Professor Fiona Brooks is a medical sociologist and a professor of child and family health at UTS who has published widely on topics relating to young people’s health and well-being.
Since 2008, she has been principal investigator for England on the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC). The study is undertaken in 43 countries and aims to gain new insights into young people’s health and well-being, health behaviours and their social context. Among the issues Fiona and other HBSC researchers are looking at are eating, sleeping, self harm and the use of social media by adolescents.
In 2014, Fiona was invited by Public Health England to brief all head teachers, college principals, teachers and school governors in England on the relationship between health and well-being and attainment. She has also advised the UK Cabinet Office, Public Health England and the UK Department of Health.
I am associate editor of the international Journal Health and Social Care in the Community. I am a founder member of the UK charity The Association for Young People’s Health (AYPH).
My research has been funded by the Department of Health UK, The British Academy, The Economic and Social Research Council, The Service Delivery Organisation (SDO), The European Union and national charities and local authorities.
Can supervise: YES
- Adolescent health
- Adolescents and physical activity
- Computer game playing, violence and body image
García-Moya, I, Brooks, F & Moreno, C 2020, 'Humanizing and conducive to learning: an adolescent students' perspective on the central attributes of positive relationships with teachers', European Journal of Psychology of Education, vol. 35, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, The Author(s). The aim of this qualitative study was to identify central attributes of positive relationships with teachers from the adolescent students' perspectives that could help delineate the meaning of student–teacher connectedness while exploring to what extent its main attributes were similar or different in England and Spain. As part of the EU-funded project "Well-being among European youth: The contribution of student-teacher relationships in the secondary-school population", we conducted focus groups in England and Spain with 42 students aged 11 to 18 years. Using a bottom-up approach for thematic analysis, we identified two main attributes that were linked to positive relationships with teachers as seen by our participating students from England and Spain: humanizing relationships, in which the students are acknowledged and respected as individuals and feel understood and supported by their teachers; and relationships conducive to learning, encompassing aspects such as a perception of a genuine commitment with their learning on the part of the teachers, a positive classroom management, and teachers motivating students. This study contributes to the conceptualization of student–teacher connectedness and provides useful insights for teachers and educational professionals. In addition, the study findings pointed to the importance of power and authority dynamics in student–teacher relationships that foster or undermine connectedness, and they revealed some cross-cultural differences in the role of emotions in the class, two important aspects which deserve further attention in future research.
Gariepy, G, Danna, S, Gobiņa, I, Rasmussen, M, Gaspar de Matos, M, Tynjälä, J, Janssen, I, Kalman, M, Villeruša, A, Husarova, D, Brooks, F, Elgar, FJ, Klavina-Makrecka, S, Šmigelskas, K, Gaspar, T & Schnohr, C 2020, 'How Are Adolescents Sleeping? Adolescent Sleep Patterns and Sociodemographic Differences in 24 European and North American Countries', Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. S81-S88.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 Purpose: Insufficient and poor sleep patterns are common among adolescents worldwide. Up to now, the evidence on adolescent sleep has been mostly informed by country-specific studies that used different measures and age groups, making direct comparisons difficult. Cross-national data on adolescent sleep that could inform nations and international discussions are lacking. We examined the sleep patterns of adolescents across 24 countries and by gender, age, and affluence groups. Methods: We obtained sleep data on 165,793 adolescents (mean age 13.5 years; 50.5% girls) in 24 European and North American countries from the recent cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children surveys (2013–2014 and 2017–2018). For each country, we calculated the age-standardized mean in sleep duration, timing, and consistency and the proportions meeting sleep recommendations on school and nonschool days from self-reported bedtimes and wake times. We conducted stratified analyses by gender, age, and family affluence group. Results: Adolescent sleep patterns varied cross-nationally. The average sleep duration ranged between 7:47 and 9:07 hours on school days and between 9:31 and 10:22 hours on nonschool days, and the proportion of adolescents meeting sleep recommendations ranged between 32% and 86% on school days and between 79% and 92% on nonschool days. Sleep patterns by gender and affluence groups were largely similar, but older adolescents slept less and went to bed later on school days than younger adolescents in all countries. Conclusions: The sleep patterns of adolescents vary across countries and sociodemographic groups. Insufficient sleep on school days is common in many countries. Public health and policy efforts to promote healthy adolescent sleep are encouraged.
Chester, KL, Brooks, FM, Magnusson, J, Klemera, E, Spencer, N & Smeeton, N 2019, 'The mitigating role of ecological health assets in adolescent cyberbullying victimization', Youth and Society, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 291-317.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Over the last decade, cyberbullying has emerged as a public health concern among young people. Cyberbullying refers to intentional harmful behaviors and communication carried out repeatedly using electronic media. Considerable research has demonstrated the detrimental and long-lasting effects of cyberbullying involvement. This article draws on a social–ecological perspective to identify protective health assets from across the multiple environmental domains of the adolescent that may mitigate against experiencing cyberbullying. Data were collected from 5,335 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years who participated in the 2014 World Health Organization Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study for England. Protective health assets were identified at the family (family communication), school (school sense of belonging and teacher support), and neighborhood (neighborhood sense of belonging) levels. In particular, the findings draw attention to the protective role fathers can play in supporting young people.
Chester, KL, Klemera, E, Magnusson, J, Spencer, NH & Brooks, FM 2019, 'The role of school-based health education in adolescent spiritual moral, social and cultural development', Health Education Journal, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 582-594.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Author(s) 2019. Background: The broad nature of young people's development is internationally acknowledged, which includes physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social elements. In England, schools have a legal obligation to promote spiritual, moral, social and cultural (SMSC) development. It has been suggested that personal, social, health and economic (PSHE) education, a broad form of school-based health education, may contribute to building SMSC development in young people. Objective: To examine the association between PSHE education in schools and outcomes of an SMSC nature. Method: The study drew on data collected as part of the 2014 World Health Organization Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study for England. Data were collected from young people aged 11, 13 and 15 years, using anonymous self-completed surveys administered during school lessons. The analysis drew on responses from 3,731 young people. Multilevel modelling was used to examine the association between PSHE education and variables of an SMSC nature, while controlling for demographic variables. Results: Overall, the majority of young people who reported receiving PSHE education were positive about the benefits of this school-based health education. Positive perceptions of PSHE education were significantly associated with increased spirituality among young people, reduced engagement in both fighting and bullying perpetration and increased general self-efficacy. Conclusion: This paper highlights the important role that health education in a school context may have for young people's broader development, and contributes to the national evidence base advocating for compulsory PSHE education in schools.
