Gawaian Bodkin-Andrews, of the D'harawal nation, is a researcher and lecturer whose outputs are increasingly encapsulating and promoting Aboriginal Australian standpoints and perspectives across a diversity of disciplines (most notably education and psychology). He has managed and led numerous research grants investigating a diversity of topics including, mental health, mentoring, identity, Traditional Knowledges, education, racism, and bullying. His projects have led to the development of a strong foundation in developing robust and diverse research designs, with an increasing dedication to Indigenous Research Methodologies. From this framework, he is continually developing his experience in applying quantitative and qualitative methods within his scholarly work. His research has also attracted a number of national and international awards (including the AARE Betty-Watts Indigenous Researcher award), and he has produced the Healing the Wounds of the Heart documentary focusing on developing resiliency against racism (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0RosRz_HtQ) for Aboriginal youth.
Racism, Indigenous Australian Standpoints and Knowledges, Education, Psychology Self-perceptions, Identity, Motivation, Mentoring, Story-Telling, Structural Equation Modeling, Indigenous Yarning.
McMahon, S., Harwood, V., Bodkin-Andrews, G., O Shea, S., McKnight, A., Chandler, P. & Priestly, A. 2017, 'Lessons from the AIME approach to the teaching relationship: valuing biepistemic practice', Pedagogy, Culture and Society, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 43-58.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Pedagogy, Culture & SocietyThe Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience (AIME) is a national, extra-curricular mentoring programme that is closing the educational gap for young Indigenous Australians. So what is AIME doing that is working so well? This article draws on a large-scale classroom ethnography to describe the pedagogies that facilitate the teacher–student relationships in this programme. We use Shawn Wilson's theorisation of Indigenous ways of knowing in order to 'unpack' how these approaches succeeded in creating the egalitarian and trust-filled relationships reportedly experienced in the AIME programme.
Bodkin-Andrews, G., Whittaker, A., Harrison, N., Craven, R., Parker, P., Trudgett, M. & Page, S. 2017, 'Exposing the patterns of statistical blindness: Centring Indigenous standpoints on student identity, motivation, and future aspirations', Australian Journal of Education, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 225-249.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, © Australian Council for Educational Research 2017. This article engages with an Indigenous Quantitative Methodological Framework to examine links between a positive sense of cultural identity, future aspirations, and academic motivational tendencies. Utilising a sample of Aboriginal, non-Aboriginal and First Generation (Migrant) Australian students in years 7–10, results showed strong psychometric properties across the three groups for the measures utilised. Whilst few differences were identified between the First Generation and non-Aboriginal Australian students, Aboriginal students consistently had lower future aspirations and less adaptive motivational tendencies than the two other student groups. Importantly though, Aboriginal students held a stronger sense of cultural identity. Key links between motivation and cultural identity were identified, and both were associated with stronger educational and life aspirations. The implications suggest that researchers and teachers need to recognise the importance of cultural identity as a positive driver for schooling motivation and future aspirations, and that First Nations theory and research should be engaged to override the erasing effects of Western epistemological standpoints when utilising statistical methods.
Bodkin-Andrews, G. & Carlson, B. 2016, 'The legacy of racism and Indigenous Australian identity within education', Race Ethnicity and Education, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 784-807.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
It may be argued that the emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia's First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism. Additionally, and if not somewhat related to this critique, it can be suggested that the very construction of research from a Western perspective of Indigenous identity (as opposed to identities) and ways of being are deeply entwined within the undertones of epistemological racism still prevalent today. It is the purpose of this article to move beyond the overreliance of outside-based understanding Western epistemologies, and to explore not only the complex nature of both racism and identity from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives, but to also explore the role of education and research in perpetuating varying levels of racism and resistance to Indigenous identity(ies) from a contemporary insider-based standpoint. It is hoped this article will shed some light on the pervasive nature of racism directed at Indigenous Australians, and highlight the need for the continual acceptance, respect, and promotion of Indigenous voices and identities within the educational environment and beyond.
