Gary L. Lilien is Distinguished Professor of Marketing at University of Technology, Sydney and Distinguished Research Professor of Management Science at the Smeal College of Business at Penn State. He is also cofounder and Research Director of Penn State’s Institute for the Study of Business Markets (ISBM) and is Distinguished Fellow of the Center for Business Analytics at Melbourne Business School, Australia.
He received a BS, and MS and a PhD from Columbia University in Operations Research and worked at the Mobil Corporation for five years. Previously, Prof. Lilien was a member of the faculty at the Sloan School at MIT. He has consulted for many companies including Arcelor, AT&T, BP, CTCA, Dow, DuPont, Eastman Chemical, Exelon, Federal Reserve Bank, GE, Goodyear, IBM, MarketingNPV, MarketShare, Pillsbury, Pfizer, Pitney Bowes, PPG, Sprint and Xerox.
He is on the Scientific Advisory Board of MarketShare and is a principal of the Marketing Engineering consultancy, DecisionPro (www.decisionpro.biz).
Dr. Lilien is the author or co-author of fifteen books (including Marketing Models with Phil Kotler, Marketing Engineering and Principles of Marketing Engineering), as well as over 100 professional articles. He was departmental editor for Marketing for, Management Science; is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Marketing and the International Journal for Research in Marketing; is functional Editor for Marketing for Interfaces, and is on the Advisory Board of the Journal of Marketing Research. He was Editor in chief of Interfaces for six years. He is the former President as well as Vice President/Publications for The Institute of Management Sciences. He is an Inaugural INFORMS (institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences) Fellow, was honored as Morse Lecturer for INFORMS and also received the Kimball medal for distinguished contributions to the field of operations research. He is an Inaugural Fellow of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC) and is an Inaugural ISMS(INFORMS Society for Marketing Science) Fellow. He is an Inaugural AMA (American Marketing Association) Fellow as well as a former member of Board of Directors of the AMA.
He has received honorary doctorates from the University of Liege, the University of Ghent and Aston University and received the 2008 AMA/Irwin/McGraw Hill Educator of the Year award and the 2012 Gilbert Churchill Award from the AMA for career contributions to the field of Marketing Research. In 2010, the ISMS-MSI Practice Prize for the best applied work in marketing science globally was renamed the Gary Lilien ISMS-MSI Practice Prize in his honor. He received the AMA Interorganizational SIG Lifetime Achievement Award in 2014 and was named the EMAC Distinguished Marketing Scholar for the year 2015.
Can supervise: YES
Dr. Lilien's research interests include B2B marketing, Marketing Engineering, market segmentation, new product modeling, marketing mix issues for business products, bargaining and negotiations, modeling the B2B buying process, the implementation of marketing science and innovation diffusion modeling.
© Gary L. Lilien and Rajdeep Grewal 2012. All rights reserved. This comprehensive Handbook presents specially commissioned original essays on the societal roles and contexts facing women in business and management, the specific career and work-life issues of women in these fields, organizational processes affecting women, and the role of women as leaders in business and management. The essays shed light on the extant structures and practices of society and organizations that constrain or facilitate women's representation, treatment, quality of life, and success.
When the term 'marketing' comes to mind, many people think of 'pet rocks', cans of 'New York City air', and the cyclical movement of hemlines in women's fashions; the analysis of the demand for such items seems well removed from the reliance on mathematical models that characterizes much of the work in operations research and management science (OR/MS). Indeed, many company executives despair of putting marketing on a more scientific basis. Many see marketing processes as lacking the neat quantitative properties found in production and finance. In marketing, human factors play a large role, marketing expenditures affect demand and cost simultaneously and information to support truly systematic decisions is rarely available, Further, the effects of most marketing actions are typically delayed, nonlinear, stochastic, and difficult to measure. © 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved
The chapter describes quantitative modelers and management scientists unfamiliar with marketing an appreciation of the way in which models of consumer behavior are developed and used. The chapter is also designed to provide a reference and teaching resource for marketing specialists. The future of consumer behavior modeling is bright; newer models are richer, more flexible, and more closely attuned to modern data sources. Yet many phenomena are poorly modeled at the moment. The chapter highlights the areas of modeling consumer purchase heuristics (and information-processing biases), modeling consumers' mental processes, matching models to market segments, and modeling choice for truly new or non-comparable alternatives as fruitful areas that deserve concerted attention in the future. © 1993, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved
Despite the advances in the sophistication and proliferation of marketing-science models, relatively few true marketing strategy models have been developed, and those that have been developed generally had limited impact on management. The gap between management needs (for models that help them generate, evaluate and implement better marketing strategies) and the available models (especially non-traditional) is narrowing. As the environment and the characteristics of successful businesses are changing, the nature of the marketing paradigm, and the nature of desired marketing strategy models is changing as well. © 1993, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved
Lilien, GL, Gupta, A, Kumar, A & Grewal, R 2019, 'Within-Seller and Buyer–Seller Network Structures and Key Account Profitability', Journal of Marketing.