García-Moya, I, Bunn, F, Jiménez-Iglesias, A, Paniagua, C & Brooks, FM 2019, 'The conceptualisation of school and teacher connectedness in adolescent research: a scoping review of literature', Educational Review, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 423-444.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The aim of this scoping review was to map and summarise research relating to school and teacher connectedness, in order to increase current understanding of the ways these terms have been conceptualised in adolescent research. Specifically, this scoping review focuses on the analysis of the actual definitions used and the ways in which school connectedness and teacher connectedness are operationalised in existing measures. Using the terms connectedness, teacher and school as keywords, we searched SCOPUS, Web of Science, ERIC, the Cochrane Library and the EPPI Centre Database of Education Research for relevant peer-review articles published in English from 1990 to 2016. 350 papers were selected for the review. Many studies failed to provide a definition of school or teacher connectedness and there were some differences in the way these constructs were operationalised in the main measures. Future research should be thorough in the definition of these constructs, and ensure consistency between the definition used and the operationalisation of the connectedness construct in the selected measure. Unpacking the global concept of school connectedness and examining the role of its different components (global feelings towards school, teacher connectedness, relationships with classmates, etc.) separately may also contribute to building a more coherent body of evidence in this area. Reflecting on the place of school and teacher connectedness in the broader context of the literature on school climate and bridging distances between the research on school connectedness and that on related constructs is another necessary step to move this field forward.
García-Moya, I, Moreno, C & Brooks, FM 2019, 'The 'balancing acts' of building positive relationships with students: Secondary school teachers' perspectives in England and Spain', Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 86.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gobina, I, Villberg, J, Välimaa, R, Tynjälä, J, Whitehead, R, Cosma, A, Brooks, F, Cavallo, F, Ng, K, de Matos, MG & Villerusa, A 2019, 'Prevalence of self-reported chronic pain among adolescents: Evidence from 42 countries and regions.', European Journal of Pain, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 316-326.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND:Reports of the overall chronic pain prevalence and its associated demographic characteristics among adolescents vary greatly across existing studies. Using internationally comparable data, this study investigates age, sex and country-level effects in the prevalence of chronic single-site and multi-site pain among adolescents during the last six months preceding the survey. METHODS:Data (n = 214,283) from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study were used including nationally representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds from general schools in 42 participating countries. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS:The overall proportion of adolescents reporting chronic weekly pain during the last six months was high (44.2%). On average, in comparison with different specific localized types of single-site pain, the prevalence of multi-site pain was more common varying from 13.2% in Armenia to 33.8% in Israel. Adolescent age and sex were strong predictors for reporting pain, but significantly different demographic patterns were found in the cross-country analyses. The most consistent findings indicate that multi-site pain was more prevalent among girls across all countries and that the prevalence increased with age. CONCLUSIONS:Internationally comparable data suggest that self-reported chronic pain among adolescents is highly prevalent, but different age and sex patterns across countries exist. Adolescents with chronic pain are not a homogenous group. Chronic pain co-occurrence and differences in chronic pain characteristics should be addressed in both clinical and public health practice for effective adolescent chronic pain management and prevention. SIGNIFICANCE:Chronic pain co-occurrence is common during adolescence across countries, the prevalence being among girls and in older age groups. Significant cross-country variations in the chronic pain prevalence and chronic pain patterns among adolescents exi...
Michaelson, V, King, N, Inchley, J, Currie, D, Brooks, F & Pickett, W 2019, 'Domains of spirituality and their associations with positive mental health: a study of adolescents in Canada, England and Scotland.', Preventive medicine, vol. 125, pp. 12-18.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Spirituality is a concept with ancient roots yet contemporary relevance to mental health. Its assessment in populations of young people, however, remains an immense challenge. Efforts to perform such assessments typically involve use of unidimensional scales incorporating items related to four domains (connections to "self", "others", "nature", and the "transcendent"). For adolescents, it remains unclear whether these domains equally influence mental health, or if one domain is particularly important. Here we analyzed reports from adolescents who participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in Canada (n = 21,173), England (n = 4339) and Scotland (n = 5603). Reports of positive mental health were modelled as a function of ordinal scores describing each spiritual health domain, controlling for age, the other domains, and potential confounders. Subsequent analyses focused on the centrality of connections to "self" in these relationships. We identified strong and consistent associations between positive mental health and higher scores for each of the four spiritual health domains. In fully adjusted models, these effects were diminished or changed direction for connections to "others", "nature", and the "transcendent", while the positive association with "connections to self" remained. While associations exist between each of the four domains of spiritual health and positive mental health, it appears that associations with connections to "others", "nature", and the "transcendent" are sometimes mediated by connections to "self". Implications for assessment, models and related interventions and health promotion strategies, based on the idea that inner connections may be central to the protective effects of spiritual health, are considered.
Brooks, F, Michaelson, V, King, N, Inchley, J & Pickett, W 2018, 'Spirituality as a protective health asset for young people: an international comparative analysis from three countries.', International journal of public health, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 387-395.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Spirituality has been proposed as a potential health asset a 'developmental engine' that works by fostering the search for connectedness, meaning and purpose. The aim is to examine to what extent spiritual health might be protective of young people's overall health and well-being.In 2014, young people aged 11, 13, and 15 years in England, Scotland and Canada were surveyed as part of the HBSC study (n = 26,701). The perceived importance of spiritual health and domains (connections with self, others, nature, and the transcendent) was measured in these countries. Multi-level log-binomial models were used to explore relationships between spiritual health and three self-reported positive health outcomes: general health status, subjective life satisfaction and health complaints.Higher levels of perceptions of the importance of spiritual health, both overall and within the four domains, were associated with higher likelihoods of reporting each of the positive health outcomes.Spiritual health appears to operate as a protective health asset during adolescence and is significantly shaped by external relationships and connections.
García-Moya, I, Bunn, F, Spencer & Brooks, FM 2018, 'School-level factors associated with teacher connectedness: A multilevel analysis of the structural and relational school determinants of young people's health', Journal of Public Health, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 366-374.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Conducting research on the antecedents of teacher connectedness (TC) is key to inform intervention and policy that can leverage the public health potential of teachers for young people's well-being. As part of the EU-funded Teacher Connectedness Project, this study aims to examine the contribution of a variety of school-level factors (including type of school, school size, student–teacher ratio, students per class and teacher gender).
Sample consisted of 5335 adolescents aged 11, 13 and 15 years that had participated in the HBSC study in England. Multilevel multinomial regression was used to examine the contributions of sociodemographic and school-level factors to TC.