O'Shea, S., McMahon, S., Priestly, A., Bodkin-Andrews, G. & Harwood, V. 2016, ''We are history in the making and we are walking together to change things for the better': Exploring the flows and ripples of learning in a mentoring programme for indigenous young people', Education as Change, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 59-84.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article explores the unique mentoring model that the Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience (AIME) has established to assist Australian Indigenous young people succeed educationally. AIME can be described as a structured educational mentoring programme, which recruits university students to mentor Indigenous high school students. The success of the programme is unequivocal, with the AIME Indigenous mentees completing high school and the transition to further education and employment at higher rates than their non-AIME Indigenous counterparts. This article reports on a study that sought to deeply explore the particular approach to mentoring that AIME adopts. The study drew upon interviews, observations and surveys with AIME staff, mentees and mentors, and the focus in this article is on the surveys completed by the university mentors involved in the programme. Overall, there seems to be a discernible mutual reciprocity inherent in the learning outcomes of this mentoring programme; the mentors are learning along with the mentees. The article seeks to consider how AIME mentors reflect upon their learning in this programme and also how this pedagogic potential has been facilitated.
Bodkin-Andrews, G., Bodkin, A.F., Andrews, U.G. & Whittaker, A. 2016, 'Mudjil'dya'djurali dabuwa'wurrata (how the white waratah became red): D'harawal storytelling and welcome to country "controversies"', AlterNative, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 480-497.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Nga Pae o te Maramatanga. The overarching purpose of this paper is to critically engage with non-Indigenous representations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Welcome to Country ceremonies, particularly within the conservative mainstream media and academic setting. The foundations of the paper will be drawn from both the critical Indigenous standpoint theories of white pathology by Moreton-Robinson (2015) and colonial storytelling by Behrendt (2016). Both these theories suggest that, too often, non-Indigenous representations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are more a reflection of non-Indigenous ideologies than accurate portrayals of Indigenous positionings. Further, an ancestral D'harawal Law Story will be utilized to reveal that Welcome to Country ceremonies, despite their contemporary adaptations under colonization, may be considered an essential contextual representation of Australia's true history prior to colonization, and thus should not be dismissed due to ideological misrepresentations or even tampered with by a colour-blind rhetoric.
Harwood, V., McMahon, S., O'Shea, S., Bodkin-Andrews, G. & Priestly, A. 2015, 'Recognising aspiration: the AIME program's effectiveness in inspiring Indigenous young people's participation in schooling and opportunities for further education and employment', AUSTRALIAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 217-236.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Parker, P.D., Bodkin-Andrews, G., Marsh, H.W., Jerrim, J. & Schoon, I. 2015, 'Will closing the achievement gap solve the problem? An analysis of primary and secondary effects for indigenous university entry', JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1085-1102.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Arens, A.K., Bodkin-Andrews, G., Craven, R.G. & Yeung, A.S. 2014, 'Self-concept of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students: Competence and affect components and relations to achievement', Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 32, pp. 93-103.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Previous research on differences and similarities in self-concept of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students did not consider the possible differentiation between competence and affect components. As a result, it is unknown whether previously found differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students' self-concepts are the result of their beliefs about their abilities or their feelings about specific domains. Thus, the present study aims to examine and compare the structure, the mean levels, and the relations to achievement measures of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students' self-concepts in academic and non-academic domains when taking the competence-affect separation into account. Self-concepts in math, English, school, physical ability, and art were measured with 1809 secondary school students including 343 Indigenous students. For Indigenous and non-Indigenous students, confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that all self-concept facets measured could be separated into competence and affect components although the correlations between competence and affect components were high, particularly for art and physical ability self-concepts. Non-Indigenous students demonstrated higher levels of school competence, English competence, English affect, and math competence self-concepts. Indigenous students displayed