Australian institutions on residents' efforts to live socially and environmentally sustainable lives in an urban environment. The paper offers transdisciplinary research and analysis, linking the fields of history, urban housing, community development and environmental theory.
At the second national volunteering research symposium two papers were presented that reported the conditions of unusually successful volunteering programs. The first of these papers was `Staying connected: The lived experiences of volunteers and older adults' by J Pennington and T Knight (2008) and the other by Jenny Warburton (2008), `The Rotary Readers Program, Bundaberg South State School'. Both studies identified the volunteers as `working beyond the boundaries'. Such findings are particularly significant as they demand a rethinking of volunteer theory. They also challenge the usefulness of some of our existing constraining regulations that prevent more successful volunteering events. This paper reflects on both the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Onyx, J, Dalton, BM, Melville, R, Casey, JP & Banks, R 2008, 'Implications of government funding of advocacy for third-sector independence and exploration of alternative advocacy funding models', Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 631-648.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper examines the effect of funding contracts on the capacity of third~sectororganizations to effectively advocate. The relationship is not simple or obvious, with some organizations reporting 'mature relationships' with particular (state) departments, and others reporting difficulty with state or federal government jurisdictions. The paper spells out the negative effects of conflating service funding and advocacy. The paper concludes by exploring alternative institutional arrangements for the resourcing of advocacy including the establishment of a Public Interest Fund administered independently of any government department, one not requiring specific service contracts but rather evidence that it is advocating for the broader public good.
I want to reflect on the nature of Community-University engagement, its role, challenges and achievements. In this I start with `engagement and what that might mean in the context of a university-based research centre. There are, of course, many forms of engagement, but I wish to focus specifically on engagement as coproduction of knowledge. In this, our partner in the co-production of knowledge is the community, or rather civil society. I re-examine the nature of community, and the role of civil society in todays society. The article then outlines one significant research programme that emerged from the work of a university research centre, the Centre for Australian Community Organisations and Management (CACOM), at the University of Technology, Sydney. This research namely the story of social capital research was initiated by a request from community partners and was carried out in collaboration with them.
Engaging with dialogue concerning the relevance and applicability of social capital to a model of sustainable community development, we illustrate an in-depth case of a community experiencing an ideological clash with the dominant politico-societal structures. We argue that while the exclusivity of bonding social capital has been described as the `dark side, it may be essential for progressive sustainable community development (PSCD). When faced with a development threat, such bonds are essential for building links, bridges and solidarity, enabling cultural reproduction and promoting environmental protection for sustainability
Leonard, R., Onyx, J. & Maher, A. 2007, 'Constructing short episodic volunteering experiences: Matching grey nomads and the needs of small country towns', Third Sector Review, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 121-139.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Onyx, J & Leonard, R 2007, 'The Grey Nomad Phenomenon: Changing The Script Of Aging', International Journal Of Aging & Human Development, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 381-398.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article explores a relatively new and little understood phenomenon, that of the Australian Grey Nomads. Every year increasing numbers of older Australians take to the road. This article explores the phenomenon both empirically and theoretically. A g
Onyx, J, Edwards, M & Bullen, P 2007, 'The Intersection of Social Capital and Power: An application to Rural Communities', Rural Society Journal, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 215-230.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The central aim of the article is to examine the relationship between power and social capital within the cultural, historical and spatial contingencies of three rural communities in Australia. These communities are West Wyalong NSW, Broken Hill NSW and Maleny Qld. Each has variously experienced the threats of deindustrialisation, revitalisation, and commercial development pressures (Beaver and Cohen, 2004). To understand how these communities have addressed their circumstances we examine each in turn within the overriding analytical framework of social capital. We find that social capital is used in different ways in each community. The article is prefaced by an exploration of the core theoretical concepts: Social capital, bonding bridging and linking and power, followed by a brief analysis of each of the three cases.