TC was lower in older adolescents and those from less affluent families, but similar in boys and girls. Regarding school-level factors, it was not the size of the school but the ratio of students per teacher which was significantly associated to TC, with higher student–teacher ratio being significantly associated with lower odds of medium-to-high TC. Some differences between mixed and all-girls schools were also found.
Health promotion strategies targeting student–teacher relationships need to consider how TC changes by age and SES and give attention to school-level factors, in particular the student–teacher ratio.
Jay, A, Thomas, H & Brooks, F 2018, 'Induction of labour: How do women get information and make decisions? Findings of a qualitative study', British Journal of Midwifery, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 22-29.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 MA Healthcare Ltd. Background Induction of labour is one of the most frequent interventions in pregnancy. While it is not always unwelcome, it is associated with increased labour pain and further interventions. Evidence from earlier studies suggests that induction is often commenced without full discussion and information, which questions the validity of womens consent. This study aimed to add depth and context to existing knowledge by exploring how first-time mothers acquire information about induction and give consent to the procedure. Method A qualitative study into womens experiences of induction was undertaken, comprising 21 women, who were interviewed 3-6 weeks after giving birth following induction. Findings Information from midwives and antenatal classes was minimal, with family and friends cited as key informants. Midwives presented induction as the preferred option, and alternative care plans, or the relative risks of induction versus continued pregnancy, were rarely discussed. Women reported that midwives often appeared rushed, with little time for discussion. Conclusions Providers of maternity care need to devise more flexible ways of working to create time and opportunities for midwives to discuss induction in detail with women and to promote fully informed decision-making.
Jay, A, Thomas, H & Brooks, FM 2018, 'In labor or in limbo? The experiences of women undergoing induction of labor in hospital: Findings of a qualitative study', Birth, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 64-70.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Induction of labor currently accounts for around 25% of all births in high‐resource countries, yet despite much research into medical aspects, little is known about how women experience this process. This study aimed to explore in depth the induction experience of primiparous women.
A qualitative study was undertaken, using a sample of 21 first‐time mothers from a maternity unit in the south of England. Semi‐structured interviews were conducted in women's homes between 3 and 6 weeks postnatally. Data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed thematically.
Women awaiting induction on the prenatal ward appeared to occupy a liminal state between pregnancy and labor. Differences were noted between women's and midwives' notions of what constituted "being in labor" and the ward lacked the flexibility to provide individualized care for women in early labor. Unexpected delays in the induction process were common and were a source of anxiety, as was separation from partners at night. Women were not always clear about their plan of care, which added to their anxiety.
Conceptualizing induction as a liminal state may enhance understanding of women's feelings and promote a more woman‐centered approach to care. Thorough preparation for induction, including an explanation of possible delays is fundamental to enabling women to form realistic expectations. Care providers need to consider whether women undergoing induction are receiving adequate support, analgesia, and comfort aids conducive to the promotion of physiological labor and the reduction of anxiety.
Simon, A, Owen, C, O'Connell, R & Brooks, FM 2018, 'Changing trends in young people's food behaviour and wellbeing in England in relation to family affluence between 2005 and 2014', Journal of Youth Studies, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 687-700.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Research shows that healthy eating improves outcomes for children
and that inequalities in diet are socially determined. However, little
is known about how associations between household income and
the diet intake of children and young people change over time.
Descriptive analysis was carried out using the Health Behaviour in
School-Aged Children survey data for England for the years 2005,
2009 and 2014 to examine how breakfast, fruit, vegetable and soft
drink consumption compares for young people aged 11–15 years
by family affluence (low versus medium/high), gender and
wellbeing measures. The results show young people in the low
FAS group generally reporting less healthy eating behaviours,
and differences by gender such as more soft/sugary drink
consumption and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables for
boys. Young people in the low FAS group also tend to have lower
self-reported ratings on other wellbeing measures examined.
There is evidence of a 'closing gap' between the FAS groups over
time in terms of some behaviours. The patterns reported here are
complex to interpret but do highlight some potentially positive
effects of policies for addressing poor diets and dietary
inequalities as well as some concerns given the UK context of
continuing political uncertainty
Brooks, F, Aggleton, P, Dawson, A & Kang, M 2018, 'Youth health and practical justice - Time for renewed conversation', HEALTH EDUCATION JOURNAL, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 627-630.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chester, KL, Brooks, FM, Whiting, L & Spencer, N 2017, 'Associations between relational bullying and health related quality of life in Adolescence', Journal of Adolescent Health.
Chester, KL, Spencer, N, Whiting, L & Brooks, FM 2017, 'Association Between Experiencing Relational Bullying and Adolescent Health Related Quality of Life', Journal of School Health, vol. 87, no. 11, pp. 865-872.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: Bullying is a public health concern for the school-aged population, however, the health outcomes associated
with the subtype of relational bullying are less understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between
relational bullying and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among young people.
METHODS: This study utilized data from 5335 students aged 11-15 years, collected as part of the 2014 Health Behavior in
School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in England. Data were collected through self-completed surveys. Multilevel
analysis modeled the relationship between relational bullying and HRQL. Demographic variables (sex, age, ethnicity,
socioeconomic status) and other forms of bullying were controlled for.
RESULTS: Experiencing relational bullying had a significant negative association with HRQL whilst controlling for other forms
of bullying. Weekly relational bullying resulted in an estimated 5.352 (95% confidence interval (CI), −4.178, −6.526) decrease in
KIDSCREEN-10 score compared with those not experiencing relational bullying.
CONCLUSION: Experiencing relational bullying is associated with poorer HRQL. The findings question the perception of
relational bullying as being a predominantly female problem. Girls were more likely to report experiencing relational bullying, but
the negative association with HRQL was equal for boys and girls.
Klemera, E, Chester, KL, Magnusson, J, Spencer, N, Smeeton, N & Brooks, FM 2017, 'Self-harm in Adolescence: Protective Health Assets in the Family, School and Community', International Journal of Public Health, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 631-638.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The aim of this paper was to examine if the multiple environments of the adolescent including family, peers, school and neighbourhood might function as protective health assets against self-harming behaviour during adolescence.
The present study utilised data collected from 1608 respondents aged 15 years as part of the England WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study. Multilevel modelling was undertaken using the package MLwiN (version 2.33) to investigate the potential domains and dimensions of family life, school culture and environment, and neighbourhood factors that may operate as protective health assets.