higher levels of physical ability competence self-concept while no group differences could be found for school affect, math affect, physical ability affect, and art competence and art affect self-concepts. Invariance tests revealed an invariant factor structure and invariant relations between the multiple self-concept facets and achievement factors across Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. Hence, the present study adds to our understanding of the similarities and differences regarding Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students' self-concepts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Magson, N.R., Craven, R.G. & Bodkin-Andrews, G.H. 2014, 'Measuring social capital: The development of the social capital and cohesion scale and the associations between social capital and mental health', Australian Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, vol. 14, no. SPEC. ISS., pp. 202-216.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Over the last two decades, social capital has received increasing attention in the international literature. Despite the popularity of the construct, problems concerning definition, theoretical conceptualisation, and measurement continue to plague research and policy in this area. This investigation aimed to address this gap by developing a new social capital instrument to test the theorised nature of the construct. Utilising a sample of 1371 young Australians living in disadvantaged communities, the newly developed Social Capital and Cohesion Scale (SCCS) combined the commonalities in the current theoretical conceptualisations of social capital defining it as a multi-level, multidimensional construct consisting of trust and reciprocity across family, peer, neighbour, and institutional networks. To test the convergent validity of the scale, relations with mental health were also examined. Confirmatory factor analysis results demonstrated that the SCCS was a valid and reliable multidimensional scale, which was invariant across both regional and gender groups. Correlational analysis demonstrated that associations with depression, anxiety, and stress were consistent with past research thereby strengthening the validity of the SCCS measure.
Magson, N.R., Craven, R.G., Nelson, G.F., Yeung, A.S., Bodkin-Andrews, G.H. & McInerney, D.M. 2014, 'Motivation matters: Profiling indigenous and non-indigenous students' motivational goals', Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 96-112.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Copyright © 2014 The Author(s). This research explored gender and cross-cultural similarities and differences in the motivational profiles of Indigenous Papua New Guinean (PNG) and Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Secondary students (N = 1,792) completed self-report motivational measures. Invariance testing demonstrated that the Inventory of School Motivation (McInerney, Yeung, & McInerney, 2001) measure was invariant across both gender and Indigenous and non-Indigenous groups. Structural equation modelling (SEM) results explicated that males were significantly more performance orientated than females in all three groups examined; however, the disparity between genders was most apparent in non-Indigenous Australians. Diverging from previous findings with non-Indigenous students, the current study found that PNG and Australian Indigenous males endorsed mastery goals more strongly than Indigenous females. In contrast, non-Indigenous females were more mastery orientated than non-Indigenous males. Finally, the two Indigenous groups endorsed social goals more strongly than the non-Indigenous Australians. The current findings highlight the importance of assessing gender and group differences, as broad statements relating to student motivation do not appear to be applicable in all cultural contexts.
Vickers, M., Finger, L., Barker, K. & Bodkin-Andrews, G. 2014, 'Measuring the impact of students' social relations and values: Validation of the Social-Relational Support for Education instrument', Australian Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, vol. 14, no. SPEC. ISS., pp. 71-92.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A significant body of literature attests to the influence of social contexts on students' engagement with school. A review of this literature led to the construction of a self-report instrument designed to measure Social-Relational Support for Education (SRSE). The conceptual framework underlying the SRSE instrument focuses on the factors that can potentially boost student engagement: these include young people's relationships with peers, teachers, and parents. Specifically, the SRSE seeks to measure young people's perceptions of the education-related values espoused by those to whom they relate most closely, as well as their sense of belonging at school. The psychometric properties of the SRSE measure are assessed in this paper through examining the congeneric properties of each hypothesised latent factor, confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the full SRSE instrument, and invariance testing. Results indicate strong factor loadings of all items on their respective scales and excellent overall model fit. The SRSE scale presented in this paper provides an essential foundation that will allow a comprehensive examination of the relationships between students' social-relational contexts and their engagement with school.
