Amgarth-Duff, I, Hosie, A, Caplan, G & Agar, M 2020, 'A systematic review of the overlap of fluid biomarkers in delirium and advanced cancer-related syndromes.', BMC psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND:Delirium is a serious and distressing neurocognitive disorder of physiological aetiology that is common in advanced cancer. Understanding of delirium pathophysiology is largely hypothetical, with some evidence for involvement of inflammatory systems, neurotransmitter alterations and glucose metabolism. To date, there has been limited empirical consideration of the distinction between delirium pathophysiology and that of the underlying disease, for example, cancer where these mechanisms are also common in advanced cancer syndromes such as pain and fatigue. This systematic review explores biomarker overlap in delirium, specific advanced cancer-related syndromes and prediction of cancer prognosis. METHODS:A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42017068662) was conducted, using MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL and Web of Science, to identify body fluid biomarkers in delirium, cancer prognosis and advanced cancer-related syndromes of interest. Studies were excluded if they reported delirium tremens only; did not measure delirium using a validated tool; the sample had less than 75% of participants with advanced cancer; measured tissue, genetic or animal biomarkers, or were conducted post-mortem. Articles were screened for inclusion independently by two authors, and data extraction and an in-depth quality assessment conducted by one author, and checked by two others. RESULTS:The 151 included studies were conducted in diverse settings in 32 countries between 1985 and 2017, involving 28130 participants with a mean age of 69.3 years. Seventy-one studies investigated delirium biomarkers, and 80 studies investigated biomarkers of an advanced cancer-related syndrome or cancer prognosis. Overall, 41 biomarkers were studied in relation to both delirium and either an advanced cancer-related syndrome or prognosis; and of these, 24 biomarkers were positively associated with either delirium or advanced cancer syndromes/prognosis in at least one study. The quality asses...
Amgarth-Duff, I, Hendrickx, D, Bowen, A, Carapetis, J, Chibawe, R, Samson, M & Walker, R 2019, 'Talking skin: attitudes and practices around skin infections, treatment options, and their clinical management in a remote region in Western Australia', Rural and Remote Health, vol. 19, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Introduction: Skin infections including scabies and impetigo have a high burden and cause significant morbidity in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. Nevertheless, there is limited knowledge about community, healthcare practitioner and service provider perspectives on skin infections and treatment preferences. An increased understanding of their respective knowledge, attitudes and practices will contribute to improving healthcare seeking behaviour, improved diagnosis, treatment acceptability and quality of care within remote Aboriginal communities. The aim of this study was to explore Aboriginal parent/carer, healthcare practitioner, and service provider attitudes and practices regarding skin infections in Aboriginal communities in remote communities in the Pilbara, Western Australia. The study documents their perspectives and preferences regarding treatments for skin infections, as well as the perceived barriers and enablers to treatment uptake for scabies and impetigo amongst Aboriginal families in this region.
Methods: A qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions was conducted with parents/carers, healthcare practitioners and community service providers in four remote communities in Western Australia. All interviews and focus group discussions were voice recorded and data were analysed using NVivo software and thematic analysis.
Results: Despite the high burden, skin infections were considered normal in these communities, and their impact on child health was under-recognised. Common themes identified by all participants included the inadequacy of health services, the pain of the benzathine penicillin G injection, uncertainty regarding the use of oral antibiotics and topical creams, and the need for health practitioner training and improved communication and resources.
Conclusion: Documenting carer, service provider and healthcare practitioner perspectives on skin infections provides a more informed unders...
This chapter outlines how health professionals may best prevent, recognise, assess, manage and support people with palliative diagnoses who are at risk of delirium, and their families, according to best-evidence and the circumstances, needs and wishes of the person. The chapter also presents evidence-practice gaps in delirium care in palliative contexts, and briefly outlines future directions for research and clinical practice development.