The results indicated that while peer support did not appear to operate as a protective health asset in the context of self-harm, key dimensions of adolescent/parent interaction and adolescent experience of the school culture and their neighbourhood were associated with reduced likelihood of self-harming behaviours during adolescence.
The Findings highlight the significance of belonging and connectedness as important constituent elements of protective health assets for young people. Interventions that address the multiple environments of the young person, may offer an effective means to reduce the levels of self-harm.
Yassaee, AA, Hargreaves, DS, Chester, K, Lamb, S, Hagell, A & Brooks, FM 2017, 'Experience of primary care services among early adolescents in England and association with health outcomes', Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 388-394.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents' (11–15 years) experience of their general practitioner (GP), whether poor reported GP experience was associated with worse physical and mental health measures and whether poor previous GP experience was linked to lower utilization of these services.
We used logistic regression to analyze data from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Four aspects of recent care experience were studied: feeling at ease, feeling treated with respect, satisfaction with doctor's explanation, and feeling able to discuss personal matters. Five dichotomized measures of health status were used: ever self-harmed; fair or poor self-reported health; frequent (at least weekly) low mood; sleeping problems; or headaches.
Of 5,335 students, 4,149 reported having visiting their GP within the past year. Of these, 91.8% felt treated with respect, 78.7% felt at ease, 85.7% were satisfied with explanation, and 53.9% felt able to discuss personal matters. After adjusting for ethnicity, age, gender, and family affluence score, poor experience on any indicator was strongly associated with increased risk of self-harm (adjusted odds ratio range, 2.01–2.70; all p < .001); feeling low (AOR range, 1.53–2.11; all p < .001); and sleeping problems (AOR range, 1.49–1.91; all p ≤ .001). Poor experience on all indicators, except discussing personal matters, was associated with worse self-reported health.
Nearly half of this large, national study of adolescents did not feel able to discuss personal matters with their doctor. There was a consistent, strong association between reported lack of good GP experience and poor health measures.
to explore whether the UK Government agenda for partnership working and choice was realised or desired for women during pregnancy and childbirth.a qualitative study was used to explore women׳s experience of partnership working with midwives. Data was generated using a diary interview method throughout pregnancy and birth.16 women were recruited from two district general hospitals in the South East of England.three themes emerged from the data: organisation of care, relationships and choice. Women described their antenatal care as 'ticking the box', with midwives focusing on the bio-medical aspects of care but not meeting their psycho-social and emotional needs. Time poverty was a significant factor in this finding. Women rarely described developing a partnership relationship with midwives due to a lack of continuity of care and time in which to formulate such relationships. In contrast women attending birth centres for their antenatal care were able to form relationships with a group of midwives who shared a philosophy of care and had sufficient time in which to meet women׳s holistic needs. Most of the women in this study did not feel they were offered the choices as outlined in the national choice agenda (DoH, 2007).NHS Trusts should review the models of care available to women to ensure that these are not only safe but support women׳s psycho-social and emotional needs as well. Partnership case loading models enable midwives and women to form trusting relationships that empowers women to feel involved in decision making and to exercise choice. Group antenatal and postnatal care models also effectively utilise midwifery time whilst increasing maternal satisfaction and social engagement. Technology should also be used more effectively to facilitate inter-professional communication and to provide a more flexible service to women.
Brooks, F, Chester, K, Smeeton, N & Spencer, N 2016, 'Video gaming in adolescence: factors associated with leisure time use', Journal of Youth Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 36-54.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The geographies of the current generation of young people are markedly distinct from previous generations by virtue of their access to a virtual playground. The vast majority of young people now engage in video gaming as a leisure activity. Drawing on findings from the 2009/2010 WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study this paper
set out to investigate the factors that might be associated with higher levels of video gaming. Information was collected from 4404 school students aged 11, 13 and 15 years, using anonymised self-completed questionnaires. Higher usage was defined as game play exceeding two hours a day. Separate analyses were conducted for boys and girls. For both genders higher levels of game playing was associated with early
adolescence, opposite sex friends and minimal parental mediation. Bullying and going to bed hungry were associated with higher usage for boys only, while life satisfaction and family activities were linked to girls
game playing only. Parents were identified as effective mediators of young people's video game usage. The study identified gendered motivations for higher levels of game play, suggesting different interventions for boys and girls may be required in order for young people to create a balanced approach to video gaming.
Marsa-Sambola, F, Williams, J, Muldoon, J, Lawrence, A, Connor, M, Roberts, C, Brooks, F & Currie, C 2016, 'Sociodemographics of Pet Ownership among Adolescents in Great Britain: Findings from the HBSC Study in England, Scotland, and Wales', ANTHROZOOS, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 559-580.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Michaelson, V, Brooks, F, Jirásek, I, Inchley, J, Whitehead, R, King, N, Walsh, S, Davison, CM, Mazur, J & Pickett, W 2016, 'Developmental patterns of adolescent spiritual health in six countries', SSM - Population Health, vol. 2, pp. 294-303.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 The Authors.The spiritual health of adolescents is a topic of emerging contemporary importance. Limited numbers of international studies provide evidence about developmental patterns of this aspect of health during the adolescent years. Using multidimensional indicators of spiritual health that have been adapted for use within younger adolescent populations, we therefore: (1) describe aspects of the perceptions of the importance of spiritual health of adolescents by developmental stage and within genders; (2) conduct similar analyses across measures related to specific domains of adolescent spiritual health; (3) relate perceptions of spiritual health to self-perceived personal health status. Cross-sectional surveys were administered to adolescent populations in school settings during 2013-2014. Participants (n=45,967) included eligible and consenting students aged 11-15 years in sampled schools from six European and North American countries. Our primary measures of spiritual health consisted of eight questions in four domains (perceived importance of connections to: self, others, nature, and the transcendent). Socio-demographic factors included age, gender, and country of origin. Self-perceived personal health status was assessed using a simple composite measure. Self-rated importance of spiritual health, both overall and within most questions and domains, declined as young people aged. This declining pattern persisted for both genders and in all countries, and was most notable for the domains of "connections with nature" and "connections with the transcendent". Girls consistently rated their perceptions of the importance of spiritual health higher than boys. Spiritual health and its domains related strongly and consistently with self-perceived personal health status. While limited by the 8-item measure of perceived spiritual health employed, study findings confirm developmental theories proposed from qualitative observation, provide foundational evidence ...