Bodkin-Andrews, G.H., Denson, N. & Bansel, P. 2013, 'Teacher Racism, Academic Self-Concept, and Multiculturation: Investigating Adaptive and Maladaptive Relations With Academic Disengagement and Self-Sabotage for Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australian Students', Australian Psychologist, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 226-237.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The issue of patterns of educational disengagement for Indigenous Australian students has long been of considerable concern within Indigenous education research. Although there is an expanding research base identifying factors that may increase (or decrease) the risk of disengagement for Indigenous students, little acknowledgement has been given to international research highlighting how stigma and discrimination may be associated with student disengagement and the resiliency factors that may nullify these associations. Utilising a sample of 1,376 (305 Indigenous; 1,071 non-Indigenous) students from five New South Wales high schools in Australia, this study sought to examine the influence of academic self-concept and two culturally sensitive constructs-specifically, perceived multiculturation (perceived cultural respect) and racial discrimination-on two disengagement-orientated outcomes: affective disengagement and self-sabotaging behaviour (behavioural disengagement) for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. The findings showed relatively consistent direct and positive effects of academic self-concept and direct negative effect of teacher racism for both groups of students. An interaction effect (discriminationmulticulturation) for the Indigenous students only was also identified, which suggested that the negative effects of racial discrimination on self-sabotaging behaviour are exacerbated when the Indigenous students perceived higher levels of cultural respect from others. Overall, while these findings suggest that promoting higher levels of inter-cultural respect may be beneficial for Indigenous and non-Indigenous alike (e.g., culturally inclusive programmes), such positive perceptions may put Indigenous students at greater risk if the impact of racism is not also addressed. The implications of these findings suggest that cultural safety must be framed both in promoting the positive (cultural respect) and in eliminating the negative (racism). © 2012 T...
Magson, N.R., Bodkin-Andrews, G.H., Craven, R.G., Nelson, G.F. & Yeung, A.S. 2013, 'Questioning new directions in understanding student motivation: An investigation into the domain specificity of motivational goals', Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 171-190.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Most past models of student motivation have assumed that student motivation generalises across various achievement situations and curriculum domains; however, research has not fully explored the extent to which motivation may be domain-specific (Green, Martin, & Marsh, 2007; Martin, 2008). The purpose of the present investigation was to explore this issue by comparing and contrasting generalised models of motivation with domain-specific models and how they relate to achievement outcomes in mathematics and English. Secondary students (N = 476) completed both the domain-general (ISM, McInerney, 2003) and the researcher-derived domain-specific motivational measure (DSSM) followed by a standardised achievement test (WRAT-3, Wilkinson, 1993). Overall, the study resulted in mixed findings. There was some indication that there was enough independent variance between the domain-specific goal types to suggest they were tapping distinct constructs as found in previous research (Green et al., 2007). However, the small and often inconsistent correlations with achievement outcomes brings into question the usefulness for educators and the research practicality of pursuing such a division. © 2013 Australian Psychological Society Ltd.
Munns, G., O'Rourke, V. & Bodkin-Andrews, G. 2013, 'Seeding success: Schools that work for aboriginal students', Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article reports on a large mixed methods research project that investigated the conditions of success for Aboriginal school students. The article presents the qualitative case study component of the research. It details the work of four schools identified as successful for Aboriginal students with respect to social and academic outcomes, and showed what was common and contextually different in their relationships with community and their approaches to curriculum and pedagogy. The article shows there were eight common themes that emerged in the analysis of the schools' approaches, and these themes are considered key indicators of the 'seeding success'. Copyright © The Authors 2013.
Griezel, L., Finger, L.R., Bodkin-Andrews, G.H., Craven, R.G. & Yeung, A.S. 2012, 'Uncovering the structure of and gender and developmental differences in cyber bullying', Journal of Educational Research, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 442-455.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Although literature on traditional bullying is abundant, a limited body of sound empirical research exists regarding its newest form: cyber bullying. The sample comprised Australian secondary students (N = 803) and aimed to identify the underlying structure of cyber bullying, and differences in traditional and cyber bullying behaviors across gender and grade. Reliability analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and factorial invariance testing demonstrated that the newly extended measure of traditional and cyber bullying was psychometrically sound. Multiple-Indicators-Multiple-Causes models demonstrated gender, grade, and gender by grade interaction effects for traditional and cyber forms of bullying and being bullied. Findings were interpreted in the context of bullying theory. Moreover, potential limitations of the investigation and implications for theory, research, and practice were discussed. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Bodkin-Andrews, G., O'Rourke, V. & Craven, R.G. 2010, 'The utility of general self-esteem and domain-specific self-concepts: Their influence on Indigenous and non-Indigenous students' educational outcomes', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 277-306.
