Benson, H, Lucas, C & Williams, KA 2020, 'Establishing consensus for general practice pharmacist education: A Delphi study', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 8-13.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Introduction: An evolving area of pharmacist professional practice is performing as team members in general practice teams. To date, there is a paucity of literature to guide schools and colleges of pharmacy regarding the educational needs of pharmacists training for this area of practice. Methods: This study employed a three-round e-Delphi method with the aim of establishing a consensus position on educational needs of pharmacists intending to work in the general practice setting. Educators from all Australian universities with a pharmacy school were invited to participate as part of the expert panel. Delphi panellists completed two e-survey rounds. A panel videoconference was then completed with results of the discussion confirmed in a final third e-survey. This study defined a proportion of experts rating agree or strongly agree at ≥75% to determine consensus and disagree or strongly disagree at ≥75% to determine non-consensus. Results: Ten of the 18 invited panellists agreed to participate in the study and completed both survey rounds; nine panellists completed the third-round survey. Twenty-six general practice pharmacist activities were identified as educational needs. Seventeen general practice pharmacist activities required no additional training. Five general practice pharmacist activities did not reach consensus. Conclusions: This study is one of the first investigations of educational needs of pharmacists wishing to practice in the general practice setting. The panel differentiated between activities that could be performed by less experienced pharmacists operating at a general level and those that would require further training.
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Benrimoj, SI & Williams, KA 2019, 'The development of a role description and competency map for pharmacists in an interprofessional care setting.', International journal of clinical pharmacy, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 391-407.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background Pharmacists are increasingly being included as members of general practice primary care teams. To date, there have been few published studies describing the competencies of general practice (GP) pharmacists and establishing their subsequent educational needs. Aim of the review The aim of this literature review is to establish the activities of pharmacists in general practice to inform the development of a comprehensive role description and competency map. Method A systematic literature search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, international pharmaceutical abstracts and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews was conducted from the start of the databases to August 2018. The search focused on studies investigating the roles performed by GP pharmacists. Full text peer-reviewed English language articles were included. A qualitative content analysis of included studies was performed. Two researchers reviewed studies to identify pharmacist roles. Subcategories of roles were then agreed by the research team and used to present the data. GP pharmacist's activities were mapped by two researchers to associated competencies. Any discrepancies between role descriptions and competency maps were resolved in consultation with a third member of the research team. Results The search conducted resulted in 5370 potential articles. Two hundred and twenty-seven full text articles were selected for review resulting in 34 articles that were included for analysis. Seven GP pharmacist role sub-categories and 48 GP pharmacist individual roles were identified. The seven GP pharmacist role sub-categories included medication management, patient examination and screening, chronic disease management, drug information and education, collaboration and liaison, audit and quality assurance and research. All FIP competency domains were included in the GP pharmacist competency map. Competencies related to compounding, dispensing and packaging of medications were not found relevant to the GP Pharmaci...
Benson, H, Sabater-Hernández, D, Benrimoj, SI & Williams, KA 2018, 'Piloting the Integration of Non-Dispensing Pharmacists in the Australian General Practice Setting: A Process Evaluation.', International journal of integrated care, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 4-4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This process evaluation examined the circumstances affecting implementation, intervention design and situational context of the twelve week pilot phase of a project integrating five pharmacists into twelve general practice sites in Western Sydney.This study used a mixed method study design using qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews and quantitative data collected by project pharmacists to analyse the process of the integrating pharmacists is general practice. Framework analysis of the interview transcripts was used to align the results with the key process evaluation themes of implementation, mechanism of impact and context. Preliminary quantitative data was used to provide implementation feedback and to support the qualitative findings.The interventional design included three phases, patient recruitment and selection, the pharmacist consultation and the communication and recording of recommendations. A number of barriers and facilitators affecting implementation were identified. Insight into the situational context of the intervention was gained from examining the differences between individual pharmacists and between practice sites.Conducting a process evaluation in the pilot phase of an integrated care project can allow adjustments to be made to the project procedures to improve the effectiveness and reproducibility of the intervention going forward.
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Benrimoj, SI, Kmet, W & Williams, KA 2018, 'Pharmacists in general practice: Recommendations resulting from team-based collaborative care', Australian Journal of Primary Health, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 448-454.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 La Trobe University. The Western Sydney Primary Health Network (PHN), WentWest, has been working to improve patient and health system outcomes by commissioning projects that enhance patient-focussed, team-based care. One such project is the WentWest General Practice Pharmacist Project, involving the integration of pharmacists within general practice sites. The aim of this study is to describe, classify and analyse recommendations made by pharmacists to GPs, resulting from patient consultations between pharmacists and patients in a general practice setting. This study was a multi-centre prospective observational study (April 2017-September 2017) investigating recommendations made by pharmacists integrated in a general practice setting. Thirteen general practice sites located in Western Sydney, NSW, Australia were involved in the study. The main outcome measures of this study include the classification of pharmacist recommendations and the percentage of those recommendations accepted by GPs. The pharmacists recorded the results from 618 patient consultations. These consultations resulted in 1601 recommendations of which 1404 (88%) were recorded as accepted. This study demonstrated that the recommendations made by pharmacists in general practice are well accepted by GPs and may lead to improvements in medication management and patient care.
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Kmet, W, Benrimoj, SI & Williams, K 2018, 'Pharmacists in general practice: a focus on drug-related problems.', International journal of clinical pharmacy, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 566-572.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background Team based care has been used internationally to improve the delivery of best practice primary health care. The WentWest General Practice Pharmacist Project, involving the integration of pharmacists within general practice teams, was commissioned to improve medication management of general practice patients. A particular focus of the project was the performance of medication review to allow the detection and resolution of drug related problems (DRPs). Objective The objectives of this 6-month study (October 2016-March 2017) were to: (1) identify and classify the DRPs detected as a result of pharmacist activities within a general practice primary care setting. (2) compare the number of pharmacist recommendations and GP acceptance rates as a result of pharmacist patient consultations across multiple general practice sites. Setting 15 general practice primary care sites in Western Sydney NSW Australia. A multi-centre prospective observational study conducted over a 6-month period from October 2016 to March 2017. Main outcome measure Drug-related problems (DRPs). Results Six pharmacists recorded the results from 493 patient consultations. The pharmacists identified 1124 DRPs and made 984 recommendations, of which 685 (70%) were recorded as accepted by the GP. Conclusion Pharmacists have a valuable role to play in the detection and resolution of DRP as part of the general practice team.