Jenny has a Bachelor of Science (Hons) and a Masters of Environmental Law. She has worked for many years in the environment field, initially in the area of solid waste and more recently in sustainability education positions in State and Local Government and the non-government sector. Her research topic, "Climate Change- whose responsibility? From the personal to the global" combines her interests in personal and community-level environmental action and behaviour change with sustainability policy development.
Riedy, C, Kent, J & Thompson, N 2019, 'Meaning work: reworking institutional meanings for environmental governance', Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, pp. 1-21.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Newcastle University Effective environmental governance requires institutional change. While some actors work to change institutions, others resist change by defending and maintaining institutions. Much of this institutional work is 'meaning work', which we define as the practice of crafting, adapting, connecting and performing meanings to purposively create, maintain or disrupt institutions. This paper constructs a concept of meaning work that highlights agency in carrying meanings across scales and between discursive layers, while noting the structuring role of prevailing discourses. It grounds the concept using two environmental governance cases at very different scales: a local democratic innovation employed by Noosa Council in Queensland, Australia; and the international campaign to divest from fossil fuels. The cases demonstrate the diversity of meaning work and the difficulty of achieving deep discursive change. They point to the need for environmental governance practitioners to rework existing meanings to construct compelling stories for change, taking advantage of narrative openings.
Dowling, R, Maalsen, S & Kent, JL 2018, 'Sharing as sociomaterial practice: Car sharing and the material reconstitution of automobility', Geoforum, vol. 88, pp. 10-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 The Authors Sharing has become one of the buzzwords of contemporary urban life and scholarship, as cities and social lives are transformed by the share economy and collaborative consumption. This paper advances critical analysis of sharing economies through an investigation of the ways in which objects are mobilized in the practice of sharing. Drawing on an empirical base of 35 interviews conducted with Sydney residents using car sharing as a form of transport, we explicate the material entanglements that constitute car sharing in order to highlight the complex intersections of the object being shared, the constellations of objects brought into the orbit of the practice, and the code that flows through each. Bringing together a material-focused analysis into conversation with the concepts of share economies as both performed and hybrid, we advance the concepts of sharing as a set of socio-material entanglements. We argue that the divergent spatialities and temporalities of objects and humans both hold together and tear apart the experiences of sharing, which in turn underpins car sharing's implications for the reconstitution of automobility.
Harris, P, Kent, J, Sainsbury, P, Marie-Thow, A, Baum, F, Friel, S & McCue, P 2018, 'Creating 'healthy built environment' legislation in Australia; A policy analysis', Health Promotion International, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1090-1100.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Influencing healthy public policy through health advocacy remains challenging. This policy analysis research uses theories of agenda setting to understand how health came to be considered for specific mention in legislation arising from land-use planning system reform in New South Wales, Australia. This qualitative study follows critical realist methodology to conduct a policy analysis of the case. We collected data from purposively sampled in-depth interviews (n ¼ 9), a focus group and documentary analysis. We used three classic policy process (agenda setting) theories to develop an analytic framework for explaining the empirical data: Multiple Streams; Punctuated Equilibrium Theory and Advocacy Coalition Framework. The reform process presented a window of opportunity that opened incrementally over a 2 year period. The opportunity was grasped by individual policy entrepreneurs who subsequently formed a coalition of healthy planning advocates focused on strategically positioning 'health' as legislative objective for the new system. The actual point of influence seemed to appear suddenly when challenges to a perceived economic development agenda within the reforms peaked, and the health objective, see as non-threatening by all stakeholders, was taken up. Our analysis demonstrates how this particular point of influence followed sustained long-term activity by health advocates prior to and during the reform process. We demonstrate a theory-driven policy analysis of health advocacy efforts to influence an instance of major land-use planning reform. The application of multiple policy process theories enables deep understanding of what is required to effectively advocate for healthy public policy.