Alexakis, C, Nash, A, Lloyd, M, Brooks, F, Lindsay, JO & Poullis, A 2015, 'Inflammatory bowel disease in young patients: challenges faced by black and minority ethnic communities in the UK', HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 665-672.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Boniel-Nissim, M, Tabak, I, Mazur, J, Borraccino, A, Brooks, F, Gommans, R, van der Sluijs, W, Zsiros, E, Craig, W, Harel-Fisch, Y & Finne, E 2015, 'Supportive communication with parents moderates the negative effects of electronic media use on life satisfaction during adolescence.', International Journal of Public Health, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 189-198.View/Download from: Publisher's site
To examine the impact of electronic media (EM) use on teenagers' life satisfaction (LS) and to assess the potential moderating effect of supportive communication with parents (SCP).Data were drawn from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (2009/2010) in Canada, England, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Israel, The Netherlands, Poland and Scotland. Sample size: 53,973 students aged 11-15 years.More hours per day spent on the computer were associated with lower LS; more EM communication with friends with higher LS. This relationship became negative if EM use reached and exceeded a certain threshold. SCP moderated the effect of EM communication with friends, but not computer use for the total sample. SCP seems to be more important than computer use or EM communication with friends for LS and it seems to buffer negative effects of EM use.Communication with parents seems to buffer the negative effects of EM use on LS during adolescence. Higher computer use was related to lower LS, but "optimal" frequency of EM communication with friends was country specific.
Brooks, F, Zaborskis, A, Tabak, I, Granado Alcon, MDC, Zemaitiene, N, de Roos, S & Klemera, E 2015, 'Trends in adolescents' perceived parental communication across 32 countries in Europe and North America from 2002 to 2010', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 25, pp. 46-50.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brooks, FM 2015, 'Associations between adolescents' experience of general practitioners and health outcomes in England: a cross-sectional study of national data', The Lancet, vol. 386, no. S82.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Adolescence is a key stage of the life course when lifelong health behaviours and attitudes to health care can be established. Poor experience of consultations with a general practitioner (GP) is common among adolescents, but little is known about whether poor experience in this group is associated with worse health status or outcomes. This study aimed to investigate this association with data from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey (England).
We used logistic regression to analyse data for 5335 participants aged 10–17 years in the HBSC survey. Four aspects of recent GP experience were studied: feeling at ease, being treated with respect, quality of GP explanation, and feeling able to talk about personal matters. Five dichotomised measures of health status or outcome were used (ever self-harmed; fair or poor self-reported health; frequent [at least weekly] low mood, sleeping problems, or headaches). We adjusted for participants' sex, age, ethnicity, and family affluence score. Of 5178 participants, 1187 (23%) had not visited their GP within the past year and were excluded from the analysis.
Of 3991 adolescents, 3632 (91%) felt treated with respect, 2091 (52%) could talk about personal matters, 1600 (40%) were satisfied with explanations, and 1221 (31%) felt at ease. Participants who reported poor experience of GP care were more likely to have poor health outcomes than were those who reported a good experience. For example, adolescents who did not feel at ease with their GP were more likely to report self-harm (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2·65, 95% CI 1·69–4·15; fair or poor health 1·64, 1·28–2·10; low mood 1·51, 1·25–1·82) and sleeping problems (1·41, 1·19–1·66). All GP indicators were associated with self-harm (AOR range 1·64–2·70; quality of GP explanation p=0·006, all others p<0·001) and feeling low (1·46–2·11, all p<0·001). The association with GP experience was less consistent for the other three healt...
Cavallo, F, Dalmasso, P, Ottova-Jordan, V, Brooks, F, Mazur, J, Valimaa, R, Gobina, I, de Matos, MG & Raven-Sieberer, U 2015, 'Trends in life satisfaction in European and North-American adolescents from 2002 to 2010 in over 30 countries', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 25, pp. 80-82.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cavallo, F, Dalmasso, P, Ottova-Jordan, V, Brooks, F, Mazur, J, Valimaa, R, Gobina, I, de Matos, MG & Raven-Sieberer, U 2015, 'Trends in self-rated health in European and North-American adolescents from 2002 to 2010 in 32 countries', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 25, pp. 13-15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Garcia-Moya, I, Brooks, F, Morgan, A & Moreno, C 2015, 'Subjective well-being in adolescence and teacher connectedness: A health asset analysis', HEALTH EDUCATION JOURNAL, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 641-654.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Procter, S, Brooks, F, Wilson, P, Crouchman, C & Kendall, S 2015, 'A case study of asthma care in school age children using nurse-coordinated multidisciplinary collaborative practices.', Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, vol. 8, pp. 181-188.View/Download from: Publisher's site
AIM: To describe the role of school nursing in leading and coordinating a multidisciplinary networked system of support for children with asthma, and to analyze the strengths and challenges of undertaking and supporting multiagency interprofessional practice. BACKGROUND: The growth of networked and interprofessional collaborations arises from the recognition that a number of the most pressing public health problems cannot be addressed by single-discipline or -agency interventions. This paper identifies the potential of school nursing to provide the vision and multiagency leadership required to coordinate multidisciplinary collaboration. METHOD: A mixed-method single-case study design using Yin's approach, including focus groups, interviews, and analysis of policy documents and public health reports. RESULTS: A model that explains the integrated population approach to managing school-age asthma is described; the role of the lead school nurse coordinator was seen as critical to the development and sustainability of the model. CONCLUSION: School nurses can provide strategic multidisciplinary leadership to address pressing public health issues. Health service managers and commissioners need to understand how to support clinicians working across multiagency boundaries and to identify how to develop leadership skills for collaborative interprofessional practice so that the capacity for nursing and other health care professionals to address public health issues does not rely on individual motivation. In England, this will be of particular importance to the commissioning of public health services by local authorities from 2015.
Brooks, FM, Smeeton, NC, Chester, K, Spencer, N & Klemera, E 2014, 'Associations between physical activity in adolescence and health behaviours, well-being, family and social relations', International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 271-282.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014 © 2014 Institute of Health Promotion and Education. Across Europe and North America, few young people meet the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) of 1 hour of moderate to vigorous PA per day. However, the lives of young people cannot simply be polarised as either completely sedentary or active. Drawing on findings from the World Health Organization Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross sectional international study, this paper examines the domains of adolescent life associated with young people's participation in overall PA, including health behaviours, social relationships and family activities. Consideration is also given to gender differences. Information in England was collected from 4404 students aged 11, 13 and 15 years, using anonymised self-completed questionnaires. Physical aspects of lifestyle were determined using internationally validated items for measuring PA that met international guidelines for activity and the frequency and duration of vigorous exercise undertaken during leisure activities. Separate analyses were conducted for boys and girls. Levels of PA and vigorous exercise were compared using the chi-squared test for trend. The findings draw attention to the value for the health and well-being of young people participating in some form of PA, even if they do not meet the recommended levels. Medium levels of PA appear to be associated with high levels of life satisfaction, self-rated health and an improved sense of body image. Significant health gains are likely to be made for adolescents in encouraging sedentary young people to undertake some form of PA.