Shi, H, Sridhar, S, Grewal, R & Lilien, G 2017, 'Sales Representative Departures and Customer Reassignment Strategies in Business-to-Business Markets', Journal of Marketing, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 25-44.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
When a sales representative (rep) leaves a business-to-business firm, a crucial link with the rep's customers becomes severed. The firm reassigns those customers to different sales reps (either existing reps or new hires) in a manner that mitigates potential sales losses. What causal effect do sales rep departures have on customer-level revenue, and which sales rep replacement strategies are more effective? Using data from a Fortune 500 firm and a difference-in-differences analysis with correction for selection bias, the authors show that sales rep transitions lead to 13.2%–17.6% losses in annual sales. New hires are less effective than existing sales reps in mitigating sales losses. Existing sales reps who are similar (vs. dissimilar) to the departing reps (in terms of past industry experience) are more effective in mitigating sales losses; however, reps with high past performance do not exhibit greater efficacy for mitigating sales losses than reps with average or low past performance. The analysis presents means to quantify the economic consequences of losing a sales rep and to determine how to reassign customers to sales reps according to the resulting economic impact
V. Kumar's (2017) editorial on the role of university research centers in promoting research and Mike Ahearne's (2017) and Rob Palmatier's (2017) commentaries provide insights on possible roles, organizations and governance structures for university research centers. Kumar (2017) states the role of such centers as follows: 'The goal of a research center is to enable interaction between faculty, scholars, students and industry to enhance research opportunities, academic excellence, real world problem solving and knowledge creation and dissemination.' This quote cites multiple stakeholders involved in multiple activities, some of which are more valuable for some stakeholders than others, the theme I focus on here.
When Irv Gross, the late Dave Wilson, and I founded the Institute for the Study of Business Markets (ISBM) in 1983, I would have been skeptical that it would still be in existence (and successful) 34 years later in 2017. I would have been more skeptical that I would still be research director.
The longevity of the ISBM suggests that it has continued to serve the needs of some constituents. The mission statement of the ISBM at its founding (and pretty much to this day) was as follows: 'The Institute for the Study of Business Markets is an industry-supported center of excellence in the Smeal College of Business at Penn State whose two-fold mission is to (1) Expand research and teaching in business-to-business marketing in academia and to (2) Improve the practice of business-to-business marketing for member firms in industry.' Note two quite different constituencies here.
Seven years after the ISBM was founded, the journal Interfaces published a special issue on models for university–business interaction. I wrote an article for that issue (Lilien 1990) that distilled a number of lessons from the success the ISBM had seen by that time. Those lessons cited the need to acknowledge multiple stakeholders with different values, needs, and resources.
Gerrnann, F, Lilien, GL, Fiedler, L & Kraus, M 2014, 'Do Retailers Benefit from Deploying Customer Analytics?', JOURNAL OF RETAILING, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 587-593.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Schmitz, C, Lee, Y-C & Lilien, GL 2014, 'Cross-Selling Performance in Complex Selling Contexts: An Examination of Supervisory- and Compensation-Based Controls', JOURNAL OF MARKETING, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 1-19.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Dearden, JA, Grewal, R & Lilien, GL 2013, 'Framing the university ranking game: Actors, motivations, and actions', Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 131-139.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Any formulation of the university ranking game involves the perspectives of the 3 key actors: (1) graduating high-school students, (2) universities, and (3) ranking publications. These university rankings are developed and maintained by for-profit publications or magazines, which must balance 2 potentially conflicting motives: (1) to provide students with information to help them decide which university to attend and (2) to increase the revenues of the publication. The actions of the students involve their decision on which universities to apply to and which university to attend among those they are admitted to. The universities seek to attract the best students and seek to improve their ranking to do so. We frame these diverse motives and the ensuing actions of these 3 sets of actors as the university ranking game and discuss the potential inefficiencies in the game and the possibility for unethical behavior by publications and universities. © Inter-Research 2014.
