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Dr Jane Frawley

Biography

Dr Jane Frawley is a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Early Career Fellow. Dr Frawley ia a member of the Australian Centre of Public and Population Health Research within the Faculty of Health at UTS. Jane is also a core member of the Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine (ARCCIM).

Dr Frawley is a leading researcher in the development of critical, mainstream methodology and critical perspectives in relation to the examination of contemporary health care. Her work both current and past, has drawn upon to renowned cohort studies (45 & Up and Australian Longidinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH)) and she has been instrumental in co-designing, implementing and successfully completing nationally-representative sub-studies from these data sets.

Professional

 

 

Adjunct investigator - Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health | Adjunct investigator 45 and up | Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) - Advisory Committee
Image of Jane Frawley
Lecturer, Faculty of Health
Core Member, CHSP - Health Services and Practice
Complementary medicine, Applied science, Clinical Science
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 4808

Research Interests

Jane is currently working on various research projects including:

  1. The investigation of women’s use of non-formal healthcare for five chronic disorders (diabetes, depression, asthma, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis). 
  2. Investigating parent’s attitudes and decision making in relation to health services for their children.
  3. Parental attitudes to childhood vaccination.
  4. Complementary medicine practitioner attitudes to vaccination.

Maternity and child health| Health service utilisation| Health service research| Attitudes and decision making in relation to health care| Complementary and alternative medicine| attitudes to vaccination.

Can supervise: Yes

Chapters

Frawley, J.E. & Adams, J. 2017, 'Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine.' in In Oxford Bibliographies in Public Health, Oxford University Press, UK.
Steel, A., Hall, H., Frawley, J.E., Aiyepola & Adams, J. 2017, 'Pregnancy and CIM' in Adams, J., Steel, A. & Broom, A. (eds), Women's Health and Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Routledge, London, UK.
Steel, A.E., Frawley, J.E., Adams, J., Sibbritt, D. & Broom, A. 2013, 'Primary Health Care, Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Women's Health: A Focus Upon Menopause' in Adams, J., Magin, P. & Broom, A. (eds), Primary Health Care and Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Imperial College Press, London, pp. 11-33.
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Australian Women are integrating primary health care and complementary and alternative medicine to alleviate a range of symptoms and conditions. This chapter introduces the use of CAM for women's health in general and more particularly, explores the integration of CAM alongside mainstream primary health care
Adams, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Wardle, J., Steel, A.E., Murthy, V. & Daley, J. 2012, 'Research capacity building in traditional, complementary and integrative medicine: Grass-roots action towards a broader vision' in Adams, J., Andrews, G., Barnes, J., Broom, A. & Magin, P. (eds), Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 275-281.
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Developing capacity to undertake health research effectively is an integral component of national and global health research systems (Lansang and Dennis, 2004) and is essential to producing a sound evidence base for decision making in policy and practice (Cooke, 2005). Moreover, research capacity building (RCB) - nurturing and producing sustainable increased capacity for future research endeavours - is important fOr all health research fields and TCIM is no exception (Andrews, 2006; Adams, 2007). There is currently a great opportunity to embrace RCB in relation to TCIM in order to help develop an evidence base and a stronger and more robust research culture among scholars and practitioners alike.

Conferences

Frawley, J.E. & Davidson, S. 2016, 'Frawley J, Davidson S. (2016). 'Is vaccine-hesitancy associated with the use of complementary medicine among Australian parents?' Accepted for the upcoming PHAA 15th National Immunisation Conference, Brisbane, 7-9 June 2016.'.
Steel, A. & Frawley, J. 2015, 'Steel A, Frawley J, Adams J, Sibbritt D, Broom A. (2015). 'The labour and birth outcomes associated with the use of herbal medicine in pregnancy.' NHAA International Conference on Herbal Medicine. Sydney, 20-22 March 2015.'.
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Frawley, J. & Steel, A. 2014, 'Frawley J, Steel A. (2014). 'Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use during pregnancy: Navigating safe maternity care.' PHAA 43rd Annual Conference, The future of public health: big challenges, big opportunities, Perth, Australia.'.
Steel, A., Sibbritt, D., Adams, J. & Frawley, J. 2014, 'Steel A, Sibbritt D, Adams J, Frawley J, Broom A, Gallois C. (2014). 'The Association Between Women's Choice of Birth Setting and Their Use of CAM During Labor and Birth.' 2014 International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health, Miami, US.'.
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Steel, A., Adams, J., Broom, A., Sibbritt, D. & Frawley, J. 2014, 'Steel A, Adams J, Broom A, Sibbritt D, Frawley J. (2014). 'Marginalization and Companionable Silence: CAM Practitioners' Perspectives of Their Interprofessional Relationships with Maternity Care Providers.' 2014 International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health, Miami, US.'.
Frawley, J.E. 2013, 'Frawley J. (2013). 'Writing for publication; how to publish your research. NHAA Annual General Meeting.'.
Frawley, J.E. 2013, 'Frawley J, Adams J, Sibbritt D, Steel A, Broom A. (2013). 'Young women's use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products for chronic health conditions: results from a nationally representative survey of 8,009 women' presented at presented at the 2013 International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health, London, UK.'.
Frawley, J.E. 2013, 'Frawley J, Adams J, Sibbritt D, Steel A, Broom A. (2013). 'Self-care practices of women using Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in pregnancy: A nationally representative sample of 1,835 women' poster presentation at the 2013 International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health, London, UK.'.
Frawley, J.E. 2013, 'Frawley J, Steel A (2013). 'The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: an Australian survey' presented at the 2013 International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health, London, UK.'.
Steel, A., Adams, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A. & Frawley, J.E. 2013, 'Steel A, Adams J, Sibbritt D, Broom A, Frawley J. (2013). 'The influence of complementary and alternative medicine use in pregnancy on pain management in labour and birth outcomes' presented at the 2013 International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health, London, UK.'.
Steel, A. & Frawley, J. 2013, 'Steel A, Frawley J. (2013). 'Managing chronic degenerative joint conditions in naturopathic practice' presented at presented at the 2013 International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health, London, UK.'.
Frawley, J.E. 2012, 'Frawley J, Adams J, Sibbritt D, Steel A. (2012). 'Women's sources of Information for CAM use during pregnancy' presented at the 2012 International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health, Portland Oregon, U.S.'.
Frawley, J.E. 2012, 'Frawley J, Steel A. (2012). Women's key information sources when deciding to use complementary medicine during pregnancy' presented at the University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, US.'.