Onyx, J & Baker, E 2006, 'Retirement expectations: gender differences and partner effects in an Australian employer-funded sample', Australasian Journal on Ageing, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 80-83.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The concept of retirement has been undergoing change, and opportunities for a variety of retirement lifestyle options are increasing. Retirement plans for one cohort are examined in this context. Method: Responses to a questionnaire of some 200 public-sector employees attending a retirement seminar were analysed by gender. Results: Findings suggest that both men and women viewed retirement as a positive experience, focusing on opportunities for further personal development. This approach was more evident among women. However, both men and women would prefer to maintain a form of reduced employment after retiring. There were no gender differences in reasons for retiring at that time, but those with partners were more likely to retire because of family responsibilities. Conclusions: Implications for theories of ageing and public policy are discussed. A more flexible approach to retirement policy is urged. Retirement may provide more opportunities for personal growth than decline.
Leonard, R, Onyx, J & Hayward-Brown, HP 2005, 'Quality gifts: issues in understanding quality volunteering in human services', Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 411-425.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hayward-Brown, H.P., Leonard, R. & Onyx, J. 2004, 'The intricacy of the volunteer-client relationship in the construction of social capital', Australian Journal on Volunteering, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 37-46.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Leonard, R, Onyx, J & Hayward-Brown, HP 2004, 'Volunteer and coordinator perspectives on managing women volunteers', Nonprofit Management and Leadership, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 205-219.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Onyx, J, Osburn, LG & Bullen, P 2004, 'Response to the environment: social capital and sustainability.', Australian Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 212-219.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Leonard, R & Onyx, J 2003, 'Networking through loose and strong ties: an Australian qualitative study', Voluntas - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organisations, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 189-203.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Onyx, J., Leonard, R. & Hayward-Brown, H.P. 2001, 'The Experience of Volunteers in the Provision of Human Services in NSW: a Regional Perspective', Australian Journal on Volunteering, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 128-138.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Dovey, KA & Onyx, J 2001, 'Generating Social Capital at the Workplace: a South African Case of Inside-out Social Renewal', International Journal of Lifelong education, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 151-168.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Onyx, J & Bullen, P 2000, 'Measuring social capital in five communities', The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 23-42.
Onyx, J. 2000, 'Power, social capital and accountability', Third Sector Review, vol. 6, no. 1&2, pp. 59-70.
Onyx, J & Dovey, K 1999, 'Cohabitation in the time of cholera: Praxis in the community sector in the era of corporate capitalism', Community Development Journal, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 179-190.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper is a response to Gary Craig's (1998) overview of the current state of the community sector within a global corporate capitalist economy. It attempts two things: firstly, to contribute to an analysis of the factors underlying the current state of, what Craig (ibid: 2) calls, 'ideological confusion' within and beyond the sector, by exploring the various contradictory ideological strands that have accompanied the project of modernization, and their relative status at the end of the millennium. Secondly, the paper revives the concept of praxis, as an appropriate methodology for action by those in the community sector, and identifies key strategic issues - those of the current economic rationalist policies of the state and of state enticement of the sector into collaborative ventures - that the sector needs to consider in taking strategic action to place its narrative of social justice and equity back on the state agenda.
Onyx, J 1998, 'Issues Affecting Womens Retirement Planning', Australian Journal Of Social Issues, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 379-393.
There has been a steep rise over the past 20 years in the proportion of women who enter the workforce, with a concomitant increase in the number of women who will be retiring in the next 20 years, In the past, the majority of women over 60 have either be
The paper reports a study exploring the meaning of retirement for older professional women. The analysis is based on 50 questionnaires, and 25 indepth interviews of women between the ages of 45 and 65, all recognised high achievers in the field of human
The article explores the concept of career as it relates to third-sector employees. The results of a survey of third-sector employees in New South Wales, Australia, suggests a distinctive pattern of work orientation involving a preference for work that is both personally challenging and socially meaningful. Pragmatic considerations are also important for women with young children. These and other findings suggest that the majority of third-sector employees pursue a career that more closely fits Driver's spiral career model rather than the conventional linear career model. It therefore behooves nonprofit employers to tailor the organizational reward system to the motivational needs of their employees if they hope to maximize worker satisfaction and effectiveness. © 1996 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Onyx, J & Maclean, M 1995, 'Career Progression In The Community Sector', Australian Journal Of Social Issues, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 55-70.
This article presents the results of preliminary research into the nature of career progression within the community sector in NSW, using a supply-side analysis and drawing on the experience of 200 community sector workers over the past 10 years. Contrar
A 2x2 factorial design using an open-ended response format examined the social perception of power in terms of the gender of the powerful person and gender of the perceiver. There were 125 men and 140 women, drawn from a variety of university courses (bu
Onyx, J, Benton, P & Bradfield, J 1992, 'Community-development And Government Response', Community Development Journal, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 166-174.
