Dr Gungun Lin is a postdoctoral research fellow at the Institute for Biomedical Materials and Devices (IBMD) at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS). Before joining UTS, he completed his Master Degree in Advanced Materials at the University of Ulm in Germany in 2010 and his PhD degree at Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden and the Chemnitz University of Technology in Germany in 2016. His PhD research involved the development of next-generation biomedical screening technologies, i.e. magnetic flow cytometry, as well as flexible and stretchable magnetoelectronics for environment sensing and point-of-care diagnostics. His research has been recognised by several honours and awards, including Summa Cum Laude (the highest honour) for the doctoral dissertation, a prestigious 2015 National Award for Outstanding Chinese Students Abroad, and the Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus Medal in 2017. Dr. Lin is the member of the ARC Research Hub for IDEAL (Integrated Devices for End-user Analysis at Low levels).
I am combining the enabling tools of microfluidics, materials engineering, biophotonics and analytical chemistry for the research on:
(1) Study of hierarchical multiple emulsion systems and development of soft functional materials, including magnetically and optically functional beads and sensors for biomedical applications;
(2) Development of next-generation biomedical devices for (flow cytometry) high-throughput screening, point-of-care diagnostics.
Honors and Awards
- 2018 UTS research travel fund, University of Technology Sydney
- 2017 the Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus Medal, Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Germany
- 2016 Summa Cum Laude for PhD thesis, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany
- 2015 Chinese Government Award for Outstanding Students Abroad, China Scholarship Council
- 2009 Baden-württemberg Scholarship, Baden-Württemberg Stiftung, Germany
- 2008 He Yaoguang Prize, Southeast University Education Foundation, China
- 2008 Student Research Training Project (SRTP) Excellence, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, China
- 2006 Excellent Student, Southeast University, China
- 2006 President Prize, Southeast University, China
Reviewing services for journals
- Advanced Materials (Wiley)
- Biosensors and Bioelectronics (Elsevier)
- Lab on Chip (RSC)
- Nanoscale (RSC)
- Applied Physics Letter (AIP)
- Biomicrofluidics (AIP)
- Microfluidics and Nanofluidics (Springer)
- RSC Advances (RSC)
- Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (IOP)
- Sensors (MDPI)
- And many more ...
- American Chemical Society
- International Society of Advanced Cytometry
Can supervise: YES
- Microfluidics/Lab on a Chip
- Biosensors and bioelectronics for high-throughput screening and point-of-care applications
- Soft functional materials for wearable and implantable applications
- Biomedical polymers 42025 - Lecture on heterogeneous polymerizations
Ren, W., Zhou, Y., Lin, G., Wen, S., He, H., Liu, D. & Jin, D. 2018, 'DNA-mediated Anisotropic Silica Coating of Upconversion Nanoparticles', Chemical Communications.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
He, H., Howard, C.B., Chen, Y., Wen, S., Lin, G., Zhou, J., Thurecht, K.J. & Jin, D. 2018, 'Bispecific Antibody-Functionalized Upconversion Nanoprobe.', Analytical chemistry, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 3024-3029.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are new optical probes for biological applications. For specific biomolecular recognition to be realized for diagnosis and imaging, the key lies in developing a stable and easy-to-use bioconjugation method for antibody modification. Current methods are not yet satisfactory regarding conjugation time, stability, and binding efficiency. Here, we report a facile and high-yield approach based on a bispecific antibody (BsAb) free of chemical reaction steps. One end of the BsAb is designed to recognize methoxy polyethylene glycol-coated UCNPs, and the other end of the BsAb is designed to recognize the cancer antigen biomarker. Through simple vortexing, BsAb-UCNP nanoprobes form within 30 min and show higher (up to 54%) association to the target than that of the traditional UCNP nanoprobes in the ELISA-like assay. We further demonstrate its successful binding to the cancer cells with high efficiency and specificity for background-free fluorescence imaging under near-infrared excitation. This method suggests a general approach broadly suitable for functionalizing a range of nanoparticles to specifically target biomolecules.
Ren, W., Wen, S., Tawfik, S.A., Su, Q.P., Lin, G., Ju, L.A., Ford, M.J., Ghodke, H., van Oijen, A.M. & Jin, D. 2018, 'Anisotropic functionalization of upconversion nanoparticles.', Chemical science, vol. 9, no. 18, pp. 4352-4358.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Despite significant advances toward accurate tuning of the size and shape of colloidal nanoparticles, the precise control of the surface chemistry thereof remains a grand challenge. It is desirable to conjugate functional bio-molecules onto the selected facets of nanoparticles owing to the versatile capabilities rendered by the molecules. We report here facet-selective conjugation of DNA molecules onto upconversion nanoparticles via ligand competition reaction. Different binding strengths of phosphodiester bonds and phosphate groups on DNA and the surfactant molecules allow one to create heterogeneous bio-chemistry surface for upconversion nanoparticles. The tailored surface properties lead to the formation of distinct self-assembly structures. Our findings provide insight into the interactions between biomolecules and nanoparticles, unveiling the potential of using nanoparticles as fundamental building blocks for creating self-assembled nano-architectures.