Journal articles

Frawley, J., Sibbritt, D., Steel, A., Chang, S. & Adams, J. 2017, 'Author Reply.', Urology, vol. 99, pp. 98-99.
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Frawley, J., Hall, H., Adams, J. & Sibbritt, D. 2017, 'Health care utilization of women who experience pregnancy related reflux, nausea and/or vomiting.', The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, pp. 1-18.
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Nausea, vomiting and reflux are common conditions experienced by women during pregnancy. The objective of this project was to examine women's use of health services for these conditions.The study sample was obtained via the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. A total of 2,445 women who were pregnant or who had recently given birth in 2009 were invited to complete a sub-survey in 2010 about pregnancy and health service utilization. A response rate of 79.2% was obtained.During their pregnancy, 604 (32.9%) respondents experienced nausea, with 255 (42.2%) of these women seeking help from a health care practitioner. A total of 201 women (11%) reported repeated vomiting, and 637 women (34.7%) reported reflux, of which 78.6% and 59.2% sought help respectively. There were no significant differences in the mental and physical health measures between women with nausea, vomiting and/or reflux who sought help and women who did not. Having private health insurance with obstetric cover was associated with seeking help for reflux; this was the only demographic measure significantly associated with seeking help for any condition.Research is required to understand why many women do not seek professional help for common gastrointestinal conditions during pregnancy.
Frawley, J., Sibbritt, D., Steel, A., Chang, S. & Adams, J. 2017, 'Complementary and Conventional Health-care Utilization Among Young Australian Women With Urinary Incontinence.', Urology, vol. 99, pp. 92-99.
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between health status and health service utilization (including conventional and complementary and alternative medicine [CAM]) accessed by women experiencing urinary incontinence (UI). Although a high number of younger women report symptoms of UI, such as leaking urine, only a small proportion seek help for these symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health is a large nationally representative study that investigates the health and well-being of women. The 2 most recent surveys (2006 and 2009) of the young cohort (women aged 28-33 and 31-36 respectively) were analyzed. RESULTS: The presence of UI was 8.5% in 2006 (n=859) and 23.3% in 2009 (n=1878), whereas the percentage of women who sought help for their UI was 18.6% (n=160) and 2.2% (n=182) respectively. Women with UI had poorer health compared with women without UI (P<.005), and women who sought help for their symptoms had poorer physical functioning than women who did not (P<.005). Women who sought help were greater users of conventional and CAM health services (P<.005), including a general practitioner, specialist, hospital doctor, physiotherapist, and naturopath. CONCLUSION: UI is relatively common in younger women. However, many do not seek help. Of the women who do seek care, a large number visit CAM professionals as well as conventional medical professionals, despite a lack of research evaluating the efficacy of CAM treatment. Research is needed to explore CAM practitioner approaches to the treatment of UI and to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments.
Meredith, S., Frawley, J., Adams, J. & Sibbritt, D. 2017, 'The utilization of health services and self-care by older women with sleeping problems: Results from a nationally representative sample of 9,110 women', Journal of Aging and Health.
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Adams, J., Steel, A., Frawley, J., Broom, A. & Sibbritt, D. 2017, 'Substantial out-of-pocket expenditure on maternity care practitioner consultations and treatments during pregnancy: estimates from a nationally-representative sample of pregnant women in Australia.', BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 114.
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BACKGROUND: A wide range of health care options are utilised by pregnant women in Australia. The out-of-pocket costs of maternity care in Australia vary depending on many factors including model of care utilised, health insurance coverage, and women's decision to access health services outside of conventional maternity care provision. METHODS: Women from the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) who identified as pregnant or as recently having given birth in 2009 were invited to complete a sub-study questionnaire investigating health service utilisation during their most recent pregnancy. RESULTS: A total of 1,835 women agreed to participate in the sub-study. The majority of women (99.8%) consulted with a conventional health care practitioner during pregnancy, 49.4% consulted with a complementary and alternative medicine practitioner at least once during pregnancy and 89.6% of the women used a complementary and alternative medicine product. Women reported an average of AUD$781.10 in out-of-pocket expenses for consultations with conventional health care practitioners, AUD$185.40 in out-of-pocket expenses for consultations with complementary and alternative medicine practitioners and AUD$179.60 in out-of-pocket expenses for complementary and alternative medicine products. From the study data we estimate Australian pregnant women spend over AUD$337&nbsp;M on out-of-pocket health services. CONCLUSION: While the majority of pregnant women in Australia may obtain health services via the publically-funded health care system and/or private health insurance coverage, our analysis identifies substantial out-of-pocket expenditure for health care by pregnant women - a trend in public spending for maternity care of importance to policy makers, health administrators, and health professionals.
Frawley, J.E., Anheyer, D., Davidson, S. & Jackson, D. 2017, 'Prevalence and characteristics of complementary and alternative medicine use by Australian children.', J Paediatr Child Health.