Hada, M, Grewal, R & Lilien, GL 2013, 'PURCHASING MANAGERS' PERCEIVED BIAS IN SUPPLIER-SELECTED REFERRALS', JOURNAL OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 81-95.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Lilien, GL, Roberts, JH & Shankar, V 2013, 'Effective Marketing Science Applications: Insights from the ISMS-MSI Practice Prize Finalist Papers and Projects', MARKETING SCIENCE, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 229-245.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Germann, F, Lilien, GL & Rangaswamy, A 2013, 'Performance implications of deploying marketing analytics', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 114-128.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sabnis, G, Chatterjee, SC, Grewal, R & Lilien, GL 2013, 'The Sales Lead Black Hole: On Sales Reps' Follow-Up of Marketing Leads', JOURNAL OF MARKETING, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 52-67.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Griffin, A, Josephson, BW, Lilien, G, Wiersema, F, Bayus, B, Chandy, R, Dahan, E, Gaskin, S, Kohli, A, Miller, C, Oliva, R & Spanjol, J 2013, 'Marketing's roles in innovation in business-to-business firms: Status, issues, and research agenda', Marketing Letters, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 323-337.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A project funded by the Institute for the Study of Business Markets to develop an understanding of the current state of business-to-business marketing and a research agenda for the field identified a lack of understanding of how the marketing function can or should best contribute to firms' innovation efforts as the top priority. A workshop of senior academics and research-oriented practitioners explored this topic further, identifying four specific themes: (1) improving customer needs understanding and customer involvement in developing new products, (2) innovating beyond the lab, (3) disseminating and implementing research findings in firms, and (4) marketing's overall role in innovation. This article defines these themes, sketches the current status of knowledge about each theme, frames practitioners' issues with them, and proposes research agendas for each theme to move the field forward. The goal is to encourage rigorously executed academic research that can also help firms innovate more successfully. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Srinivasan, R, Lilien, GL, Rangaswamy, A, Pingitore, GM & Seldin, D 2012, 'The Total Product Design Concept and an Application to the Auto Market', JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, vol. 29, pp. 3-20.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Mallapragada, G, Grewal, R & Lilien, G 2012, 'User-Generated Open Source Products: Founder's Social Capital and Time to Product Release', MARKETING SCIENCE, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 474-492.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Desai, PS, Bell, D, Lilien, G & Soberman, D 2012, 'The science-to-practice initiative: Getting new marketing science thinking into the real world', Marketing Science, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 1-3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lilien, GL 2011, 'The inaugural EMAC Distinguished Marketing Scholar Award Introduction', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 75-75.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Srinivasan, R, Lilien, GL & Sridhar, S 2011, 'Should Firms Spend More on Research and Development and Advertising During Recessions?', JOURNAL OF MARKETING, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 49-65.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
From the supplier firm's perspective, a referral is a recommendation from A (the referrer) to B (the potential customer) that B should, or should not, purchase from C (the supplier firm). Thus, as referrals are for a specific supplier firm, they should be viewed as part of the supplier firm's marketing and sales activities. We recognize three types of referrals - customer-to-potential customer referrals, horizontal referrals, and supplier-initiated referrals - that have critical roles in a potential customer's purchase decision.We develop the concept of referral equity to capture the net effect of all referrals for a supplier firm in the market. We argue that supplier firms should view referral equity as a resource that has financial value to the firm as it affects the firm's cash flows and profits. We offer strategies firms can use to manage referrals and build their referral equity and suggest a research agenda. Copyright © 2010 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
I suggest that a solution to Reibstein et al. (2009) diagnosis that Academic Marketing is losing its way is to seek creative connections with marketing intermediaries (consultancies and market research firms) that can provide access both to problems and to data. That access should help the field find its way back to the path that leads to rigorous academic research on real and important problems. © 2010 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy.
Recessions provide challenges to managers seeking to develop and justify an appropriate level of market-facing activity. The literature on the topic offers limited guidance on what strategy is most appropriate. We briefly review the literature on the topic and report on recent results that show (a) that R&D spending by B2BGoods firms and B2BServices firms in recessions increases both profits and stock returns, while advertising spending decreases both profits and stock returns; (b) for B2CServices firms, both R&D and advertising spending in recessions increases profits and stock returns and (c) for B2CGoods firms, R&D spending in recessions increases profits and stock returns, while advertising spending increases profits but decreases stock returns. Further, these effects are either strengthened or weakened depending on the firm's market share and financial leverage. © 2010 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy.