Bodkin-Andrews, G., O'Rourke, V., Grant, R., Denson, N. & Craven, R.G. 2010, 'Validating racism and cultural respect: Testing the psychometric properties and educational impact of perceived discrimination and multiculturation for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students', Educational Research and Evaluation, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 471-493.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Within the field of quantitative research, the diverse and negative effects of racial discrimination have become increasingly documented across a number of outcome variables (including physical, mental, and social wellbeing); however, research on the direct effects of racism is less evident within educational settings. The present investigation explored the negative impact of perceived racial discrimination, in addition to perceptions of cultural respect (Multiculturation) on both objective (e.g., student grades) and subjective (e.g., importance of school) schooling outcomes for a sample of Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous Australian high school students. Perceived racial discrimination was found to be one of the strongest negative predictors of a number of outcomes for Indigenous Australian students, and Multiculturation was also found to have substantial positive relations with the subjective schooling outcomes for the same group of students. That the results were also generalisable to the non-Indigenous students suggests that attempts to combat racism and promote respect may benefit all members of society. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Bodkin-Andrews, G.H., Dillon, A. & Craven, R.G. 2010, 'Bangawarra'gumada — Strengthening the Spirit: Causal Modelling of Academic Self-Concept and Patterns of Disengagement for Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australian Students', Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 24-39.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The notion of academic disengagement, regardless of its specific conceptualisation (e.g., cognitive, affective, or behavioural) is one that has received considerable attention within the educational and social psychological literature, especially with regard to disadvantaged minority groups. Akhough such research has done much to identify the complexity of factors as to why some minority groups may disengage from the schooling system (extending well beyond rightfully maligned deficit models), there is a still a need to empirically identify factors that may lesson the risk of disengagement. This investigation tested the causal impact of secondary students' academic self-concept on patterns of school disengagement (once prior measures of disengagement had been accounted for) for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian secondary students across two time waves of data. The results suggest that a heightened sense of academic self-concept is causally, yet differentially, related to varying patterns of disengagement for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. The implications of this research suggest that academic self-concept may be a key variable to unlocking trends of school disengagement that have been noted for Indigenous Australian students, although more effort should be made to increase the strength and importance of academic self-concepts for Indigenous students. © 2010, Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.
Bodkin-Andrews, G.H., Ha, M.T., Craven, R.G. & Yeung, A.S. 2010, 'Factorial invariance testing and latent mean differences for the self-description questionnaire II (short version) with indigenous and non-indigenous Australian secondary school students', International Journal of Testing, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 47-79.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This investigation reports on the cross-cultural equivalence testing of the Self-Description Questionnaire II (short version; SDQII-S) for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian secondary student samples. A variety of statistical analysis techniques were employed to assess the psychometric properties of the SDQII-S for both the Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. In addition, an analysis was conducted to determine whether the latent means of the self-concepts differed significantl y between Indigenous and non-Indigenous male and female students. The results demonstrated that the SDQII-S held strong psychometric properties across the Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students. Furthermore, the analyses indicated that there were significant differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students for 7 of the 13 self-concept facets. Although some question could be raised as to the practical nature of these differences, the measurement equivalence of the SDQII-S for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students may allow researchers to more. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Bodkin-Andrews, G.H., Seaton, M., Nelson, G.F., Craven, R.G. & Yeung, A.S. 2010, 'Questioning the general self-esteem vaccine: General self-esteem, racial discrimination, and standardised achievement across indigenous and non-indigenous students', Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-21.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Psychological research and the popular media culture have repeatedly noted that self-esteem positively contributes to life satisfaction and performance indicators across a large variety of domains. However, while varying measures of self-esteem may be argued to have a positive influence on outcome measures, increasing evidence suggests that perceptions of racial discrimination may also have a negative impact across a wide variety of outcomes. The current investigation used structural equation modelling techniques to examine the potential impact of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students' General Self- Esteem and their perceptions of racial discrimination on spelling and maths achievement. Results indicated that General Self-Esteem displayed little or no significant relations with the performance measures, yet perceived racial discrimination significantly and negatively predicted both spelling and maths achievement for the Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. In addition, no significant latent interaction between General Self-Esteem and perceived discrimination was identified, raising questions for the self-protective properties of General Self-Esteem, at least for achievement outcomes.
Bodkin-Andrews, G.H., Seaton, M., Nelson, G.F., Craven, R.G. & Yeung, A.S. 2010, 'Questioning the General Self-Esteem Vaccine: General Self-Esteem, Racial Discrimination, and Standardised Achievement Across Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-21.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Craven, R.G. & Bodkin-Andrews, G. 2006, 'New Solutions for Addressing Indigenous Mental Health: A Call to Counsellors to Introduce the New Positive Psychology of Success', Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 41-54.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Australia's 'black' history has had and continues to have a pervasive and adverse impact on Indigenous Australians. In fact, Indigenous Australians are the most disadvantaged Australians based on all socioeconomic indicators that serve to drive life potential. There is also a dearth of scholarly research available, particularly in relation to Indigenous children in the schooling sector and mental health. However, recent research with both Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations offers new, potentially potent, solutions. In this article we provide (a) a rationale for Indigenous mental health being a significant social issue of our time, (b) a summary of some recent research findings pertaining to mental health of young Indigenous Australians, (c) outline why a positive psychology approach offers a new solution for intervention with specific reference to the importance of the self-concept construct for Indigenous students, and (d) call upon counsellors, practitioners, and policy makers to implement and evaluate the latter approach. © 2006, Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.
Parker, P., Bodkin-Andrews, G., Trudgett, M. & Walter, M. 2017, 'Gateways to Occupational Success: Educational Mobility and Attainment for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples' in Marshall, A. & Symonds, J. (eds), Young Adult Development at the School-to-Work Transition: International Pathways and Processes, Oxford University Press.
Bodkin-Andrews, G. & Carlson, B. 2013, 'Racism, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identities, and higher education: Reviewing the burden of epistemological and other racisms' in Craven, R.G. & Mooney, J. (eds), Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education, Emerald, UK, pp. 29-54.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Purpose: Emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia's First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism. In addition, it may be argued that the very construction of Western perspectives of Indigenous identity (as opposed to identities) may be deeply entwined within the undertones of the interplay between epistemological racism, and the emergence of new racism today. Methodology: This chapter shall review a substantial portion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational research, with a particular emphasis on the acknowledgment of the impact of racism on the educational outcomes (and other life outcomes) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with a focus on higher education. Findings: This review has found that while there is evidence emerging toward the engagement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in all forms of education, there is also considerable resistance to targeted efforts to reduce the inequities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students and all Australians (especially within the university sector). It is argued this resistance, both at the student and curriculum level, is clear evidence of preexisting epistemological mentalities and racism. Implications: The implications of this review suggest that greater effort needs to be placed in recognizing unique Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander experiences and perspectives, not only at the student level, but such perspectives need to be imbedded throughout the whole university environment. Copyright © 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Bodkin-Andrews, G. & Craven, R.G. 2013, 'Negotiating racism: The voices of Aboriginal Australian post-graduate students' in Craven, R.G. & Mooney, J. (eds), Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education, Emerald, UK, pp. 157-185.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Purpose - Recent research into the nature and impact of racial discrimination directed at Aboriginal Australian children and youth has revealed how such a stressor can negatively impact upon varying physical health, emotional well-being and education outcomes. Despite the strength of these findings for identifying need for action, such research has been largely limited by either a lack of consideration as to the potentially complex nature of racism targeting Aboriginal Australians or alternatively offering little in identifying sources of resiliency for Aboriginal Australian students. It is the purpose of this investigation to identify the voices of high-achieving Aboriginal Australian post-graduate students with regard to their experiences of racism, how they may have coped with racism and their advice to future generations of Aboriginal youth. Methodology - A series of in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with seven Aboriginal Australian PhD students within an Australian University. The interviews were designed to capture the perceptions, experiences and coping strategies used when faced with racism. The data was carefully and repeatedly scrutinized for emerging themes that were shared by the majority of participants. Findings - Numerous themes emerged with issues pertaining to the veracity of racism and conceptualizations of racism across historical/ cross-generational, contemporary, verbal, physical, institutional, cultural, political, electronic, personal, reverse/internalized and collective/group dimensions. In addition, the negative impact of racism was identified, but more importantly, a series of interrelated positive coping responses (e.g. externalization of racism, social support) were voiced. Implications - The implications of these results attest to the need to understand the many faces of racism that may still be experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders today. In addition, the coping strategies identified may be seen as valuab...
Bodkin-Andrews, G., Harwood, V., McMahon, S. & Priestly, A. 2013, 'Aim(E) for completing school and university: Analysing the strength of the Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience' in Craven, R.G. & Mooney, J. (eds), Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, UK, pp. 113-134.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Purpose: Generally, theory and research investigating the effectiveness of mentoring has offered little resounding evidence to attest to mentoring programmes being a strategic initiative that make a real difference in reducing the educational inequities many minority students endure. In contrast to this existing research base, the Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience (AIME) has often been cited as one of the most successful mentoring initiatives within Australia. It is the purpose of this chapter to examine how AIME may impact on the educational aspirations and school self-concept of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Methodology: A series of multi-group analyses were centred around Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling techniques that sought not only to explore the psychometric validity of the measures utilized within this study, but also to identify how the measures may be related after accounting for background variables (e.g. gender, parental education). Findings: The results found that the measures utilized held strong psychometric properties allowing an increased level of confidence in the measures used and the conclusion that may be drawn from their use in analyses. Overall, the results suggested that AIME is an effective tool for increasing not only the educational aspirations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students but also their levels (and utility) of School Self-concept and School Enjoyment. Implications: The implications suggest that not only is AIME an essential tool for closing the educational gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal students, but also our understanding of mentoring must be extended well beyond simplistic notions of role-modelling. Copyright © 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Page, S., Trudgett, M. & Bodkin-Andrews, G. 2016, 'Exploring an Indigenous graduate attribute project through a critical race theory lens', Research and Development in Higher Education: The Shape of Higher Education, Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Annual International Conference, HERDSA, Fremantle, Perth, pp. 258-267.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Graduate attributes are a mechanism not only for developing employability skills, but also for fostering graduate abilities to be productive contributors to social change. There is growing recognition that university graduates can and should contribute to enhancing outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians signaling the need for dedicated Indigenous curriculum for all university students. Consider the transformative possibilities of significant numbers of graduates empowered to work effectively in partnership with Indigenous Australians. In 2014 almost 10,000 students graduated from the University of Technology Sydney (UTS). Reflecting the organisational culture, graduate attributes also illustrate the values of an institution. In 2014, responding to the Behrendt Review of Higher Education Access and Outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People (2012) call for whole of university approaches, UTS approved the development of an Indigenous Graduate Attribute (IGA) Framework for all university courses. Recognising that resources would be required to support the implementation of such an ambitious project, a proposal was made to establish an Indigenous academic expertise centre to support the implementation of IGAs in all courses. In this paper the Aboriginal academic staff leading the IGA project will draw on Critical Race Theory (CRT), including the work of Ladson-Billings, to reflect on our experiences in the first year of the project. We use CRT to highlight the ways in which institutions might work with Indigenous academics to optimise the success of complex projects such as the UTS Indigenous Graduate Attribute project.