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AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Australian children within the previous 12months. METHODS: Parents with children up to the age of 18 years were recruited from online parenting groups. Questions addressed demographic factors, socio-economic status, conventional health service use, including vaccination status and use of CAM. RESULTS: A total of 149 parents responded to the study of which 73.8% (n=110) had taken their child to visit a CAM practitioner or given their child a CAM product in the previous 12 months. The two most frequently visited CAM practitioners were naturopath/herbalist (30.4%) and chiropractor (18.4%). The most commonly used products were vitamins/minerals (61.7%), and herbal medicine (38.8%). Children had also consulted with a general practitioner (89.8%), community health nurse (31.29%) and paediatrician (30.3%) over the same period. A total of 52% of parents did not disclose their child's use of CAM to their medical provider. Children's vaccination status was less likely to be up-to-date if they visited a CAM practitioner (OR 0.16; CI 0.07, 0.36; P<0.001) or used a CAM product (OR 0.25; CI 0.09, 0.64; P=0.004). CONCLUSION: Despite a lack of high quality research for efficacy and safety, many children are using CAM products and practices in parallel with conventional health services, often without disclosure. This highlights the need to initiate conversations with parents about their child's use of CAM in order to ensure safe, coordinated patient care. The association between vaccine uptake and CAM use requires further investigation.
Anheyer, D., Frawley, J., Koch, A.K., Lauche, R., Langhorst, J., Dobos, G. & Cramer, H. 2017, 'Herbal Medicines for Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.', Pediatrics.
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CONTEXT: Gastrointestinal disorders are common childhood complaints. Particular types of complementary and alternative medicine, such as herbal medicine, are commonly used among children. Research information on efficacy, safety, or dosage forms is still lacking. OBJECTIVES: To systematically summarize effectiveness and safety of different herbal treatment options for gastrointestinal disorders in children. DATA SOURCES: Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were searched through July 15, 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials comparing herbal therapy with no treatment, placebo, or any pharmaceutical medication in children and adolescents (aged 0-18 years) with gastrointestinal disorders were eligible. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors extracted data on study design, patients, interventions, control interventions, results, adverse events, and risk of bias. RESULTS: Fourteen trials with 1927 participants suffering from different acute and functional gastrointestinal disorders were included in this review. Promising evidence for effectiveness was found for Potentilla erecta, carob bean juice, and an herbal compound preparation including Matricaria chamomilla in treating diarrhea. Moreover, evidence was found for peppermint oil in decreasing duration, frequency, and severity of pain in children suffering from undifferentiated functional abdominal pain. Furthermore, evidence for effectiveness was found for different fennel preparations (eg, oil, tea, herbal compound) in treating children with infantile colic. No serious adverse events were reported. LIMITATIONS: Few studies on specific indications, single herbs, or herbal preparations could be identified. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the limited number of studies, results have to be interpreted carefully. To underpin evidence outlined in this review, more rigorous clinical trials are needed.
Meredith, S., Frawley, J., Adams, J. & Sibbritt, D. 2017, 'The Utilization of Health Services and Self-Care by Older Women With Sleeping Problems.', J Aging Health, p. 898264316686424.
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OBJECTIVE: This research aims to investigate the health service use-including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)-and self-care by women aged 62 to 67 with sleeping problems. METHOD: In total, 9,110 participants (99.6%) responded to questions about sleeping problems, health service utilization and self-care (e.g., herbal medicines and vitamins), demographics, and chronic illnesses. RESULTS: In all, 48.2% ( n = 4,394) women indicated that they had a sleeping problem. Women with sleeping problems consulted a general practitioner (GP) more frequently (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.36, 2.17]; p < .005) and were more likely to be using herbal medicines (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = [1.13, 1.36]; p < .005) than women without sleeping problems. DISCUSSION: Health professionals, particularly GPs, may need to actively inquire with older patients in their care with sleeping problems about the use of herbal medicines, to ensure their sleeping problems are being directly and effectively treated, particularly in light of increased risks associated with sleeping problems for this age cohort.
Frawley, J., Sundberg, T., Steel, A., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A. & Adams, J. 2016, 'Prevalence and characteristics of women who consult with osteopathic practitioners during pregnancy; a report from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH).', Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 168-172.
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The use of complementary medicine (CM) is common during pregnancy with visits to osteopathic practitioners growing in recent years. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of women who consult osteopathic practitioners during pregnancy.The study sample was obtained via the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). The women answered questions about consultations with osteopathic practitioners, pregnancy-related health concerns and attitudes to CM use.A total response rate of 79.2% (1835) was obtained. Of these, 104 women (6.1%) consulted with an osteopath during pregnancy for a pregnancy-related health condition. Women were more likely to consult an osteopath if they suffered from back pain, sadness, weight management issues, or had a history of retained placenta.Women are visiting osteopaths for help with common pregnancy health complaints, highlighting the need for research to evaluate the safety, clinical and cost effectiveness of osteopathy in pregnancy.
Frawley, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Gallois, C., Steel, A. & Adams, J. 2016, 'Women's attitudes towards the use of complementary and alternative medicine products during pregnancy.', Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 462-467.