Lilien, GL, Grewal, R, Bowman, D, Ding, M, Griffin, A, Kumar, V, Narayandas, D, Peres, R, Srinivasan, R & Wang, Q 2010, 'Calculating, creating, and claiming value in business markets: Status and research agenda', MARKETING LETTERS, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 287-299.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Van Bruggen, GH, Spann, M, Lilien, GL & Skiera, B 2010, 'Prediction Markets as institutional forecasting support systems', DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 404-416.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kayande, U, De Bruyn, A, Lilien, GL, Rangaswamy, A & van Bruggen, GH 2009, 'How Incorporating Feedback Mechanisms in a DSS Affects DSS Evaluations', INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 527-546.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wu, J, Lilien, GL & Dasgupta, A 2008, 'An Exploratory Study of Trade Show Formation and Diversity', JOURNAL OF BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS MARKETING, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 397-424.View/Download from: Publisher's site
De Bruyn, A & Lilien, GL 2008, 'A multi-stage model of word-of-mouth influence through viral marketing', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 151-163.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Grewal, R, Dearden, JA & Lilien, GL 2008, 'The university rankings game: Modeling the competition among universities for ranking', AMERICAN STATISTICIAN, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 232-237.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Srinivasan, R, Lilien, GL & Rangaswamy, A 2008, 'Survival of high tech firms: The effects of diversity of product-market portfolios, patents, and trademarks', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 119-128.View/Download from: Publisher's site
De Bruyn, A, Liechty, JC, Huizingh, EKRE & Lilien, GL 2008, 'Offering online recommendations with minimum customer input through conjoint-based decision aids', MARKETING SCIENCE, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 443-460.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kayande, U, Roberts, JH, Lilien, GL & Fong, DKH 2007, 'Mapping the bounds of incoherence: How far can you go and how does it affect your brand?', Marketing Science, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 504-513.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Consumers often have to evaluate products comprising a combination of attributes that is not expected by them, given their beliefs about how attributes normally co-vary in the product category. Such an attribute combination implies that the claimed level of a product attribute is then different from what the consumer might infer, given the level of another attribute, resulting in what we call product incoherence. We develop a model to calibrate the effect of incoherence on perceptions, uncertainty, preference, and ultimately purchase. Our model can allow managers to determine consumers' acceptance for different positions in the multiattribute space, so they can optimize their product's positioning. Our model implies that a product that combines positively valued attributes might increase some elements of preference for the product, but if those attributes occur in unexpected combinations, incoherence will also increase uncertainty which in turn might lower other elements of preference. The net risk-adjusted preference for a product in our model accommodates both the benefit from the expected attribute levels and the uncertainty associated with incoherence. We derive implications from the model and provide an empirical test that supports those implications. © 2007 INFORMS.
Kayande, U, Roberts, JH, Lilien, GL & Fong, DKH 2007, 'Mapping the bounds of incoherence: How far can you go and how does it affect your brand? (vol 26, pg 504, 2007)', MARKETING SCIENCE, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. CP2-CP2.
Grewal, R, Lilien, GL & Mallapragada, G 2006, 'Location, location, location: How network embeddedness affects project success in open source systems', MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1043-1056.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Srinivasan, R, Rangaswamy, A & Lilien, GL 2005, 'Turning adversity into advantage: Does proactive marketing during a recession pay off?', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 109-125.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Srinivasan, R, Lilien, GL & Rangaswamy, A 2004, 'First in, first out? The effects of network externalities on pioneer survival', JOURNAL OF MARKETING, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 41-58.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lilien, GL, Rangaswamy, A, Van Bruggen, GH & Starke, K 2004, 'DSS effectiveness in marketing resource allocation decisions: Reality vs. perception', INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 216-235.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Van Bruggen, GH, Lilien, GL & Kacker, M 2002, 'Informants in organizational marketing research: Why use multiple informants and how to aggregate responses', JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 469-478.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Srinivasan, R, Lilien, GL & Rangaswamy, A 2002, 'Technological opportunism and radical technology adoption: An application to e-business', JOURNAL OF MARKETING, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 47-60.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lilien, GL, Rangaswamy, A, van Bruggen, GH & Wierenga, B 2002, 'Bridging the marketing theory-practice gap with marketing engineering', JOURNAL OF BUSINESS RESEARCH, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 111-121.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lilien, GL, Morrison, PD, Searls, K, Sonnack, M & von Hippel, E 2002, 'Performance assessment of the lead user idea-generation process for new product development', MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1042-1059.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Dearden, JA & Lilien, GL 2001, 'Advertising coopetition: Who pays? Who gains?', Advances in Applied Microeconomics, vol. 10, pp. 203-219.