The article contrasts two programmes aimed at improving the quality of life for older women in Australia. The Community Options programme is a well-funded Government initiative directed at personal care within the home. The Older Womens Network is a gr
Crawford, J, Kippax, S, Onyx, J, Gault, U & Benton, P 1990, 'Women Theorising Their Experiences of Anger: A Study Using Memory‐Work', Australian Psychologist, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 333-350.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Abstract: This paper represents part of an ongoing project on the social construction of emotion. Although our general findings are that emotions are complex and difficult to separate from one another, this paper focuses on anger ‐ an emotion which presents problems for women. The theories used include social constructionism and the theory‐and‐method of memory‐work developed by Haug (1987). Memory‐work is a method of enquiry which is collective, subjective, and deconstructive. It uses written memories and collective theorising of them as its raw material. Our analysis of anger considers the way anger was experienced in terms of themes which relate to anger and fear, anger and hurt, suppression of anger, anger and injustice. The conclusion points out the importance of power relationships in the experience of anger and hence the relevance of considering gender differences. The analysis suggests that women's anger needs to be rendered valid and visible: its social representation changed. 1990 Australian Psychological Society
Onyx, J, 'The politics of social impact: 'value for money' versus 'active citizenship'?', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 69-78.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There is growing interest in identifying the social impact of everything: academic research, funded projects, organisations themselves, whether in public , private, or community sectors. The central questions are first what benefits do organizations create and deliver for society and second how do we measure these benefits? These questions are notoriously difficult to answer and yet go to the heart of efforts by governments and civil society organisations to create a better world, to generate social value. The importance of finding a way to measure social impact becomes all the more crucial when it comes to arguing that the benefits obtained far outweigh the cost of producing those benefits, and indeed the benefits may directly or indirectly increase economic wealth. This line of thinking has started to generated various attempts in Australia and elsewhere in the neo-liberal world, to find objective indicators of social impact, and preferably to frame these in terms of monetary cost and benefit. Indeed there is increasing insistence on the part of funding bodies that we measure the social impact. However, exactly what it is that we should be measuring remains contested and elusive
Onyx, JA 2018, 'Community development and governance: An Australian example' in Kenny, B, McGrath, B & Phillips, R (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Community Development, Routledge, New York.
Onyx, J, Schwabenland, C, Lange, C & Nakagawa, S 2017, 'Organising for emancipation/emancipating organisations?' in Women's Emancipation and Civil Society Organisations: Challenging or Maintaining the Status Quo?, Policy Press, pp. 343-358.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Schwabenland, C, Lange, C, Onyx, J & Nakagawa, S 2016, 'Introducing the anthology' in Women's Emancipation and Civil Society Organisations: Challenging or Maintaining the Status Quo?, Policy Press, pp. 1-19.
Onyx, J 2013, 'Breaking the rules: the secret of successful volunteering in a caring role.' in Kramer, M, Lewis, L & Gossett, L (eds), Volunteering and Communication: Studies from Multiple Contexts, Peter Lang Publishing, New York, pp. 343-364.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Onyx, J., Bullen, P. & Edwards, M. 2009, 'Social capital: A meta analysis' in Woolcock, G. & Manderson, L. (eds), Social Capital and Social Justice: Critical Australian Perspectives, Charles Darwin University Press, Darwin NT, pp. 151-168.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hasan, A.S. & Onyx, J. 2008, 'Governance approach in Asia's third sector: Adapted Western or modified Asian?' in Hasan, S. & Onyx, J. (eds), Comparative Third Sector Governance in Asia: Structure, Process and Political Economy, Springer, New York, USA, pp. 193-206.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hasan, A.S., Lyons, M.J. & Onyx, J. 2008, 'Third sector organisation governance: Introducing the themes and the chapters' in Hasan, S. & Onyx, J. (eds), Comparative Third Sector Governance in Asia: Structure, Process and Political Economy, Springer, New York, USA, pp. 1-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Onyx, J. 2008, 'Third sector organisation accountability and performance' in Hasan, S. & Onyx, J. (eds), Comparative Third Sector Governance in Asia: Structure, Process and Political Economy, Springer, New York, USA, pp. 119-129.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Onyx, J. 2008, 'Third sector organisations and governance process' in Hasan, S. & Onyx, J. (eds), Comparative Third Sector Governance in Asia: Structure, Process and Political Economy, Springer, New York, USA, pp. 105-118.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Small, J, Cadman, K, Friend, L, Gannon, S, Ingleton, C, Koutroulis, G, McCormack, C, Mitchell, P, Onyx, J, O'Regan, K & Rocco, S 2007, 'Unresolved Power for Feminist Researchers Employing memory-work' in Ateljevic, I, Pritchard, A & Morgan, N (eds), The Critcal Turn in Tourism Studies: Innovative research methodologies, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 261-278.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The use of memory-work as a qualitative method in feminist social research is well established in Australia and New Zealand. Memory-work, though, still brings with it many theoretical and methodological dilemmas and issues. To open some of these issues to collective discussion, a group of experienced feminist researchers used the process of memory-work to explore specific experiences of working with memory-work groups. Our exploration suggested that using memory-work within the dominant positivist discourses and patriarchal structures of academia could, at times, leave feminist researchers feeling powerless. Through this collective we expressed concern about method and methodological process in ways which had not been articulated through our earlier memory-work projects.
