Jennie Small is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, having joined the School in 1994. She has a background in environmental psychology, urban planning and tourism management. She commenced her academic career as a tutor at the ANU and then worked as an academic researcher in the UK and Australia in environmental psychology, urban planning and tourism. Her specific research interest is tourist behavior from a Critical Tourism approach, focusing on equity and social justice issues in tourism. She is a registered psychologist and a Co-ordinator of the Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Special Interest Group, Critical Approaches in Tourism and Hospitality.
Can supervise: YES
embodiment and physical appearance; disability; gender; obesity; age and the life course; work-life balance.
tourist behaviour; critical issues in global tourism; tourism management.
Foley, C, Faulkner, S, Small, J & Wearing, SL 2018, 'Women of the Kokoda: From Poverty to Empowerment in Sustainable Tourism Development', Tourism, Culture and Communication, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 21-34.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The purpose of this article is to explore the power dynamics negotiated by women in local communities in Papua New Guinea (PNG) as they stake a claim in the development of sustainable tourism that is emerging along the Kokoda Track. The traditional understanding of power dynamics has been the "power as domination" perception, which attributes authority to dominant actors who exercise control over others. To comprehend the women's role in the development of ecotrekking along the Kokoda Track, we offer an alternative understanding of power struggle by invoking Foucault's notions of power and Gidden's structuration perspective. By applying these two philosophies, we illustrate how strategies of dominance, negotiation, and resistance are interwoven into day-to-day social interactions between women, men, tourism operators, and local communities. The particular focus of this article is on microbusiness projects along the track, a strategy pursued by the Kokoda Development Program. Women in the communities were generally happy to be supported to establish their own tourism businesses. This is particularly significant as women have traditionally had fewer opportunities than men to make money from trekkers: the main income from tourists into the villages has been through portering services, a predominately male activity. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of this analysis for the empowerment of women in rural and remote communities through sustainable tourism development.
Harris, C, Small, J & Wilson, E 2017, 'Editorial introduction: A critical lens on hospitality and tourism work', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 33, pp. 123-125.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Representations of tourism subjects, both people and places, extend beyond specifically tourism media. This paper explores the presummer images of swimwear and beach bodies in Australian women's lifestyle magazines. A content analysis of swimwear images confirmed British findings that there was a general uniformity in the characteristics of the women modelling the swimsuits: young, slim, white ethnicity (but tanned) and able-bodied. Critical Discourse Analysis highlighted that the beach body discourse is in many ways contested. On the one hand the beach is a place of abandonment, but women need to work hard to achieve the required normative image. Women's agency and choice is questioned due to the narrow normative image and the neo-liberal, consumerist systems underlying the discourse.
Small, JJ, Harris, C & Wilson, E 2017, 'Gender on the Agenda? The Position of Gender in Tourism’s High Ranking Journals', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 31, no. June, pp. 114-117.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Volunteer tourism engages the volunteer in a cultural exchange that is personal and often influential in their life experience. This paper explores one aspect of this exchange, the idea of time in travel, and finds that the volunteer tourist experience is particularly influenced by cultural time differences. When volunteer tourists travel and return home, the emotions and behaviours which emerge in their narratives of experience are usually framed by a range of reference points. One of these is the notion of time. ‘Time' appears to play a role in travel across cultures and continues to affect tourists when they return home. This idea is explored here through the experiences of 12 volunteer tourists. Although all of their experiences, both in-country and on re-entry, were very unique, each volunteer tourist spoke directly or indirectly about adjustment to cultural time differences and this was the key factor in their ability to adapt in both settings.
© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. A holiday is an embodied experience yet little is known about how one's body image or physical appearance affects the experience. The study employed Memory-work to examine how young, Australian women felt about their physical appearance on holiday. The findings indicated that the women experienced their appearance through surveillance, social comparison and feedback. While most memories reflected reinforcement rather than resistance to the dominant discourse on women's appearance, experiences were contingent on the destination, type of holiday and the other people present. Viewing the body, not as static but, as "becoming" offers hope for transgression. The study contributes to the embodiment literature in examining the lived experiences of appearance in a holiday environment which is often gendered and sexualised.
