François Carrillat is an Associate Professor in the Marketing Discipline Group. He is particularly interested in how sponsorships (i.e., of events, individuals, causes, etc.) and celebrity endorsements influence consumers’ perceptions of brands and corporations; an area in which he conducts research, teaches and consults. François is also active in the area of consumer welfare and well-being. His research explores how the plethora of products available impact decision making and lead ‘maximizing’ consumers to immerse themselves in the decision-making task at hand. He also works on how consumers manage their personal finance. In addition, François has authored several meta-analyses covering strategy topics such as market orientation and its impact on business performance, the multiple business outcomes of service quality, or the antecedents of movie box-office success.
His work has appeared in the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, the Journal of Advertising, the International Journal of Research in Marketing, the Journal of Advertising Research, the European Journal of Marketing, the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, and Marketing Letters among others.
A native of France, François received his Ph.D. in Business Administration from the University of South Florida and was an associate professor of marketing at HEC Montréal in Canada prior to joining UTS in 2014. He was also a visiting research scholar at the University of Adelaide in 2012-2013 and at HEC Montréal in 2017.
François is involved with a number of scholarly journals. He is currently an Associate Editor for the Journal of Advertising and the Asia-Pacific Regional Editor for the European Journal of Marketing. He also serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, the Journal of Service Management, the Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, and Recherche et Applications en Marketing.
Recognized for his outstanding service as a reviewer he has received 5 best reviewer awards from 4 different academic journals and 1 academic conference; he has also received a best article award for his meta-analysis on service quality, which appeared in the Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice.
He is a member of the American Marketing Association, the American Academy of Advertising, and the Australian & New-Zealand Marketing Academy.
Can supervise: YES
Hyperchoice and 'maximizer' consumers
Servcices marketing (undergraduate)
Consumer behavior (undergraduate)
Marketing research (undergraduate)
Strategic Services Marketing (postgraduate)
Marketing communication & branding (postgraduate)
Sponsorship & celebrity endorsement (postgraduate)
Commercial sponsorship & sports mass communication (postgraduate)
Marketing strategy in the arts (Ph.D.)
Readings in marketing (Ph.D.)
Applied Meta-Analysis (Ph.D.)
d’Astous, A, Carrillat, FA & Przybysz, A 2020, 'Legitimacy and sincerity as leveraging factors in social sponsorship: an experimental investigation', International Journal of Advertising.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, © 2019 Advertising Association. The research presented in this manuscript examines how social sponsorship can be made more commercially effective. To this end, the effects of two leveraging factors are explored by means of an experiment: the extent to which the social sponsorship is seen by consumers as legitimate, and that to which the sponsor is perceived as sincere. The results show that these two factors have a positive and statistically significant impact on consumers’ intentions to purchase the sponsor’s products. In addition, they show that the sponsor’s perceived sincerity increases when the sponsorship is combined with philanthropic investments, either in sequence (i.e. philanthropy followed by sponsorship) or simultaneously, and that the legitimacy of a sponsorship is enhanced when the cause and its sponsor are congruent. These results are discussed in the context of the literature on social sponsorship, and managerial implications for firms that contemplate using social sponsorship as a marketing communication strategy are derived.
This paper aims to examine the common situation where the sponsor of an event is replaced and the impact of this situation on consumers’ behavioral intentions toward the new sponsor.
An original conceptual framework was developed to account for consumers’ reactions toward a new sponsor in the context of a sponsorship change, depending on whether the former and new sponsors are competitors, the duration of the relationship between the former sponsor and the event (tenure length), and the level of congruence between the new and the former sponsor and the event. This framework, based on consumer motive attributions, was tested by means of three completely randomized experiments.
The results of the first experiment show that if the former and new sponsors are competitors, consumers’ behavioral intentions toward the new sponsor are more positive if the former sponsor’s tenure duration was short. When the former and the new sponsors are not competitors, the former sponsor’s tenure duration does not impact behavioral intentions. The second experiment demonstrates that consumers’ altruistic motive attributions are the underlying mechanism that explains these effects. Finally, the third experiment identifies a boundary condition, that is, these effects occur only if the new and the former sponsor are congruent with the sponsored property.
This research has not considered the situation where the former and new sponsors have different levels of congruence with the event (e.g. when the former sponsor is congruent but the new sponsor is incongruent with the event) and has examined only sponsorship tenure durations of one versus 15 years.
Sponsorship managers learn that replacing a sponsor that was supporting the event for a short rather than a long period of time is more beneficial, but only if replacing a competitor that is congruent with the sponsored property. The reas...
Carrillat, FA & Ilicic, J 2019, 'The Celebrity Capital Life Cycle: A Framework for Future Research Directions on Celebrity Endorsement', Journal of Advertising, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 61-71.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article introduces the celebrity capital life cycle as a structuring framework for the literature on celebrity endorsement. This framework comprises four stages: acquisition, consolidation, abrupt downfall/slow decline, and redemption/resurgence. The celebrity capital life cycle framework accounts for the ups and downs of celebrities’ career journey through fluctuations in their celebrity capital (i.e., accumulated media visibility. We provide first a brief overview of the literature highlighting relevant research gaps, followed by an exposition of the conceptual underpinnings of the celebrity capital life cycle. We then develop future research directions for each stage of the celebrity capital life cycle that address the existing knowledge gaps.