Benn, SH & Onyx, J 2005, 'Negotiating interorganizational domains: The politics of social, natural, and symbolic capital' in Dale, A & Onyx, J (eds), A Dynamic Balance: Social Capital and Sustainable Community Development, UCB Press, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 87-104.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Onyx, J & Osburn, LG 2005, 'Social Capital and Sustainable Development: The Case of Broken Hill' in Dale, A & Onyx, J (eds), A Dynamic Balance: Social Capital and Sustainable Community Development, University of British Columbia Press, Canada, pp. 176-192.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Onyx, J. 2001, 'Implementing work-based learning for the first time' in Boud, D. & Solomon, N. (eds), Work-Based Learning: A Newer Higher Education?, SRHE & Open University Press, Buckingham, UK, pp. 126-140.
Onyx, J. & Bullen, P. 2001, 'The different faces of social capital in NSW Australia' in Dekker, P. & Uslaner, E.M. (eds), Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 45-58.
Onyx, J. & Bullen, P. 2000, 'Sources of social capital' in Winter, I. (ed), Social Capital and Public Policy in Australia, Australian Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 105-135.
Onyx, J. & Leonard, R. 2000, 'Women, volunteering and social capital' in Oppenheimer, J. & Warburton, M. (eds), Volunteers and Volunteering, Federation Press, Sydney, Australia, pp. 113-124.
Darcy, S, Onyx, J, Faulkner, S, Green, J & Maxwell, H 2016, 'Quantifying and qualifying the individual and collective social impact of the arts: Disability arts partnership projects', Arts Activated, Arts Activated, Sydney, pp. 1-2.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper examines a study that investigated the social impact of creative participation in NSW Arts and Disability Partnership Projects (ADDP). The primary aim of the study was to research the social impact of creative participation in ADDP. The 12 projects each comprised different art mediums, organisational partnerships, levels of involvement, and types of artists with disability. Additionally, the research study sought to determine the broad social impact that funded projects have on: artists and/or other participants with disability; organisations within the funded programs; and audiences that attend such public programs. The overall conceptualisation of social impact in this project has been guided by the Conceptual Model of Social Impact as Active Citizenship framework(Darcy, Maxwell, Edwards, Onyx, & Sherker, 2014; Edwards, Onyx, Maxwell, & Darcy, 2012; Edwards et al., 2015; Onyx, 2014a, 2014b), which was used by the research team in a previous study. The research design adopted an abductive, mixed method, collective case study methodology, in order to allow for detailed analysis of the ADPP within their particular contexts and across various settings. The collective case study methodology provided the opportunity to engage in detail through a mixture of methodologies and data sources. These methodologies included: in-depth interviews with project managers, facilitators, participants, artists, audience members and participating organisations' employees; focus groups with stakeholders; project observations, and content analyses of related audio-visual materials, media reports, Facebook pages, websites, internal organisational and project documents, and project acquittals. Developing the social impact instrument was an iterative process, that is, it was continuously modified as more data was gathered, and the instrument was (re)tested and refined. As a consequence, 10 resultant factors and 33 indicators were identified, and each was modified to reflect bot...