Lin, G., Makarov, D. & Schmidt, O.G. 2017, 'Magnetic sensing platform technologies for biomedical applications.', Lab on a Chip, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1884-1912.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Detection and quantification of a variety of micro- and nanoscale entities, e.g. molecules, cells, and particles, are crucial components of modern biomedical research, in which biosensing platform technologies play a vital role. Confronted with the drastic global demographic changes, future biomedical research entails continuous development of new-generation biosensing platforms targeting even lower costs, more compactness, and higher throughput, sensitivity and selectivity. Among a wide choice of fundamental biosensing principles, magnetic sensing technologies enabled by magnetic field sensors and magnetic particles offer attractive advantages. The key features of a magnetic sensing format include the use of commercially available magnetic field sensing elements, e.g. magnetoresistive sensors which bear huge potential for compact integration, a magnetic field sensing mechanism which is free from interference by complex biomedical samples, and an additional degree of freedom for the on-chip handling of biochemical species rendered by magnetic labels. In this review, we highlight the historical basis, routes, recent advances and applications of magnetic biosensing platform technologies based on magnetoresistive sensors.
Miao, S., He, S., Liang, M., Lin, G., Cai, B. & Schmidt, O.G. 2017, 'Microtubular Fuel Cell with Ultrahigh Power Output per Footprint.', Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), vol. 29, no. 34.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A novel realization of microtubular direct methanol fuel cells (µDMFC) with ultrahigh power output is reported by using "rolled-up" nanotechnology. The microtube (Pt-RuO2 -RUMT) is prepared by rolling up Ru2 O layers coated with magnetron-sputtered Pt nanoparticles (cat-NPs). The µDMFC is fabricated by embedding the tube in a fluidic cell. The footprint of per tube is as small as 1.5 10-4 cm2 . A power density of 257 mW cm-2 is obtained, which is three orders of magnitude higher than the present microsized DFMCs. Atomic layer deposition technique is applied to alleviate the methanol crossover as well as improve stability of the tube, sustaining electrolyte flow for days. A laminar flow driven mechanism is proposed, and the kinetics of the fuel oxidation depends on a linear-diffusion-controlled process. The electrocatalytic performance on anode and cathode is studied by scanning both sides of the tube wall as an ex situ working electrode, respectively. This prototype µDFMC is extremely interesting for integration with micro- and nanoelectronics systems.
Song, W., Lin, G., Ge, J., Fassbender, J. & Makarov, D. 2017, 'Encoding Microreactors with Droplet Chains in Microfluidics.', ACS Sensors, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1839-1846.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Droplet-based high throughput biomolecular screening and combinatorial synthesis entail a viable indexing strategy to be developed for the identification of each microreactor. Here, we propose a novel indexing scheme based on the generation of droplet sequences on demand to form unique encoding droplet chains in fluidic networks. These codes are represented by multiunit and multilevel droplets packages, with each code unit possessing several distinct signal levels, potentially allowing large encoding capacity. For proof of concept, we use magnetic nanoparticles as the encoding material and a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor-based active sorting system supplemented with an optical detector to generate and decode the sequence of one exemplar sample droplet reactor and a 4-unit quaternary magnetic code. The indexing capacity offered by 4-unit multilevel codes with this indexing strategy is estimated to exceed 104, which holds great promise for large-scale droplet-based screening and synthesis.