Carrillat, FA, O’Rourke, A-M & Plourde, C 2019, 'Celebrity endorsement in the world of luxury fashion – when controversy can be beneficial', Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 35, no. 13-14, pp. 1193-1213.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Can a negatively publicised celebrity endorser ever lead to favourable brand attitudes toward a luxury fashion product (i.e. a perfume)? An online experiment was conducted with a sample of 260 target-relevant female consumers where two factors were manipulated: the brand’s positioning objective (image reinforcement versus revitalisation) and the type of celebrity endorser (naturally versus incidentally controversial). Consumer attitudes towards the luxury fashion brand were generally more positive when the type of celebrity endorser was consistent with the brand’s positioning strategy, that is, when a naturally controversial celebrity endorses a brand with a reinforcement strategy and when an incidentally controversial celebrity endorses a brand with a revitalisation strategy. Furthermore, this effect was mediated by consumers’ appreciation of the celebrity-positioning match-up (i.e. the consistency between the celebrity’s persona and the brand’s strategy) but not by their perceptions of appropriateness (i.e. the traditional match-up hypothesis). Several implications suggested by these findings are developed.
Chaney, D, Carrillat, F & Zouari, A 2019, 'Uncovering Institutional Orientation as a New Strategic Orientation in Industrial Marketing', Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 76, no. July, pp. 242-250.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article examines the effects on consumers’ attitudes of the concurrent exposure of competitive brands sponsoring different properties during an event (i.e., sponsoring an event vs. the athletes participating in this event), thus creating a competitive sponsorship clutter. In contrast with previous research having examined interference effects in advertising, the results of this research reveal that in a sponsorship setting, clutter effects on consumer responses depend on perceived sponsor–sponsee congruence and do not result from deeper information processing. More precisely, it was found that whereas the evaluation of a congruent sponsoring brand is negatively affected by clutter, the impact of clutter on attitude toward an incongruent sponsor is positive. In addition, articulating the sponsorship was shown to decrease the negative effects of clutter. Implications for research and practice are derived from these findings.
Carrillat, F, Legoux, R & Hadida, AL 2018, 'Debates and assumptions about motion picture performance: a meta-analysis', Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 273-299.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Across the many studies of motion picture box office success, unresolved debates and untested assumptions about the contributing factors persist. Using an accessibility– diagnosticity framework and a meta-analysis of 634 effect sizes from 150 studies, the current article seeks to clarify the relationships of star brand equity and product reviews (from consumers
and critics) with box office success. The popularity of stars (market and media appeals) exerts a stronger impact on box office success than their artistic recognition (as per award nominations and wins) at the moment of a movie’s release but not over its extended theatrical run. Whereas the impact of popular stars on box office success decreases over time, the
influence of artistically recognized stars remains steady. The findings also identify a dual role for critics, who influence consumers’ movie choice and predict box office performance by merely reflecting moviegoers’ tastes. Finally, this study refutes the assumption that the impact of users’ reviews strengthens over time, relative to critics’ reviews.
Purmehdi, M, Legoux, R, Carrillat, F & Senecal, S 2017, 'The Effectiveness of Warning Labels for Consumers: A Meta-Analytic Investigation into Their Underlying Process and Contingencies', Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 36-53.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Although several meta-analyses have been conducted on the effectiveness of warning labels, many questions regarding their effectiveness remain unanswered. The authors identify 243 effect sizes from 66 primary articles, more than three times the number of effect sizes included in the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date. This updated and substantially larger data set shows that label effectiveness is contingent on the type of expected behavioral outcome. Labels aimed at moderation/cessation display a generally diminishing cascade of effects from attention (r = .32), comprehension (r = .37), recall (r = .31), judgment (r = .22), and behavior (r = .18). Labels targeting safe use show stronger effect sizes for behavior (r = .39) despite displaying a downward trend for attention (r = .35), comprehension (r = .29), recall (r = .32), and judgment (r = .21). The authors also find evidence of increased effectiveness when preactivating the label by means of an integrated communication strategy (r = .49). In addition, the results show the impact of several contextual factors (e.g., social influence [r = .33] and exposure frequency [r = .12]).
Plewa, C, Carrillat, F, Mazodier, M & Quester, P 2016, 'Which sport sponsorships most impact sponsor CSR image?', European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50, no. 5/6, pp. 796-815.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose – This study aims to investigate how organizations can utilize sport sponsorship to build
their corporate social responsibility (CSR) image effectively, by examining the attributes of a sports
property that are most conducive to a sponsor gaining CSR image benefits.
Design/methodology/approach – A between-subjects experimental design was used, which
simulated different sponsorship scenarios by varying community proximity (operationalized by
property scope) and property engagement in community initiatives. Hypotheses were tested with a
non-parametric bootstrapping-based procedure, using a panel sample of 400.
Findings – The results show that a sporting property’s proactive community engagement is
conducive to an enhanced CSR image for its sponsor, especially when the property operates on the
national rather than grassroots level. Further analysis also demonstrates the critical contribution of
altruistic motive attributions in the process.
Originality/value – This study advances knowledge on how organizations may build their CSR
image while leveraging on the strong audience involvement and the mass appeal of sport sponsorship.
It is the first to offer insights into the extent to which a sports property’s proactive engagement in the
community, rather than that of the sponsoring firm itself, enhances the CSR image of the sponsor,
particularly if the property’s community proximity is low. Furthermore, our results provide an in-depth
understanding of the mechanisms determining the benefits that sponsors can reap from a property’s
Carrillat, F, d'Astous, A & Couture, M 2015, 'How Corporate Sponsors Can Optimize The Impact of Their Message Content: Mastering the Message: Improving the Processability And Effectiveness of Sponsorship Activation', Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 255-269.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Carrillat, F, d'Astous, A, Bellavance, F & Eid, F 2015, 'On 'Being there': A comparison of the effectiveness of sporting event sponsorship among direct and indirect audiences', European Journal Of Marketing, vol. 49, no. 3/4, pp. 621-642.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Carrillat, F, Solomon, PJ & d'Astous, A 2015, 'Brand Stereotyping and Image Transfer in Concurrent Sponsorships', Journal of Advertising, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 300-314.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Concurrent sponsorship, that is, when several brands simultaneously sponsor the same event, is a common yet understudied marketing communication situation. The research presented in this article explores the transfer of image that takes place among the sponsoring brands in this situation. The results of two experiments reveal that this image transfer is due to stereotypic processing. Additional analyses delineate more specifically the stereotyping process at work. They show first that the stereotype is ad hoc, rather than based on some a priori developed mental schema, and therefore that it is construed from the images associated with the concurrent sponsoring brands. And second, that brand stereotyping serves a cognitive rather than an evaluative function, thus suggesting a valence-neutral process whose outcomes can be beneficial or detrimental to a focal sponsor, depending on the images initially associated with the other sponsors. The implications of these findings for sponsorship research and practice are discussed, along with research limitations and future research avenues.
Ladik, DM, Carrillat, F & Tadajeweski, M 2015, 'Belk's (1988) 'Possessions and the Extended Self' revisited', Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 184-207.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to revisit Russell Belk’s (1988) landmark paper “Possessions and the extended self”. The authors provide a prehistory of related ideas and then examine the controversy it triggered regarding the different paradigms of research in marketing (Cohen, 1989) some 26 years ago.
Design/methodology/approach – This paper takes Belk seriously when he argues that his work is a synthesis and extension of prior studies leading to the novel production of the “extended self” concept. Via a
close reading of the history of self-constitution, the authors highlight a number of thinkers who were grappling with similar issues now associated in our disciplinary consciousness to the idea of the “extended self”. To assess the contribution of Belk’s work, the authors engage in citation and interpretive analyses. The first analysis compared scholarly citations of Belk (1988) with the top ten most-cited Journal of Consumer Research (JCR) papers published in the same year. The second citation analysis compared Belk (1988) to the
top ten most-cited JCR papers in the history of the journal. The authors follow this with an interpretive analysis of Belk’s contribution to consumer research via his 1988 paper.
Findings – Belk (1988) had the most citations (N 934) of any paper published in JCR in 1988. When compared to all papers published in the history of JCR, Belk (1988) leads with the most overall citations.
Moreover, Belk (1988) is the most prominent interpretive paper that appeared in JCR and one of the top three, regardless of paradigm. The analysis illustrates diversity in topic and methodology, thus indicating that Belk’s contribution impacted a wide variety of scholars. Interpretive analysis indicates the importance of Belk’s work for subsequently impactful consumer researchers.
Originality/value – The authors offer a prehistory of the “extended self” concept by highlighting literature that many consumer researchers will not have explored...
Ali, B, Carrillat, F & Ladik, DM 2014, 'When motivation is against debtors best interest: The illusion of goal progress in credit card debt repayment', Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 143-158.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The authors explore the illusion of goal progress by consumers who own multiple credit cards and pay off their debt balances to facilitate the achievement of their subgoal rather than the superordinate goal of being debt-free. The first experiment shows that debtors use their savings toward the credit card debt they can pay off entirely or substantially, even if it is associated with the smallest balance and the lowest annual percentage rate rather than toward the debt with the highest annual percentage rate. The second experiment reveals that when the income available to pay down the debt is in the form of effortless money (i.e., windfall or reward money) as opposed to hard-earned savings, the tendency to allocate money toward the smallest credit card debt is exacerbated. However, people tend to pay their debt more rationally when the number of debt accounts increases. Finally, the third experiment shows that credit card debt repayment decisions depend on the nature of the debt (hedonic vs. utilitarian) and the timing of consumption benefits (past vs. future). The article concludes with a discussion of managerial and public policy implications.
Ali, B, Ladik, DM & Carrillat, F 2014, 'Are maximizers blind to the future? When today's best does not make for a better tomorrow', Marketing Letters, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 77-91.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Carrillat, F & d'Astous, A 2014, 'Power imbalance issues in athlete sponsorship versus endorsement in the context of a scandal', European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48, no. 5/6, pp. 1070-1091.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Carrillat, F, Colbert, F & Feigné, M 2014, 'Weapons of mass intrusion: The leveraging of ambush marketing strategies', European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48, no. 1/2, pp. 314-335.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Carrillat, F, d'Astous, A & Christianis, H 2014, 'Guilty by association: The perils of celebrity endorsement for endorsed brands and their direct competitors', Psychology and Marketing, vol. 31, no. 11.
Carrillat, F, d'Astous, A & Gregoire, EM 2014, 'Leveraging social media to enhance recruitment effectiveness: a Facebook experiment', Internet Research, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 474-495.
Carrillat, F & d'Astous, A 2013, 'The complementarity factor in the leveraging of sponsorships', International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 20-39.
The complementarity factor stipulates that a sponsorship leveraging strategy can lead to suboptimal consumer responses unless advertising complements, rather than reinforces, the nature of the event-sponsor relationship. Study 1 showed that the best strategy when the sponsor is an official product provider for the event is to leverage the sponsorship through advertisements that emphasise its overall image and value as opposed to its products. However, the reverse is true when the sponsor is an official event partner, where a product-oriented sponsorship leveraging yields the best outcomes. Study 2 replicated the complementarity factor effect using a different event and different set of stimulus brands. It showed that consumer attributions, with respect to the sponsors motivations, are the key mediating psychological mechanism.
Carrillat, F, d'Astous, A & Davoine, V 2013, 'The sponsor-event geographical match as a dimension of event-sponsor fit: An investigation in Europe and North America', Australasian Marketing Journal, vol. 21, pp. 264-270.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The study presented in this article investigates a new basis for the fit construct in sponsorship, namely the sponsor-event geographical (SEG) match. In light of the fast growing internationalization of events and of the increased globalization of sponsoring brands, many event-sponsor relationships are bound to lack fit regarding a SEG match (e.g., a brand strongly associated with the European culture sponsoring an event in Australia). First, the conceptual distinction between the known bases of the fit construct and the SEG match is developed. This is followed by an experiment carried out in two different countries. Results indicate that event-sponsor relationships with a strong SEG match yield more favorable responses than non-SEG match relationships. In addition, when the SEG match is strong, event-sponsor fit is critical for sponsorship success due to its intervening role in the attitude formation process. Managerial recommendations and further research avenues are also discussed.
Carrillat, F, d'Astous, A & Lazure, J 2013, 'For better, for worse? What to do when celebrity endorsement goes bad', Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 15-30.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This experimental study examined what is the optimal decision for a company whose brand is endorsed by a celebrity immersed in a scandal (revoking versus continuing the endorsement) as a function of brand/endorser fit (congruence versus incongruence) and of the veracity of the negative event created by the celebritys reaction (denying versus admitting the facts). In the case of congruence, revoking the endorsement is suboptimal with respect to brand attitude and purchase intention. Furthermore, denying lowered the endorsers trustworthiness which, in turn, hampered attitude and intention. Managerial and theoretical implications, as well as directions for further research, were also considered.
Dantas, DC & Carrillat, F 2013, 'The relational benefits of personalized communications in an online environment', Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 189-202.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This research investigates how personalized communications enhance customer-company relationships,which ultimately produce favourable marketing outcomes. Two factors were manipulated in an online experiment: the perceived effort made by customers to obtain a personalized newsletter (high vs. low) and the level of relevance of the message (high vs. low). The results indicate that perceived effort positively affects calculative commitment (even more so for highly involved customers), while the level of relevance of the message increases affective commitment. In addition, the interaction between perceived effort and message relevance has significant effects on calculative and affective commitment. Finally, affective commitment partially mediates the relationships between relevance and both loyalty and word-of-mouth intentions. Managerial implications regarding the best usage of personalized communications are discussed.
Carrillat, F & d'Astous, A 2012, 'The sponsorship-advertising interface: Is less better for sponsors?', European Journal Of Marketing, vol. 46, no. 3/4, pp. 562-574.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose The objective of this article is to explore the general idea that there is a limit to the extent to which consumers make goodwill assumptions when sponsorship is used in combination with advertising. Design/methodology/approach An experiment was conducted where the number of different sponsorship activities by the same sponsor (i.e. one or two) in a sport event was varied in the context of an ongoing advertising campaign. Findings The results show that when brand advertising is used during a sport event, it is more beneficial for the brand to either be the official sponsor of the event or to be the official provider of products that are integrated in the event than to apply these two sponsorship strategies at the same time. Research limitations/implications Future studies should be conducted with representative samples of consumers and a larger array of sponsored entities such as different sports events, art events, athletes, and cultural organizations. In addition, these studies should incorporate the measurement of consumers inferences during exposure to marketing communication stimuli. Originality/value The study is the first to explore the sponsorship-advertising interface in order to provide insights on the conditions under which the combination of these two forms of marketing communication will lead to optimal benefits in terms of brand equity.
Carrillat, F, Ladik, DM & Legoux, R 2011, 'When the decision ball keeps rolling: An investigation of the Sisyphus effect among maximizing consumers', Marketing Letters, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 283-296.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Abstract Maximizing and satisficing consumers are distinguished by the quest for perfection (the former) versus the acceptance of good-enough options (the latter). The emerging literature in this field leans toward a view of maximizers as consumers who take into account as much information as possible in order to achieve the best purchase outcome. Our article explores the paradoxical phenomenon that maximizers minimize the value of information resulting from their past experiences; i.e., their previous purchase decisions. As a modern Sisyphus rolling his boulder back up the hill after every decision, a maximizer starts anew for each decision that is undertaken even if a similar process has been undertaken in the past; the very quest for perfection makes a maximizer minimize the value of past decisions. Furthermore, the generalizability of this finding is examined for different levels of purchase involvement. Results from two studies, including a probabilistic sample drawn from the general US population, show that past retail store performance becomes a weaker predictor of repurchase intention as maximization tendencies increase among consumers. In the same vein, regret has less negative impact on maximizers behavioral intention than on satisficers. In addition, when involvement increases through price, satisficers start to behave like maximizers as past service experiences becomes less strongly related to their intention. The support found for the Sisyphus Effect is discussed in light of the current theorization of Schwartz and colleagues regarding maximizing consumers. Finally, suggestions for further research are developed.
Carrillat, F, Harris, EG & Lafferty, BA 2010, 'Fortuitous brand image transfer: Investigating the side effect of concurrent sponsorships', Journal Of Advertising, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 109-123.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study investigates the phenomenon of fortuitous brand image transfer, or image transfer that occurs by chance, between two brands sponsoring the same event concurrently (i.e., concurrent sponsorships). Two experiments show that concurrent sponsorships lead either to a transfer of image or to a contrast of image between sponsoring brands that are both familiar, depending on the similarity of their underlying brand concept. Image transfer occurs when the brand concepts of the two sponsors are similar, whereas image contrast occurs when the two sponsors have dissimilar brand concepts. Implications for branding and sponsorship research are provided, as well as recommendations for managers. Finally, directions for further research are suggested.
Carrillat, F, Jaramillo, F & Mulki, JP 2009, 'Examining the impact of service quality: A meta-analysis of empirical evidence', Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 95-110.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study combines meta-analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the impact of service quality (SQ) on customer satisfaction (CS), attitudinal loyalty (AL), and purchase intention (PI). Findings from 86 articles containing 115 independent samples and 161 effect sizes representing 42,877 customers are used to test a model of the relationships among the above-referred variables. Results show that SQ has a large effect on CS, AL, and PI. Also, SQ is indirectly related to AL and PI. Because AL and PI are critical indicators of a customers willingness to engage in a relationship with the fi rm, this study provides clear evidence that SQ plays a vital role in a fi rms quest for building long-term relationships with customers. The effect of measurement and contextual moderators is also analyzed.
Carrillat, F, Riggle, RJ, Locander, WB, Gebhardt, GF & Lee, JM 2009, 'Cognitive segmentation: Modeling the structure and content of customers' thoughts', Psychology and Marketing, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 479-506.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper proposes a cognitive segmentation technique that models both customers cognitive content and structure. Cognitive segmentation provides a quantitative operationalization of idiographic cognitions that can be compared and integrated across customers to move beyond the in-depth understanding and wide generalizing trade-off. In addition, cognitive segmentation utilizes participants own semantics for eliciting and aggregating cognitions. This method allows researchers to understand content in light of structure, as participants elicited cognitive contents are further interpreted as a function of the complexity of their cognitive structures. The conceptual CARRILLAT, RIGGLE, LOCANDER, GEBHARDT, AND LEE Psychology & Marketing DOI: 10.1002/mar 480 foundations from personal construct theory as well as a description of the nine-step implementation process whereby participants fill out a modified version of Kellys Repertory Grid and complete Bormans trait implication procedure are provided. An application illustrates how cognitive segmentation can identify and assess the size potential of each customer target as a function of their cognitive content and structure. A discussion of the results and directions for further research are also provided.
Carrillat, F, d'Astous, A & Colbert, F 2008, 'The effectiveness of art venue sponsorship: An attribution perspective', Journal of Sponsorship, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 274-285.
There are few guidelines regarding the relative effectiveness of different types of art event sponsorship. Based on two experimental designs, this study investigates whether high art or popular art event sponsorship is most effective in improving sponsorship programme evaluation, the credibility of the sponsor and intentions to purchase the sponsor's products. In addition, the effect of the type of art event (ie high versus popular art) on sponsorship effectiveness is examined across different degrees of congruence between the event and the sponsor. With respect to the image of the sponsor, the results show that when the commercial intent of the sponsor is explicit, it is more appropriate to sponsor a popular event than a high art event, whereas the opposite is true when commercial intent is more subtle. Regarding consumers' intention to purchase the sponsor's products, however, sponsoring a high art event leads to better results than sponsoring a popular event in all cases. Managerial implications and directions for further research are discussed on the basis of these results.
Carrillat, FA, Jaramillo, F & Mulki, JP 2007, 'The validity of the SERVQUAL and SERVPERF scales: A meta-analytic view of 17 years of research across five continents', International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 472-490.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose - The purpose is to investigate, the difference between SERVQUAL and SERVPERF's predictive validity of service quality. Design/methodology/ approach - Data from 17 studies containing 42 effect sizes of the relationships between SERVQUAL or SERVPERF with overall service quality (OSQ) are meta-analyzed. Findings - Overall, SERVQUAL and SERVPERF are equally valid predictors of OSQ. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to the measurement context improves its predictive validity; conversely, the predictive validity of SERVPERF is not improved by context adjustments. In addition, measures of services quality gain predictive validity when used in: less individualistic cultures, non-English speaking countries, and industries with an intermediate level of customization (hotels, rental cars, or banks). Research limitations/implications - No study, that were using non-adapted scales were conducted outside of the USA making it impossible to disentangle the impact of scale adaptation vs contextual differences on the moderating effect of language and culture. More comparative studies on the usage of adapted vs non-adapted scales outside the USA are needed before settling this issue meta-analytically. Practical implications - SERVQUAL scales require to be adapted to the study context more so than SERVPERF. Owing to their equivalent predictive validity the choice between SERVQUAL or SERVPERF should be dictated by diagnostic purpose (SERVQUAL) vs a shorter instrument (SERVPERF). Originality/value - Because of the high statistical power of meta-analysis, these findings could be considered as a major step toward ending the debate whether SERVPERF is superior to SERVQUAL as an indicator of OSQ. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Ladik, DM, Carrillat, FA & Solomon, PJ 2007, 'The effectiveness of university sponsorship in increasing survey response rate', Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 263-271.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The purpose of this research is to investigate mail survey response rate effects of local university sponsorship (i.e., targeting respondents living within the vicinity of a partner university). Data from 165 questionnaires reveal that (1) response rates in the home city of the sponsor university are higher than in out-of-state cities, (2) the effectiveness of university sponsorship does not diminish when prenotification techniques are also used, and (3) the effects of university sponsorship and prenotifications are additive, the best results being obtained when both techniques are used together. © 2007 M.E. Sharpe, Inc. All rights reserved.
Carrillat, F, Lafferty, BA & Harris, EG 2005, 'Investigating Sponsorship's Effectiveness: Do Less Familiar Brands Have an Advantage over More Familiar Brands in Single and Multiple Sponsorship Arrangements?', Journal of Brand Management, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 50-64.
Jaramillo, F, Carrillat, FA & Locander, WB 2005, 'A meta-analytic comparison of managerial ratings and self-evaluations', Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 315-328.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The purpose of this study was to examine the equivalence of self-reports and managerial ratings of salesperson job performance. A meta-analysis showed that the two measures exhibited low convergent validity (mean corrected correlation = 0.19), which indicated that they are not interchangeable. The predictive validity of self-reports and managerial ratings was compared. Managerial ratings had a corrected mean correlation of 0.44 with objective performance, whereas the corrected mean correlation between self-reports and objective measures was 0.34. Further meta-analytic investigations showed that the divergence between self-reports and managerial ratings was attributable to the performance effect. A discussion of the findings and avenues for further research are also provided. © 2005 PSE National Educational Foundation. All rights reserved.
Jaramillo, F, Carrillat, F & Locander, WB 2004, 'Market Driving Organizations: A Framework', Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Review, vol. 5, pp. 1-14.
Jaramillo, F, Carrillat, FA & Locander, WB 2004, 'Response to comment: Starting to solve the method puzzle in salesperson self-report evaluations', Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 141-145.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This response addresses the comments of Sharma, Rich, and Levy (2004) about the generalizability of the performance effect. The comments are addressed by bringing additional theoretical and empirical support with a new study that replicates and extends the results of our 2003 paper. Results confirm our 2003 findings that bottom performers overestimate and that top performers underestimate their job performance. Further, results confirm our 2003 findings that bottom performers are significantly more inaccurate than top salespeople in their performance estimation. Finally, this study extends previous research by providing evidence that the inaccuracy in self-evaluations is reduced when factualbased questions are used. © 2004 PSE National Educational Foundation. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez Cano, C, Carrillat, FA & Jaramillo, F 2004, 'A meta-analysis of the relationship between market orientation and business performance: Evidence from five continents', International Journal of Research in Marketing, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 179-200.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Market orientation has emerged as a significant antecedent of performance and is presumed to contribute to long-term success. To investigate the impact of this predictor, a meta-analysis was conducted and findings suggest that the relationship between market orientation and business performance is positive and consistent worldwide. One of the unique contributions of this research is a sample that includes studies conducted in 23 countries spanning five continents. The moderating effects of business objective (profit, not-for-profit), industry type (manufacturing, service), socioeconomic development [gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, Human Development Index (HDI)), and Hofstede's individualism cultural dimension] are examined. Stronger correlations between market orientation and business performance were found for not-for-profit compared to profit firms and service compared to manufacturing firms. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jaramillo, F, Carrillat, FA & Locander, WB 2003, 'Starting to solve the method puzzle in salesperson self-report evaluations', Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 369-377.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The performance effect is used to explain the significant differences between salespersons’ self-evaluation and supervisors’ ratings of job performance. It is shown that bottom performers overestimate, whereas top salespeople underestimate their performance. Also, results indicate that bottom performers are significantly more inaccurate than top salespeople in their job performance estimation. Finally, results indicate that the relationship between inaccuracy of self-evaluation and job performance is curvilinear. Managerial implications are provided as well as directions for future research and limitations. © 2003 PSE National Educational Foundation. All rights reserved.
Carrillat, F & d'Astous, A 2016, 'Leveraging Research on Activation: Quester and Thompson’s (2001) Impact on the Field of Sponsorship' in Plewa, C & Conduit, J (eds), Making a Difference Through Marketing, Springer, Singapore, pp. 13-24.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sponsorship activations—that is, the ancillary marketing communication actions purported to enhance the association between sponsees and sponsors—are what make sponsorships come to life. Activations are generally considered to be critical elements of a sponsorship strategy; for some, perhaps even more so than the sponsorship itself. The work of Quester and Thompson (2001) was a landmark contribution to the study of sponsorship activation on conceptual, empirical, and methodological grounds. It led the way to a host of studies and, to this day, still strongly influences sponsorship research. This chapter highlights why at the time Quester and Thompson (2001) was a significant leap forward in the context of the existing sponsorship literature, calling attention to the fact that this article presented the results of the first study to put to the test the common belief that increasing the intensity of sponsorship activation is beneficial for sponsors. This chapter also makes the point that the rigorous methodological approach of Quester and Thompson (2001), which cleverly addressed issues of both internal and external validity, enhanced the impact of their research in the field of sponsorship. Finally, the chapter discusses the research studies that followed up on Quester and Thompson’s (2001) study, the current research topics that echo its contribution today, as well as the future research directions that it suggests
Carrillat, F, Langan, R, Besharat, A & Ladik, D 2015, 'Ethics and Marketing' in Dubnick, M & Bearfield, D (eds), Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, Taylor & Francis.
Carrillat, F & d'Astous, A 2014, 'Sponsorship' in Lee, N & Farrell, A (eds), Wiley Encyclopedia of Management.
Carrillat, F 2012, 'Comprendre les consommateurs pour un marketing efficace' in Lehu, J-M (ed), MBA Marketing: Tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur le marketing par les meilleurs professeurs et praticiens, Eyrolles, France.
Les consommateurs sont au centre de l’action marketing. Qui sont-ils? Que pensent-ils? Qu’est-ce qui les branche? Que font-ils? Dans ce chapitre, nous chercherons à montrer comment on peut apporter des réponses à ces questions importantes, et à bien d’autres. Le défi est de taille. Le comportement des consommateurs est une discipline qui a fait l’objet d’un grand nombre de recherches depuis près d’un siècle et toute tentative d’en dresser un portrait complet est utopique. Nos objectifs sont plus modestes. D’une part, nous voulons montrer la diversité des concepts qui servent à dégager une compréhension du comportement des consommateurs, ainsi que les relations entre ces concepts. D’autre part, nous voulons établir comment ces concepts s’avèrent pertinents pour la pratique. Pour chaque concept étudié, deux questions vont donc orienter notre démarche : Que faut-il savoir à propos de ce concept? Quelle est son utilité pour le marketing?
Carrillat, F & d'Astous, A 2015, 'The effects of sponsorship articulation message repetition: The moderating role of sponsorship clutter', ANZMAC, Sydney.
Boeuf, B, Carrillat, F & d'Astous, A 2014, 'Competitive Sponsorship Clutter: Measuring Interferences on Attitude', North American Society for Sport Management 2014, North American Society for Sport Management 2014, NASSM, Pittsburgh, USA.
Boeuf, B, Darveau, J, Legoux, R & Carrillat, F 2014, 'A meta-analysis of price and income elasticity in the performing arts', 18th International Conference on Cultural Economics, 18th International Conference on Cultural Economics, Association for Cultural Economics International (ACEI), Quebec, Canada, pp. 1-17.
Carrillat, F, Legoux, R & Azrour, A 2014, '"Should I Stay, or Should I Go?" The Impact of Firm Reaction to Celebrity Endorser Scandals on Stock Value', Proceedings of 2014 ANZMAC Conference, 2014 ANZMAC Conference, ANZMAC, Brisbane, Australia, p. 71.
Plewa, C & Carrillat, F 2014, 'The reputation effect of University-Business Collaboration: A Customer perspective', Proceedings of 2014 ANZMAC Conference, 2014 ANZMAC Conference, ANZMAC, Brisbane, Australia, p. 70.
Plewa, C, Carrillat, F, Mazodier, M & Quester, PG 2014, 'Building CSR Image Through Sport Sponsorship', 43rd annual European Marketing Academy Conference (EMAC), 43rd annual European Marketing Academy Conference, EMAC, Valencia, Spain, pp. 207-207.
Carrillat, F, d’Astous, A & Charette Couture, M-P 1970, 'When easy is jolly: The benefits of sponsorship activation’s Processability', Sport Management Conference, ISC School of Management, Paris, France..
Carrillat, F, d'Astous, A & Ivanovic, D 2013, 'An experimental investigation of the effects of sponsor replacement on consumer responses', Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy, Auckland, New Zealand.
Thomson, A, Rao-Hill, S & Carrillat, F 2013, 'Engaging Consumers Through Branded Smartphone Applications: A Study of Self-Congruenvy and Customer Brand Engagement', Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy, Auckland, New Zealand.
Recent development in mobile technology provides marketers with the opportunity to further connect with customers. The aim of this research is to examine the influence of brand-self fit on customer brand engagement, thus provide a better understanding of how consumers are influenced by branded smartphone applications. Relevant literature on brand-self fit and customer brand engagement is reviewed to build a conceptual framework describing the role of smartphone branded applications upon which propositions are developed.
Carrillat, F, d'Astous, A & Davoine, V 2012, 'The sponsor-audience geographical match as a dimension of event-sponsor fit: An investigation in France and Canada', Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy, Adelaide, Australia.
Carrillat, F, d'Astous, A, Bellavance, F & Eid, F 2012, 'On ‘Being There’: The Effectiveness of Sporting Event Sponsorship in On-Site versus Media Environments', 1st Sports Marketing Conference Warsaw Sports Marketing Center: Focus on Sponsorship, University of Oregon, Portland, OR.
Carrillat, F, Legoux, R & Beaupré, A 2012, 'The Moderating Impact of Cognitive Complexity and Need for Cognition on the “Match-up” Effect in Celebrity Endorsement', Association for Consumer Research Asia Pacific, Queenstown, New-Zealand..
Carrillat, F, Pons, F & Giroux, M 2012, 'Is Hyperactivity Always Good for Sponsors?: Role of Sponsor Ubiquity in Sponsorship Evaluation', 1st Sports Marketing Conference Warsaw Sports Marketing Center: Focus on Sponsorship, University of Oregon, Portland, OR.
Carrillat, F, Legoux, R & Hadida, A 1970, 'You Could Charm The Critics, and Have Nothing to Eat: A Meta-Analysis of The Effect of Gatekeepers on Motion Picture Performance', International Conference in Arts and Cultural Management, Antwerp.
Carrillat, F, Legoux, R & Hadida, A 2010, 'From Avatar to Zelig: A meta-analysis of the effect of gatekeepers on motion picture performance', 4th Annual Conference on ‘Cultural Production in a Global Context: The Worldwide Film Industries, Grenoble.
Carrillat, F & Legoux, R 1970, '“Far from Sight Far from Mind: When Time Delays Change Cultural Venues’ Sponsorship Effectiveness', 10th International Conference in Arts and Cultural Management, Dallas, TX.
Carrillat, F, Feigné, M & Colbert, F 1970, 'Piégé par les Marques Embusquées : Une Menace pour les Événements Culturels et leurs Commanditaires', International Conference in Arts and Cultural Management, Dallas, TX.
Carrillat, F & Legoux, R 2008, 'Can sponsorships go the distance? The role of psychological construal level in understanding sponsorships effectiveness', Advances in Marketing: Issues, Strategies and Theories, Society for Marketing Advances Conference, Society for Marketing Advances, St Petersburg, USA, pp. 43-46.
Carrillat, F, Von, E & Colbert, F 2007, 'Attributions par les Consommateurs de Motivations aux Commanditaires des Arts et de la Culture vs. aux Commanditaires des Sports : Conséquences Attitudinales et Comportementales', 9th International Conference in Arts and Cultural Management, València, Spain, pp. 1-7.
Carrillat, F, Jaramillo, F & Mulki, JP 2006, 'The Validity of the SERVQUAL and SERVPERF Scales: A Meta-Analytic View of 17 Years of Research across the Five Continents', 9th International Seminar in Service Management, La Londe les Maures, France, pp. 117-134.
Carrillat, F, Ladik, DM & Edmondson, D 2006, 'An Integrative View of Customer Loyalty: Is it Different for Maximizers and Satisficers?', Marketing Theory and Applications, Winter Marketing Educators’ Conference, American Marketing Association, St. Petersburg, FL, USA, pp. 212-213.
Mulki, JP, Jaramillo, F, Carrillat, F & Cano, CR 2006, 'Salesperson Job Performance: Examining the effect of Job Involvement, Intrinsic Motivation and Effort', 2nd IIMA Conference on Research in Marketing, Ahmedabad, India, pp. 69-74.
Ladik, DM, Carrillat, F & Solomon, PJ 2005, 'Tandem Prenotification Techniques and University Sponsorship: An Examination of Mail Survey Response Rates', Advances in Marketing: Managerial, Pedagogical, Theoretical, Society for Marketing Advances, San Antonio, TX, USA, pp. 204-205.
Carrillat, F 2004, 'Subversiveness and Theory Building in Marketing', Advances in Marketing: Pedagogy, Philosophy, and Process, Society for Marketing Advances, New Orleans, USA, pp. 185-186.
Carrillat, F, Harris, EG & Lafferty, BA 2004, 'The Moderating Role of Sponsor Familiarity on the Effect of Single and Multiple Sponsorships on Brand Attitude and Purchase Intention', Marketing Theory and Applications, Winter Marketing Educators’ Conference, American Marketing Association, Scottsdale, AZ, USA, pp. 307-308.
Carrillat, F 2003, 'The Contribution of Marketing to Advertising Development', The Romance of Marketing History, Association for Historical Research in Marketing, East Lansing, MI, USA, pp. 144-150.
Carrillat, F & Harris, EG 2002, 'Inter-Sponsor Transfer Process: Rethinking Sponsorships as A Source of Competitive Advantage', Advances in Marketing: Pedagogy, Philosophy, and Process, Society for Marketing Advances, St Pete Beach, FL, USA, pp. 215-216.