Ikioda, F, Kendall, S, Brooks, F & Reidy, C 2014, 'Developing an online community of practice to empower health visitors: Findings from a pilot study', Journal of Health Visiting, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 436-440.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The Burdett Trust for Nursing funded a 2-year project to pilot an online community of practice to enable health visitors to share, manage and co-produce knowledge in a virtual space. The aim of the project was to develop a robust web-based tool to allow practitioners to share expertise and promote learning to empower them to exchange professional knowledge and best practice with other practitioners across organisational boundaries. In this paper, the authors reflect on the process of developing an online community of practice for health visiting, and report some initial findings and challenges from the pilot study.
Peckham, S, Wilson, P, Williams, L, Smiddy, J, Kendall, S, Brooks, F, Reay, J, Smallwood, D & Bloomfield, L 2014, 'Commissioning for long-term conditions: hearing the voice of and engaging users – a qualitative multiple case study', Health Services and Delivery Research, vol. 2, no. 44, pp. 1-234.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background: Some 15 million people in England have a long-term condition (LTC) but there is concern
about whether or not the NHS meets their needs. To address this, consecutive governments have
developed policies aimed at improving service delivery and patient and public engagement and
involvement (PPEI). There has been little research that examines the impact or benefit of PPEI in
commissioning. This project explored the role and impact of PPEI in commissioning for people with LTCs.
The research was undertaken during a period of substantial change in the English NHS, which enabled us
to observe how the NHS reforms in England impacted on approaches to PPEI.
Aim: The aim was to examine how commissioners enable voice and engagement of people with LTCs and
identify what impact this has on the commissioning process and pattern of services. Our specific objectives
were to (1) critically analyse the relationship between the public/patient voice and the impact on the
commissioning process; (2) determine how changes in the commissioning process reshape local services;
(3) explore whether or not any such changes in services impact on the patient experience; (4) identify if
and how commissioners enable the voice and engagement of people with LTCs; and (5) identify how
patient groups/patient representatives get their voice heard and what mechanisms and processes patients
and the public use to make their voice heard.
Methods: We used a case study design examining the experience of PPEI in three LTC groups – diabetes,
rheumatoid arthritis and neurological conditions – through three in-depth case studies. Our approach
involved reviewing practice across the UK and then focusing on three geographical areas to examine
practices of commissioning health care for people with LTCs, approaches to PPEI, patterns of services for
people with LTCs and the activities of local patient and voluntary organisations for people with LTCs. The
research had five phases and involved participatory a...
Brooks, F, Bloomfield, L, Offredy, M & Shaughnessy, P 2013, 'Evaluation of services for children with complex needs: mapping service provision in one NHS Trust', PRIMARY HEALTH CARE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 52-62.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ikioda, F, Kendall, S, Brooks, F, De Liddo, A & Buckingham Shum, S 2013, 'Factors That Influence Healthcare Professionals' Online Interaction in a Virtual Community of Practice', Social Networking, vol. 02, no. 04, pp. 174-184.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mazur, J, Sentenac, M, Brooks, F, Małkowska-Szkutnik, A, Gajewski, J & Gavin, A 2013, 'Burden of chronic health conditions in adolescence measured by school surveys.', Medycyna wieku rozwojowego, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 157-164.
The Chronic Conditions Short Questionnaire (CCSQ) included as an optional package in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study protocol identifies adolescents with chronic conditions, and helps to understand the psychosocial impact of such illnesses. However, reliability of the results depends on the proper definition of the group with chronic conditions. of this paper is to report on the validity of self-reported data on chronic conditions obtained from the CCSQ questionnaire used in a large school-based population study. The data was obtained from the 2010 HBSC study conducted in Poland in a group of 4570 pupils aged 13-17. The CCSQ includes three questions about chronic illness or disabilities occurrence diagnosed by a physician, and its selected consequences (missing school classes, medication). Four complex continuous scales were used as validation modules: the subjective complaints checklist and three sub-scales from the abbreviated Child Health and Illness Profile (CHIP-AE) questionnaire. The oldest age group was additionally asked about functional difficulties in: seeing, hearing, speaking, moving and breathing. Analysis of Variance with the post hoc test was used to compare subgroups of students defined according to CCSQ and functional difficulties. Chronic conditions were reported by 20.3% of young respondents (95% confidence interval 19.2-21.5%). A statistically significant difference was found between the mean indexes of all validation scales when comparing healthy and chronically-ill students meeting criteria of CCSQ. The difference increases in comparison with chronically-ill students with functional difficulties, missing classes or taking medication. The CCSQ questionnaire is an appropriate tool for assessing the occurrence of long-term health problems from the perspective of adolescents. The instrument also importantly allows for an assessment of the impact of chronic and long-term conditions on medication usage and hindered access...
Pickett, W, Molcho, M, Elgar, FJ, Brooks, F, de Looze, M, Rathmann, K, ter Bogt, TFM, Gabhainn, SN, Sigmundova, D, de Matos, MG, Craig, W, Walsh, SD, Harel-Fisch, Y & Currie, C 2013, 'Trends and Socioeconomic Correlates of Adolescent Physical Fighting in 30 Countries', PEDIATRICS, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. E18-E26.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Procter, S, Wilson, PM, Brooks, F & Kendall, S 2013, 'Success and failure in integrated models of nursing for long term conditions: Multiple case studies of whole systems', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING STUDIES, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 632-643.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ramos, P, Brooks, F, Garcia-Moya, I, Rivera, F & Moreno, C 2013, 'Eating habits and physical activity in dieter and non-dieter youth: A gender analysis of English and Spanish adolescents', SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 575-582.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brooks, FM, Magnusson, J, Spencer, N & Morgan, A 2012, 'Adolescent multiple risk behaviour: an asset approach to the role of family, school and community', JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 34, pp. I48-I56.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wilson, PM, Brooks, F, Procter, S & Kendall, S 2012, 'The nursing contribution to chronic disease management: A case of public expectation? Qualitative findings from a multiple case study design in England and Wales', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING STUDIES, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 2-14.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Valaitis, RK, Akhtar-Danesh, N, Brooks, F, Binks, S & Semogas, D 2011, 'Online communities of practice as a communication resource for community health nurses working with homeless persons', JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1273-1284.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fenton, C, Brooks, F, Spencer, NH & Morgan, A 2010, 'Sustaining a positive body image in adolescence: an assets-based analysis', HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 189-198.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brooks, F, Bunn, F & Morgan, J 2009, 'Transition for adolescents with long-term conditions: event to process.', British journal of community nursing, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 301-304.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper maps out the evidence relating to quality and user experience of transition services for young people with long-term conditions. The review identified that good quality transition was universally seen as a process as opposed to a single event, supported by effective interagency communication and coordination, with the young person occupying a central place in the decision-making process. Conversely, poor communication and an absence of a designated professional to support the transition were barriers to an effective process. Gaps in the evidence base were most notable when concerned with the relationship between general practice, secondary care and social care. Overall, greater shared learning of the generic components of an effective transition process needs to occur across long-term conditions.
Erhart, M, Ottova, V, Gaspar, T, Jericek, H, Schnohr, C, Alikasifoglu, M, Morgan, A & Ravens-Sieberer, U 2009, 'Measuring mental health and well-being of school-children in 15 European countries using the KIDSCREEN-10 Index', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 54, pp. 160-166.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ravens-Sieberer, U, Torsheim, T, Hetland, J, Vollebergh, W, Cavallo, F, Jericek, H, Alikasifoglu, M, Valimaa, R, Ottova, V & Erhart, M 2009, 'Subjective health, symptom load and quality of life of children and adolescents in Europe', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 54, pp. 151-159.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Trivedi, D, Brooks, F, Bunn, F & Graham, M 2009, 'Early fatherhood: a mapping of the evidence base relating to pregnancy prevention and parenting support', HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 999-1028.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brooks, F 2008, '»When I was on the ward«: The contribution of patient narratives to public involvement in health care decision-making', Neurologie und Rehabilitation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 24-30.
Aims: This paper sets out to provide an account of the forms of knowledge and expertise participants brought to a representational form of public involvement in healthcare. The findings are drawn from a two-year ethnographic study of an initiative by an acute hospital in the UK that aimed to involve members of the local community in health care decision-making, through the creation of a patient and public council. Methods: Data triangulation was achieved by a multi-method approach to the conduct of the fieldwork. The methods consisted of: a) Observation of all council meetings (42 hours), b) Individual and focus group interviews with councillors (n = 17) and c) Interviews with hospital staff and managers (n = 35). Results: Councillors drew almost exclusively from their experiential knowledge to construct and advance their agendas for the work of the council. Experiential knowledge and narratives was found to be very influential in constructing the types of contributions from the patient councillors. The patient councillors narratives provided a direct and largely unanticipated challenge to the agendas promoted by the health care workers. This resulted in particular tensions between the patient councillors and professionals concerned with the nature of expertise and the form of patients' contribution to health care delivery. The paper outlines these contested areas and describes the ways in which both patients and staff moved to create a shared set of understandings in order to progress the work of the council. Conclusions: The paper highlights the contribution of personal narratives to public participation and the value that knowledge derived from personal experiences can have for service development. A key finding relates to the importance of professional repositioning and training vis-à-vis the credibility of patients' narratives, as a starting point for shared understandings and the development of improvements in service organisation. However situated and expe...
Brooks, F 2008, 'Nursing and public participation in health: An ethnographic study of a patient council', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING STUDIES, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 3-13.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Verkerke, GJ & Lee, TC 2008, 'Basic biomechanics.', Technology and health care : official journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 219-221.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wills, WJ, Appleton, JV, Magnusson, J & Brooks, F 2008, 'Exploring the limitations of an adult-led agenda for understanding the health behaviours of young people', HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 244-252.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brooks, F & Magnusson, J 2007, 'Physical activity as leisure: The meaning of physical activity for the health and well-being of adolescent women', Health Care for Women International, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 69-87.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Globally, low participation in physical activity by adolescent young women is a major health concern. While the barriers to activity for this group are well documented, little is known about the views and experiences of nonathlete, but active, young women. In order to gain an understanding of young women's lived experiences of the relationship between physical activity as leisure and health, data were collected through focus groups. Active nonathlete young women in the United Kingdom attached significant meaning to physical activity as a space for leisure, and used it to enhance their health and well-being.
Brooks, F, Kendall, S, Bunn, F, Bindler, R & Bruya, M 2007, 'The school nurse as navigator of the school health journey: Developing the theory and evidence for policy', Primary Health Care Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 226-234.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The aim of this article is to explore how the development of the theoretical and strategic basis of school nursing offers a vehicle for the delivery of an effective public health strategy for children and adolescents.Through a critical examination of the status and scope of school nursing within the UK and US health care systems it is clear that a deficiency exists regarding the theoretical and strategic basis for the functioning of school nursing. Consideration is given to the concept of the school nurse as 'navigator7for the child along the trajectory of the school health journey. This novel approach to school nursing needs to be developed theoretically and evaluated for effectiveness. A rapid review of the evidence to support school nursing interventions has revealed that the evidence base for school nursing interventions/actions remains very weak, thereby challenging the ability of school nurses to deliver desired outcomes for the present ambitious public health agenda. We argue that a planned approach to developing the evidence for school nursing, based on the UK Medical Research Council (MRC, 2000) framework for the evaluation of complex interventions, could help to ensure a robust role for the school nurse.This acknowledgement and development of a novel approach to school nursing could contribute to policy implementation around public health goals for the school-aged population. © 2007, Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.
Buchan, A, Munday, P, Ravenhill, G, Wiggs, A & Brooks, F 2007, 'A qualitative study of women with vulvodynia I. The journey into treatment', JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 15-18.
Munday, P, Buchan, A, Ravenhill, G, Wiggs, A & Brooks, F 2007, 'A qualitative study of women with vulvodynia II. Response to a multidisciplinary approach to management', JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 19-22.
Wilson, PM, Kendall, S & Brooks, F 2007, 'The Expert Patients Programme: a paradox of patient empowerment and medical dominance', HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 426-438.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brooks, F & Magnusson, J 2006, 'Taking part counts: adolescents' experiences of the transition from inactivity to active participation in school-based physical education', HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 872-883.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brooks, F & Scott, P 2006, 'Knowledge work in nursing and midwifery: An evaluation through computer-mediated communication', International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 83-97.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Recent changes in policy and culture require health workers to incorporate "knowledge work" as a routine component of professional practice. Innovative computer-mediated communication technologies provide the opportunity to evaluate the nature of "knowledge work" within nursing and midwifery. This study embedded an online discussion system into an acute NHS Trust to support interaction within communities of practice. The complete record of online communications was analysed. Nurses were found to predominantly engage in information work with knowledge work restricted to senior-to-senior level exchanges. In contrast, midwives were observed to employ the technology to support knowledge work between all grades. The study indicates that technology can support knowledge work, including conveying tacit knowledge effectively. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brooks, F & Scott, P 2006, 'Knowledge work in nursing and midwifery: An evaluation through computer-mediated communication', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING STUDIES, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 83-97.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wilson, PM, Kendall, S & Brooks, F 2006, 'Nurses' responses to expert patients: The rhetoric and reality of self-management in long-term conditions: A grounded theory study', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING STUDIES, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 803-818.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Christian, S, Ross, F, Brooks, F & Drennan, V 2005, 'School nurses' contribution to young people's future health.', Nursing times, vol. 101, no. 47, pp. 19-20.
This article explores how risks around health are managed in UK schools. It is suggested that school nurses could play a pivotal role in driving the health agenda forward in the school environment.
Mead, M, Brooks, F, Windle, K, Kukielka, M & Boyd, D 2005, 'Evaluation of a midwifery support service for pregnant teenagers', British Journal of Midwifery, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 762-766.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brooks, F 2004, 'The spirit of 'health for all': The shape of primary health care, past, present and future', Primary Health Care Research and Development, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 281-283.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pugh, J, Mitchell, M & Brooks, F 2000, 'Insider/outsider partnerships in an ethnographic study of shared governance.', Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987), vol. 14, no. 27, pp. 43-44.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The benefits of research being undertaken by more than one researcher cannot be underestimated. Having one researcher with intimate knowledge of the organisation and another who could provide a dispassionate view, paid dividends in this study into shared governance from an ethnographic perspective.
Mitchell, M, Brooks, F & Pugh, J 1999, 'Balancing nurse empowerment with improved practice and care: An evaluation of the impact of shared governance', Journal of Research in Nursing, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 192-200.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a two-year ethnographic study of the implementation of shared governance at Kettering General Hospital NHS Trust. Key aims of the study were to identify the impact of shared governance on clinical practice and patient care, and the effects of its implementation on nurses and midwives. The findings suggest that the early impact of shared governance related primarily to effects on the professional environment and culture of nursing, particularly increased information-sharing and feelings of empowerment. Impact on patient care and service delivery was limited, with key obstacles to successful implementation including poor communication systems, lack of a means of publicising the work of shared governance councils, and difficulties finding the best ways of managing time spent away from clinical areas on practice and professional development issues. There was evidence that shared governance could have an indirect impact on patient care in the longer term. We suggest that it may have to be accepted that, initially, the early impact of shared governance is felt mainly by health professionals, and that the desired impacts on service delivery are the indirect benefits of more empowered and professionally accountable nurses and midwives in the longer term.
Brooks, F, Mitchell, M & Pugh, J 1998, 'Shared governance as a way to involve staff in decision-making.', Nursing times, vol. 94, no. 46, pp. 56-57.
Increasing the involvement of clinicians in decision-making is a key part of recent NHS policy. One model designed to increase involvement is shared governance. This article describes the approach to shared governance developed at Kettering General Hospital. Ongoing evaluation of the scheme suggests benefits in terms of personal and professional development for those involved.
Phillips, D & Brooks, F 1998, 'Age differences in women's verdicts on the quality of primary health care services', BRITISH JOURNAL OF GENERAL PRACTICE, vol. 48, no. 429, pp. 1151-1154.
Brooks, F & Magnusson, J 2010, 'Physical activity programmes in high schools' in Childhood Obesity Prevention: International Research, Controversies and Interventions, Oxford University Press, UK, pp. 380-388.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Oxford University Press 2010. All rights reserved. Across the lifespan physical inactivity represents a key risk to health and well-being; the World Health Organization has estimated that physical inactivity is a major contributing factor in over 1.9 million deaths worldwide and a significant risk factor for the majority of cancers and long term conditions. Physical activity is a key component in the maintenance and attainment of healthy weight; as a consequence the reduction of sedentary lifestyles has featured in many countries as an important arm of policies designed to address childhood obesity. This chapter discusses how participation by young people in physical activity should not solely be seen as a means to address current concerns about childhood obesity; instead physical activity can provide a number of positive benefits that contribute to the well-being of young people. Participation in physical activity can offer a plethora of health benefits, not only impacting positively on physiological health and development but also psychological well-being, including having important social benefits. The relationship between physical activity and emotional and psychological well being is also addressed, as physical activity levels have been found to be one of the key healthrelated outcomes that is associated with overall life satisfaction among school-aged children. The importance of seeing benefits of activity in context of young people's here and now, rather than having the sole aim of benefiting their future health, has been recognized by the European Heart Health Initiative (2001).
Brooks, FM, Chester, KL, Klemera, E & Magnusson, J 2017, Cyberbullying: (2017) an analysis of data from the HBSC survey for England, 2014.
Brooks, FM, Chester, KL, Klemera, E & Magnusson, J 2017, Intentional self-harm in adolescence: an analysis of data from the HBSC survey for England, 2014 Public Health England.
Brooks, FM, Chester, KL, Klemera, E & Magnusson, J 2017, Wellbeing of adolescent girls: an analysis of data from the HBSC survey for England, 2014.
Brooks, FM 2016, Evidence briefing: PSHE education, pupil wellbeing and safety at school.
This briefing outlines evidence to show that pupils who are positive about the PSHE lessons they receive at school are more likely to have positive relationships at school, as well as a strong feeling of belonging at school.
using data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) research study which surveyed 5,335 English school children aged 11, 13 and 15 in 2014.
The analysis suggests that pupils who report that topics relating to personal safety, health and wellbeing, and sex and relationships were covered well in their PSHE education were also less likely to have been bullied or to have bullied others, and more likely to have positive relationships with other pupils and feelings of belonging.
While these associations alone do not prove causation, we believe they add to the compelling case for schools to focus on PSHE education in the context of wider evidence of positive outcomes from school-based programmes, in areas ranging from healthy eating to social and emotional skills. Much of this evidence is outlined in the Department for Education PSHE evidence review.
I have worked extensively with colleagues across Europe and North America, notably: The University of Seville, Spain - Queen’s University Kingston, Canada -Washington State University, Spokane, USA - McMaster University, Ontario, Canada.
My work has regularly features in press reports and media interviews, recent media reports including for example: