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Associate Professor Igor Aharonovich

Biography

Igor Aharonovich received his B.Sc (2005) and M.Sc (2007) in Materials Eng from the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology under the supervision of Prof Yeshayahu Lifshitz. He then moved to Australia and pursued his PhD studies at the University of Melbourne under the supervision of Prof Steven Prawer. During his PhD, Igor developed experimental techniques to engineer novel, ultra bright single photon emitters in diamond.

In 2011, Igor took a postdoctoral position at Harvard University at the group of Prof Evelyn Hu. His research was focused on nanofabrication of optical cavities out of diamond, SiC and GaN. He also carried out nanophotonic experiments including coupling of emitters to optical cavities, turning of cavity resonances and low temperature high resolution spectroscopy.

In 2013 Igor has joined the School of Physics and Advanced Materials as a Senior Lecturer and a CPD fellow. His research will be focused on wide bandgap semiconductors and their implementation in Nanophotonics and Bio-sensing.

Igor received several international awards including the Pawsey medal (2017), the IEEE Photonics Young Investigator Award (2016) Chancellor Postdoctoral Fellowship from UTS (2013) Harvard Postdoctoral Award for Professional Development (2012), SPIE Research Excellence Award (2010) and Sigma Xi Research grant (2009). He was also awarded the 2013 Discovery Early Career Research Award from the ARC

Visit the Materials Physics and Nanophotonics website for more details

Professional

  • Co-organized the inaugural Harvard – Australian Diamond Photonics conference, held in Melbourne, Australia in January 2012
  • Member of the Materials Research Society, American Physics Society and the SPIE
  • Reviewer for top international journals including Physical Review journals, ACS Nano, Nanotechnology, Applied Physics Letters, the National Science Foundation and others.

Media
Postdoctoral fellowships bring best and brightest in 2013
UTS Science recruits another young Chancellor’s Postdoctoral Research Fellow

Image of Igor Aharonovich
Associate Professor, ARC DECRA Fellow, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
Core Member, MTEE - Materials and Technology for Energy Efficiency
M Sc, Ph D
 

Research Interests

My research interests are focused on nanoscale engineering of nanophotonic entities to control and guide light at the nanoscale by sculpting nanostructures out of wide bandgap semiconductors. The nanoscale architecture is key component for novel devices such as low power lasers, molecular sensors, optical interconnects and high efficiency light emitters. A number of related projects are currently available, and include (but not limited to):

  • Investigation of novel quantum systems in wide bandgap semiconductors
  • Development of novel bio-sensors based on fluorescent nanodiamonds
  • Investigation of light matter interaction in metallic nanostructures (Plasmonics)
  • Simulation and design of new architectures for nanophotonics

PhD/Honors scholarships are available for motivated students who are interested in one of these projects or in any other related topic in the broad field of nanotechnology, materials science and nanophotonics

Can supervise: Yes

  • Solid State Physics
  • Quantum mechanics
  • Photonics

Books

Prawer, S. & Aharonovich, I. 2014, Quantum Information Processing with Diamond: Principles and Applications.
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© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Diamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers can transform quantum information science into practical quantum information technology, including fast, safe computing. Quantum Information Processing with Diamond looks at the principles of quantum information science, diamond materials, and their applications. Part one provides an introduction to quantum information processing using diamond, as well as its principles and fabrication techniques. Part two outlines experimental demonstrations of quantum information processing using diamond, and the emerging applications of diamond for quantum information science. It contains chapters on quantum key distribution, quantum microscopy, the hybridization of quantum systems, and building quantum optical devices. Part three outlines promising directions and future trends in diamond technologies for quantum information processing and sensing. Quantum Information Processing with Diamond is a key reference for R & D managers in industrial sectors such as conventional electronics, communication engineering, computer science, biotechnology, quantum optics, quantum mechanics, quantum computing, quantum cryptology, and nanotechnology, as well as academics in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. * Brings together the topics of diamond and quantum information processing * Looks at applications such as quantum computing, neural circuits, and in vivo monitoring of processes at the molecular scale.

Chapters

Aharonovich, I. & Babinec, T. 2014, 'Single Color Centers in Diamond: Materials, Devices, and Applications' in Sarin, V.K. (ed), Comprehensive Hard Materials, Elsevier Ltd., pp. 469-491.
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Photonic technologies play key roles in twenty-first century technologies. In addition to their traditional optical communications, quantum photonics, which relies on single photon emitters, offers new approaches to information processing. In this chapter, we discuss the photophysical properties and applications of single defects in diamond-also known as color centers. Although the focus will be on one particular emitter-the nitrogen-vacancy center, other defects will be mentioned and reviewed. Promising applications, namely, photonic devices and magnetometry, will be discussed in more detail, highlighting the recent literature. Finally, an outlook for diamond photonics will be presented. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aharonovich, I. & Prawer, S. 2014, 'Promising directions in diamond technologies for quantum information processing (QIP) and sensing' in Quantum Information Processing with Diamond: Principles and Applications, pp. 307-317.
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© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This final chapter summarizes some of the emerging topics in the usage of diamond for quantum information processing. Practical applications include biosensing and bioimaging using colour centres in diamond, as well as pathways towards integrated quantum photonics using diamond as a platform. On the other hand, challenges will be discussed, including surface terminations and engineering new, superior optically active defects. Finally, we discuss the outlook for the field of quantum information processing (QIP) with diamond.

Conferences

Tran, T.T., Bray, K., Ford, M.J., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2016, 'Quantum emission from hexagonal boron nitride monolayers', 2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2016.
© 2016 OSA.We demonstrate first room temperature, and ultrabright single photon emission from a color center in two-dimensional multilayer hexagonal boron nitride. Density Functional Theory calculations indicate that vacancy-related centers are a likely source of the emission.
Berhane, A.M., Choi, S., Kato, H., Makino, T., Mizuochi, N., Yamasaki, S., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2016, 'Defect luminescence in diamond and GaN: Towards single photon emitting devices', 2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2016.
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© 2016 OSA. Narrow band single photon emitters in diamond and gallium nitride are investigated. The work provides foundation towards electrically driven sources at room temperature that are important prerequisites for solid state quantum technologies.
Elbadawi, C., Tran, T.T., Shimoni, O., Totonjian, D., Lobo, C.J., Grosso, G., Moon, H., Englund, D.R., Ford, M.J., Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2016, 'Ultra-bright emission from hexagonal boron nitride defects as a new platform for bio-imaging and bio-labelling', Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.
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© 2016 SPIE. Bio-imaging requires robust ultra-bright probes without causing any toxicity to the cellular environment, maintain their stability and are chemically inert. In this work we present hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoflakes which exhibit narrowband ultra-bright single photon emitters1. The emitters are optically stable at room temperature and under ambient environment. hBN has also been noted to be noncytotoxic and seen significant advances in functionalization with biomolecules2,3. We further demonstrate two methods of engineering this new range of extremely robust multicolour emitters across the visible and near infrared spectral ranges for large scale sensing and biolabeling applications.
Lobo, C.J., Martin, A.A., Elbadawi, C., Bishop, J., Aharanovich, I. & Toth, M. 2014, 'GAS MEDIATED CHARGED PARTICLE BEAM PROCESSING OF NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS', LASER 3D MANUFACTURING.
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Toth, M., Martin, A.A., Shanley, T.W. & Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'Direct-write electron beam fabrication of optically active diamond nanostructures', 2014 Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, COMMAD 2014, pp. 6-10.
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© 2014 IEEE. Controlled fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures is a prerequisite step in the engineering of next generation photonic and optoelectronic devices. Here we describe two advances in electron beam processing of single crystal diamond: (i) chemical dry etching of optically active nanostructures, and (ii) chemical switching of the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy centers by surface fluorination. Etching and fluorination are realized by irradiating diamond by kiloelectronvolt electrons at room temperature in the presence of H 2 O and NF 3 vapor, respectively. The techniques do not generate defects that quench luminescence, thereby enabling the fabrication and editing of optically active nanostructures and diamond-based devices.
Castelletto, S., Johnson, B.C., Aharonovich, I. & Parker, A. 2013, 'FLUORESCENT EMISSION IN DIFFERENT SILICON CARBIDE POLYTYPES', MICRO/NANO MATERIALS, DEVICES, AND SYSTEMS.
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Greentree, A.D., Henderson, M.R., Gibson, B.C., Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H., Kuan, K., Afshar, S., Orwa, J.O., Aharonovich, I., Karle, T.J., Tomljenovic-Hanic, S., Prawer, S., Monro, T.M. & IEEE 2012, 'Diamond in glass, a new platform for quantum photonics', 2012 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO).
Greentree, A.D., Henderson, M.R., Gibson, B.C., Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H., Kuan, K., Afshar, V.S., Orwa, J.O., Aharonovich, I., Karle, T.J., Tomljenovic-Hanic, S., Prawer, S. & Monro, T.M. 2012, 'Diamond in glass, a new platform for quantum photonics', 2012 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2012.
Diamond color centers represent one of the most important frontiers for room-temperature solid-state quantum devices. Here we show the incorporation of fluorescent diamond nanoparticles into tellurite glass optical fibers. This system offers a new platform for quantum sensing and robust single photon collection and distribution. © 2012 OSA.
Aharonovich, I., Castelletto, S. & Prawer, S. 2011, 'Novel Single Photon Emitters Based on Color Centers in Diamond', PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS: 30TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS.
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Gibson, B.C., Castelletto, S., Karle, T.J., Tomljenovic-Hanic, S., Aharonovich, I., Johnson, B.C., Orwa, J., Henderson, M.R., Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H., Kuan, K., Afshar, S.V., Monro, T.M., Greentree, A.D. & Prawer, S. 2011, 'Towards Hybrid Diamond Optical Devices', 2011 13TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS (ICTON).
Tomljenovic-Hanic, S., Aharonovich, I., Castelleto, S., Fairchild, B.A., Ganesan, K., Gibson, B.C., Greentree, A.D., Orwa, J., Rubanov, S., Simpson, D.A., Stacey, A., Prawer, S. & IEEE 2011, 'Towards All-Diamond Optical Devices', 2010 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS (ICTON).
Gibson, B.C., Henderson, M.R., Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H., Kuan, K., Afshar, V.S., Orwa, J.O., Aharonovich, I., Tomljenovic-Hanic, S., Prawer, S., Monro, T.M. & Greentree, A.D. 2011, 'Single photon emission from nanodiamond in tellurite glass', Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, pp. 721-722.
We demonstrate single photon emission from nanodiamond containing isolated single nitrogen-vacancy quantum emitters, embedded within tellurite glass optical fibres. This hybrid diamond-glass material presents a platform for next generation quantum photonics applications. © 2011 AOS.
Lee, J.C., Magyar, A., Aharonovich, I. & Hu, E.L. 2011, 'Fabrication of diamond microcavities for quantum information processing', Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, pp. 1100-1102.
The realization of quantum information processing requires sophisticated fabrication methodologies of its constituents. In this work we demonstrate the fabrication of micron size diamond microdisks from single crystal diamond. Photoluminescence measurements confirm the presence of nitrogen vacancy centers and show the propagation of whispering gallery modes. Such structures are promising for the realization of diamond integrated quantum photonics devices.© 2011 AOS.
Gibson, B.C., Henderson, M.R., Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H., Kuan, K., Afshar, V.S., Orwa, J.O., Aharonovich, I., Tomljenovic-Hanic, S., Prawer, S., Monro, T.M. & Greentree, A.D. 2011, 'Single photon emission from nanodiamond in tellurite glass', 2011 Int. Quantum Electron. Conf., IQEC 2011 and Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO Pacific Rim 2011 Incorporating the Australasian Conf. Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy and the Australian Conf., pp. 721-722.
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We demonstrate single photon emission from nanodiamond containing isolated single nitrogen-vacancy quantum emitters, embedded within tellurite glass optical fibres. This hybrid diamond-glass material presents a platform for next generation quantum photonics applications. © 2011 IEEE.
Castelletto, S., Aharonovich, I., Su, C.H. & Prawer, S. 2010, 'Impurities in diamond- a new revival for quantum optics', QUANTUM COMMUNICATIONS AND QUANTUM IMAGING VIII.
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Fu, K.-.M.C., Santori, C., Barclay, P.E., Meyer, N., Holm, A.M., Aharonovich, I., Prawer, S., Beausoleil, R.G. & IEEE 2009, 'Optical coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to GaP waveguides', 2009 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (CLEO/QELS 2009), VOLS 1-5, pp. 2050-2051.
Fu, K.-.M.C., Santori, C., Barclay, P.E., Meyer, N., Holm, A.M., Aharonovich, I., Prawer, S. & Beausoleil, R.G. 2009, 'Photonic structures for QIP in diamond', ADVANCED OPTICAL CONCEPTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTING, MEMORY, AND COMMUNICATION II.
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Fu, K.M.C., Santori, C., Barclay, P.E., Meyer, N., Holm, A.M., Aharonovich, I., Prawer, S. & Beausoleil, R.G. 2009, 'Optical coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to GaP waveguides', 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2009 Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, CLEO/QELS 2009.
In this work NV coupling to GaP waveguides on a diamond surface is demonstrated. The NV-waveguide coupling strength and waveguide loss are measured. This approach may be useful for NV-based quantum information processing. © 2008 Optical Society of America.

Journal articles

Kianinia, M., Regan, B., Tawfik, S.A., Tran, T.T., Ford, M.J., Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2017, 'Robust Solid-State Quantum System Operating at 800 K', ACS Photonics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 768-773.
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© 2017 American Chemical Society. Realization of quantum information and communications technologies requires robust, stable solid-state single-photon sources. However, most existing sources cease to function above cryogenic or room temperature due to thermal ionization or strong phonon coupling, which impedes their emissive and quantum properties. Here we present an efficient single-photon source based on a defect in a van der Waals crystal that is optically stable and operates at elevated temperatures of up to 800 K. The quantum nature of the source and the photon purity are maintained upon heating to 800 K and cooling back to room temperature. Our report of a robust high-temperature solid-state single photon source constitutes a significant step toward practical, integrated quantum technologies for real-world environments.
Gloag, E.S., Elbadawi, C., Zachreson, C.J., Aharonovich, I., Toth, M., Charles, I.G., Turnbull, L. & Whitchurch, C.B. 2017, 'Micro-Patterned Surfaces That Exploit Stigmergy to Inhibit Biofilm Expansion.', Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, pp. 1-10.
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Twitching motility is a mode of surface translocation that is mediated by the extension and retraction of type IV pili and which, depending on the conditions, enables migration of individual cells or can manifest as a complex multicellular collective behavior that leads to biofilm expansion. When twitching motility occurs at the interface of an abiotic surface and solidified nutrient media, it can lead to the emergence of extensive self-organized patterns of interconnected trails that form as a consequence of the actively migrating bacteria forging a furrow network in the substratum beneath the expanding biofilm. These furrows appear to direct bacterial movements much in the same way that roads and footpaths coordinate motor vehicle and human pedestrian traffic. Self-organizing systems such as these can be accounted for by the concept of stigmergy which describes self-organization that emerges through indirect communication via persistent signals within the environment. Many bacterial communities are able to actively migrate across solid and semi-solid surfaces through complex multicellular collective behaviors such as twitching motility and flagella-mediated swarming motility. Here, we have examined the potential of exploiting the stigmergic behavior of furrow-mediated trail following as a means of controlling bacterial biofilm expansion along abiotic surfaces. We found that incorporation of a series of parallel micro-fabricated furrows significantly impeded active biofilm expansion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. We observed that in both cases bacterial movements tended to be directed along the furrows. We also observed that narrow furrows were most effective at disrupting biofilm expansion as they impeded the ability of cells to self-organize into multicellular assemblies required for escape from the furrows and migration into new territory. Our results suggest that the implementation of micro-fabricated furrows that exploit stigmergy may be a ...
Berhane, A.M., Jeong, K.-.Y., Bodrog, Z., Fiedler, S., Schröder, T., Triviño, N.V., Palacios, T., Gali, A., Toth, M., Englund, D. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride.', Adv Mater, vol. 29, no. 12.
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Room-temperature quantum emitters in gallium nitride (GaN) are reported. The emitters originate from cubic inclusions in hexagonal lattice and exhibit narrowband luminescence in the red spectral range. The sources are found in different GaN substrates, and therefore are promising for scalable quantum technologies.
Zhou, Y., Rasmita, A., Li, K., Xiong, Q., Aharonovich, I. & Gao, W.-.B. 2017, 'Coherent control of a strongly driven silicon vacancy optical transition in diamond.', Nat Commun, vol. 8, p. 14451.
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The ability to prepare, optically read out and coherently control single quantum states is a key requirement for quantum information processing. Optically active solid-state emitters have emerged as promising candidates with their prospects for on-chip integration as quantum nodes and sources of coherent photons connecting these nodes. Under a strongly driving resonant laser field, such quantum emitters can exhibit quantum behaviour such as Autler-Townes splitting and the Mollow triplet spectrum. Here we demonstrate coherent control of a strongly driven optical transition in silicon vacancy centre in diamond. Rapid optical detection of photons enabled the observation of time-resolved coherent Rabi oscillations and the Mollow triplet spectrum. Detection with a probing transition further confirmed Autler-Townes splitting generated by a strong laser field. The coherence time of the emitted photons is comparable to its lifetime and robust under a very strong driving field, which is promising for the generation of indistinguishable photons.
Tran, T.T., Choi, S., Scott, J.A., Xu, Z.Q., Zheng, C., Seniutinas, G., Bendavid, A., Fuhrer, M.S., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Oxidized Tungsten Disulfide Multilayers', Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 5, no. 5.
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Aharonovich, I. & Jelezko, F. 2017, 'Spectroscopy: Mapping spins in flatland.', Nat Mater, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 397-398.
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Tran, T.T., Wang, D., Xu, Z.-.Q., Yang, A., Toth, M., Odom, T.W. & Aharonovich, I. 2017, 'Deterministic Coupling of Quantum Emitters in 2D Materials to Plasmonic Nanocavity Arrays.', Nano Lett, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 2634-2639.
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Quantum emitters in two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for studies of light-matter interaction and next generation, integrated on-chip quantum nanophotonics. However, the realization of integrated nanophotonic systems requires the coupling of emitters to optical cavities and resonators. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid systems in which quantum emitters in 2D hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are deterministically coupled to high-quality plasmonic nanocavity arrays. The plasmonic nanoparticle arrays offer a high-quality, low-loss cavity in the same spectral range as the quantum emitters in hBN. The coupled emitters exhibit enhanced emission rates and reduced fluorescence lifetimes, consistent with Purcell enhancement in the weak coupling regime. Our results provide the foundation for a versatile approach for achieving scalable, integrated hybrid systems based on low-loss plasmonic nanoparticle arrays and 2D materials.
Walia, S., Balendhran, S., Ahmed, T., Singh, M., El-Badawi, C., Brennan, M.D., Weerathunge, P., Karim, M.N., Rahman, F., Rassell, A., Duckworth, J., Ramanathan, R., Collis, G.E., Lobo, C.J., Toth, M., Kotsakidis, J.C., Weber, B., Fuhrer, M., Dominguez-Vera, J.M., Spencer, M.J.S., Aharonovich, I., Sriram, S., Bhaskaran, M. & Bansal, V. 2017, 'Ambient Protection of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus via Sequestration of Reactive Oxygen Species.', Advanced Materials, vol. 29, pp. 1-8.
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Few-layer black phosphorous (BP) has emerged as a promising candidate for next-generation nanophotonic and nanoelectronic devices. However, rapid ambient degradation of mechanically exfoliated BP poses challenges in its practical deployment in scalable devices. To date, the strategies employed to protect BP have relied upon preventing its exposure to atmospheric conditions. Here, an approach that allows this sensitive material to remain stable without requiring its isolation from the ambient environment is reported. The method draws inspiration from the unique ability of biological systems to avoid photo-oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Since BP undergoes similar photo-oxidative degradation, imidazolium-based ionic liquids are employed as quenchers of these damaging species on the BP surface. This chemical sequestration strategy allows BP to remain stable for over 13 weeks, while retaining its key electronic characteristics. This study opens opportunities to practically implement BP and other environmentally sensitive 2D materials for electronic applications.
Scajev, P., Malinauskas, T., Seniutinas, G., Arnold, M.D., Gentle, A., Aharonovich, I., Gervinskas, G., Michaux, P., Hartley, J.S., Mayes, E.L.H., Stoddart, P.R. & Juodkazis, S. 2016, 'Light-induced reflectivity transients in black-Si nanoneedles', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 144, pp. 221-227.
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Tran, T.T., Bray, K., Ford, M.J., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2016, 'Quantum emission from hexagonal boron nitride monolayers.', Nature nanotechnology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 37-41.
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Artificial atomic systems in solids are widely considered the leading physical system for a variety of quantum technologies, including quantum communications, computing and metrology. To date, however, room-temperature quantum emitters have only been observed in wide-bandgap semiconductors such as diamond and silicon carbide, nanocrystal quantum dots, and most recently in carbon nanotubes. Single-photon emission from two-dimensional materials has been reported, but only at cryogenic temperatures. Here, we demonstrate room-temperature, polarized and ultrabright single-photon emission from a colour centre in two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride. Density functional theory calculations indicate that vacancy-related defects are a probable source of the emission. Our results demonstrate the unprecedented potential of van der Waals crystals for large-scale nanophotonics and quantum information processing.
Stehlik, S., Ondic, L., Berhane, A.M., Aharonovich, I., Girard, H.A., Arnault, J.C. & Rezek, B. 2016, 'Photoluminescence of nanodiamonds influenced by charge transfer from silicon and metal substrates', Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 63, pp. 91-96.
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© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Photoluminescence of 5 nm detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) is studied as a function of their surface treatment (hydrogenation/oxidation) and underlying substrate materials (silicon, gold, platinum, and nickel). The substrates affect DND photoluminescence emission spectrum and lifetime in the spectral range of 600-800 nm. The dependence is different for hydrogenated and oxidized DNDs. We attribute these effects to different electrostatic charging of DNDs on the substrates with different work functions (4.4 to 5.5 eV). We discuss the data based on naturally present NV centers, their phonon sideband, and surface-related non-radiative transitions.
Zhang, Y., Karatchevtseva, I., Bhadbhade, M., Tran, T.T., Aharonovich, I., Fanna, D.J., Shepherd, N.D., Lu, K., Li, F. & Lumpkin, G.R. 2016, 'Solvothermal synthesis of uranium(VI) phases with aromatic carboxylate ligands: A dinuclear complex with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and a 3D framework with terephthalic acid', Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 234, pp. 22-28.
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Crown Copyright © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc. With the coordination of dimethylformamide (DMF), two new uranium(VI) complexes with either 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (H 2 phb) or terephthalic acid (H 2 tph) have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. [(UO 2 ) 2 (Hphb) 2 (phb)(DMF)(H 2 O) 3 ]4H 2 O (1) has a dinuclear structure constructed with both pentagonal and hexagonal bipyramidal uranium polyhedra linked through a 2 -bridging ligand via both chelating carboxylate arm and alcohol oxygen bonding, first observation of such a coordination mode of 4-hydroxybenzoate for 5 f ions. [(UO 2 )(tph)(DMF)] (2) has a three-dimensional (3D) framework built with pentagonal bipyramidal uranium polyhedra linked with 4 -terephthalate ligands. The 3D channeled structure is facilitated by the unique carboxylate bonding with nearly linear C-O-U angles and the coordination of DMF molecules. The presence of phb ligands in different coordination modes, uranyl ions in diverse environments and DMF in complex 1, and tph ligand, DMF and uranyl ion in complex 2 has been confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, their thermal stability and photoluminescence properties have been investigated.
Scott, J.A., Totonjian, D., Martin, A.A., Tran, T.T., Fang, J., Toth, M., McDonagh, A.M., Aharonovich, I. & Lobo, C.J. 2016, 'Versatile method for template-free synthesis of single crystalline metal and metal alloy nanowires.', Nanoscale, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 2804-2810.
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Metal and metal alloy nanowires have applications ranging from spintronics to drug delivery, but high quality, high density single crystalline materials have been surprisingly difficult to fabricate. Here we report a versatile, template-free, self-assembly method for fabrication of single crystalline metal and metal alloy nanowires (Co, Ni, NiCo, CoFe, and NiFe) by reduction of metal nitride precursors formed in situ by reaction of metal salts with a nitrogen source. Thiol reduction of the metal nitrides to the metallic phase at 550-600 °C results in nanowire growth. In this process, sulfur acts as a uniaxial structure-directing agent, passivating the surface of the growing nanowires and preventing radial growth. The versatility of the method is demonstrated by achieving nanowire growth from gas-phase, solution-phase or a combination of gas- and solution-phase precursors. The fabrication method is suited to large-area CVD on a wide range of solid substrates.
Bray, K., Sandstrom, R., Elbadawi, C., Fischer, M., Schreck, M., Shimoni, O., Lobo, C., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2016, 'Localization of Narrowband Single Photon Emitters in Nanodiamonds.', ACS applied materials & interfaces, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 7590-7594.
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Diamond nanocrystals that host room temperature narrowband single photon emitters are highly sought after for applications in nanophotonics and bioimaging. However, current understanding of the origin of these emitters is extremely limited. In this work, we demonstrate that the narrowband emitters are point defects localized at extended morphological defects in individual nanodiamonds. In particular, we show that nanocrystals with defects such as twin boundaries and secondary nucleation sites exhibit narrowband emission that is absent from pristine individual nanocrystals grown under the same conditions. Critically, we prove that the narrowband emission lines vanish when extended defects are removed deterministically using highly localized electron beam induced etching. Our results enhance the current understanding of single photon emitters in diamond and are directly relevant to fabrication of novel quantum optics devices and sensors.
Tran, T.T., Zachreson, C., Berhane, A.M., Bray, K., Sandstrom, R.G., Li, L.H., Taniguchi, T., Watanabe, K., Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2016, 'Quantum Emission from Defects in Single-Crystalline Hexagonal Boron Nitride', Physical Review Applied, vol. 5, no. 3.
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© 2016 American Physical Society. Bulk hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a highly nonlinear natural hyperbolic material that attracts major attention in modern nanophotonics applications. However, studies of its optical properties in the visible part of the spectrum and quantum emitters hosted by bulk hBN have not been reported to date. In this work, we study the emission properties of hBN crystals in the red spectral range using sub-band-gap optical excitation. Quantum emission from defects is observed at room temperature and characterized in detail. Our results advance the use of hBN in quantum nanophotonics technologies and enhance our fundamental understanding of its optical properties.
Tran, T.T., Elbadawi, C., Totonjian, D., Lobo, C.J., Grosso, G., Moon, H., Englund, D.R., Ford, M.J., Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2016, 'Robust Multicolor Single Photon Emission from Point Defects in Hexagonal Boron Nitride.', ACS nano, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 7331-7338.
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Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is an emerging two-dimensional material for quantum photonics owing to its large bandgap and hyperbolic properties. Here we report two approaches for engineering quantum emitters in hBN multilayers using either electron beam irradiation or annealing and characterize their photophysical properties. The defects exhibit a broad range of multicolor room-temperature single photon emissions across the visible and the near-infrared spectral ranges, narrow line widths of sub-10 nm at room temperature, and a short excited-state lifetime, and high brightness. We show that the emitters can be categorized into two general groups, but most likely possess similar crystallographic structure. Remarkably, the emitters are extremely robust and withstand aggressive annealing treatments in oxidizing and reducing environments. Our results constitute a step toward deterministic engineering of single emitters in 2D materials and hold great promise for the use of defects in boron nitride as sources for quantum information processing and nanophotonics.
Kianinia, M., Shimoni, O., Bendavid, A., Schell, A.W., Randolph, S.J., Toth, M., Aharonovich, I. & Lobo, C.J. 2016, 'Robust, directed assembly of fluorescent nanodiamonds.', Nanoscale, vol. 8, no. 42, pp. 18032-18037.
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Arrays of fluorescent nanoparticles are highly sought after for applications in sensing, nanophotonics and quantum communications. Here we present a simple and robust method of assembling fluorescent nanodiamonds into macroscopic arrays. Remarkably, the yield of this directed assembly process is greater than 90% and the assembled patterns withstand ultra-sonication for more than three hours. The assembly process is based on covalent bonding of carboxyl to amine functional carbon seeds and is applicable to any material, and to non-planar surfaces. Our results pave the way to directed assembly of sensors and nanophotonics devices.
Zhang, Y., Čejka, J., Lumpkin, G.R., Tran, T.T., Aharonovich, I., Karatchevtseva, I., Price, J.R., Scales, N. & Lu, K. 2016, 'Hydrothermal synthesis, structures and properties of two uranyl oxide hydroxyl hydrate phases with Co(II) or Ni(II) ions', New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 5357-5363.
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© 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Two new iso-structured uranyl oxide hydroxyl hydrate (UOH) phases with the incorporation of cobalt(ii) or nickel(ii) ions have been synthesised under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterised. Both K 4 Co(OH) 3 (H 2 O) 9 [(UO 2 ) 12 (O) 7 (OH) 13 ] (1) and K 4 Ni(OH) 3 (H 2 O) 9 [(UO 2 ) 12 (O) 7 (OH) 13 ] (2) have two-dimensional (2D) polymeric uranyl oxohydroxyl layers with either potassium and hydroxyl cobalt(ii) (1) or potassium and hydroxyl nickel(ii) (2) ions between layers via uranyl-cation interactions. This work highlights the feasibility of making new UOH phases via a hydrothermal route at relatively higher solution pHs. It also demonstrates that other transition metal ions which are readily available in the environment may also be incorporated into such UOH phases during the natural weathering of uraninite as well as during the storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuels.
Lienhard, B., Schröder, T., Mouradian, S., Dolde, F., Tran, T.T., Aharonovich, I. & Englund, D. 2016, 'Bright and photostable single-photon emitter in silicon carbide', Optica, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 768-774.
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&copy; 2016 Optical Society of America. Single-photon sources are of paramount importance in quantum communication, quantum computation, and quantum metrology. In particular, there is great interest in realizing scalable solid-state platforms that can emit triggered photons on demand to achieve scalable nanophotonic networks. We report on a visible-spectrum single-photon emitter in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). The emitter is photostable at room and low temperatures, enabling photon counts per second in excess of 2 10 6 from unpatterned bulk SiC. It exists in two orthogonally polarized states, which have parallel absorption and emission dipole orientations. Low-temperature measurements reveal a narrow zero phonon line (linewidth < 0.1 nm) that accounts for > 30%of the total photoluminescence spectrum.
Elbadawi, C., Tran, T.T., Kolíbal, M., Šikola, T., Scott, J., Cai, Q., Li, L.H., Taniguchi, T., Watanabe, K., Toth, M., Aharonovich, I. & Lobo, C. 2016, 'Electron beam directed etching of hexagonal boron nitride.', Nanoscale, vol. 8, no. 36, pp. 16182-16186.
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Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a wide bandgap van der Waals material with unique optical properties that make it attractive for two dimensional (2D) photonic and optoelectronic devices. However, broad deployment and exploitation of hBN is limited by alack of suitable material and device processing and nano prototyping techniques. Here we present a high resolution, single step electron beam technique for chemical dry etching of hBN. Etching is achieved using H2O as a precursor gas, at both room temperature and elevated hBN temperatures. The technique enables damage-free, nano scale, iterative patterning of supported and suspended 2D hBN, thus opening the door to facile fabrication of hBN-based 2D heterostructures and devices.
Aharonovich, I., Englund, D. & Toth, M. 2016, 'Solid-state single-photon emitters', Nature Photonics, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 631-641.
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&copy; 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.
Choi, S., Tran, T.T., Elbadawi, C., Lobo, C., Wang, X., Juodkazis, S., Seniutinas, G., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2016, 'Engineering and Localization of Quantum Emitters in Large Hexagonal Boron Nitride Layers', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 8, no. 43, pp. 29642-29648.
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Li, K., Zhou, Y., Rasmita, A., Aharonovich, I. & Gao, W.B. 2016, 'Nonblinking Emitters with Nearly Lifetime-Limited Linewidths in CVD Nanodiamonds', Physical Review Applied, vol. 6, no. 2.
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&copy; 2016 American Physical Society. Near transform-limited single-photon sources are required for perfect photon indistinguishability in quantum networks. Having such sources in nanodiamonds is particularly important since it can enable engineering hybrid quantum-photonic systems. In this paper, we report the generation of optically stable, nearly transform-limited single silicon-vacancy emitters in nanodiamonds. Lines as narrow as 325 MHz are reported, which is close to the lifetime-limited linewidth (141 MHz). Moreover, the emitters exhibit minimal spectrum diffusion and high photostability, even if pumped well above saturation. Our results suggest that nanodiamonds can host color centers with superior properties suitable for hybrid photonic devices and quantum information.
Zhang, Y., Clegg, J.K., Lu, K., Lumpkin, G.R., Tran, T.T., Aharonovich, I., Scales, N. & Li, F. 2016, 'Uranium(VI) hybrid materials with [(UO 2 ) 3 (µ 3 -O)(µ 2 -OH) 3 ] + as the sub-building unit via uranyl-cation interactions', ChemistrySelect, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7-12.
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Choi, S., Phillips, M.R., Aharonovich, I., Pornsuwan, S., Cowie, B.C.C. & Ton-That, C. 2015, 'Photophysics of Point Defects in ZnO Nanoparticles', ADVANCED OPTICAL MATERIALS, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 821-827.
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Choi, S., Berhane, A.M., Gentle, A., Ton-That, C., Phillips, M.R. & Aharonovich, I. 2015, 'Electroluminescence from Localized Defects in Zinc Oxide: Toward Electrically Driven Single Photon Sources at Room Temperature', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 5619-5623.
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Fang, J., Levchenko, I., Yan, W., Aharonovich, I., Aramesh, M., Prawer, S. & Ostrikov, K.K. 2015, 'Plasmonic Metamaterial Sensor with Ultra-High Sensitivity in the Visible Spectral Range', Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 750-755.
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Martin, A.A., Randolph, S., Botman, A., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2015, 'Maskless milling of diamond by a focused oxygen ion beam', SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 5.
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Bray, K., Previdi, R., Gibson, B.C., Shimoni, O. & Aharonovich, I. 2015, 'Enhanced photoluminescence from single nitrogen-vacancy defects in nanodiamonds coated with phenol-ionic complexes.', Nanoscale, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 4869-4874.
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Fluorescent nanodiamonds are attracting major attention in the field of bio-sensing and bio-labeling. In this work we demonstrate a robust approach to achieve an encapsulation of individual nanodiamonds with phenol-ionic complexes that enhance the photoluminescence from single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers. We show that single NV centres in the coated nanodiamonds also exhibit shorter lifetimes, opening another channel for high resolution sensing. We propose that the nanodiamond encapsulation reduces the non-radiative decay pathways of the NV color centers. Our results provide a versatile and assessable way to enhance photoluminescence from nanodiamond defects that can be used in a variety of sensing and imaging applications.
Zhang, Y., Karatchevtseva, I., Price, J.R., Aharonovich, I., Kadi, F., Lumpkin, G.R. & Li, F. 2015, 'Uranium(vi) complexes with isonicotinic acid: From monomer to 2D polymer with unique U-N bonding', RSC Advances, vol. 5, no. 42, pp. 33249-33253.
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&copy; The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Two new uranium(vi) complexes with isonicotinic acid (HINT) have been synthesized and characterized. [(UO < inf > 2 < /inf > )(NO < inf > 3 < /inf > ) < inf > 2 < /inf > (HINT) < inf > 2 < /inf > ] (1) has a monomeric structure constructed of a hexagonal bipyramidal uranyl centre, two nitrate anions and two monodentate HINT in trans-positions. [(UO < inf > 2 < /inf > )(OH)(INT)] (2) has a two-dimensional (2D) polymeric structure constructed of uranyl hydroxyl 1D pillars and < inf > 3 < /inf > -bridging INT anions; the first observation of INT in < inf > 3 < /inf > -bridging mode for U(vi) ion via U-N bonding. Thermal analysis confirmed both complexes lost coordinated INT ligands followed by further decomposition to form U < inf > 3 < /inf > O < inf > 8 < /inf > . Raman spectroscopy has confirmed the presence of uranyl ion and INT ligand in both complexes as well as the existence of nitrate vibrations in 1 and hydroxyl vibrations in 2. Their photoluminescence properties have been investigated.
Berhane, A.M., Choi, S., Kato, H., Makino, T., Mizuochi, N., Yamasaki, S. & Aharonovich, I. 2015, 'Electrical excitation of silicon-vacancy centers in single crystal diamond', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 106, no. 17.
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Electrically driven emission from negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV)<sup>-</sup> centers in single crystal diamond is demonstrated. The SiV centers were generated using ion implantation into an i region of a p-i-n single crystal diamond diode. Both electroluminescence and the photoluminescence signals exhibit the typical emission that is attributed to the (SiV)<sup>-</sup> centers. Under forward and reversed biased PL measurements, no signal from the neutral (SiV)<sup>0</sup> defect could be observed. The realization of electrically driven (SiV)<sup>-</sup> emission is promising for scalable nanophotonics devices employing color centers in single crystal diamond.
Tran, T.T., Fang, J., Zhang, H., Rath, P., Bray, K., Sandstrom, R.G., Shimoni, O., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2015, 'Facile Self-Assembly of Quantum Plasmonic Circuit Components.', Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), vol. 27, no. 27, pp. 4048-4053.
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A facile and cost-effective self-assembly route to engineering of vital quantum plasmonic circuit components is reported. By modifying the surface energy of silver nanowires, the position and density of attached nanodiamonds can be maneuvered leading to silver nanowire/nanodiamond(s) hybrid nanostructures. These structures exhibit strong plasmonic coupling effects and thus hold promise to serve as quantum plasmonic components.
Martin, A.A., Bahm, A., Bishop, J., Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2015, 'Dynamic Pattern Formation in Electron-Beam-Induced Etching.', Physical review letters, vol. 115, no. 25, p. 255501.
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We report highly ordered topographic patterns that form on the surface of diamond, span multiple length scales, and have a symmetry controlled by the precursor gas species used in electron-beam-induced etching (EBIE). The pattern formation dynamics reveals an etch rate anisotropy and an electron energy transfer pathway that is overlooked by existing EBIE models. We, therefore, modify established theory such that it explains our results and remains universally applicable to EBIE. The patterns can be exploited in controlled wetting, optical structuring, and other emerging applications that require nano- and microscale surface texturing of a wide band-gap material.
Buividas, R., Aharonovich, I., Seniutinas, G., Wang, X.W., Rapp, L., Rode, A.V., Taniguchi, T. & Juodkazis, S. 2015, 'Photoluminescence from voids created by femtosecond-laser pulses inside cubic-BN', OPTICS LETTERS, vol. 40, no. 24, pp. 5711-5713.
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Choi, S. & Aharonovich, I. 2015, 'Zinc Oxide Nanophotonics', Nanophotonics, vol. 4, no. 1.
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The emerging field of nanophotonics initiated a dedicated study of single photon sources and optical resonators in new class of materials. One such material is zinc oxide (ZnO) that has been long considered only for classical light-emitting applications. However, it recently showed promise for quantum photonics technologies. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in studying single emitters in ZnO, engineering of optical cavities and practical nanophotonics devices including nanolasers and electrically triggered devices. We finalize with an outlook at this promising area, as well as provide perspectives and open questions in solid state nanophotonics employing ZnO.
Choi, S., Johnson, B.C., Castelletto, S., Ton-That, C., Phillips, M.R. & Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'Single photon emission from ZnO nanoparticles', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 104.
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Room temperature single photon emitters are very important resources for photonics and emerging quantum technologies. In this work, we study single photon emission from defect centers in 20nm zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. The emitters exhibit bright broadband fluorescence in the red spectral range centered at 640nm with polarized excitation and emission. The studied emitters showed continuous blinking; however, bleaching can be suppressed using a polymethyl methacrylate coating. Furthermore, hydrogen termination increased the density of single photon emitters. Our results will contribute to the identification of quantum systems in ZnO. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'Synthesis of Luminescent Eu defects in diamond', Nature Communications, vol. 5, p. 3523.
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Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'High Quality SiC Microdisk Resonators fabricated from monolithic epilayer wafers', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 104, p. 051109.
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Martin, A.A., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'Subtractive 3D Printing of Optically Active Diamond Structures', SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 4.
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Shanley, T.W., Martin, A.A., Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2014, 'Localized chemical switching of the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy luminescence centers in diamond', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 105, no. 6.
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Sandstrom, R.G., Shimoni, O., Martin, A.A. & Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'Study of narrowband single photon emitters in polycrystalline diamond films', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 105, no. 18.
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Aharonovich, I. & Neu, E. 2014, 'Diamond Nanophotonics', Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 911-928.
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The burgeoning field of nanophotonics has grown to be a major research area, primarily because of the ability to control and manipulate single quantum systems (emitters) and single photons on demand. For many years studying nanophotonic phenomena was limited to traditional semiconductors (including silicon and GaAs) and experiments were carried out predominantly at cryogenic temperatures. In the last decade, however, diamond has emerged as a new contender to study photonic phenomena at the nanoscale. Offering plethora of quantum emitters that are optically active at room temperature and ambient conditions, diamond has been exploited to demonstrate super-resolution microscopy and realize entanglement, Purcell enhancement and other quantum and classical nanophotonic effects. Elucidating the importance of diamond as a material, this review will highlight the recent achievements in the field of diamond nanophotonics, and convey a roadmap for future experiments and technological advancements.
Castelletto, S., Bodrog, Z., Magyar, A.P., Gentle, A., Gali, A. & Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'Quantum-confined single photon emission at room temperature from SiC tetrapods', NANOSCALE, vol. 6, no. 17, pp. 10027-10032.
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Woolf, A., Puchtler, T., Aharonovich, I., Zhu, T., Niu, N., Wang, D., Oliver, R. & Hu, E.L. 2014, 'Distinctive signature of indium gallium nitride quantum dot lasing in microdisk cavities', PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, vol. 111, no. 39, pp. 14042-14046.
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Zhang, H., Aharonovich, I., Glenn, D.R., Schalek, R., Magyar, A.P., Lichtman, J.W., Hu, E.L. & Walsworth, R.L. 2014, 'Silicon-vacancy color centers in nanodiamonds: Cathodoluminescence imaging markers in the near infrared', Small, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1908-1913.
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Nanodiamonds doped with silicon-vacancy (Si-V) color centers are shown to be a promising candidate for cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging at the nanoscale, providing bright, non-bleaching, narrow-linewidth emission at wavelengths within the near-IR window of biological tissue. CL emission intensity from negative charge-state Si-V centers is greatly enhanced by increasing the nitrogen concentration during nanodiamond growth. &copy; 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Castelletto, S., Johnson, B.C., Zachreson, C., Beke, D., Balogh, I., Ohshima, T., Aharonovich, I. & Gali, A. 2014, 'Room Temperature Quantum Emission from Cubic Silicon Carbide Nanoparticles', ACS NANO, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 7938-7947.
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Zachreson, C., Martin, A.A., Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2014, 'Electron Beam Controlled Restructuring of Luminescence Centers in Polycrystalline Diamond', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 6, no. 13, pp. 10367-10372.
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Lee, J.C., Bracher, D.O., Cui, S., Ohno, K., McLellan, C.A., Zhang, X., Andrich, P., Alemán, B., Russell, K.J., Magyar, A.P., Aharonovich, I., Bleszynski Jayich, A., Awschalom, D. & Hu, E.L. 2014, 'Deterministic coupling of delta-doped nitrogen vacancy centers to a nanobeam photonic crystal cavity', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 105, no. 26.
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&copy; 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center (NV) in diamond has generated significant interest as a platform for quantum information processing and sensing in the solid state. For most applications, high quality optical cavities are required to enhance the NV zero-phonon line (ZPL) emission. An outstanding challenge in maximizing the degree of NV-cavity coupling is the deterministic placement of NVs within the cavity. Here, we report photonic crystal nanobeam cavities coupled to NVs incorporated by a delta-doping technique that allows nanometer-scale vertical positioning of the emitters. We demonstrate cavities with Q up to 24 000 and mode volume V 0.47(/n) 3 as well as resonant enhancement of the ZPL of an NV ensemble with Purcell factor of 20. Our fabrication technique provides a first step towards deterministic NV-cavity coupling using spatial control of the emitters.
Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2014, 'OPTICAL MATERIALS Silicon carbide goes quantum', NATURE PHYSICS, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 93-94.
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Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'Diamond nanocrystals for photonics and sensing', JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 53, no. 5.
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Toth, M., Zachreson, C. & Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'Role of recombination pathway competition in spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 105, no. 24.
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&copy; 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis enables characterization of optoelectronic materials and devices with high spatial resolution. However, data interpretation is complicated by the competitive nature of the CL generation process. Specifically, spatially resolved CL profiles are affected by both CL center distributions, and by the unknown distributions of recombination centers that do not generate peaks in measured CL spectra. Here, we use depth-resolved CL to show that the contribution of the latter can be deduced and removed from spatially resolved CL data. The utility of this technique is demonstrated using CL depth profiles of color centers in diamond.
Martin, A.A., Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2014, 'Gas-Mediated Electron Beam Induced Etching - From Fundamental Physics to Device Fabrication', Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol. 20, no. S3, pp. 364-365.
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Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'Silicon magic', Nature Photonics, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 818-819.
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&copy; 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Silicon is the material of choice for modern microelectronics, whereas diamond is a luxurious gem. Now, researchers have demonstrated that silicon impurities in diamond can generate indistinguishable single photons-a requirement for quantum photonics and computing.
Aharonovich, I. & Toth, M. 2014, 'Silicon carbide goes quantum', Nature Physics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 93-94.
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Lee, J., Magyar, A., Bracher, D., Aharonovich, I. & Hu, E. 2013, 'Fabrication Of Thin Diamond Membranes For Photonic Applications', Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 45-48.
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High quality, thin diamond membranes containing nitrogen-vacancy centers provide critical advantages in the fabrication of diamond-based structures for a variety of applications, including wide field magnetometry, photonics and biosensing. In this work we describe, in detail, the generation of thin, optically-active diamond membranes by means of ion implantation and overgrowth. To establish the suitability of our method for photonic applications, photonic crystal cavities with quality factor of 1000 are fabricated.
Merson, T.D., Castelletto, S., Aharonovich, I., Turbic, A., Kilpatrick, T.J. & Turnley, A.M. 2013, 'Nanodiamonds with silicon vacancy defects for non-toxic photostable fluorescent labeling of neural precursor cells', Optics Letters, vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 4170-4173.
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Nanodiamonds (NDs) containing silicon vacancy (SiV) defects were evaluated as a potential biomarker for the labeling and fluorescent imaging of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SiV-containing NDs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and silicon ion implantation. Spectrally, SiV-containing NDs exhibited extremely stable fluorescence and narrow bandwidth emission with an excellent signal to noise ratio exceeding that of NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy centers. NPCs labeled with NDs exhibited normal cell viability and proliferative properties consistent with biocompatibility. We conclude that SiV-containing NDs are a promising biomedical research tool for cellular labeling and optical imaging in stem cell research.
Magyar, A., Aharonovich, I., Baram, M. & Hu, E.L. 2013, 'Luminescent SiC teterapods', Nano Letters, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1210-1215.
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Recently, significant research efforts have been made to develop complex nanostructures to provide more sophisticated control over the optical and electronic properties of nanomaterials. However, there are only a handful of semiconductors that allow control over their geometry via simple chemical processes. Herein, we present a molecularly seeded synthesis of a complex nanostructure, SiC tetrapods, and report on their structural and optical properties. The SiC tetrapods exhibit narrow line width photoluminescence at wavelengths spanning the visible to near-infrared spectral range. Synthesized from low-toxicity, earth abundant elements, these tetrapods are a compelling replacement for technologically important quantum optical materials that frequently require toxic metals such as Cd and Se. This previously unknown geometry of SiC nanostructures is a compelling platform for biolabeling, sensing, spintronics, and optoelectronics.
Aharonovich, I., Lee, J.C., Magyar, A.P., Bracher, D.O. & Hu, E.L. 2013, 'Bottom-up engineering of diamond micro- and nano-structures', LASER & PHOTONICS REVIEWS, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. L61-L65.
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Aharonovich, I., Woolf, A., Russell, K.J., Zhu, T., Niu, N., Kappers, M.J., Oliver, R.A. & Hu, E.L. 2013, 'Low threshold, room-temperature microdisk lasers in the blue spectral range', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 1-4.
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InGaN-based active layers within microcavity resonators offer the potential of low threshold lasers in the blue spectral range. Here, we demonstrate optically pumped, room temperature lasing in high quality factor GaN microdisk cavities, containing InGaN quantum dots (QDs) with thresholds as low as 0.28 mJ/cm2 . The demonstration of lasing action from GaN microdisk cavities with QDs in the active layer, provides a critical step for the nitrides in realizing low threshold photonic devices with efficient coupling between QDs and an optical cavity
Kennard, J.E., Hadden, J.P., Marseglia, L., Aharonovich, I., Castelletto, S., Patton, B.R., Politi, A., Matthews, J.C.F., Sinclair, A.G., Gibson, B.C., Prawer, S., Rarity, J.G. & O'Brien, J.L. 2013, 'On-Chip Manipulation of Single Photons from a Diamond Defect', PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, vol. 111, no. 21.
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Choi, S., Ton-That, C., Phillips, M.R. & Aharonovich, I. 2013, 'Observation of whispering gallery modes from hexagonal ZnO microdisks using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 103, no. 17.
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Aharonovich, I. & Shenderova, O. 2012, 'Brilliant explosions', Nature Materials, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 996-996.
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Muller, T., Aharonovich, I., Wang, Z., Yuan, X., Castelletto, S., Prawer, S. & Atarture, M. 2012, 'Phonon-induced dephasing of chromium color centers in diamond', Physical Review B, vol. 86, no. 19, p. 195210.
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We report on the coherence properties of single photons from chromium-based color centers in diamond. We use field-correlation and spectral line-shape measurements to reveal the interplay between slow spectral wandering and fast dephasing mechanisms as a function of temperature. The zero-phonon transition frequency and its linewidth follow a power-law dependence on temperature, which is consistent with direct electronphonon coupling and phonon-modulated Coulomb coupling to nearby impurities, which are the predominant fast dephasing mechanisms for these centers. Further, the observed reduction in the quantum yield for photon emission as a function of temperature suggests the opening of additional nonradiative channels through thermal activation to higher-energy states and indicates a near-unity quantum efficiency at 4 K.
Fang, J., Aharonovich, I., Leychenko, I., Ostrikov, K., Spizzirri, P.G., Rubanov, S. & Prawer, S. 2012, 'Plasma-enabled growth of single-crystalline SiC/AlSiC core-shell nanowires on porous alumina templates', Crystal Growth and Design, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 2917-2922.
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We report the catalyst-free synthesis of the arrays of core-shell, ultrathin, size-uniform SiC/AlSiC nanowires on the top of a periodic anodic aluminum oxide template. The nanowires were grown using an environmentally friendly, silane-free process by exp
Lee, J.C., Aharonovich, I., Magyar, A.P., Rol, F. & Hu, E.L. 2012, 'Coupling of silicon-vacancy centers to a single crystal diamond cavity', Optics Express, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 8891-8897.
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Optical coupling of an ensemble of silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers to single-crystal diamond microdisk cavities is demonstrated. The cavities are fabricated from a single-crystal diamond membrane generated by ion implantation and electrochemical liftoff fo
Orwa, J.O., Ganesan, K., Newnham, J., Santori, C., Barclay, P., Fu, K.M., Beausoleil, R.G., Aharonovich, I., Fairchild, B.A., Olivero, P., Greentree, A.D. & Prawer, S. 2012, 'An upper limit on the lateral vacancy diffusion length in diamond', Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 6-10.
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Ion implantation is widely used to modify the structural, electrical and optical properties of materials. By appropriate masking, this technique can be used to define nano- and micro-structures. However, depending on the type of mask used, experiments have shown that vacancy-related substrate modification can be inferred tens of micrometers away from the edge of the mask used to define the implanted region. This could be due to fast diffusion of vacancies from the implanted area during annealing or to a geometric effect related to ion scattering around the mask edges. For quantum and single-atom devices, stray ion damage can be deleterious and must be minimized. In order to profile the distribution of implantation-induced damage, we have used the nitrogen-vacancy color center as a sensitive marker for vacancy concentration and distribution following MeV He ion implantation into diamond and annealing. Results show that helium atoms implanted through a mask clamped to the diamond surface are scattered underneath the mask to distances in the range of tens of micrometers from the mask edge. Implantation through a lithographically defined and deposited mask, with no spacing between the mask and the substrate, significantly reduces the scattering to = 5 &micro;m but does not eliminate it. These scattering distances are much larger than the theoretically estimated vacancy diffusion distance of ~ 260 nm under similar conditions. This paper shows that diffusion, upon annealing, of vacancies created by ion implantation in diamond, is limited, and the appearance of vacancies many tens of micrometers from the edge of the mask is due to scattering effects
Aharonovich, I., Lee, J.C., Magyar, A.P., Buckley, B.B., Yale, C.G., Awschalom, D.D. & Hu, E.L. 2012, 'Homoepitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Diamond Membranes for Quantum Information Processing', ADVANCED MATERIALS, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. OP54-OP59.
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Niu, N., Liu, T.-.L., Aharonovich, I., Russell, K.J., Woolf, A., Sadler, T.C., El-Ella, H.A.R., Kappers, M.J., Oliver, R.A. & Hu, E.L. 2012, 'A full free spectral range tuning of p-i-n doped gallium nitride microdisk cavity', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 101, no. 16.
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Henderson, R., Gibson, B.C., Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H., Kuan, K., SA, V., Orwa, J.O., Aharonovich, I., Tomljenovic-Hanic, S., Greentree, A.D., Prawer, S. & Monro, T.M. 2011, 'Diamond in tellurite glass: a new medium for quantum information', Advanced Materials, vol. 23, no. 25, pp. 2806-2810.
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Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond exhibit unique quantum properties. On page 2806, Matthew R. Henderson and co-workers describe integrated diamond nanocrystals containing NV centers with an optical medium, tellurite soft glass. The inside cover image shows an example of a confocal scan of an optical fiber drawn from this material, detecting the photoluminescence from NV centers, with a conceptual image of a scan in progress.
Aharonovich, I., Castelletto, S., Johnson, B.C., McCallum, J.C. & Prawer, S. 2011, 'Engineering chromium-related single photon emitters in single crystal diamonds', New Journal of Physics, vol. 13, p. 045015.
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Color centers in diamond, as single photon emitters, are leading candidates for future quantum devices due to their room temperature operation and photostability. The recently discovered chromium-related centers are particularly attractive because they possess narrow bandwidth emission and a very short lifetime. In this paper, we investigate the fabrication methodologies for engineering these centers in monolithic diamond. We show that the emitters can be successfully fabricated by ion implantation of chromium in conjunction with oxygen or sulfur. Furthermore, our results indicate that the background nitrogen concentration is an important parameter, which governs the probability of success in generating these centers.
Aharonovich, I., Castelletto, S., Simpson, D.A., Su, C., Greentree, A.D. & Prawer, S. 2011, 'Diamond-based single-photon emitters', Reports on Progress in Physics, vol. 74.
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The exploitation of emerging quantum technologies requires efficient fabrication of key building blocks. Sources of single photons are extremely important across many applications as they can serve as vectors for quantum informationthereby allowing long-range (perhaps even global-scale) quantum states to be made and manipulated for tasks such as quantum communication or distributed quantum computation. At the single-emitter level, quantum sources also afford new possibilities in terms of nanoscopy and bio-marking. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, as they are a photostable solid-state source of single photons at room temperature. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of diamond-based single-photon emitters and highlight their fabrication methodologies. We present the experimental techniques used to characterize the quantum emitters and discuss their photophysical properties. We outline a number of applications including quantum key distribution, bio-marking and sub-diffraction imaging, where diamond-based single emitters are playing a crucial role. We conclude with a discussion of the main challenges and perspectives for employing diamond emitters in quantum information processing.
Aharonovich, I., Greentree, A.D. & Prawer, S. 2011, 'Diamond photonics', Nature Photonics, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 397-405.
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Diamond, a material marvelled for its strength, beauty and perfection, was first used to polish stone axes in Neolithic times. This most ancient of materials is now being touted by many as the ideal platform for quantum-age technologies. In this Review, we describe how the properties of diamond match the requirements of the `second quantum revolution. We also discuss recent progress in the development of diamond and particularly diamond colour centres for transforming quantum information science into practical quantum information technology.
Orwa, J.O., Santori, C., Fu, K.M., Gibson, B., Simpson, D., Aharonovich, I., Stacey, A., Cimmino, A., Balog, P., Markham, M., Twitchen, D., Greentree, A.D., Beausoleil, R.G. & Prawer, S. 2011, 'Engineering of nitrogen-vacancy color centers in high purity diamond by ion implantation and annealing', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 109, no. 8, p. 083530.
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The negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center is the most studied optical center in diamond and is very important for applications in quantum information science. Many proposals for integrating NV centers in quantum and sensing applications rely on their tailored fabrication in ultra pure host material. In this study, we use ion implantation to controllably introduce nitrogen into high purity, low nitrogen chemical vapor deposition diamond samples. The properties of the resulting NV centers are studied as a function of implantation temperature, annealing temperature, and implantation fluence. We compare the implanted NV centers with native NV centers present deep in the bulk of the as-grown samples. The results for implanted NV centers are promising but indicate, at this stage, that the deep native NV centers possess overall superior optical properties. In particular, the implanted NV centers obtained after annealing at 2000 !C under a stabilizing pressure of 8 GPa showed an ensemble linewidth of 0.17 nm compared to 0.61 nm after annealing at 1000 !C. Over the same temperature range, the ensemble NV"/NV0 ratio increased by a factor of #5, although this was accompanied by an overall decrease in the NV count.
Muller, T., Aharonovich, I., Lombez, L., Alaverdyan, Y., Vamivakas, A.N., Castelletto, S., Jelezko, F., Wrachtrup, J., Prawer, S. & Atature, M. 2011, 'Wide-range electrical tunability of single-photon emission from chromium-based colour centres in diamond', New Journal of Physics, vol. 13.
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We demonstrate electrical control of the single-photon emission spectrum from chromium-based colour centres implanted in monolithic diamond. Under an external electric field, the tunability range is typically three orders of magnitude larger than the radiative linewidth and at least one order of magnitude larger than the observed linewidth. The electric and magnetic field dependence of luminescence gives indications of the inherent symmetry, and we propose Cr-X or X-Cr-Y-type non-centrosymmetric atomic configurations as the most probable candidates for these centres.
Magyar, A.P., Lee, J.C., Limarga, A.M., Aharonovich, I., Rol, F., Clarke, D.R., Huang, M. & Hu, E.L. 2011, 'Fabrication of thin, luminescent, single-crystal diamond membranes', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 99, no. 8.
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Aharonovich, I., Niu, N., Rol, F., Russell, K.J., Woolf, A., El-Ella, H.A.R., Kappers, M.J., Oliver, R.A. & Hu, E.L. 2011, 'Controlled tuning of whispering gallery modes of GaN/InGaN microdisk cavities', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 99, no. 11.
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Greentree, A.D., Aharonovich, I., Castelletto, S., Doherty, W., McGuinness, L.P. & Simpson, D.A. 2010, '21st century applications of nanodiamonds', Optics & Photonics News, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 20-25.
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Diamond is taking on a new role as a versatile and practical platform for harnessing the new quantum physics. Here, we outline some of the biological and quantum applications of nanodiamonds and the central role of diamond color centers.
Orwa, J.O., Aharonovich, I., Jelezko, F., Balasubramanian, G., Balog, P., Markham, M., Twitchen, D.J., Greentree, A.D. & Prawer, S. 2010, 'Nickel related optical centres in diamond created by ion implantation', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 107, no. 9, p. 093512.
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Ni-related optical centres in diamond are promising as alternatives to the nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre for quantum applications and biomarking. In order to achieve the reliability and reproducibility required, a method for producing the Ni-related centres in a controllable manner needs to be established. In this study, we have attempted this control by implanting high purity CVD diamond samples with Ni and N followed by thermal annealing. Samples implanted with Ni show a new Ni-related PL peak centered at 711 nm and a well known doublet at 883/885 nm along with weak NV luminescence. The optical properties of the two Ni-related defects are investigated. In particular, an excited state lifetime of the 883/885 nm peak is measured to be 11.6 ns
Aharonovich, I., Castelletto, S., Johnson, B.C., McCallum, J.C., Simpson, D.A., Greentree, A.D. & Prawer, S. 2010, 'Chromium single-photon emitters in diamond fabricated by ion implantation', Physical Review B, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 1-4.
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Controlled fabrication and identification of bright single-photon emitters is at the heart of quantum optics. Here we demonstrate controlled engineering of a chromium bright single-photon source in bulk diamond by ion implantation. The Cr center has full
Aharonovich, I. & Prawer, S. 2010, 'Fabrication strategies for diamond based ultra bright single photon sources', Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 19, pp. 729-733.
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Color centers in diamond attract a major attention due to their potential use in quantum information processing. In this work several methodologies to fabricate diamond based single photon emitters are presented: Ion implantation of an impurity into diam
Aharonovich, I., Castelletto, S., Simpson, D.A., Greentree, A.D. & Prawer, S. 2010, 'Photophysics of chromium-related diamond single-photon emitters', Physical Review A, vol. 81.
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A detailed study of the photophysical properties of several chromium-related color centers produced within chemical vapor deposition diamond is presented. These emitters show narrow luminescence lines in the range of 740770 nm. Single-photon emission was veri?ed with continuous and pulsed excitation with detected emission rates at saturation in the range of (23)106 counts/s, while direct lifetime measurements reveal excited state lifetimes for the distinct centers ranging 114 ns. In addition, a number of quantum emitters demonstrate two-level behavior with no bunching present in the second-order correlation function. The three-level systems revealed typically photoluminescence lines with width half-maximum of ~4 nm while the two-level emitters have full width half-maximum of~10 nm at room temperature. In addition, the quantum ef?ciency of the two-level system was measured to be four times higher than that of the three-level system.
Castelletto, S., Aharonovich, I., Gibson, B.C., Johnson, B.C. & Prawer, S. 2010, 'Imaging and quantum-efficiency measurement of chromium emitters in diamond', Physical Review Letters, vol. 105, p. 217403.
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We present direct imaging of the emission pattern of individual chromium-based single photon emitters in diamond and measure their quantum efficiency. By imaging the excited state transition dipole intensity distribution in the back focal plane of high numerical aperture objective, we determined that the emission dipole is oriented nearly orthogonal to the diamond-air interface. Employing ion implantation techniques, the emitters were engineered with various proximities from the diamond-air interface. By comparing the decay rates from the single chromium emitters at different depths in the diamond crystal, an average quantum efficiency of 28% was measured.
Orwa, J.O., Greentree, A.D., Aharonovich, I., Alves, A.D., Van Donkelaar, J., Stacey, A. & Prawer, S. 2010, 'Fabrication of single optical centres in diamond - a review', Journal of Luminescence, vol. 130, no. 9, pp. 1646-1654.
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Colour centres in diamond are rapidly becoming one of the leading platforms for solid-state quantum information processing applications. This is due in large part to the remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy colour centre. From initial demonstrations of room-temperature single photon generation and spin single spin readout and quantum control, diamond nanocrystals are also finding application in magnetometry and biosensing. This review discusses the state of the art in the creation of isolated and small ensembles of optically active diamond defect centres, including nitrogen and nickelrelated centres.
Aharonovich, I., Santori, C., Fairchild, B.A., Orwa, J., Ganesan, K., Fu, K.C., Beausoleil, R.G., Greentree, A.D. & Prawer, S. 2009, 'Producing optimized ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy color centers for quantum information applications', Journal Of Applied Physics, vol. 106, no. 12.
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Quantum information applications place stringent demands on the development of platforms that can host them. Color centers in diamond have been identified as important media for quantum information processing. Accordingly, the photoluminescence properties of nitrogen-vacancy N-V centers in diamond created by implantation and annealing are studied at cryogenic temperatures below 10 K. We examine high pressure high temperature and chemical vapor deposition synthetic diamonds with varying nitrogen concentration and present an accurate method to estimate the concentration of the N-V centers created by ion implantation. The ion irradiation route produced up to 6 ppm of optically active N-V centers, while nitrogen implantation yielded up to 3 ppm of optically active N-V with 8% conversion efficiency. However, a broadening of the N-V - zero phonon line was observed in all samples. &copy; 200
Aharonovich, I., Castelletto, S., Simpson, D.A., Stacey, A., Mccallum, J., Greentree, A.D. & Prawer, S. 2009, 'Two-level ultrabright single photon emission from diamond nanocrystals', Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 3191-3195.
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The fabrication of stable ultrabright single photon sources operating at room temperature Is reported. The emitter is based on a color center within a diamond nanocrystal grown on a sapphire substrate by chemical vapor deposition method and exhibits a tw
Aharonovich, I., Zhou, C., Stacey, A., Orwa, J., Castelletto, S., Simpson, D., Greentree, A.D., Treussart, F., Roch, J. & Prawer, S. 2009, 'Enhanced single-photon emission in the near infrared from a diamond color center', Physical Review B, vol. 79, no. 23, pp. 0-0.
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Individual color centers in diamond are promising for near-term quantum technologies including quantum key distribution and metrology. Here we show fabrication of an as-yet uncharacterized nickel-related complex in diamond which has photophysical propert
Stacey, A., Aharonovich, I., Prawer, S. & Butler, J.E. 2009, 'Controlled synthesis of high quality micro/nano-diamonds by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition', Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 51-55.
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Diamond containing engineered color centers is rapidly becoming a medium of choice for quantum information applications. Many of the dramatic recent results in this field have been demonstrated in diamond nano-crystals. Here we demonstrate controlled syn
Siyushev, P., Jacques, V., Aharonovich, I., Kaiser, F., Muller, T., Lombez, L., Atature, M., Castelletto, S., Prawer, S., Jelezko, F. & Wrachtrup, J. 2009, 'Low-temperature optical characterization of a near-infrared single-photon emitter in nanodiamonds', New Journal of Physics, vol. 11.
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In this paper, we study the optical properties of single defects emitting in the near infrared (NIR) in nanodiamonds at liquid helium temperature. The nanodiamonds are synthesized using a microwave chemical vapor deposition method followed by nickel implantation and annealing. We show that single defects exhibit several striking features at cryogenic temperature: the photoluminescence is strongly concentrated into a sharp zero-phonon line (ZPL) in the NIR, the radiative lifetime is in the nanosecond range and the emission is linearly polarized. The spectral stability of the defects is then investigated. An optical resonance linewidth of 4 GHz is measured using resonant excitation on the ZPL. Although Fourier-transform-limited emission is not achieved, our results show that it might be possible to use consecutive photons emitted in the NIR by single defects in diamond nanocrystals to perform two photon interference experiments, which are at the heart of linear quantum computing protocols.
Aharonovich, I., Zhou, C., Stacey, A., Treussart, F., Roch, J. & Prawer, S. 2008, 'Formation of color centers in nanodiamonds by plasma assisted diffusion of impurities from the growth substrate', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 24, p. 243112.
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A technique to create nickel-related single color centers in individual nanodiamonds is demonstrated. The method involves implantation of nickel ions into a substrate onto which the diamond nanocrystals are subsequently grown by chemical vapor deposition
Aharonovich, I., Tamir, S. & Lifshitz, Y. 2008, 'Growth of SiO(x) nanowires by laser ablation', Nanotechnology, vol. 19, pp. 1-8.
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Amorphous SiOx nanowires (NWs) were synthesized using laser ablation of silicon-containing targets. The influence of various parameters such as target composition, substrate type, substrate temperature and carrier gas on the growth process was studied. The NWs were characterized using high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopes (HRSEM and HRTEM) with their attachments: electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and energy electron loss spectroscopy (EELS). A metal catalyst was found essential for the NW growth. A growth temperature higher than 1000 ?C was necessary for the NW formation using an Ar-based carrier gas at 500 Torr. The use of Ar5%H2 instead of pure Ar resulted in a higher yield and longer NWs. Application of a diffusion barrier on top of the Si substrate guaranteed the availability of metal catalyst droplets on the surface, essential for the NW growth. Ni was found to be a better catalyst than Au in terms of the NW yield and length. Two alternative sequences for the evolution of the amorphous SiOx NWs were considered: (a) the formation of Si NWs first and their complete oxidation afterwards, which seems to be doubtful, (b) the direct formation of SiOx NWs, which is more likely to occur. The direct formation mechanism was proposed to advance in three stages: preferential adsorption of SiOx clusters on the catalyst surface first, a successive surface diffusion to the catalyst droplet lower hemisphere, and finally the formation and growth of the NW between the catalyst and the substrate.
Fu, K.-.M.C., Santori, C., Barclay, P.E., Aharonovich, I., Prawer, S., Meyer, N., Holm, A.M. & Beausoleil, R.G. 2008, 'Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a GaP waveguide', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 93, no. 23.
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Aharonovich, I., Lifshitz, Y. & Tamir, S. 2007, 'Growth mechanisms of amorphous SiOx nanowires', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, no. 26, p. 263109.
Amorphous SiOx nanowires (NWs) 10-50 nm thick and tens of microns long were grown by laser ablation of silicon containing targets onto different substrates held at elevated temperatures. The influence of the growth parameters on the NWs growth and struct
Aharonovich, I., Zhou, C., Stacey, A., Orwa, J., Simpson, D., Greentree, A.D., Treussart, F., Roch, J.F. & Prawer, S., 'A new, enhanced diamond single photon emitter in the near infra-red'.
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Individual color centers in diamond are promising for near-term quantum technologies including quantum key distribution and metrology. Here we show fabrication of a new color center which has photophysical properties surpassing those of the two main-stay centers, namely the nitrogen vacancy and NE8 centers. The new center is fabricated using focused ion beam implantation of nickel into isolated chemical vapor deposited diamond micro-crystals. Room temperature photoluminescence studies reveal a narrow emission in the near infrared region centered at 768 nm with a lifetime as short as 2 ns. Its focused ion beam compatibility opens the prospect to fabrication with nanometer resolution and realization of integrated quantum photonic devices. Preliminary investigations suggest that this center arises from an as-yet uncharacterized nickel-silicon complex.
Aharonovich, I., Castelletto, S., Simpson, D.A., Greentree, A.D. & Prawer, S., 'Photophysics of novel diamond based single photon emitters', Phys Rev A 2010.
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A detailed study of the photophysical properties of several novel color centers in chemical vapor deposition diamond is presented. These emitters show narrow luminescence lines in the near infra-red. Single photon emission was verified with continuous and pulsed excitation with emission rates at saturation in the MHz regime, whilst direct lifetime measurements reveal excited state lifetimes ranging from 1-14 ns. In addition, a number of quantum emitters demonstrate two level behavior with no bunching present in the second order correlation function. An improved method of evaluating the quantum efficiency through the direct measurement of the collection efficiency from two level emitters is presented and discussed. \
Martin, A.A., Randolph, S., Botman, A., Toth, M. & Aharonovich, I., 'Direct-write milling of diamond by a focused oxygen ion beam'.
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Recent advances in focused ion beam technology have enabled high-resolution, direct-write nanofabrication using light ions. Studies with light ions to date have, however, focused on milling of materials where sub-surface ion beam damage does not inhibit device performance. Here we report on direct-write milling of single crystal diamond using a focused beam of oxygen ions. Material quality is assessed by Raman and luminescence analysis, and reveals that the damage layer generated by oxygen ions can be removed by nonintrusive post-processing methods such as localised electron beam induced chemical etching.