We develop a competitive advertising model, where a firm's advertising spending can be divided into two parts. One part, which we call generic advertising, affects only total market demand. The second component of that spending, brand advertising, affects market share directly, but may also have an effect on total market demand. We investigate how the profit margins of the firms, the advertising elasticities, the base market shares of the firms, and the market demand effect of brand advertising interact to determine the total amount of advertising spending in the market, who pays and how they pay (the ratio of generic to brand advertising). We also show that, in general, a market where generic advertising expenditures are set cooperatively will see higher expenditures of generic advertising than will a purely competitive market. © 2001.
Van den Bulte, C & Lilien, GL 2001, 'Medical innovation revisited: Social contagion versus marketing effort', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, vol. 106, no. 5, pp. 1409-1435.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lilien, GL & Rangaswamy, A 2000, 'Modeled to bits: Decision models for the digital, networked economy', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING, vol. 17, no. 2-3, pp. 227-235.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Matanovich, T, Lilien, GL & Rangaswamy, A 1999, 'Engineering the Price-Value Relationship', Marketing Management, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 48.
Marketing tools exist to help managers understand and manage their pricing decisions.
Dearden, JA, Lilien, GL & Yoon, E 1999, 'Marketing and production capacity strategy for non-differentiated products: Winning and losing at the capacity cycle game', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 57-74.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lilien, GL, Rangaswamy, A & Matanovich, T 1998, 'Harnessing expert judgment', Marketing Management, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 40.
Models help build profitability into sales force size and allocation decisions.
Lilien, GL, Rangaswamy, A & Matanovich, T 1998, 'The age of marketing engineering', Marketing Management, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 48.
'Conceptual marketing' can only take managers so far.
Danneels, E & Lilien, GL 1998, 'Doctoral programs in business-to-business marketing: Status and prospects', Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, vol. 5, no. 1-2, pp. 7-34.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PhD programs in Business-to-Business Marketing are under increasing pressure to bring both more rigor and relevance to their training processes. We report on an empirical investigation on the practices and needed developments in Marketing PhD programs, focusing specifically on Business Marketing. Based on a sample of 41 programs worldwide, we find widespread agreement that the rigor/relevance challenge is even greater for Business Marketing scholars than for their colleagues who concentrate on the consumer market. Business Marketing PhDs deal with products with hard to understand uses and benefits, often exchanged in non-public markets with relatively few customers. These challenges lead us to recommend, among other things, that we must recruit PhDs from non-traditional sources and encourage them to partner with scholars from methodological and scientific disciplines to increase both rigor and relevance in their work. © 1998 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
Danneels, E & Lilien, GL 1998, 'A program of action for business-to-business doctoral programs: A reply to grahame dowling', Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, vol. 5, no. 1-2, pp. 39-40.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Van den Bulte, C & Lilien, GL 1997, 'Bias and systematic change in the parameter estimates of macro-level diffusion models', MARKETING SCIENCE, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 338-353.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Dekimpe, MG, Francois, P, Gopalakrishna, S, Lilien, GL & VandenBulte, C 1997, 'Generalizing about trade show effectiveness: A cross-national comparison', JOURNAL OF MARKETING, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 55-64.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article presents six new principles emerging from four decades of academic and industry research on the generation of high-quality creative ideas by 'brainstorming'. The principles are: (a) brainstorming insructions are essential and should emphasize, paradoxically, number and not quality of ideas; (b) a specific, difficult target should be set for the number of ideas; (c) individuals, not groups, should generate the initial ideas; (d) groups should then be used to amalgamate and refine the ideas; (e) individuals should provide the final ratings to select the best ideas, which will increase commitment to the ideas selected; and, (f) the time required for successful brainstorming should be kept remarkably short. By following these principles, brainstorming will more dependably produce high-quality creative results. © 1994, SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.
Dowling, GR, Lilien, GL & Soni, PK 1994, 'A Business Market Segmentation Procedure for Product Planning', Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 31-62.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper demonstrates a market segmentation procedure that responds to the information needs associated with business product marketing. We outline several important criteria that such a procedure should meet, and then propose a procedure that addresses those criteria. We illustrate use of the procedure by applying it to the US information processing market with considerable success. We close with a discussion of the uses and limitations of the procedure and the need for further research. © 1993 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
LILIEN, GL 1994, 'VALUE-FOCUSED THINKING', SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 4-4.
Market research, in business markets and elsewhere, is performed to provide information about the market. The low level of research expenditures in business markets reflects both the low quality of information available and the difficulty involved in evaluating the quality and value of that information. This paper treats three methods for addressing industrial marketing research problems: Decomposed Error Analysis (DEA), to assess the likely accuracy of research; Analysis of Plural Estimates (APE), an approach to combine research methods; and Partial Conditioning of Consequences (PCC), an approach to determine the economic value of research. A short case is included wiili each method illustrating the value of that method in practice. © 1993 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
Soni, PK, Lilien, GL & Wilson, DT 1993, 'Industrial innovation and firm performance: A re-conceptualization and exploratory structural equation analysis', International Journal of Research in Marketing, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 365-380.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Successful new products are essential to the financial viability of many firms, with more than half of most firms' sales resulting from products introduced in the past decade. But despite much research attempting to relate industrial innovation and firm performance, a cohesive theory has yet to emerge. We use structural equation models to assess the simultaneous impact of market structure, firm size and diversification on industrial innovation and firm performance. We measure innovative output by both the number and the nature of resulting new products. In a sample of forty firms in the industrial chemicals industry, we found that (a) innovativeness results in better firm performance; (b) intermediate levels of market concentration result in more innovativeness and better performance than more extreme levels; (c) smaller firms are more innovative and perform better than larger firms, and (d) less diversified firms perform better than highly diversified firms. © 1993.
Eliashberg, J, Gauvin, S, Lilien, GL & Rangaswamy, A 1992, 'An experimental study of alternative preparation aids for international negotiations', Group Decision and Negotiation, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 243-267.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We test the relative effectiveness of alternative preparation aids in the context of an international negotiation. We consider three forms of training: reading material, a course on negotiation, and an expert system (NEGOTEX) expressly designed to train negotiators. We conducted a laboratory experiment involving 66 pairs of negotiators-one of each pair being American and the other Chinese. Results suggest that in this context, the course had the greatest effect on performance, followed by NEGOTEX, and then followed by reading material. In addition, we found that training effects were additive: multiple forms of training lead to better results than individual forms of training, suggesting that (1) training forms complement and do not substitute for one another, and (2) multiple forms of training should be considered, especially when stakes are high. © 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Wilson, EJ & Lilien, GL 1992, 'Using single informants to study group choice: An examination of research practice in organizational buying', Marketing Letters, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 297-305.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purchasing agents are often employed as individual informants in studies of organizational buying. This practice occurs in spite of the fact that several researchers have identified problems with using individual informants to study group buying behavior. The purpose of this study is to examine the appropriateness of using either single or multiple informants both in non-new task and new task group buying situations. We compare the predictive accuracy of a single-informant, autocracy model with that of a multiperson, majority rule model. The study includes 104 group decisions made by buying centers in organizations. Overall, we find that data from multiple informants significantly outperforms single informant data for both new task and non-new task situations, and that single/key informant data should be used in organizational buying research only with care and caution. © 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
WILSON, EJ, LILIEN, GL & WILSON, DT 1991, 'DEVELOPING AND TESTING A CONTINGENCY PARADIGM OF GROUP CHOICE IN ORGANIZATIONAL BUYING', JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 452-466.View/Download from: Publisher's site
GAUVIN, S, LILIEN, GL & CHATTERJEE, K 1990, 'THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING ON NEGOTIATORS PERFORMANCE', THEORY AND DECISION, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 331-354.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Dearden, JA & Lilien, GL 1990, 'On optimal salesforce compensation in the presence of production learning effects', International Journal of Research in Marketing, vol. 7, no. 2-3, pp. 179-188.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents a theory of multi-period salesforce compensation in which a firm experiences a production learning effect. Firm management uses the salesforce compensation plan to promote current period sales (and production) in order to lower future period production costs. The firm management (principal)-salesperson (agent) relationship is modeled as an agency relationship. The model is a two-period extension of the Basu, Lal, Srinivasan and Staelin (1985) one-period agency model of salesforce compensation. We demonstrate that (relative to the results for the one-period model) firm management should, in the first period, decrease the salary portion of the compensation plan and increase the commission rate (as a percentage of sales). Such changes in the compensation plan motivate the salesperson to increase first period sales effort. The firm is able to increase discounted two-period expected profit by considering production dynamics in this compensation plan. We discuss managerial implications of our model. © 1990.
LILIEN, GL & YOON, ES 1990, 'THE TIMING OF COMPETITIVE MARKET ENTRY - AN EXPLORATORY-STUDY OF NEW INDUSTRIAL-PRODUCTS', MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 568-585.View/Download from: Publisher's site
LILIEN, GL & YOON, F 1989, 'DETERMINANTS OF NEW INDUSTRIAL-PRODUCT PERFORMANCE - A STRATEGIC REEXAMINATION OF THE EMPIRICAL LITERATURE', IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 3-10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
WILSON, EJ, LILIEN, GL & WILSON, DT 1989, 'FORMAL MODELS OF GROUP CHOICE IN ORGANIZATIONAL BUYING - TOWARD A CONTINGENCY PARADIGM', ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, vol. 16, pp. 548-554.
YOON, ES & LILIEN, GL 1988, 'CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDUSTRIAL DISTRIBUTORS INNOVATION ACTIVITIES - AN EXPLORATORY-STUDY', JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 227-240.
KEENEY, RL & LILIEN, GL 1987, 'NEW INDUSTRIAL-PRODUCT DESIGN AND EVALUATION USING MULTIATTRIBUTE VALUE ANALYSIS', JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 185-198.View/Download from: Publisher's site
LILIEN, GL 1987, 'QUANTITATIVE METHODS IN MANAGEMENT - CASE-STUDIES OF SUCCESSES AND FAILURES - TILANUS,CB, DEGANS,OB, LENSTRA,JK', INTERFACES, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 98-99.
This paper reviews some major concepts in game theory and indicates how they may apply to marketing science. The theory of games provides a framework for addressing problems of competitive strategies and of buyer-seller interactions. These issues are important in studying industrial markets where there are a small number of buyers as well as for studying how to incorporate knowledgeable, active competitors into consumer marketing mix models. Few marketers have seen much benefit in the past from developments in game theory. This is partly because of the historical preoccupation of game theorists with complete information, zero sum games. The richer area of games of incomplete information may have much more to offer the marketing scientist. In this paper we review how game-theoretic approaches (interactive models) differ from most previous approaches, which are optimizing and asymmetric. We then look at how these alternative approaches apply to two problem areas - competitive entry and bargaining. Then we review potential applications of game theory in marketing and the value of applying marketing science approaches in game theory. We conclude with a perspective on future developments in this field. © 1986.
CHOFFRAY, JM & LILIEN, GL 1986, 'A DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING SALES PROSPECTS AND LAUNCH STRATEGIES FOR NEW PRODUCTS', INDUSTRIAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 75-85.View/Download from: Publisher's site
LILIEN, GL 1986, 'THE EDELMAN AWARD - THE BEST OF PRACTICE AND WHY WE NEED MORE OF IT', INTERFACES, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 4-5.
YOON, E & LILIEN, GL 1985, 'NEW INDUSTRIAL-PRODUCT PERFORMANCE - THE EFFECTS OF MARKET CHARACTERISTICS AND STRATEGY', JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 134-144.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Yoon, E & Lilien, GL 1985, 'New Industrial Product Performance: The Effects of Market Characteristics and Strategy', Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 134-144.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There's no need to state again the complexity of the problem of achieving high performance in the new product process. What we do need is a framework to help sort out the complexity, and that is what Eunsang Yoon and Gary Lilien provide in this article. They first differentiate between original and reformulated new products. Then they examine how patterns of R&D and marketing activities determine short and long‐run success. © 1985 Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc.
CHATTERJEE, K & LILIEN, GL 1984, 'EFFICIENCY OF ALTERNATIVE BARGAINING PROCEDURES - AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY', JOURNAL OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 270-295.View/Download from: Publisher's site
LILIEN, GL & WEINSTEIN, D 1984, 'AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF THE DETERMINANTS OF INDUSTRIAL MARKETING EXPENDITURES', JOURNAL OF MARKETING, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 46-53.View/Download from: Publisher's site
LILIEN, GL & WONG, MA 1984, 'AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE BUYING CENTER IN THE METALWORKING INDUSTRY', JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
LILIEN, GL 1983, 'ON THE VALUE OF CONTROVERSY', INTERFACES, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 10-11.
LILIEN, GL, RAO, AG & KALISH, S 1981, 'BAYESIAN-ESTIMATION AND CONTROL OF DETAILING EFFORT IN A REPEAT PURCHASE DIFFUSION ENVIRONMENT', MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 493-506.View/Download from: Publisher's site
LILIEN, GL 1980, 'THE IMPLICATIONS OF DIFFUSION-MODELS FOR ACCELERATING THE DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION', TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 339-351.View/Download from: Publisher's site
LILIEN, GL & RAO, AG 1979, 'EMERGING APPROACHES TO RETAIL OUTLET MANAGEMENT', SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 27-36.
Choffray, JM & Lilien, GL 1978, 'MARKET FOR SOLAR COOLING: PERCEPTIONS, RESPONSE AND STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS.', Energy Policy, pp. 209-226.
This paper evaluates market reaction to the solar cooling concept. It isolates and shows the importance of noneconomic issues, such as system modernness, reliability and power-rationing protection, on market receptivity. The paper also shows that the industrial cooling decision process typically includes a number of individuals, from engineers to top managers to outside consultants, who have different attitudes toward system characteristics and who perceive relative system advantages differently. The implication of these differences for a solar cooling marketing program is described. The analysis is positioned in the context of an industrial marketing decision support system which pinpoints areas of improvement in industrial product design and provides a meaningful basis for the development of industrial communications strategies.
Lilien, GL & McCormick, ST 1978, 'DIFFUSION OF PHOTOVOLTAICS: MARKETING AND GOVERNMENT POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY.', Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 1021-1102.
A new model of photovoltaic marketplace diffusion is developed. The novelty of the model is that it predicts market response as a function of controllable variables, and can be calibrated by field measurements. Hete, government investment strategy is the input variable, so the model can help predict optimal government allocation policies over sectors, regions and time. In addition, some developments in allocation theory under simple conditions are given. Using field measurements to calibrate the model, several hypothetical government policies are simulated. The sensitivity of the model to variations in its parameters is also explored. Finally, implications for government policy formulation are discussed, and directions for future expansion of these preliminary results are suggested.
CHOFFRAY, JM & LILIEN, GL 1978, 'NEW APPROACH TO INDUSTRIAL MARKET-SEGMENTATION', SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 17-29.
LILIEN, GL & LITTLE, JDC 1976, 'ADVISER PROJECT - STUDY OF INDUSTRIAL MARKETING BUDGETS', SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 17-31.
Gopalakrishna, S & Lilien, GL 2012, 'Trade shows in the business marketing communications mix' in Handbook of Business-to-Business Marketing, pp. 226-245.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Grewal, R & Lilien, GL 2012, 'Business-to-business marketing: Looking back, looking forward' in Handbook of Business-to-Business Marketing, Springer, pp. 3-12.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Lilien, GL & Rangaswamy, A 2008, 'Marketing engineering: Models that connect with practice' in International Series in Operations Research and Management Science, pp. 527-559.View/Download from: Publisher's site
ELIASHBERG, J, LILIEN, GL & KIM, N 1994, 'SEARCHING FOR GENERALIZATIONS IN BUSINESS MARKETING NEGOTIATIONS', MARKETING SCIENCE, Wharton Conference on Empirical Generalizations in Marketing, INST MANAGEMENT SCI, PHILADELPHIA, PA, pp. G47-G60.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lilien, GL & Lodish, LM 1970, 'John D.C. Little, marketing science and more', PROCEEDINGS OF THE 13TH PAUL D. CONVERSE SYMPOSIUM, 13th Paul D Converse Symposium, AMER MARKETING ASSOC, UNIV ILLINOIS URBANA-CHAMPAIGN, URBANA, IL, pp. 74-82.
LILIEN, GL 1970, 'RESEARCH TRADITIONS IN MARKETING - COMMENT', RESEARCH TRADITIONS IN MARKETING, Conference on Research Traditions in Marketing, KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM, pp. 262-264.
LILIEN, GL 1970, 'MARKETING MODELS - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE', RESEARCH TRADITIONS IN MARKETING, Conference on Research Traditions in Marketing, KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM, pp. 1-20.
LILIEN, GL 1970, 'MARKETING MODELS - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE - REPLY', RESEARCH TRADITIONS IN MARKETING, Conference on Research Traditions in Marketing, KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM, pp. 26-26.