Lin, G., Karnaushenko, D.D., Bermúdez, G.S.C., Schmidt, O.G. & Makarov, D. 2016, 'Droplet Microfluidics: Magnetic Suspension Array Technology: Controlled Synthesis and Screening in Microfluidic Networks (Small 33/2016)', Small, vol. 12, no. 33, p. 4580.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lin, G., Karnaushenko, D.D., Bermúdez, G.S.C., Schmidt, O.G. & Makarov, D. 2016, 'Magnetic Suspension Array Technology: Controlled Synthesis and Screening in Microfluidic Networks.', Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), vol. 12, no. 33, pp. 4553-4562.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Information tagging and processing are vital in information-intensive applications, e.g., telecommunication and high-throughput drug screening. Magnetic suspension array technology may offer intrinsic advantages to screening applications by enabling high distinguishability, the ease of code generation, and the feasibility of fast code readout, though the practical applicability of magnetic suspension array technology remains hampered by the lack of quality administration of encoded microcarriers. Here, a logic-controlled microfluidic system enabling controlled synthesis of magnetic suspension arrays in multiphase flow networks is realized. The smart and compact system offers a practical solution for the quality administration and screening of encoded magnetic microcarriers and addresses the universal need of process control for synthesis in microfluidic networks, i.e., on-demand creation of droplet templates for high information capacity. The demonstration of magnetic suspension array technology enabled by magnetic in-flow cytometry opens the avenue toward point-of-care multiplexed bead-based assays, clinical diagnostics, and drug discovery.
Karnaushenko, D., Ibarlucea, B., Lee, S., Lin, G., Baraban, L., Pregl, S., Melzer, M., Makarov, D., Weber, W.M., Mikolajick, T., Schmidt, O.G. & Cuniberti, G. 2015, 'Flexible Electronics: Light Weight and Flexible High-Performance Diagnostic Platform (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 10/2015)', Advanced Healthcare Materials, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1419-1419.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Karnaushenko, D., Ibarlucea, B., Lee, S., Lin, G., Baraban, L., Pregl, S., Melzer, M., Makarov, D., Weber, W.M., Mikolajick, T., Schmidt, O.G. & Cuniberti, G. 2015, 'Light Weight and Flexible High-Performance Diagnostic Platform.', Advanced healthcare materials, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1517-1525.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A flexible diagnostic platform is realized and its performance is demonstrated for early detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H1N1 DNA sequences. The key component of the platform is high-performance biosensors based on high output currents and low power dissipation Si nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) fabricated on flexible 100 m thick polyimide foils. The devices on a polymeric support are about ten times lighter compared to their rigid counterparts on Si wafers and can be prepared on large areas. While the latter potentially allows reducing the fabrication costs per device, the former makes them cost efficient for high-volume delivery to medical institutions in, e.g., developing countries. The flexible devices withstand bending down to a 7.5 mm radius and do not degrade in performance even after 1000 consecutive bending cycles. In addition to these remarkable mechanical properties, on the analytic side, the diagnostic platform allows fast detection of specific DNA sequences of AIV subtype H1N1 with a limit of detection of 40 10(-12) m within 30 min suggesting its suitability for early stage disease diagnosis.
Lin, G., Fomin, V.M., Makarov, D. & Schmidt, O.G. 2015, 'Supervised discriminant analysis for droplet micro-magnetofluidics.', Microfluidics and nanofluidics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 457-464.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We apply the technique of supervised discriminant analysis (SDA) for in-flow detection in droplet-based magnetofluidics. Based on the SDA, we successfully discriminate bivariant droplets of different volumes containing different encapsulated magnetic content produced by a GMR-based lab-on-chip platform. We demonstrate that the accuracy of discrimination is superior when the correlation of variables for data training is included to the case when the spatial distribution of variables is considered. Droplets produced with differences in ferrofluid concentration of 2.5 mg/ml and volume of 200 pl have been identified with high accuracy (98 %), indicating the significance of SDA for e.g. the discrimination in magnetic immuno-agglutination assays. Furthermore, the results open the way for the development of a unique magnetofluidic platform for future applications in multiplexed droplet-based barcoding assays and screening.
Lin, G., Makarov, D. & Schmidt, O.G. 2015, 'Strong ferromagnetically-coupled spin valve sensor devices for droplet magnetofluidics.', Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 12526-12538.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We report a magnetofluidic device with integrated strong ferromagnetically-coupled and hysteresis-free spin valve sensors for dynamic monitoring of ferrofluid droplets in microfluidics. The strong ferromagnetic coupling between the free layer and the pinned layer of spin valve sensors is achieved by reducing the spacer thickness, while the hysteresis of the free layer is eliminated by the interplay between shape anisotropy and the strength of coupling. The increased ferromagnetic coupling field up to the remarkable 70 Oe, which is five-times larger than conventional solutions, brings key advantages for dynamic sensing, e.g., a larger biasing field giving rise to larger detection signals, facilitating the operation of devices without saturation of the sensors. Studies on the fundamental effects of an external magnetic field on the evolution of the shape of droplets, as enabled by the non-visual monitoring capability of the device, provides crucial information for future development of a magnetofluidic device for multiplexed assays.
Lin, G., Makarov, D., Medina-Sánchez, M., Guix, M., Baraban, L., Cuniberti, G. & Schmidt, O.G. 2015, 'Magnetofluidic platform for multidimensional magnetic and optical barcoding of droplets.', Lab on a chip, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 216-224.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We present a concept of multidimensional magnetic and optical barcoding of droplets based on a magnetofluidic platform. The platform comprises multiple functional areas, such as an encoding area, an encoded droplet pool and a magnetic decoding area with integrated giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. To prove this concept, penicillin functionalized with fluorescent dyes is coencapsulated with magnetic nanoparticles into droplets. While fluorescent dyes are used as conventional optical barcodes which are decoded with an optical decoding setup, an additional dimensionality of barcodes is created by using magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic barcodes for individual droplets and integrated micro-patterned GMR sensors as the corresponding magnetic decoding devices. The strategy of incorporating a magnetic encoding scheme provides a dynamic range of ~40 dB in addition to that of the optical method. When combined with magnetic barcodes, the encoding capacity can be increased by more than 1 order of magnitude compared with using only optical barcodes, that is, the magnetic platform provides more than 10 unique magnetic codes in addition to each optical barcode. Besides being a unique magnetic functional element for droplet microfluidics, the platform is capable of on-demand facile magnetic encoding and real-time decoding of droplets which paves the way for the development of novel non-optical encoding schemes for highly multiplexed droplet-based biological assays.
Melzer, M., Karnaushenko, D., Lin, G., Baunack, S., Makarov, D. & Schmidt, O.G. 2015, 'Direct transfer of magnetic sensor devices to elastomeric supports for stretchable electronics.', Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1333-1338.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A novel fabrication method for stretchable magnetoresistive sensors is introduced, which allows the transfer of a complex microsensor systems prepared on common rigid donor substrates to prestretched elastomeric membranes in a single step. This direct transfer printing method boosts the fabrication potential of stretchable magnetoelectronics in terms of miniaturization and level of complexity, and provides strain-invariant sensors up to 30% tensile deformation.
Melzer, M., Karnaushenko, D., Lin, G., Baunack, S., Makarov, D. & Schmidt, O.G. 2015, 'Stretchable Electronics: Direct Transfer of Magnetic Sensor Devices to Elastomeric Supports for Stretchable Electronics (Adv. Mater. 8/2015)', Advanced Materials, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1306-1306.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Streubel, R., Han, L., Im, M.-.Y., Kronast, F., Röler, U.K., Radu, F., Abrudan, R., Lin, G., Schmidt, O.G., Fischer, P. & Makarov, D. 2015, 'Manipulating topological states by imprinting non-collinear spin textures.', Scientific reports, vol. 5, p. 8787.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Topological magnetic states, such as chiral skyrmions, are of great scientific interest and show huge potential for novel spintronics applications, provided their topological charges can be fully controlled. So far skyrmionic textures have been observed in noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials with low symmetry and at low temperatures. We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the design of spin textures with topological charge densities that can be tailored at ambient temperatures. Tuning the interlayer coupling in vertically stacked nanopatterned magnetic heterostructures, such as a model system of a Co/Pd multilayer coupled to Permalloy, the in-plane non-collinear spin texture of one layer can be imprinted into the out-of-plane magnetised material. We observe distinct spin textures, e.g. vortices, magnetic swirls with tunable opening angle, donut states and skyrmion core configurations. We show that applying a small magnetic field, a reliable switching between topologically distinct textures can be achieved at remanence.
Lin, G., Makarov, D., Melzer, M., Si, W., Yan, C. & Schmidt, O.G. 2014, 'A highly flexible and compact magnetoresistive analytic device.', Lab on a chip, vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 4050-4058.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A grand vision of realization of smart and compact multifunctional microfluidic devices for wearable health monitoring, environment sensing and point-of-care tests emerged with the fast development of flexible electronics. As a vital component towards this vision, magnetic functionality in flexible fluidics is still missing although demanded by the broad utility of magnetic nanoparticles in medicine and biology. Here, we demonstrate the first flexible microfluidic analytic device with integrated high-performance giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. This device can be bent to a radius of 2 mm while still retaining its full performance. Various dimensions of magnetic emulsion droplets can be probed with high precision using a limit of detection of 0.5 pl, providing broad applicability in high-throughput droplet screening, flow cytometry and drug development. The flexible feature of this analytic device holds great promise in the realization of wearable, implantable multifunctional platforms for biomedical, pharmaceutical and chemical applications.