Travellers’ understanding and experience of the flow, pace of time
and distinctions between past, present and future are culturally
specific with many from advanced urbanised societies immersed in
a life-style characterised as time-pressured. Leisure travel can
provide opportunities for those from such ‘harried’ societies to
escape these pressures of home. This paper explores the experience
of ‘time’ of long-term, self-drive travellers in Australia. The findings
demonstrate the change in perception of time flow and pace as the
travellers took control of time to slow down. Their sense of time was
also informed by the spatial and temporal narrative of the
Australian landscape through which they were travelling. The
further they moved inland and away from Western cities, the closer
they came to experience the exotic, temporal otherness that has
been constructed in relation to the Outback and Australian
indigenous culture. The study confirmed that just as spaces, places
and landscape are animated and co-produced through the practice
of mobility so too is sense of time. There were physical and
psychological benefits for the travellers in controlling their own
sense of time by travelling slowly and living in the moment. The
Australian landscape, especially in remote areas, provides a suitable
backdrop, with its isolation, quietness, ancientness, ‘timelessness’
and indigenous living culture, to contemplate one’s life and place in
the universe. While these findings can assist destination managers
in their promotion of regional Australia and self-drive, long-term
travel, caution is required to avoid privileging an exotic temporal
narrative at the expense of contemporary, political, indigenous and
Small, J 2015, 'Interconnecting Mobilities on Tour: Tourists with Vision Impairment Partnered with Sighted Tourists', Tourism Geographies, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 76-90.View/Download from: Publisher's site
While there has been a developing interest in mobilities amongst tourism scholars, the notion of immobilities has often been ignored. Yet, there are many people who do not participate in tourism or, if they do, only experience partial mobility. This study focussed on a tour to Italy by Traveleyes, a company which provides holiday opportunities for people with vision impairment as well as for sighted tourists who act as guides for those with impairment. The research examined the experiences of both tourist groups and the intersection of their mobilities. The methods of study were autoethnography and questionnaire survey. The findings suggested that mobilities were facilitated in the partnership. For those with vision impairment, facilitation of mobility allowed them to enjoy some of the rights to citizenship and quality of life experienced by those who are sighted while the sighted guides learned new ways of mobility. At the same time, mobilities could also be constrained by the personality, interests and motivation of the sighted guide or the person with vision impairment. At times, different tour members had control over mobility and thus control over space; power was relational. Social barriers that affected the experience, combined with the evident embodiment of the tourist experience, suggested the appropriateness of ‘embodied ontology’ as a means for understanding the experience for tourists with vision impairment and their sighted guides.
Jonson, PT, Small, J, Foley, C & Schlenker, K 2015, '"All Shook Up" at the Parkes Elvis festival: The role of play in events', Event Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 479-493.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp. Leisure in the postmodern environment is often regarded as superficial, depthless, and meaningless, dominated by simulation and hyperreality. Many aspects of the Parkes Elvis Festival fall clearly into the category of simulation and hyperreality as attendees imitate Elvis Presley (and other associated characters) and are willing to accept the fake and contrived as real. However, the simulation does not, in the case of the Parkes Elvis Festival, lead to a depthless, meaningless, or inauthentic experience. Using Huizinga's ideas of play and Bateson's play frame we present the Elvis Festival as a liminal social space that invites playfulness and creativity. The theory of Georg Simmel is explored to show how sociability is created at the event to facilitate play. Finally, Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow is used to demonstrate ways in which the enjoyment of the playful event experience is maximized for participants. We argue that play provides the substance that makes the Parkes Elvis Festival memorable and meaningful. An understanding of play theory may assist event managers to increase social facilitation at festivals and events, ensuring an enjoyable, sociable, creative, and authentic experience for attendees.
There is a knowledge gap concerning passenger-to-passenger interactions in mobility especially in air travel. Employing netnography and Critical Discourse Analysis, we examined the current debate on “crying babies on planes” as displayed on public online news sites and discussion boards. We also explored airlines’ discourse about the issue as posted on the airlines’ websites. It was clear from analysis of the public discourse that an aeroplane is not a neutral space but one in which rights and responsibilities of passengers are disputed, with parents and their children often under the disciplinary gaze of other passengers. While crying babies concern passengers, airlines, for the most part, are avoiding the issue. We examine the discursive and socio-cultural practice which surrounds the website texts.
The idea that workers embody the brand is placing increasing emphasis on the personal attributes of employees. The drive towards aesthetic labour, which focuses on `particular embodied capacities and attributes that appeal to the senses of customers, has the potential for a form of discrimination based on appearance, `lookism. This article sought to examine the `face of 28 major hotels in Sydney through their online promotional videos, with particular reference to the perceived body size of employees. In total, there were 112 images of hotel staff, primarily in front-of-house roles. The images were overwhelmingly of slim to average sized workers. The few who were judged as slightly larger than the norm were older men in the role of doorman, exemplifying the portly, British gentleman in top hat and tails at a four to five star hotel. The question arises: are Sydney hotels employing only slim/average sized staff or are they presenting only these staff as the `face of the hotel? Whatever the answer, the message portrayed to guests and labour markets remains the same: the brand values slimness. Such practice could be interpreted as a form of weight prejudice and discrimination.
Wilson, E & Small, J 2013, 'TEFI 6, June 28-30, 2012, Milan, Italy: Transformational Leadership for Tourism Education', Journal of Teaching in Travel and Tourism, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 202-206.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI) held its sixth annual conference in Milan, Italy, from June 2830, 2012. The conference was hosted by Professor Magda Antonioli and Bocconi University. Building on the Philadelphia Congress in May 2011, this was the 2nd year that TEFI had opened up its previous smaller think tanks to a wider public audience. Like the Philadelphia Congress and the other think tanks before it, TEFI Milan aimed to stimulate engaged visionary dialogue among participants, in line with TEFIs mission to provide vision, knowledge and a framework for tourism education programs to promote global citizenship and optimism for a better world (http://www.tourismeducationfutures.org). Held on the Bocconi University campus in central Milan, TEFI 6 attracted 45 tourism educators, academics, consultants, and practitioners from ?ve continents including one participant who attended the entire conference by Skype from Canada.
Small, J 2012, 'Book Review: Understanding tourism: a critical introduction', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 201-202.
Not all tourist bodies are of the slim build valorised in tourism promotional material; an increasing number are overweight or obese. The paper reports a web-based study which employed Critical Discourse Analysis to investigate the airline experiences of
Wilson, E, Small, J & Harris, C 2012, 'Editorial introduction: Beyond the margins? The relevance of critical tourism and hospitality studies', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 48-51.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This special issue expands discussion on the role and relevance of critical approaches in tourism and hospitality studies. The goal of the issue was to reflect upon the opportunities, ambiguities and struggles related to researching and teaching in the critical tourism and hospitality field. The complexities and entanglements of working within 'new' and critical tourism knowledges have previously been noted (Ateljevic, Harris, Wilson, & Collins, 2005; Tribe, 2005; Wilson, Harris, & Small, 2008). © The Authors 2012.
Small, J, Darcy, SA & Packer, T 2012, 'The embodied tourist experiences of people with vision impairment: Management implications beyond the visual gaze.', Tourism Management, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 941-950.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study that investigated the embodied tourist experiences of 40 people who are vision impaired. The study, informed by the concept of "embodied ontology", explored the corporeal and socially constructed experience of tourism. The findings highlighted the benefit of holidays for the participants and de-centred the "visual gaze" in the tourist experience. The quality of the tourist experience related to participants' feelings of inclusion or exclusion in terms of their access to information, experience of wayfinding, travelling with a guide dog, and the knowledge and attitudes of others. It was evident that participants needed to manage their tourist experiences closely and constantly. The paper concludes that the tourism industry and community must understand the multi-sensory nature of the tourist experience if quality accessible experiences are to be available for tourists with vision impairment. Provision of multi-sensory experiences also enhances the experiences of sighted tourists.
Small, J, Harris, CJ, Wilson, E & Ateljevic, I 2011, 'Voices Of Women: A Memory-Work Reflection On Work-Life Dis/Harmony In Tourism Academia', Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 23-36.View/Download from: Publisher's site
While other disciplines have engaged with critiquing work-life balance, tourism studies has been slower in acknowledging and critically contesting the notion as it applies to our own academic lives. This paper aims to address this gap through a collectiv
The meaning of holidays for children and the role of the holiday in constructed subjectivities are largely absent in academic writings. Using the social constructionist research method of memory-work, this study examines memories of childhood holidays of Australian women and girls. It concludes that shared, fun, physical activities are common positive memories of childhood holidays across the generations. At the same time, women's recollection of the imperative to behave responsibly and appropriately constrained their freedom. The paper addresses the implications of the findings for women and girls and questions whether the findings can be explained through cultural shifts in gender relations, the refashioning of experiences over time through memory and narration, or the context in which the memories are produced. 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Small, J, Harris, C & Wilson, E 2008, 'A critical discourse analysis of in-flight magazine advertisements: The ‘social sorting’ of airline travellers?', Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 17-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The in-flight magazine is one of many industrialised print media to which the traveller is exposed. In-flight magazines, however ‘ideologically innocent’ they may appear, can be very powerful in representing the norms and values to which travellers should supposedly adhere. This paper builds on arguments that there is a lack of research on representation in tourism and focuses in particular on how in-flight magazine advertising produces, mediates and reproduces discourses surrounding air travel. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), advertisements from a selection of Qantas and Air New Zealand in-flight magazines from 2005 were studied. The content analysis of these texts reveals that the magazine advertisements wish to speak to a certain ‘elite’ type of traveller who is mobility-rich as well as financially wealthy, with the time to pursue a raft of travel activities and the money to buy an array of expensive luxury products. Essentially, the paper argues that magazine advertisements can be a subtle (or, perhaps, not so subtle) way of ‘socially sorting’ airline travellers into those who are socially and culturally acceptable airline travellers and those who are not. The advertisements can also be seen as a means of socially sorting the airline traveller from other types of traveller and from the non-traveller. No matter which way the sorting occurs, in-flight magazine advertising appears to be a powerful medium that overwhelmingly appeals and speaks to privileged groups in society. © 2008 J. Small et al.
Small, J, Harris, C & Wilson, E 2008, 'A critical discourse analysis of in-flight magazine advertisements: The 'social sorting' of airline travellers?', Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 17-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The in-flight magazine is one of many industrialised print media to which the traveller is exposed. In-flight magazines, however `ideologically innocent' they may appear, can be very powerful in representing the norms and values to which travellers should supposedly adhere. This paper builds on arguments that there is a lack of research on representation in tourism and focuses in particular on how in-flight magazine advertising produces, mediates and reproduces discourses surrounding air travel. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), advertisements from a selection of Qantas and Air New Zealand in-flight magazines from 2005 were studied. The content analysis of these texts reveals that the magazine advertisements wish to speak to a certain `elite' type of traveller who is mobility-rich as well as financially wealthy, with the time to pursue a raft of travel activities and the money to buy an array of expensive luxury products. Essentially, the paper argues that magazine advertisements can be a subtle (or, perhaps, not so subtle) way of `socially sorting' airline travellers into those who are socially and culturally acceptable airline travellers and those who are not. The advertisements can also be seen as a means of socially sorting the airline traveller from other types of traveller and from the non-traveller. No matter which way the sorting occurs, in-flight magazine advertising appears to be a powerful medium that overwhelmingly appeals and speaks to privileged groups in society.
Wilson, E, Harris, C & Small, J 2008, 'Furthering critical approaches in tourism and hospitality studies: Perspectives from Australia and New Zealand', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 15, pp. 15-18.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Small, J 2005, 'Women's holidays: disruption of the motherhood myth', Tourism Review International, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 139-154.
Small, J 2003, 'The voices of older women tourists', Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 31-39.
The lack of innovation in tourism research methods and the failure of many studies to relate theory to method has been commented upon in the tourism literature. The present paper reviews the method, memory-work, and its appropriateness for the study of women's and girls' tourist experiences. Memory-work is considered innovative and a method aligned with a feminist social constructionist paradigm. The key features of memory-work are: memories are the raw datal the subject and object of the research become one; the researcher and researched are "co-researchers"; there is a collective interpretation and theorisation of the memories; and the collective approach allows for the possibility of liberation. In the present study, adaptations to the method were required due to the selected research design and the fact that the study was doctoral research. With such amendments, the method was found to be well suited for a study which sought to uncover the many levels of themes in women's and girls' tourist experiences. Memory-work is recommended to others with a feminist social constructionist approach who are interested in the study of women and tourism. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wearing, SL, Small, J & Foley, C 2018, 'Gender and the body in leisure and tourism' in Mansfield, Caudwell, Wheaton & Watson (eds), The Palgrave Handbook of Feminism and Sport, Leisure and Physical Education, Palgrave MacMillan, London, UK, pp. 95-110.
An overview of feminist research and theory in leisure and tourism.
Small, J & Wearing, SL 2017, 'Expanding Understanding: Using the “Choraster” to Provide a Voice for the Female Traveler' in Khoo-Lattimore, C & Wilson, E (eds), Women and Travel: Trends, Journeys and Experiences, Apple Academic Press, New Jersey.
Small, J & Darcy, SA 2011, 'Understanding tourist experience through embodiment: The contribution of critical tourism and disability studies' in Buhalis, D & Darcy, S (eds), Accessible Tourism: Concepts and Issues, Channel View Publications, UK, pp. 73-97.
This chapter seeks to understand the tourist experiences of people with disabilities, including the seniors who also constitute the accessible tourism market. Tourism experiences can be viewed through many approaches. The following discussion is situated within the framework of critical theory in tourism studies and critical disability studies theory, both of which focus on ends rather than means, examining social power structures with a commitment to emancipation. The lived experience of the person is the subject matter and within the approaches of critical tourism and critical disability studies, the lived experience is a bodily experience. This chapter examines the embodied experience of those with disabilities within the tourism context.
In more economically developed countries, tourism is considered part of the modern experience with all people having the right to travel. None the less, there are many groups of people who do not take holidays or do not fully participate in the holiday experience for reasons such as low income, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, body size and disability. This chapter focuses on disability, in particular mobility, and argues that people with disabilities should expect the same rights to citizenship and the same quality of life as the non-disabled, which include the right to travel and participate in leisure activities (United Nations , 1993).
Darcy, SA & Small, J 2008, 'Theorizing precincts: Disciplinary perspectives' in Hayllar, B, Griffin, T & Edwards, D (eds), City Spaces - Tourist Places: Urban Tourism Precincts, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, pp. 63-91.
Small, J 2007, 'The emergence of the body in the holiday accounts of women and girls' in Pritchard, A, Morgan, N, Ateljevic, I & Harris, C (eds), Tourism and gender: Embodiment, sensuality and experience, CABI, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, pp. 73-91.
Small, J, Cadman, K, Friend, L, Gannon, S, Ingleton, C, Koutroulis, G, McCormack, C, Mitchell, P, Onyx, J, O'Regan, K & Rocco, S 2007, 'Unresolved Power for Feminist Researchers Employing memory-work' in Ateljevic, I, Pritchard, A & Morgan, N (eds), The Critcal Turn in Tourism Studies: Innovative research methodologies, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 261-278.
The use of memory-work as a qualitative method in feminist social research is well established in Australia and New Zealand. Memory-work, though, still brings with it many theoretical and methodological dilemmas and issues. To open some of these issues to collective discussion, a group of experienced feminist researchers used the process of memory-work to explore specific experiences of working with memory-work groups. Our exploration suggested that using memory-work within the dominant positivist discourses and patriarchal structures of academia could, at times, leave feminist researchers feeling powerless. Through this collective we expressed concern about method and methodological process in ways which had not been articulated through our earlier memory-work projects.
Small, J 2004, 'Memory-work' in Phillimore, J & Goodson, L (eds), Qualitative Research in Tourism: Ontologies, epistemologies and methodologies, Routledge, London, pp. 255-272.
Small, J 2002, 'Good and bad holiday experiences: women's and girls' perspectives' in Swain, M & Momsen, J (eds), Gender/ Tourism/ Fun(?), Cognizant Communication Corporation, New York, pp. 24-38.
Small, J & Cockburn-Wootten, C 2020, 'Fear of Flying: A Critical Approach', Council for Australasian Tourism and Hospitality Education, Auckland.
Small, J & Harris, C 2019, '‘THEY DID WHAT?’ Air Travel Passenger-shaming Representations on Facebook and Instagram', Critical Tourism Studies, Ibiza, Spain.
Small, J & Harris, C 2019, 'Hardly disruptive! Airline representations and Facebook', Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Cairns, Queensland.
Small, J & Harris, C 2018, 'Air Rage: Who is responsible for unruly behaviour?', Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW.
Small, J 2017, 'Midlife women on holiday: Does physical appearance matter?', Critical Tourism Studies Proceedings, Critical Tourism Studies Conference, Majorca, Spain.
Small, J, Harris, C & Wilson, E 2016, 'Where is gender and where is critical gender? An examination of Annals of Tourism Research', Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Sydney.
Small, J & Darcy, S 2016, 'The accessibility of Sydney attractions for visitors with vision impairment', School of Hospitality and Tourism Management Conference: Making an impact: creating constructive conversations, Guildford, Surrey.
Small, J & Harris, C 2015, 'Older flight attendants: Treasured or dreaded?', Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Gold Coast, Queensland.
Small, J, Harris, C & Wilson, E 2015, 'Gender on the Agenda? The Position of Critical Tourism Studies in Gender Research', International Critical Tourism Conference V, Opatija, Croatia.
Harris, C & Small, J 2014, 'Changing airline fashion: An improvement in passenger wellbeing?', Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference, School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, pp. 1-5.
Small, J 2013, 'Sydney attractions: Are visitors with vision impairment 'attracted'?', Understanding leisure in a complex world: Promoting a Critical Leisure Studies, Proceedings of the 11th Biennial ANZALS Conference, 11th Biennial ANZALS Conference, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, pp. 42-42.
Small, J & Harris, C 2013, 'Babies on planes: Whose rights and responsibilities', Cauthe Conference 2013 Tourism and Global Change: On the Edge of Something Big, CAUTHE Conference, Cauthe, Lincoln, NZ, pp. 745-749.
This paper examines passenger experiences of air travel and the developing debate about `crying babies on planes. Employing Faircloughs (1993) Critical Discourse Analysis, we analysed the text, discursive practice, and socio cultural practice of online news sites. The analysis highlighted the opposing discourses about babies crying during a flight. Inherent in the blogs/comments were different perceptions of the problem (the baby, the parent, other passengers); the rights of each group of passengers; and the responsibilities/solutions to overcome the problem. Underlying the comments were issues relating to the individual versus the collective.
Small, J & Harris, C 2013, 'It's not right and it's not fair!: Babies, children and air travel', INTERNATIONAL CRITICAL TOURISM STUDIES CONFERENCE V, INTERNATIONAL CRITICAL TOURISM STUDIES CONFERENCE V, University of Surrey http://cts.som.surrey.ac.uk/files/2013/10/Book-of-Abstracts.pdf, Sarajevo, pp. 82-82.
Small, J 2012, 'Intersecting mobilities: Tourists with vision impairments and their sighted guides', BEST Education Network Think Tank XII - Mobilities and Sustainable Tourism, BEST Education Network Think Tank, University of Technology, Sydney, Greoux-les-Bains, pp. 280-293.
Business and Information Annual Conference
Small, J 2012, 'Obesity and air travel', ANZALS, CAUTHE, SMAANZ Symposium. "Making a Difference in Leisure, Sport, Tourism & Hospitality: Exploring Diversity, Equity and Social Change", Sydney, Australia.
Making a Difference in Leisure, Sport, Tourism & Hospitality: Exploring Diversity, Equity and Social Change,
Small, J & Harris, C 2014, 'Packing through the ages: Gender and age related behaviour around packing for conference trave', Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, CAUTHE, Victoria, pp. 559-562.
Small, J 2011, 'Beyond 50: Do women care about their physical appearance on holidays?', Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education 2011, Tourism: Creating a brilliant blend, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
Small, J 2014, 'The experience of 'time' in long-term travel', Advancing the Social Science of Tourism 2011 Surrey, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, pp. 1-3.
Small, J & Harris, C 2014, 'Hotels and the size of their workers', IV Critcal Tourism Studies Conference, UWIC, Cardiff, Wales.
Small, J 2010, 'Beyond the margins' research: The risk of exploitation', Beyond the Margins: The Risk of Critical Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Byron Bay, Australia.
Small, J 2010, 'Teaching critical tourism and hospitality', Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE), Hobart, Australia.
Small, J 2011, 'Young women and their physical appearance on holiday', Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, CAUTHE, Hobart, pp. 1-21.
While it is acknowledged that the tourist experience is embodied, few researchers have considered how physical appearance is experienced on holiday. The present study employed the research method, memory-work, to examine how a group of young Australian women felt about their physical appearance on holiday. The study explored whether the holiday was a site in which the women could escape the traditional feminised ideal. The findings suggested that the importance of physical appearance was related to the holiday context (destination and type of holiday) and the people in that context. The womens perceptions of themselves were formed through reflected appraisal, social comparison and feedback. It was clear that the women felt positive about their appearance when they were toned, tanned and dressed appropriately. Self esteem was lowered when women felt that they did not fit their ideal image. Most memories involved the reinforcement rather than the resistance of the dominant social message of the ideal feminised identity. The negative experiences suggest that women continue to experience inadequacy of their body especially when exposed on the beach. Despite feminist gains in other areas of womens lives, for the women in this study, the dominant image of the body is still oppressive.
Harris, C & Small, J 2009, 'Obesity, tourism and discrimination? An investigation of airline 'customer of size' policies', Proceedings of the 18th CAUTHE Conference, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, Promaco Conventions Pty Ltd, Fremantle, pp. 1-20.
This paper explores the potential of airlines to discriminate against obese customers through their direct or indirect `customer of size policies, determined though a web survey of the policies of airlines in the One World Alliance and Star Alliance airline groups. The authors argue that discrimination can be a form of exclusion and stigmatisation by the tourism industry. A review of weight stigma theory introduces important frameworks within which the experience of the obese traveller can be considered. Exclusion can occur through non-participation or indirectly through forms of `Othering of tourist participants. By calling attention to the experiences of obese travellers and the airline policies we also ask: whose lives are privileged in the provision of the tourist experience? This exploratory research leads the authors to question why tourism scholars have not researched groups such as the obese, which, we argue, also constitute the `Other. Such an omission raises important questions about ethics and how we conceptualise and research `Tourism.
Small, J 2009, 'Obesity and tourism: The socially excluded', Sydney, Australia.
Small, J 2009, 'Research methods for critical tourism- ethical considerations: Memory-work', Sydney, Australia.
Small, J & Harris, C 2009, 'Obesity and tourism: A critical vision', 3rd Critical Tourism Studies Conference Proceedings, Critical Tourism Studies Conference Proceedings, Institute for Tourism, Zadar, Croatia, pp. 560-568.
The tourism industry in its product/service and promotion has neglected certain groups of tourists, but so too have tourism scholars and researchers. This paper focuses on tourism transportation and obesity. A study of websites and blogsites on the subject reveals that while the industry has been silent, passengers are loud and indignant. The research identifies that the topic is a broad social issue affecting passengers of all sizes. This paper explores issues of discrimination, stigmatisation and `othering of travellers who are overweight/ obese. A review of weight stigma theory introduces important frameworks within which we can consider the experience of travellers who are obese. By calling attention to the experiences of travellers who are obese and those who are not, we ask: whose bodies are privileged in the provision of the tourist experience? This study leads the authors to question why tourism scholars have not researched the issue of obesity as this is a `growing tourism market Such an omission also raises important questions about ethics and `Othering and how we conceptualise and research `Tourism.
Small, J 2008, 'Who's 'hot' & who's not? A cross-cultural analysis of tourism & body imagery in Australia & UK', Community, Capital & Cultures: Leisure and Regeneration as Cultural Practice, Leisure Studies Association 2008 Conference, Leisure Studies Association, Liverpool, UK, pp. 34-34.
Small, J & Dawson, L 2008, 'Does physical appearance take a holiday? Young women's experiences', Opportunities and Obstacles to a Feminist Psychology, The 19th Annual APS Women and Psychology Interest Group Conference, APS Women and Psychology Interest Group (NSW), Sydney, pp. 22-22.
Small, J, Ateljevic, I, Harris, C & Wilson, E 2007, 'Voices of women: A memory-work reflection on work-life dis/harmony in tourism academe', The Critical Turn In tourism Studies: Promoting an Academy of Hope? Proceedings of the 2nd International Critical Tourism Studies Conference, 2nd International Critical Tourism Studies Conference, Channel View Publication, Split, Croatia, pp. 252-264.
Small, J, Harris, C & McIntosh, A 2008, 'Whose body is welcome in paradise?', Tourism and Hospitality Research, Training and Practice: 'Where the `bloody hell' are we?' Proceedings of the 18th Annual Council for the Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, CAUTHE, Conference, Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and, CAUTHE and Griffith University, Gold Coast, pp. 1-18.
Tourists experience not only their own body but also other tourists bodies in the tourist experience. This paper explores which bodies from Western developed countries are legitimate to be studied by tourism researchers and which bodies are welcomed by the tourism industry (and destination governments) Exclusion can occur through non-participation or indirectly through forms of 'Othering' of tourist participants. The tourism industry in its product/service and promotion has neglected certain groups of tourists, but so too have tourism scholars and researchers. We ask, whose narratives are absent in the discussion and provision of the tourist experience? Specifically, we call attention to some such `excluded groups: persons who are lesbian, who have non-mobility disabilities, are overweight/obese, are dressed `inappropriately, are unemployed / minimum wage earners and are older senior people. These are the others who have not been researched as the 'Other'. Such omissions raise important questions about ethics and how we conceptualise 'Tourism'.
Small, J, Ateljevic, I, Harris, C & Wilson, E 2007, 'A memory-work reflection on work-life dis/harmony in tourism academe', The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Promoting an Academy of Hope: Proceedings of the Second International Critcal Tourism Studies Conference, UWIC, Waginenen University and Institute for Tourism, Zagreb, Split, Croatia, pp. 252-264.
Small, J, Darcy, SA & Packer, T 2007, 'Beyond a visual gaze: Tourist experiences of individuals with vision impairment', The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Promoting an Academy of Hope: Proceedings of the Second International Critcal Tourism Studies Conference, Second International Critcal Tourism Studies Conference, UWIC, Waginenen University and Institute for Tourism, Zagreb, Split, Croatia, pp. 348-355.
Cadman, K, Friend, L, Gannon, S, Ingleton, C, Koutroulis, G, McCormack, C, Mitchell, P, Onyx, J, O'Regan, K, Rocco, S & Small, J 2000, 'Memory-workers doing memory-work on memory-work: Exploring unresolved power', Memory-Work Conference, Memory-Work Conference, UTS, Sydney, Australia.
Harris, C, Small, J & Wilson, E 2006, 'Flights of fancy? in-flight magazine advertisements and the 'social sorting' of airline travellers', To the city and beyond...: Proceedings of the 16th Annual CAUTHE Conference, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1421-1434.
Small, J 2006, 'Freedom and holidays: Women's and girls' experiences', Leisure Studies Association Conference 2006 - Making Space: Leisure, Tourism and Renewal, Leisure Studies Association Conference 2006 - Making Space: Leisure, Tourism and Renewal, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK, pp. 53-53.
Small, J, Ateljevic, I, Harris, C & Wilson, E 2006, 'Work-life dis/harmony in tourism academe', Proceedings of Critical Tourism 'Downunder' Conference, UTS, Sydney, Australia, pp. 7-7.
Small, J 2005, 'Holiday experiences of children: a marginalised group in tourism studies', CAUTHE 2005 - Sharing Tourism Knowledge, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, Charles Darwin University, Alice Springs, Australia.
Small, J 2005, 'The emergence of the body in the holiday accounts of women and girls', Embodying Tourism Research: Advancing Critical Approaches - International Conference on Critical Tourism Studies, International Conference on Critical Tourism Studies, University of Wales Institute, Dubrovnik, Croatia, pp. 62-62.
Small, J 2005, 'Unresolved power for feminist researchers employing memory-work', Women and Psychology, Australian Psychological Society Meeting, Sydney, Australia.
Cadman, K, Friend, L, Gannon, SM, Ingleton, C, Koutroulis, G, McCormack, C, Mitchell, P, Onyx, J, O'Regan, K, Rocco, S & Small, J 2005, 'Unresolved power for feminist researchers employing memory work', Embodying Tourism Research: Advancing Critical Approaches - International Conference on Critical Tourism Studies, International Conference on Critical Tourism Studies, University of Wales Institute, Dubrovnik, Croatia, pp. 180-186.
Small, J 2003, 'Freedom and holidays: women's and girls' perspective', CAUTHE Conference: Riding the Wave of Tourism and Hospitality, South Cross University, Coffs harbour.
Small, J 2002, 'Holiday experiences of older women', School of Management, UTS, Conference, School of Management, UTS, Conference.
Cadman, K, Friend, L, Gannon, SM, Ingleton, C, Koutroulis, G, McCormack, C, Mitchell, P, Onyx, J, O'Reagan, K, Rocco, S & Small, J 2002, 'Consuming the feminist methodology of memory-work: unresolved power issues.', 6th Conference on Gender; Marketing and Consumer Behaviour, 6th Conference on Gender; Marketing and Consumer Behaviour, ESCP-EAP Printing Services, Dublin, Ireland, pp. 261-274.
Small, J 2001, 'Childhood holiday experiences of women and girls', Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE), Canberra, Australia.
Small, J 2000, 'Feminist collaborative approach: A new project employing serial memory-work', women and Psychology, Australian Psychological Society Meeting, Sydney, Australia.
Wearing, SL, Small, J & Grabowski, S UNWTO 2016, Volunteer tourism: Transforming youth for a sustainable future, UNWTO Report, Transformative Tourism for Our Sustainable Future, pp. 48-51, Madrid, Spain.
People with visual disabilities Travel Australia. Tourism Research Australia.
Small, J UTS Faculty of Business 1997, Memory-Work: Feminist social constructionist method for researching tourist behaviour, pp. 1-19, Sydney, Australia.
Small, JJ, 'Tourist Behaviour: An Annotated Bibliography 1964-1991', pp. 1-85.
This is an extensive and comprehensive annotated bibliography of tourist behaviour from its scholarly beginnings until 1991. It draws on a number of data sources of relevant disciplines in the social sciences.