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The aim of this study was to analyse women's attitudes towards the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products during pregnancy. The study sample was obtained via the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health or ALSWH. A response rate of 79.2% (n = 1,835) was attained. Women who use herbal medicines (34.5%, n = 588) view CAM as a preventative measure, are looking for something holistic and are concerned about evidence of clinical efficacy when considering the use of these products during pregnancy. Women who use aromatherapy (17.4%, n = 319) and homoeopathy (13.3%, n = 244) want more personal control over their body and are concerned more about their own personal experience of the efficacy of CAM than clinical evidence of efficacy. As CAM use in pregnancy appears to be increasingly commonplace, insights into women's attitudes towards CAM are valuable for maternity healthcare providers.
Frawley, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Gallois, C., Steel, A. & Adams, J. 2016, 'Complementary and alternative medicine practitioner use prior to pregnancy predicts use during pregnancy.', Women and Health, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 926-939.
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The objective of this study was to determine if prior visits to a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioner were associated with CAM use during pregnancy. The study sample comprised the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Women were surveyed prior to pregnancy in 2006, and then again in 2010 if they were pregnant or had recently given birth, and asked a range of questions relating to demographic variables, health status and use of CAM. A multivariable analysis identified significant covariates associated with visits to specific CAM practitioner modalities during pregnancy. Of the 447 women who consulted a CAM practitioner prior to pregnancy, 62.4% (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;279) continued this use during pregnancy. Prior use of massage therapy, acupuncture, herbalist/naturopath or chiropractor was related to use of the same service during pregnancy. Higher income and working full-time were associated with the continued use of massage, while continued visits to a chiropractor were associated with having depressive symptoms, a urinary tract infection and living in a rural community. Prior use of CAM was highly related to continuing use during pregnancy. Further research is required to elucidate the benefits women attain from a CAM-model of care that they do not get from their conventional maternity care providers alone.
Steel, A., Frawley, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A. & Adams, J. 2016, 'The characteristics of women who use hypnotherapy for intrapartum pain management: Preliminary insights from a nationally-representative sample of Australian women', Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 25, pp. 67-70.
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Frawley, J., Peng, W., Sibbritt, D., Ward, L., Lauche, R., Zhang, Y. & Adams, J. 2016, 'Is there an association between women's consultations with a massage therapist and health-related quality of life? Analyses of 1800 women aged 56-61 years.', J Bodyw Mov Ther, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 734-739.
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BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonplace in Australia with massage being a popular CAM modality. METHODS: This is a sub-study from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). A total of 2120 mid-age (56-61 year old) women who consulted a CAM practitioner were invited to participate in this study. The Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire was used to measure women's health-related quality of life. RESULTS: A total of 1800 women returned the questionnaire generating a response rate of 85.0%. Overall, 912 (50.7%) women visited a massage therapist in the previous 12 months. Women with lower quality of life scores in terms of bodily pain (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.012) and/or emotional health (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.029) were more likely to consult a massage therapist than those with higher scores. CONCLUSION: The implications of these associations are important for informing healthcare providers in providing effective and coordinated care for patients with pain and mood symptoms.
Wardle, J., Frawley, J., Steel, A. & Sullivan, E. 2016, 'Complementary medicine and childhood immunisation: A critical review.', Vaccine, vol. 34, no. 38, pp. 4484-4500.
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Vaccination is one of the most significant and successful public health measures of recent times. Whilst the use of complementary medicine (CM) continues to grow, it has been suggested that CM practitioners hold anti-vaccination views. The objective of this critical review is to examine the evidence base in relation to CM practitioner attitudes to childhood vaccination alongside attitudes to vaccination among parents who visit CM practitioners and/or use CM products.A database search was conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and AMED for research articles published between January 2000 and September 2015 that evaluated either CM practitioner or CM user attitudes and intention towards childhood vaccination.A total of 23 articles were found that detailed the attitudes of CM practitioners to vaccination. A further 16 papers examined the association between the use of CM products and visits to CM practitioners, and immunisation. The interface between CM and vaccination is complex, multi-factorial and often highly individualised. The articles suggest that there is no default position on immunisation by CM practitioners or parents who use CM themselves, or for their children. Although CM use does seem positively associated with lower vaccination uptake, this may be confounded by other factors associated with CM use (such as higher income, higher education or distrust of the medical system), and may not necessarily indicate independent or predictive relationships.Although anti-vaccination sentiment is significant amongst some CM practitioners, this review uncovers a more nuanced picture, and one that may be more agreeable to public health values than formerly assumed.
Steel, A., Adams, J., Frawley, J., Wardle, J., Broom, A., Sidebotham, M. & Sibbritt, D. 2016, 'Does Australia's Health Policy Environment Create Unintended Outcomes for Birthing Women?', BIRTH-ISSUES IN PERINATAL CARE, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 273-276.
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Cramer, H., Hall, H., Leach, M., Frawley, J., Zhang, Y., Leung, B., Adams, J. & Lauche, R. 2016, 'Prevalence, patterns, and predictors of meditation use among US adults: A nationally representative survey', SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 6.
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Frawley, J.E. 2016, 'Complementary and alternative medicine in Australia: An overview of contemporary workforce features', AJHM, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 103-103.
Steel, A.E., Adams, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Gallois, C. & Frawley, J.E. 2015, 'Managing the pain of labour: factors associated with the use of labour pain management for pregnant Australian women.', Health Expectations, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1633-1644.
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Despite high rates of women's use of intrapartum pain management techniques, little is known about the factors that influence such use. ... Examine the determinants associated with women's use of labour pain management. ... Cross-sectional survey of a substudy of women from the 'young' cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). ... Women aged 3135 years who identified as being pregnant or recently given birth in the 2009 ALSWH survey (n = 2445) were recruited for the substudy. The substudy survey was completed by 1835 women (RR = 79.2%).
Steel, A., Frawley, J., Adams, J. & Diezel, H. 2015, 'Trained or professional doulas in the support and care of pregnant and birthing women: A critical integrative review', Health and Social Care in the Community, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 225-241.
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&copy; 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The professionalisation of doula care and research interest in this area of maternity care/support have both grown internationally in recent years highlighting important broader issues around the access, continuity and delivery of maternity care services. However, no work to date has provided a critical appraisal of the international literature on this topic. In response, this paper presents the first critical review of international empirical literature examining professional doula care for pregnant and birthing women. A database search of AMED, CINAHL, Maternity and Infant Care, and MEDLINE using the search term, "doula" was undertaken. A total of 48 papers published between 1980 and March 2013 involving trained or professional doulas were extracted. Four descriptive categories were identified from the review: 'workforce and professional issues in doula care'; 'trained or professional doula's role and skill'; 'physical outcomes of trained or professional doula care'; and 'social outcomes of trained or professional doula care'. Of the studies evaluating outcomes of doula care, there were a number with design and methodology weaknesses. The review highlights a number of gaps in the research literature including a lack of research examining doula workforce issues; focus upon the experience and perspective of significant stakeholders such as expectant fathers with regard to trained or professional doula care; clinical trials measuring both subjective experiences and physical outcomes of trained or professional doula support; synergy between the design of clinical trials research examining trained or professional doula care and the clinical reality of professional doula practice. It is imperative that key aspects of trained doula care be subject to further rigorous, empirical investigation to help establish an evidence base to guide policy and practice relating to this area of support and care for pregnant and birthing women.
Adams, J., Frawley, J., Steel, A., Broom, A. & Sibbritt, D. 2015, 'Use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological labour pain management techniques and their relationship to maternal and infant birth outcomes: Examination of a nationally representative sample of 1835 pregnant women', MIDWIFERY, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 458-463.
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Adams, J., Frawley, J., Steel, A., Broom, A. & Sibbritt, D. 2015, 'Use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological labour pain management techniques and their relationship to maternal and infant birth outcomes: Examination of a nationally representative sample of 1835 pregnant women', Midwifery, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 458-463.
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&copy; 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Women use various labour pain management techniques during birth. The objective of this study is to investigate women's use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological labour pain management techniques in relation to birth outcomes. Methods: a sub-survey of a nationally representative sample of pregnant women (. n=1835) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Results: our analysis identified women's use of water for labour pain management as decreasing the likelihood of their baby being admitted to special care nursery (OR=0.42, p<0.004) whereas the use of epidural increased this likelihood (OR=3.38, p<0.001) as well as for instrumental childbirth (OR=7.27, p<0.001). Epidural and pethidine use decreased women's likelihood of continuing breast-feeding (ORs=0.68 and 0.59, respectively, both p<0.01) whereas the use of breathing techniques and massage for pain control increased the likelihood of women continuing breast-feeding (ORs=1.72 and 1.62, respectively, both p<0.01). Conclusions: our study illustrates associations between the use of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological labour pain management techniques and selected birth outcomes while controlling for confounding variables. There remain significant gaps in the evidence base for the use of non-pharmacological labour pain control methods and our findings provide a platform with which to develop a broad clinical research programme around this topic.
Steel, A., Frawley, J., Adams, J. & Diezel, H. 2015, 'Trained or professional doulas in the support and care of pregnant and birthing women: A critical integrative review', Health and Social Care in the Community, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 225-241.
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&copy; 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The professionalisation of doula care and research interest in this area of maternity care/support have both grown internationally in recent years highlighting important broader issues around the access, continuity and delivery of maternity care services. However, no work to date has provided a critical appraisal of the international literature on this topic. In response, this paper presents the first critical review of international empirical literature examining professional doula care for pregnant and birthing women. A database search of AMED, CINAHL, Maternity and Infant Care, and MEDLINE using the search term, "doula" was undertaken. A total of 48 papers published between 1980 and March 2013 involving trained or professional doulas were extracted. Four descriptive categories were identified from the review: 'workforce and professional issues in doula care'; 'trained or professional doula's role and skill'; 'physical outcomes of trained or professional doula care'; and 'social outcomes of trained or professional doula care'. Of the studies evaluating outcomes of doula care, there were a number with design and methodology weaknesses. The review highlights a number of gaps in the research literature including a lack of research examining doula workforce issues; focus upon the experience and perspective of significant stakeholders such as expectant fathers with regard to trained or professional doula care; clinical trials measuring both subjective experiences and physical outcomes of trained or professional doula support; synergy between the design of clinical trials research examining trained or professional doula care and the clinical reality of professional doula practice. It is imperative that key aspects of trained doula care be subject to further rigorous, empirical investigation to help establish an evidence base to guide policy and practice relating to this area of support and care for pregnant and birthing women.
Bhalla, A., Suri, V., Kaur, P. & Kaur, S. 2015, 'Authors' reply.', Journal of postgraduate medicine, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 147-148.
Frawley, J., Adams, J., Steel, A., Broom, A., Gallois, C. & Sibbritt, D. 2015, 'Women's Use and Self-Prescription of Herbal Medicine during Pregnancy: An Examination of 1,835 Pregnant Women', Women's Health Issues, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 396-402.
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Cramer, H., Frawley, J., Steel, A., Hall, H., Adams, J., Broom, A. & Sibbritt, D. 2015, 'Characteristics of women who practice yoga in different locations during pregnancy', BMJ Open, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. e008641-e008641.
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Grant, S.J., Frawley, J. & Bensoussan, A. 2015, 'Process of care in outpatient Integrative healthcare facilities: a systematic review of clinical trials', BMC Health Services Research, vol. 15, pp. 1-18.
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&copy; 2015 Grant et al. Abstract Background: Patients currently integrate complementary medicine (CM) and allopathic, choosing a combination of therapies rather than a single therapy in isolation. Understanding integrative healthcare (IHC) extends beyond evaluation of specific therapies to encompass evaluations of multidisciplinary complex interventions. IHC is defined as a therapeutic strategy integrating conventional and complementary medical practices and practitioners in a shared care setting to administer an individualized treatment plan. We sought to review the outcomes of recent clinical trials, explore the design of the interventions and to discuss the methodological approaches and issues that arise when investigating a complex mix of interventions in order to guide future research. Method: Five databases were searched from inception to 30 March 2013. We included randomized and quasi-experimental clinical trials of IHC. Data elements covering process of care (initial assessment, treatment planning and review, means for integration) were extracted. Results: Six thousand two hundred fifty six papers were screened, 5772 were excluded and 484 full text articles retrieved. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. There are few experimental studies of IHC. Of the five studies conducted, four were in people with lower back pain. The positive findings of these studies indicate that it is feasible to conduct a rigorous clinical trial of an integrative intervention involving allopathic and CM treatment. Further, such interventions may improve patient outcomes. Conclusions: The trials in our review provide a small yet critical base from which to refine and develop larger studies. Future studies need to be adequately powered to address efficacy, safety and include data on cost effectiveness.
Steel, A., Adams, J., Frawley, J., Broom, A. & Sibbritt, D. 2015, 'The characteristics of women who birth at home, in a birth centre or in a hospital labour ward: A study of a nationally-representative sample of 1835 pregnant women', Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 132-137.
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Murthy, V., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Kirby, E., Frawley, J., Refshauge, K.M. & Adams, J. 2015, 'Back pain sufferers' attitudes toward consultations with CAM practitioners and self- prescribed CAM products: A study of a nationally representative sample of 1310 Australian women aged 60-65 years', Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 782-788.
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Frawley, J. 2015, 'Editorial: We need to talk about vaccination', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 45-46.
Frawley, J. 2015, 'Letters to the editor', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 91-92.
Frawley, J. 2015, 'Editorial: The 9th International Conference on Herbal Medicine', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 27, no. 1, p. 1.
Frawley, J. 2015, 'Editorial: The pluralistic nature of contemporary maternity care in Australia', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 89-90.
Steel, A.E., Adams, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Frawley, J.E. & Gallois, C. 2014, 'The Infuence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Pregnancy on Labor Pain Management Choices: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample of 1,835 Women', Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 87-97.
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Objectives: This study examines involvement with a range of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) during pregnancy on the use of pharmacologic (PPMT) and nonpharmacologic (NPMT) pain management techniques for labor and birth. Design: Longitudinal analysis of survey data. Participants: A substudy (n=2445) of the ``young cohort of the nationally representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Womens Health was conducted. Outcome measures: Use of PPMT and NPMT during labor and birth. Results: The survey was completed by 1835 women (response rate, 79.2%). Most respondents used either intrapartum PPMT (81.9%) or NPMT (74.4%). Many (60.7%) used some form of CAM during pregnancy and also used PPMT during birth. More than two thirds of women (66.7%) who used NPMT used CAM during pregnancy. There was a general trend of increased likelihood of NPMT use by women who applied CAM during pregnancy. There was an inverse effect on use of epidural analgesia for women who consumed herbal teas during pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.60).
Peng, W., Adams, J., Sibbritt, D.W. & Frawley, J.E. 2014, 'Critical review of complementary and alternative medicine use in menopause: focus on prevalence, motivation, decision-making, and communication', Menopause, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 536-548.
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This article presents the first critical review of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among menopausal women (a term here used to include premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women) by focusing on the prevalence of CAM use and CAM users' characteristics, motivation, decision-making, and communication with healthcare providers.
Frawley, J., Adams, J., Broom, A., Steel, A., Gallois, C. & Sibbritt, D. 2014, 'Majority of Women Are Influenced by Nonprofessional Information Sources When Deciding to Consult a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioner During Pregnancy', Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 571-577.
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Steel, A., Adams, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Gallois, C. & Frawley, J. 2014, 'Determinants of Women Consulting with a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioner for Pregnancy-Related Health Conditions', Women and Health, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 127-144.
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Steel, A., Adams, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Frawley, J. & Gallois, C. 2014, 'The Influence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Pregnancy on Labor Pain Management Choices: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample of 1,835 Women', JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 87-97.
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Steel, A., Adams, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Frawley, J. & Gallois, C. 2014, 'Relationship between complementary and alternative medicine use and incidence of adverse birth outcomes: An examination of a nationally representative sample of 1835 Australian women', Midwifery, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1157-1165.
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Objective: there is evidence of high use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by pregnant women. Despite debate and controversy regarding CAM use in pregnancy there has been little research focus upon the impacts of CAM use on birth outcomes. This paper reports findings outlining the incidence of adverse birth outcomes among women accessing CAM during pregnancy. Design: a survey based cohort sub study from the nationally representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) was undertaken in 2010. Participants.: women (aged 31-36 years) who identified in 2009 as pregnant or recently given birth (n=2445) from the younger cohort (n=8012) of ALSWH were recruited for the study. Measurements and findings: participants' responses were analysed to examine the relationship between use of CAM and adverse birth outcomes from their most recent pregnancy. Of the respondents (n=1835; 79.2%), there were variations in birth outcomes for the women who used different CAM. Notably, the outcome which was most commonly associated with CAM use was emotional distress. This was found to occur more commonly in women who practised meditation/yoga at home, used flower essences, or consulted with a chiropractor. In contrast, women who consulted with a chiropractor or consumed herbal teas were less likely to report a premature birth, whilst participation in yoga classes was associated with an increased incidence of post parturn/intrapartum haemorrhage. Key conclusions: the results emphasise the necessity for further research evaluating the safety and effectiveness of CAM for pregnant women, with a particular focus on birth outcomes. Implications for practice: health professionals providing care need to be aware of the potential birth outcomes associated with CAM use during pregnancy to enable the provision of accurate information to women in their care, and to assist in safely supporting women accessing CAM to assist with pregnancy, labour and birth.
Leach, M.J., McIntyre, E. & Frawley, J.E. 2014, 'Characteristics of the Australian complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) workforce', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2.
Steel, A., Adams, J., Broom, A., Sibbritt, D., Frawley, J. & Gallois, C. 2014, 'Marginalization and Companionable Silence: CAM Practitioners' Perspectives of Their Interprofessional Relationships with Maternity Care Providers', The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. A111-A111.
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Frawley, J.E., Steel, A., Adams, J., sibbritt, D., Broom, A. & Gallois, C. 2014, 'The Association between women's choice of birth setting and their use of CAM during labor and birth.', Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 20, no. 5.
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Frawley, J. 2014, 'Editorial', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 26, no. 4, p. 134.
Frawley, J. 2014, 'Bachelor degree now minimum qualification for naturopathy and western herbal medicine in Australia', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 84.
Frawley, J. 2014, 'Editorial: Herbal medicine use in pregnancy by Australian women: High rates of self-prescription and low rates of disclosure?', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 2-3.
Frawley, J. 2014, 'Editorial: Give a man a fish - an innovative and sustainable new herbal medicine programme in Ethiopia', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 48.
Frawley, J.E., Adams, J., Sibbritt, D., Steel, A.E., Broom, A. & Gallois, C. 2013, 'Prevalence and determinants of complementary and alternative medicine use during pregnancy: Results from a nationally representative sample of Australian pregnant women', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 347-352.
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Background: Pregnant women have been identi?ed as high users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, no research to date has provided a detailed analysis of the prevalence and determinants of CAM consumption amongst pregnant women. Aim: To examine the prevalence and determinants of CAM use by pregnant women, utilising a national representative sample. Methods: The study sample was obtained via the Australian Longitudinal Study on Womens Health. This paper is based on a sub-study of 1,835 pregnant women, administered in 2010. The women answered questions about CAM use, demographics, pregnancy-related health concerns and health service utilisation. Results: Complementary and alternative medicine use was found to be high with 48.1% (n = 623) of pregnant women consulting a CAM practitioner and 52.0% (n = 842) of women using CAM products (excluding vitamins and minerals) during pregnancy. CAM practitioner visits were more likely for selected pregnancy-related health concerns, namely back pain or back ache, neck pain and labour preparation. Women were less likely to consult a CAM practitioner if they suffered with headaches/migraines. Employment was also found to be predictive of pregnant womens visits to a CAM practitioner. Signi?cant health history and demographic predictors of CAM product use were tiredness and fatigue, embarking on preparation for labour and having a university education. Conclusion: Most pregnant women are utilising CAM products and/or services as part of their maternity care and obstetricians, general practitioners and midwives need to enquire with women in their care about possible CAM use to help promote safe, effective coordinated maternity care.
Steel, A.E., Frawley, J.E., Sibbritt, D. & Adams, J. 2013, 'A preliminary profile of Australian women accessing doula care: Findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 589-592.
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Despite growing interest and controversy regarding the value of doulas in contemporary maternity care, little is known about the profile of women who choose to involve a doula in their care team. This preliminary analysis indicates that women's attitudes towards maternity care may influence their use of a doula more so than demographic factors. Further research examining these
Frawley, J. & Finney-Brown, T. 2013, 'Writing for publication: Case studies', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 138-140.
Frawley, J. 2013, 'Editorial', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 49.
Frawley, J. 2013, 'Editorial: The australian journal of herbal medicine: Manuscript submission and the peer review process', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 97-98.
Frawley, J. 2013, 'Editorial', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 25, no. 1, p. 1.
Steel, A.E., Adams, J., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Gallois, C. & Frawley, J.E. 2012, 'Utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners within maternitycare provision: results from a nationally representative cohort study of 1,835 pregnant women', BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 12, pp. 146-146.
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Background: There is little known about women's concurrent use of conventional and complementary health care during pregnancy, particularly consultation patterns with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines health service utilisation among pregnant women including consultations with obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners (GPs) and CAM practitioners.
Daley, J.E. 2010, 'Dairy derivatives', Jornal of Complementary Medicine, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 32-37.
Daley, J.E. 2009, 'Phytoestrogens and hormonal health', The Journal of Complementary Medicine: the independent peer-reviewed journal for healthcare professionals, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 30-33.
Daley, J.E. 2009, 'Adaptogens', The Journal of Complementary Medicine: the independent peer-reviewed journal for healthcare professionals, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 36-40.
Daley, J.E. 2008, 'Chronic venous insufficiency', The Journal of Complementary Medicine: the independent peer-reviewed journal for healthcare professionals, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 4-20.
Daley, J.E. 2008, 'Managing a rotation diet', The Journal of Complementary Medicine: the independent peer-reviewed journal for healthcare professionals, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 26-30.
Daley, J.E. 2007, 'Natural analgesia', The Journal of Complementary Medicine: the independent peer-reviewed journal for healthcare professionals, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 34-41.
Daley, J.E. 2007, 'Korean ginseng,', The Journal of Complementary Medicine: the independent peer-reviewed journal for healthcare professionals, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 60-64.
Daley, J.E. 2007, 'Head lice', The Journal of Complementary Medicine: the independent peer-reviewed journal for healthcare professionals, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 22-29.

Reports

Steel, A., Frawley, J. & Frawley, J.E. 2013, Steel A, Frawley J, Dobson A, Jackson C, Lucke J, Tooth L, Brown W, Byles J, Mishra G. (2013). Women's health in NSW – a life course approach: an Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute. NSW Ministry of Health. https://www.saxinstitute.org.au/wp-content/uploads/Womens-health-in-NSW2....