Harris, P, Riley, E, Sainsbury, P, Kent, J & Baum, F 2018, 'Including health in environmental impact assessments of three mega transport projects in Sydney, Australia: A critical, institutional, analysis', Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol. 68, pp. 109-116.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Inc. This article details how health impacts came to be assessed in three mega, billion dollar, transport infrastructure projects, two road tunnels and one light rail, in Sydney Australia. The known health impacts of transport decisions include environmental, behavioural and social factors. EIA practice prioritises environmental risks, and there has been scant attention to understanding why this is persistently the case. Here we provide a critical theory lens, using critical realist methodology, to analyse empirical data collected through interviews and documents for the three cases. Our analysis focusses on EIA practice within its institutional context, building on 'new institutional' approaches to policy analysis that emphasise actors (the stakeholders involved in the EIA), structures (the 'rules of the game' that influence practice in systems), and power. We find that the various actors engaged in the EIAs principally to address particular goals that were pre-determined by the system in which they worked or belonged. Structurally, each EIA was undertaken as a compliance process relatively late in the planning process. Considering project options was not part of the EIA's purpose. Resources to undertake the EIAs were provided by those funding the projects ('the proponents') and determined the types of issues to be considered. The full range of links between transport and health were not identified. Concerning power, health impacts were considered through inter-professional technical negotiation. The inability to engage in the fundamental options driving projects meant impacted communities questioned the validity of the EIA, and the health assessment within this. Our institutional analysis provides important knowledge about how the EIAs preferenced a focus on specific health risks to the detriment of the known broader determinants that shape the health impacts of transport.
Kent, JL & Dowling, R 2018, 'Commercial Car Sharing, Complaints and Coping: Does Sharing Need Willingness?', Urban Policy and Research, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 464-475.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018, © 2018 Editorial Board, Urban Policy and Research. Commercial car sharing is arguably one of the more positive shared transport innovations of the past decade, with evidence suggesting that car sharing reduces rates of car ownership, frequency of car use and vehicle kilometres travelled. In this paper, we propose that transitions to successful sharing practices are dependent on those 'doing' transition maintaining a positive attitude towards the alternative practice. We call this willingness. Drawing on qualitative, empirical data from car sharers in Sydney, Australia, we use three themes to explain why willingness is central to mobility transitions. Without it, new ways of sharing will struggle to gain traction.
Kent, JL, Harris, P, Sainsbury, P, Baum, F, McCue, P & Thompson, S 2018, 'Influencing Urban Planning Policy: An Exploration from the Perspective of Public Health', Urban Policy and Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Editorial Board, Urban Policy and Research Human health requires the proper development and management of places through urban planning. This paper demonstrates how concerns for human health can become explicit matters for consideration in urban planning policy systems. Taking advantage of a rare opportunity to examine the policy development process, we combine a realist analysis, with a new institutional policy approach, to study a case of planning system review in Australia. These insights are useful for practitioners presented with similar opportunities for legislative influence. We also demonstrate the way this approach can be used in future research to develop rich insights into the forces at play in positioning health as explicitly related to urban governance.
Ma, L, Kent, JL & Mulley, C 2018, 'Transport disadvantage, social exclusion, and subjective well-being: The role of the neighborhood environment—evidence from Sydney, Australia', Journal of Transport and Land Use, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 31-47.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Liang Ma, Jennifer L. Kent & Corinne Mulley. This study explores the effects of the neighborhood environment on transport disadvantage, social exclusion, personal health and subjective well-being (SWB) using survey data collected in Sydney, Australia. The data is analyzed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Overall, our model supports the hypothesis that a walkable neighborhood environment helps to reduce transport disadvantage and increase social inclusion. Neighborhood density has negative effects on both physical and mental health, but a positive effect on SWB. Further, a cohesive neighborhood environment is associated with less transport disadvantage, more engagement in political and civic activities, more social help, better mental health and higher SWB. By contrast, perception of crime in a neighborhood is associated with more transport disadvantage and worse physical health. Neighborhood aesthetics and the neighborhood social environment have stronger effects on SWB than other neighborhood environment characteristics.
Palmer, J, Fam, DM, Tanzi, S & Jennifer, K 2018, 'Where's the data? Using data convincingly in transdisciplinary doctoral research', International Journal of Doctoral Studies, vol. 13, pp. 9-29.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Riley, E, Harris, P, Kent, J, Sainsbury, P, Lane, A & Baum, F 2018, 'Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.', International Journal of Health Policy and Management, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 144-153.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia.We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included.We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise.Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant limitation...
Prior, JH, Connon, I, McIntyre, E, Adams, J, Capon, T, Kent, J, Rissel, C, Thomas, L, Thompson, S & Westcott, H 2018, 'Built environment interventions for human and planetary health: integrating health in climate change adaption and mitigation', Public Health Research and Practice, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. e2841831-e2841831.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Objectives: Human-generated climate change is causing adverse health effects through multiple direct pathways (e.g. heatwaves, sea-level rise, storm frequency and intensity) and indirect pathways (e.g. food and water insecurity, social instability). Although the health system has a key role to play in addressing these health effects, so too do those professions tasked with the development of the built environment (urban and regional planners, urban designers, landscapers and architects), through improvements to buildings, streets, neighbourhoods, suburbs and cities. This article reports on the ways in which urban planning and design, and architectural interventions, can address the health effects of climate change; and the scope of climate change adaptation and mitigation approaches being implemented by the built environment professions.
Type of program or service: Built environment adaptations and mitigations and their connections to the ways in which urban planning, urban design and architectural practices are addressing the health effects of climate change.
Methods: Our reflections draw on the findings of a recent review of existing health and planning literature. First, we explore the ways in which 'adaptation' and 'mitigation' relate to the notion of human and planetary health. We then outline the broad scope of adaptation and mitigation interventions being envisioned, and in some instances actioned, by built environment professionals.
Results: Analysis of the review's findings reveals that adaptations developed by built environment professions predominantly focus on protecting human health and wellbeing from the effects of climate change. In contrast, built environment mitigations address climate change by embracing a deeper understanding of the co-benefits inherent in the interconnectedness of human health and wellbeing and the health of the ecosystem on which it depends. In the final section, we highlight the ethical transition that these approaches de...
Clancey, G, Kent, J, Lyons, A & Westcott, H 2017, 'Crime and crime prevention in an Australian growth centre', Crime Prevention and Community Safety, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 17-30.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Drawing on a case study of a growth centre on the fringe of Australia's most populous city, Sydney, this article considers some of the potential crime generating consequences of urban sprawl and the associated challenges of planning for crime prevention. Significant population growth residing in predominantly detached houses on the urban fringe will potentially increase opportunities for crime. Empty completed dwellings prior to occupation; lengthy commuting to employment for new residents; financial pressures associated with 'mortgage stress'; and growing numbers of young people are some of the potential crime generators in the area. Through this case study, we illustrate some of the complexities of large-scale, peri-urban, residential development and the challenges of embedding crime prevention during this period of rapid and sustained population growth.
Kent, JL & Mulley, C 2017, 'Riding with dogs in cars: What can it teach us about transport practices and policy?', Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 106, pp. 278-287.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd In low density cities shaped by the assumption of private car access and a relative paucity of public transport options, it is likely there are personal costs to not having a car. These subtle sacrifices contain vital clues as to why many people remain attached to car use, and their exposure can inform policy solutions that encourage car independence. This paper takes dog ownership as a case in point of an ostensibly health promoting and personally satisfying practice which, in many cities, either requires, or is enriched by, access to a private car. Drawing on empirical data from a convenience survey of over 1250 dog owners in Sydney, Australia, we explore the way cars augment and shape the human-dog bond and identify a high level of car use for dog-related trips. This suggests a distinct and previously unrecorded inclination for people to travel relatively long (that is, non-walkable) distances with their dog. It also reflects the fact dogs are prohibited on the public transport network in our case study city, leaving no legal alternative but to drive non-walkable dog-related trips. Enabling dogs to ride public transport with their owners is suggested as a potential way to reduce dog-related car trips, while fulfilling preferences for owners to travel with their dogs. Unsurprisingly, survey participants indicated nigh universal support for such policies, with many stating they would change their transport behaviour should such a policy be approved. Given the support and benefits of allowing dogs on public transport, the second part of the paper explores how such initiatives are regulated across the developed world and considers the practical and cultural implications of pursuit of such a policy in a car-dominated city. We conclude with reflections on lessons to be learned from differences in dogs-on-transport policy and practice from city to city. We explore whether such differences indicate the normalisation and acceptance of public dogs, o...
Kent, J.C. 2013, 'Beyond light bulbs: Individual responsibility and climate action', The Conversation, vol. 27 April, no. 1:24pm.
Climate-action groups (CAGs), whose members are highly motivated and publicly engaged citizens, have emerged in recent years within Australia. This paper draws from a multiple case study of eight Australian CAGs. It considers what distinguishes CAGs within third-sector environmental organisations active on climate change; what CAGs can tell us about the characteristics of people who join similar grassroots TSOs concerned with environmental and sustainability issues; and whether and how CAGs enhance the individual and collective motivations of their members in voluntary climate-change mitigation.
Kent, J.C. 2009, 'Individualized responsibility and climate change: 'if climate protection becomes everyone's responsibility, does it end up being no-one's?'', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Jo..., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 132-149.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper will explore how notions of individual responsibility have arisen and what the trend towards individualized responsibility may mean for active citizenship on climate change.
Kent, J.C. 2008, 'Environmental ethics: fair share and respect?', Training Agenda, vol. 0, pp. 19-21.
Environmental ethics is the extension of the moral consideration of human conduct towards the natural environment. This article explores the importance of this for vocational education and training. A case study illustrates how the Ultimo campus of the TAFE NSW - Sydney Institute implemented a successful anti-littering project.
Kent, JC 2004, 'How can the VET sector drive the adoption of sustainable practices in industry?', Australian Journal of Environmental Education, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 89-99.
Vocational education and training (VET) is often considered the enigma of education. For those that work in or research sustainable education within the schools and higher education sections, VETappears somewhat like the mysterious second cousin: often difficult to access and difficult to understand. VET differs quite markedly from the other education sectors. Its industry, skill and competency foci have been established through a distinct range of national and international drivers. Both the limited understanding of how VET operates and its institutional characteristics has bound the integration of sustainable education practices within the sector. This paper provides a brief overview' of the VET sector within Australia and provides some insight into how sustainable education practices are being developed in VET. The recognition of elements of common ground between VET and sustainable education are proposed as an entree into the sector that can influence the adoption of sustainable practices by industry.
Kent, J.C. 2000, 'Waste minimization - dematerialising the material economy', Waste Management Association of Australia News, vol. 1, no. June, pp. 10-11.
Kent, JC 2011, 'Individual responsibility and voluntary action on climate change: activating agency' in Harris, PG (ed), Ethics and Global Environmental Policy: Cosmopolitan Conceptions of Climate Change, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 66-88.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Climate change presents as a 'diabolical' problem and represents the greatest challenge to humanity of this century. According to Gardiner, the problem of climate change is characterized by three key factors; complexity, lack of causality and institutional inadequacy. Each of these contribute to what Gardiner describes as a 'perfect moral storm', as they represent areas of ethical deliberation essential to resolving the climate change problem but for which existing ethical frameworks are inadequate. Gardiner reasons that the complexity and longevity of the climatic impacts of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is signified by the extension of climate change obligations both spatially, as a global issue, and temporally, as an intergenerational one. Who should bear the costs and burdens of climate change is therefore unclear as there is no single causal agent which can be identified as being responsible for the problem. Climate change therefore demands an unprecedented level of global cooperation which calls into doubt the adequacy of existing institutions to address the problem. This positions climate change 'as the moral challenge of our generation' and throws up ethical contestations not only internationally but also between each nation and its citizens.
Kent, JC, McGee, CM, Herriman, J & Riedy, C 2010, 'A tough social challenge and a diabolical policy challenge', Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change: Social dimensions of environmental change and governance, Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change: Social dimensions of environmental change and governance, Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, Berlin.
Kent, JC, McGee, CM, Herriman, J & Riedy, C 2010, 'Participation and deliberation: could deliberative processes empower civil society participation in climate governance?', Proceedings of Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change 2010, Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change: Social dimensions of environmental change and governance, Environmental Policy Research Centre, Freie Universitat, Berlin and German Development Institute, Berlin, Germany, pp. 1-16.
Kent, J.C. 2009, 'Individual responsibility and voluntary action on climate change', Earth System Governance: People, Places and the Planet, Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. Earth System Governance: People, Places and the Planet, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 1-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper will consider individual responsibility for climate change mitigation as it is expressed through forms of voluntary action; how perceptions of agency may contribute to broader level change; and the implications for linking local level climate change action with the global level.
Kent, J.C. 2008, 'Individualized responsibility and climate change: if climate protection becomes everyone's responsibility, does it end up being no-one's?', The 4 Rs - Rights, Respect, Reconciliation, Responsibility - Planning for a socially inclusive future for Australia, University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney.
Whereas global compacts, such as the Kyoto Protocol have yet to consolidate action from governments on climate change, there has been increasing acknowledgement of the role of individuals (in their roles as citizens and consumers) as contributors to climate change and as responsible agents in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Recently along with the acknowledgement of the threat that anthropogenic climate change presents to the planet, there has been increased emphasis by governments and non-government organizations on personal responsibility campaigns targeting individuals and households with a view to stemming the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The Australian Government, for example, spent $25 million in 2007 on the climate change information campaign targeted to every Australian household, 'Be Climate Clever: "I can do that"' In the UK there is support from both the government and some non-government organizations to legislate for Personal Carbon Allowances (PCA). A PCA scheme would specify and monitor a carbon budget for each household. Such education campaigns and carbon budget schemes imply that global greenhouse gas emission reduction targets can be met through the actions of individuals. Not only does this provide a very large expectation on the ability for the collective action of individuals to result in large greenhouse gas emissions but it also requires people to take on levels of responsibility for climate change mitigation which are as yet untested. This paper will explore how notions of individual responsibility have arisen and what the trend towards individualized responsibility may mean for active citizenship on climate change.
Kent, J.C. 2004, 'From little things...... emerging ideas in VET pedagogy and Education for Sustainability (slides)', Incorporating Sustainability into Education Conference, University of Ballarat, University of Ballarat.
Kent, J.C. 2008, 'How can the VET sector drive the adoption of sustainable practices in industry?', Effective Sustainability Education: What Works? Why? Where Next? Linking Research and Practice, University of New South Wales, Sydney.
Whilst there is now considerable theory on corporate/ organisational uptake of Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD), there has been little examination or critique of the role of vocational education and training (VET). Given that the current VET framework is both led by and for industry this represents a significant gap in sustainable education research. Education has been identified as the main pathway to achieving systemic change towards sustainability. Vocational education and training has a key stake, as its role is to: Empower people to contribute to environmentally sound sustainable development through their occupations and other areas of their lives. Despite these intentions there has been scant uptake of sustainable education objectives into VET. The following paper will provide an overview of the VET sector in Australia and discuss some of the research undertaken by TAFE NSW, Australia's largest VET provider. The considerable issues and challenges facing the sector are identified and some ideas on how VET may assist industry's move towards sustainability.
Kent, J.C. 2004, 'Through the Looking Glass - an outsider's view of VET research', Vocational Education and Training Research Perspectives and Directions, Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association, Sydney.
Kent, J.C. 2008, 'Bottom line or triple bottom line driven? Opportunities and barriers to green buying', 3rd National Conference for Sustainable Campuses, Canberra.
This research project asks what mini-publics contribute to democracy from a systemic perspective, and how that contribution might be strengthened. For evidence, we draw on three mini-publics supported by the newDemocracy Foundation during 2015 and 2016: the Penrith Community Panel; the Noosa Community Jury (on management of the Noosa River); and Infrastructure Victoria's citizen juries.
Goldney, D., Murphy, T., Fien, J. & Kent, J.C. National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) 2007, Finding the common ground: Is there a place for sustainability education in VET?, pp. 1-45, Adelaide.
Society is becoming increasingly aware of the need for education to play a key role in integrating knowledge and understanding about sustainability into practical, vocational skills which can be used in the workplace. Education for sustainability is now a widely accepted concept which seeks to promote and develop sustainability skills and awareness throughout a learner's educational pathway. This report shows that the vocational education and training (VET) sector has a key role to play in promoting sustainability education by incorporating these skills into training packages. However, significant barriers exist to implementation, including the lack of a shared national vision and adequate resources. The report concludes with suggestions to encourage the adoption of education for sustainability in VET policy and practice.
Mazzotti, L., Murphy, B. & Kent, J.C. Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) 2007, Finding the common ground: Is there a place for sustainability education in VET?: Support document, Adelaide.
Tilbury, D., Keogh, A., Leighton, A. & Kent, J.C. Australian Research Institute in Education for Sustainability (ARIES) 2005, A national review of environmental education and its contribution to sustainability in Australia: further and higher education, pp. 1-60, Canberra, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This report is Volume 5 in a five part series that reviews Environmental Education and its contribution to sustainability in Australia. The research which underpins it was undertaken between July and September 2004 by the Australian Research Institute in Education for Sustainability (ARIES) for the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage.