Janina is a Research Consultant at the Institute for Sustainable Futures with seven years’ experience in sustainability research and consultancy. Since joining the ISF in 2011, she has been working across water and sanitation and international development research areas. With a background in environmental engineering and a master’s degree in integrated water management, Janina is able to contribute with both strong technical and qualitative research skills.
Prior to joining the ISF, Janina worked as a Project Support Officer for the Brisbane based consultancy International Water Centre, where she was involved in the development of training programs in integrated water management. Janina has also worked as a researcher for the AusAID funded Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program (RWSSP) in East Timor, where she undertook a research project to investigate governance and sustainability issues of East Timor’s water supply sector. Before moving to Australia in 2007, Janina lived in Portugal, where she worked for a management-consulting firm developing environmental and quality management systems for local government agencies.
Willetts, J., Gero, A., Susamto, A.A., Sanjaya, R., Trieu, T.D., Murta, J. & Carrard, N. 2017, 'Sanitation value chains in low density settings in Indonesia and Vietnam: impetus for a rethink to achieve pro-poor outcomes', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 445-454.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study examined the sanitation hardware supply chain in rural, low density settings in Indonesia and Vietnam. Actual costs along the chains were investigated to understand the challenges and opportunities to support affordable sanitation in remote, rural locations. Data were collected from four remote districts in Indonesia and Vietnam through a systematic value-chain analysis comprising 378 interviews across households and supply chain actors and both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Three main findings are presented. Firstly, poor households, often located in remote areas and with lower sanitation access, often experienced higher costs to build durable latrines than households in accessible areas or district capitals. Second, locally sourced materials (sand, bricks or gravel) had a greater influence on price than externally sourced materials (cement, steel and toilet pans), even accounting for cost increases of these materials along the supply chain. Thirdly, transport and labour costs represented considerable proportions of the overall cost to build a toilet. These findings highlighted logistical and financial barriers to poor, remote households in accessing sanitation. Findings can inform strategies to improve the availability and affordability of sanitation products and services, in particular key issues that need to be addressed through government and non-government pro-poor market-based interventions.
Murta, J.C.D., Willetts, J.R.M. & Triwahyudi, W. 2016, 'Sanitation entrepreneurship in rural Indonesia: a closer look', Environment, Development and Sustainability, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 343-359.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Springer Science+Business Media DordrechtEnterprises are playing increasing roles in facilitating access to sanitation products and services in Indonesia and other developing economies. This study investigated the factors affecting the sustainability of sanitation enterprises in rural Indonesia. Interviews with 33 organisations representing sanitation enterprises, associations of sanitation enterprises, national and international civil society organisations (CSOs), donor organisations and national and local government agencies were conducted to explore different stakeholder perceptions about enterprise roles. The research revealed factors specific to the sanitation entrepreneurs themselves, such as their skills, entrepreneurial traits, pro-social motivations and intrinsic motivations, as well as factors within their enabling environment. Insufficient customer demand, inadequate capacity building opportunities, lack of financing options for entrepreneurs and their customers, and limited government support were observed to undermine sanitation enterprise success. Industry associations were found to be a useful intermediary support mechanism, particularly in the absence of significant government support for enterprises. However, such associations could also stifle innovation, and their role needs to be carefully developed, including financially sustainable models for such associations. This study has implications for how governments and CSOs in Indonesia and elsewhere might best support the role of enterprises and entrepreneurship towards improved sanitation outcomes.
Turner, A.J., Mukheibir, P., Mitchell, C., Chong, J., Retamal, M., Murta, J., Carrard, N. & Delaney, C. 2016, 'Recycled water – lessons from Australia on dealing with risk and uncertainty', Water Practice and Technology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 127-138.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Much can be learned from the numerous water recycling schemes currently in operation in Australia, especially with respect to making investment decisions based on uncertain assumptions. This paper illustrates through a number of case studies, that by considering the contextual and project related risks, a range of business related risks become apparent. Shifts in the contextual landscape and the various players' objectives can occur over the life of a project, often leading to unforeseen risk and uncertainty. Through a thorough consideration of the potential risks presented in this paper, proponents as well as owners and managers might make better recycled water investment decisions, enhancing the benefits and minimizing the costs of water recycling schemes. This paper presents an overview and discussion of seven key factors to consider when planning a recycling scheme.
Gero, A., Carrard, N., Murta, J. & Willetts, J. 2014, 'Private and social enterprise roles in water, sanitation and hygiene for the poor: a systematic review', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 331-342.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Micro, small and medium private and social enterprises are emerging as important players in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector. This paper provides a systematic review of literature on this topic. It assesses the current evidence base in three areas: factors affecting success of enterprise engagement; outcomes for the poor as a result of enterprise engagement; and lastly, how civil society organisations are engaging to support enterprise development. The review revealed significant variation in the level of rigour of available evidence on this topic, and reflected limited availability of highly rigorous studies. Across the literature, similar success factors were reported across the water and sanitation sub-sectors. These included constraints to business viability due to limitations in demand, lack of business and technical skills and financial challenges (e.g., access to credit). Policy, governance and institutional frameworks could either support or constrain businesses depending on the context. While some evidence was reported on the positive outcomes for the poor resulting from enterprise engagement, in general, businesses preferred servicing non-poor customers. Lastly, evidence on civil society organisation engagement was limited, and where reported, consisted dominantly of capacity building support to enterprises rather than a wider variety of roles which might be envisaged.
Gero, A., Murta, J. & Willetts, J.R. 2014, 'Incompatible philosophies or complementary roles? Civil society and business engagement in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector', Development Bulletin, vol. 76, pp. 39-43.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Partnership with the private sector is emerging as a new
pathway to address poverty. This is the result of recognition
that external support through aid is small relative to
other sources of finance and the scale of development
challenge at hand. This concept is well recognised and was
raised in the Australian Government's Independent
Review of Aid Effectiveness, noting the need to harness
the power of business and innovation (see Callan 2012).
Other organisations have recently emerged which hold this
as their core focus, for example Business for Millennium
Development. In addition, evolving notions of social
enterprise and entrepreneurship are blurring the boundaries
between private sector and civil society, and opening up
new possibilities for cooperation and partnership as
exemplified by the water, sanitation and hygiene sector
Kuruppu, N., Mukheibir, P. & Murta, J. 2014, 'Ensuring small business continuity under a changing climate: the role of adaptive capacity' in Palutikof, J.P., Boulter, S.L., Barnett, J. & Rissik, D. (eds), Applied Studies in Climate Adaptation, Wiley-Blackwell, UK, pp. 429-436.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Murta, J., Keatman, T., Gosling, L., Carrard, N., Neumeyer, H., Murta, J., Roaf, V. & Adam, A. 2016, 'Achieving universal and equitable access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for all – practitioner perspectives and perceptions', Rural Water Supply Network forum, Rural Water Supply Network Forum (RWSN), RWSN, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Willetts, J.R., Murta, J., Gero, A., Carrard, N. & Harris, D. 2015, 'Political economy influences on enterprise engagement in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste', https://wedc-knowledge.lboro.ac.uk/search.html?q=collection%3A%22WEDC+C…, Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) International Conference, WEDC Loughborough University, UK, Loughborough University, UK, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Mukheibir, P., Turner, A.J., Mitchell, C.A., Chong, J., Murta, J., Retamal, M.L., Carrard, N.R. & Delaney, C.C. 2014, 'Shifts happen: Making better recycled water investment decisions', Sustainability in Public Works Conference 27 29 July 2014, Sustainability in Public Works Conference 27 29 July 2014, IPWEA, Tweed Heads.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
ABSTRACT: Recycled water has increasingly been considered as a means to deal with water supply-demand imbalances, treated wastewater disposal and stormwater management. It contributes to the sustainability of urban water systems and the regeneration of the urban landscape. However, recycled water schemes are not mainstream, and are often confronted with numerous challenges. By considering the contextual and project related risks associated with a diverse selection of recycling projects in Australia, a range of business related risks have become apparent. There is now evidence that shifts in both the contextual landscape and the objectives of the various players involved can occur over the life of a project, resulting in risk and uncertainty often not foreseen. Many guidelines on recycling have been produced which focus mainly on technical risk. Drawing on the experiences of a diverse selection of case studies in Australia, this paper contemplates the additional risks and uncertainties, often not initially considered at the inception of a recycling scheme. This paper presents an overview and discussion of six key issues to consider when planning a recycling scheme.
Gero, A., Murta, J., Willetts, J.R., Carrard, N.R. & Leong, L. 2013, 'Incompatible philosophies or complementary roles? Civil society and business engagement in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector', Development Futures: Alternative pathways to end poverty, Fourth ACFID University Network Conference, University of Technology, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Mitchell, C.A., Murta, J., Retamal, M., Turner, A., Carrard, N. & Chong, J. 2013, 'Recycled water investment decisions: case studies in balancing the costs, benefits, and risks', Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Kuruppu, N., Mukheibir, P., Murta, J., Gero, A., Brennan, T. & Chong, J. 2012, 'Enhancing the adaptive capacity of Small-to-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Australia to climate change and variability', Climate Adaptation in Action 2012: Sharing knowledge to adapt, Climate Adaptation in Action 2012: Sharing knowledge to adapt, National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF), Melbourne, Australia.
Grant, M.L., Murta, J., Willetts, J. & Carrard, N. CS WASH Fund: Palladium 2016, Civil Society Organisations' Learning for Impact in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Programming, Brisbane Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Kome, A., Ross, K., Carrard, N., Willetts, J., Mills, F., Abeysuriya, K.R. & Murta, J. SNV and ISF 2016, Exploring legal and policy aspects of urban sanitation and hygiene.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
During 2012-2014, SNV did four country reviews of legal arrangements for urban sanitation and hygiene (Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Indonesia).
Based on this experience, this document was developed to provide guidance on how to undertake a legal scan for urban sanitation.
Over time, the ultimate objective of this work and related activities is that WASH professionals will be able to undertake a high-level assessment of legal arrangements for urban sanitation in order to both:
1. use the frameworks and tools offered by legal and policy arrangements to improve urban sanitation and hygiene outcomes; and
2. advocate for improvements in legal, policy and institutional arrangements to facilitate sustainable sanitation and hygiene outcomes for all.
Murta, J., Gero, A. & Willetts, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2015, Motivators and barriers for water enterprises in Vietnam, Enterprise in WASH – Research Report 4.
Murta, J., Indarti, N., Rostiani, R. & Willetts, J.R. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2015, Motivators and barriers for water sanitation enterprises in Indonesia, Enterprise in WASH – Research Report 3.
Willetts, J. & Murta, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2015, Motivations, barriers and opportunities for water and sanitation enterprises in Timor-Leste, Enterprise in WASH – Research Report 6.
Willetts, J., Susamto, A., Sanjaya, M., Murta, J. & Carrard, N.R. 2015, Sanitation value-chain in Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia, Enterprise in WASH – Research Report 1, University of Technology Sydney.
Willetts, J.R., Gero, A., Murta, J., Trieu Thanh, D. & Mohr, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2015, Sanitation value chains in low density settings in Vietnam, Enterprise in WASH – Research Report 2.
Murta, J. & Willetts, J. 2014, Incentives for enterprise engagement in Timor-Leste', Private and social enterprise engagement in water and sanitation for the poor – Working Paper 2c, Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Murta, J. & Willetts, J.R. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2014, Incentives for enterprise engagement in Indonesia, Private and social enterprise engagement in water and sanitation for the poor - Working Paper 2a, pp. 1-34.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Enterprise in WASH is a joint research project led by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology, Sydney, which investigates the role of private and social enterprises in the delivery of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services for the poor. In particular, the research aims to support civil society organisations (CSOs) engaged at the interface of public sector, private and social enterprise, and civil society.
Gero, A., Carrard, N.R., Murta, J. & Willetts, J.R. 2013, A systematic review of current evidence: Private and social enterprise engagement in water and sanitation for the poor - Working Paper 1, pp. 1-27.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Kuruppu, N., Murta, J., Mukheibir, P., Chong, J. & Brennan, T. National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility 2013, Understanding the adaptive capacity of Australian small-to-medium enterprises to climate change and variability, Understanding the adaptive capacity of Australian small-to-medium enterprises to climate change and variability.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) comprise 96 per cent of all private businesses in Australia. The SME sector is the economys largest employer and the largest contributor to GDP. Moreover, SMEs play a significant role within socio-economic systems: they provide employment, goods and services and tax revenue for communities. Climate change may result in adverse business outcomes including business interruptions, increased investment and insurance costs, and declines in financial indicators such as measures of value, return and growth. After natural disasters, SMEs face greater short-term losses than larger enterprises, and may have lower adaptive capacity for various reasons. This study examines the underlying factors and processes shaping adaptive capacity of Australian SMEs to climate change and associated sea level rise. Specifically, the research asks the following questions: 1) How have SMEs considered and integrated adaptation into business planning? 2) What are the key underlying processes that constrain and influence the adaptive capacities of SMEs? and 3) What types of support are required to promote SME business continuity under a changing climate? The study adopts theories from Political Ecology and draws on literature on vulnerability and hazards to understand the processes that mediate the adaptive capacity of SMEs. The empirical research involved an online survey targeting SMEs, attending business engagement events hosted by chambers of commerce, 30 semi-structured interviews with secondary stakeholders, five case studies involving SMEs and secondary stakeholders, and finally a stakeholder workshop which brought together participants from both groups
Murta, J., Gero, A., Kuruppu, N. & Mukheibir, P. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2012, Enhancing adaptive capacity of small to medium enterprises - Background Report (draft), pp. 1-43, Sydney, Australia.
Murta, J., Milne, G.R., Turner, A.J., White, S., Harris, S.M. & Mukheibir, P. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Options to improve the water and energy efficiency of existing evaporative air conditioners, pp. 1-47, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Murta, J., Milne, G.R., Turner, A.J., White, S., Harris, S.M. & Mukheibir, P. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Water and energy use efficiency of evaporative air conditioners: Stage 1 - scoping study, Sydney, Australia.
Riedy, C., Herriman, J., Daly, J.G., Ross, K., Jackson, M.L., Lederwasch, A.J., Boronyak, L.J. & Murta, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Water in North East Victoria: Regional Community Development Climate Adaptation Plan - Final Report, Sydney, Australia.
Kuruppu, N., McGee, C.M., Murta, J., Prendergast, J., Prior, J.H., Prior, T.D., Retamal, M.L., Usher, J. & Zeibots, M.E. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2011, Sustainability strategy for the North Ryde Station Precinct Project: Infrastructure and subdivision, Sydney, Australia.
Murta, J. 2010, The challenge of sustainable rural water supply: A case-study in East Timor.
Kuruppu, N., Murta, J. & Mukheibir, P. 2014, 'Small businesses in Australia and their capacity needs under a changing climate', Asian Disaster Preparedness Center, pp. 22-23.View/Download from: UTS OPUS