Si, W., Mönch, I., Yan, C., Deng, J., Li, S., Lin, G., Han, L., Mei, Y. & Schmidt, O.G. 2014, 'A single rolled-up Si tube battery for the study of electrochemical kinetics, electrical conductivity, and structural integrity.', Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), vol. 26, no. 47, pp. 7973-7978.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A lab-on-chip device is demonstrated for probing the electrochemical kinetics, electrical properties, and structure integrity of a single Si rolled-up tube as the anode in lithium-ion batteries. Cyclic voltammetry of the tube exhibits better-resolved peaks than of the planar film due to the enhanced diffusion. The tube is wrinkled after cycling. The tube could be used as a promising ultra-microelectrode for other voltammetry research.
Lin, G., Baraban, L., Han, L., Karnaushenko, D., Makarov, D., Cuniberti, G. & Schmidt, O.G. 2013, 'Magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer.', Scientific reports, vol. 3, p. 2548.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening.
Melzer, M., Lin, G., Makarov, D. & Schmidt, O.G. 2012, 'Stretchable Spin Valves on Elastomer Membranes by Predetermined Periodic Fracture and Random Wrinkling', Advanced Materials, vol. 24, no. 48, pp. 6468-6472.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The first highly stretchable and sensitive spin valve sensor on elastomeric membranes are demonstrated. The sensor elements exhibit stable GMR behavior up to tensile strains of 29% in in situ stretching experiments and show no fatigue over 500 loading cycles. This remarkable stretchability is achieved by a predetermined periodic fracture mechanism that creates a meander-like pattern upon stretching.
Application fields such as smart skin1 and flexible or stretchable consumer electronics2–6 require a wide range of electronic components that are shapeable into nonplanar geometries after fabrication. Ideally, they should also be elastic and withstand many cycles of deformations without degrading in performance. Mechanical compliancy of thin films of naturally stiff materials can be achieved by different morphology transitions,6 that transfer large deformations of the substrate into small strains in the functional film, e.g., by wrinkling7, 8 or lithographically defined meander structures.9, 10 However, exploiting the full bandwidth and application potential of modern electronics requires implementation of stretchability into all types of electronic devices.
For instance, there is rapid progress in fabrication of interconnects11 and opto-electronic devices12 with stretchabilities up to several tens of percents. During the last years, magnetic13, 14 as well as magnetoresistive15–18 structures were fabricated and characterized on bendable polymeric substrates. Recently, stretchable magneto-electronics has been introduced by the fabrication of a wrinkled magnetic sensor based on [Co(Py)/Cu] multilayers19, 20 revealing a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) effect; Py stands for the permalloy, Ni81Fe19 alloy. However, only moderate stretchability of the magnetic sensor of up to about 4% was achieved. Furthermore, the sensitivity of stretchable magnetic sensors to small magnetic fields, as required for applications such as wearable electronics,1 has to be substantially enhanced....
Makarov, D., Melzer, M., Karnaushenko, D., Lin, G., Monch, I. & Schmidt, O.G. 2015, 'Shapeable magnetic sensorics', 2015 IEEE International Magnetics Conference, INTERMAG 2015.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. The flourishing and eagerness of portable consumer electronics necessitates functional elements to be lightweight, flexible, and even wearable (Figure 1) , fulfilling the needs of soft robotics, medical implants, imperceptible and transient electronics [2-4] . Next generation flexible appliances aim to become fully autonomous and will require ultra-thin and flexible navigation modules, body tracking and relative position monitoring systems. Key building blocks of navigation and position tracking devices are the magnetic field sensors.
Nickel, F., Gottlob, D.M., Krug, I.P., Doganay, H., Cramm, S., Kaiser, A.M., Lin, G., Makarov, D., Schmidt, O.G. & Schneider, C.M. 2013, 'Time-resolved magnetic imaging in an aberration-corrected, energy-filtered photoemission electron microscope', Ultramicroscopy, pp. 54-62.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We report on the implementation and usage of a synchrotron-based time-resolving operation mode in an aberration-corrected, energy-filtered photoemission electron microscope. The setup consists of a new type of sample holder, which enables fast magnetization reversal of the sample by sub-ns pulses of up to 10. mT. Within the sample holder current pulses are generated by a fast avalanche photo diode and transformed into magnetic fields by means of a microstrip line. For more efficient use of the synchrotron time structure, we developed an electrostatic deflection gating mechanism capable of beam blanking within a few nanoseconds. This allows us to operate the setup in the hybrid bunch mode of the storage ring facility, selecting one or several bright singular light pulses which are temporally well-separated from the normal high-intensity multibunch pulse pattern. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Minomic International Ltd. for prostate cancer diagnostics