Baker, E., Onyx, J. & Edwards, M. 2010, 'Emergence of social entrepreneurial activities: Learning from community networks', Second Int' l Conf on Social Entrepreneurship, Systems Thinking & Complexity, Adelphi University Center for Complexity & Social Entrepreneurship.
Onyx, J., Burridge, N. & Baker, E. 2009, 'Different types of community networks', Australian Social Policy Conference, Australian Social Policy Conference, Social Policy Research Centre, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Networks appear to be the basic ingredient of all community action. But what kind of networks, how formalized, for what purpose, and what specific impact are questions about which there is little understanding in either theory or practice. This paper explores three civil-society networks in Australia, which differ in structure, decision-making, and sharing. The research involved interviews of key informants in several organisations from each network. The first is a network with a ï½head officeï½. After establishment of ï½Job Networkï½, employment-service contracts were awarded to external agencies, and these agencies organised themselves into networks to jointly bid for contracts. These networks with formal structures proved difficult to manage. The second network is the Aged Care Alliance, which operates in a traditional civilsociety manner, with community organisations collaborating to mount a particular campaign, usually under the aegis of a peak body. This network has mounted several very successful campaigns. The third case describes a loose network, comprising a number of small, activist organisations operated mainly on-line and by young people. This type of network, although essential for the survival of these organisations, has no formalized structure. The three networks are treated as ideal types and are theorized, using complexity theory.
Baker, E., Kan, M.M., Teo, S.T., Onyx, J., Grant, T. & Zowghi, D. 2007, 'Managing sustainable non-profit network organizations', Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, University of Ottawa, Canada, pp. 118-128.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
We draw upon a case study conducted within a non-profit network organization to propose five dualities which are central to understanding effective management of non-profit networks. We then examine strategies that address these dualities, based on new approaches to leadership, performance measurement, governance, coaching and creative management of dualities.
Cadman, K., Friend, L., Gannon, S., Ingleton, C., Koutroulis, G., McCormack, C., Mitchell, P., Onyx, J., O'Regan, K., Rocco, S. & Small, J. 2000, 'Memory-workers doing memory-work on memory-work: Exploring unresolved power', Memory-Work Conference, Memory-Work Conference, UTS, Sydney, Australia.
Cadman, K., Friend, L., Gannon, S.M., Ingleton, C., Koutroulis, G., McCormack, C., Mitchell, P., Onyx, J., O'Regan, K., Rocco, S. & Small, J. 2005, 'Unresolved power for feminist researchers employing memory work', Embodying Tourism Research: Advancing Critical Approaches - International Conference on Critical Tourism Studies, International Conference on Critical Tourism Studies, University of Wales Institute, Dubrovnik, Croatia, pp. 180-186.
Osburn, L.G., Onyx, J., Bullen, P. & Woods, C. 2003, 'Social capital and ecological sustainability: Broken Hill', Wellbeing of Women (WOW)Conference Proceedings: "Research and Practice", WOW - Wellbeing of Women, Charles Sturt University, Wagga, Australia, pp. 61-70.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Onyx, J. 2003, 'Third sector governance and its contribution to civil society', Third ISTR Asia and Pacific Regional Conference, --, Beijing, China.
Cadman, K., Friend, L., Gannon, S.M., Ingleton, C., Koutroulis, G., McCormack, C., Mitchell, P., Onyx, J., O'Reagan, K., Rocco, S. & Small, J. 2002, 'Consuming the feminist methodology of memory-work: unresolved power issues.', 6th Conference on Gender; Marketing and Consumer Behaviour, 6th Conference on Gender; Marketing and Consumer Behaviour, ESCP-EAP Printing Services, Dublin, Ireland, pp. 261-274.
Edwards, M. & Onyx, J. 2002, 'Inter-sectorial engagement: multiplexing between business and nonprofit organisations in Australia', Refereed Proceedings of the ANZAM2002 Conference - Enhancing Business and Government Capabilities: Research, Knowledge and Practice, Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, ANZAM, Victoria, Australia, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Onyx, J. & Leonard, R. 2002, 'The relationship between formal and informal volunteering: a social capital framework', ANZAM, Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, ANZAM, Capetown.