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Dr Finbarr Horgan

Biography

Finbarr is a terrestrial ecologist interested in sustainable farming systems to conserve native biodiversity, mainly in the tropics and subtropics. He has conducted research into the population dynamics underlying outbreaks of insects and snails, the community ecology of tropical arthropods in rainforests and derived habitat, plant-insect interactions (including host-plant resistance and pollination), as well as pollinator genetics and conservation.

Finbarr received his B.Sc. from University College Cork (UCC, Ireland), his M.Sc. from the University of British Columbia (UBC, Canada) and his Ph.D. from the University of New Brunswick (UNB, Canada). He has worked extensively in tropical regions including Central and South America and South East Asia.

He was a researcher/lecturer at the Universidad de El Salvador (UES, El Salvador), the Universidad de las Regiones Autónomas de la Costa Caribe Nicaragüense (URACCAN, Nicaragua), and the Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú (UNCP, Peru), and has presented several training courses in experimental design and research logistics in Latin America and Ireland. Finbarr also developed an environmental education program based on the precepts of ‘deep ecology’ for the Franciscan Commission on Justice, Peace and Ecology (JPIC) in El Salvador.

He has conducted research into entomology and farming systems at the Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP, Peru), Teagasc (Ireland) and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, Philippines). He has investigated rules of assembly for tropical insects (particularly decomposers), the sustainable management of invasive apple snails, the effects of agricultural inputs on herbivore and natural enemy populations, and ecological restoration of Asian rice landscapes.

Finbarr joined the Centre for Compassionate Conservation (CfCC) at UTS in February 2016 where his research will focus on coexistence of wildlife with modern farming practices as part of CfCC’s focus on sheep/cattle grazing and rice-farming systems.

Professional

Subject Editor: Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Member of Tropical Ecosystem Research Network (TERN, Sri Lanka) 

Research Fellow, School of Life Sciences
Member, Centre for Compassionate Conservation
ECOLOGY, COMPUTER SCIENCE, SCIENCES, ECOLOGY, ANIMAL ECOLOGY
 

Research Interests

·         Rules of assembly for animal communities and their application to ecosystem services

·         Sustainable farming systems for developing nations

·         Insect-plant interactions

·         Wildlife conservation, coexistence of wildlife with modern farming landscapes

·         Pollinators and decomposers

·         The development of science, social and cultural influences on science

91149 Geological Processes

Books

Horgan, F.G. 1998, Caminando con respeto sobre la tierra construyendo paz con la naturaleza : una guía de ambientalismo franciscano.

Chapters

Horgan, F.G. 2017, 'Insect Herbivores of Rice: Their Natural Regulation and Ecologically Based Management' in Chauhan, B.S., Jabran, K. & Mahajan, G. (eds), Rice Production Worldwide, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 279-302.
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The management of insect herbivores in rice ecosystems has been strongly influenced by three poorly informed beliefs. These are (1) that insects have generally negative effects on crop health, (2) that herbivore damage translates directly to yield loss, and (3) that insecticides increase rice yields. In the face of global changes, particularly increases in the production and marketing of agrochemicals, these beliefs will lead to unsustainable rice production systems and poor environmental health. This chapter assesses these beliefs, challenges their validity, and (by analyzing the dynamics of herbivore populations and their interspecific interactions in the rice ecosystem) presents a holistic alternative for understanding herbivore impacts on rice production systems. The chapter proposes a focus on 'rice ecosystem health with herbivore management based on ecological principals and incorporating such novel approaches as 'ecological engineering for ecosystem stability and system resilience.
Horgan, F.G. 2017, 'Ecology and management of apple snails in rice' in Chauhan, B.S., Jabran, K. & Mahajan, G. (eds), Rice Production Worldwide, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 393-418.
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Apple snails (Ampulariidae) occur throughout tropical and subtropical rice-growing regions. Native apple snails rarely damage rice; however, in hot and humid tropical regions, some native species will damage wet-direct-seeded rice (i.e., Pomacea spp. in Suriname and Brazil). Similarly, exotic apple snails in wet, temperate regions can damage direct-seeded rice (i.e., Pomacea canaliculata in Japan). However, if left unmanaged, exotic apple snails in warm tropical regions (i.e., P. canaliculata and P. maculata in South East Asia) can cause significant economic losses even to transplanted rice (which is more robust that direct-seeded rice). The negative impact of apple snails on rice yield can be reduced by reducing seedling vulnerability or controlling snail population densities. Reducing vulnerability is a more sustainable solution to apple snails but requires new methods such as seedling broadcasting and machine transplanting to decrease labor costs. To avoid further spread of apple snails, the implementation of effective quarantine directives is recommended for tropical countries that are vulnerable to exotic apple snails.
Nadeau, P., Thibault, M., Horgan, F.G., Michaud, J.P., Gandiaga, F., Comeau, C. & Moreau, G. 2015, 'Decaying matters: Coleoptera involved in heterotrophic systems' in Beetles: Biodiversity, Ecology and Role in the Environment, Nova, USA, pp. 123-174.
© 2015 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. In terrestrial ecosystems, a rich assemblage of Coleoptera species contributes to the breakdown of plant and animal organic materials such as dead wood, fruits, leaf litter, feces, and carcasses, including human cadavers. This taxon represents a key component of energy flow in many ecosystems both because heterotrophic Coleoptera species contribute to nutrient cycling and because they are important trophic links in food webs. However, the taxon as a whole has not received much consideration in the literature and similarities between terrestrial heterotrophic systems have yet to be investigated. This chapter examines the diversity and ecological roles of Coleoptera fauna involved in terrestrial heterotrophic communities and reviews the main mechanisms and models of heterotrophic succession. The impacts on heterotrophic Coleoptera of resource patch characteristics (e.g., abundance, distribution, and resource quality) and of anthropogenic alterations of habitats supporting resource patches (e.g., agriculture, forest management, urbanization, global changes) are described and discussed.
Pelletier, Y., Horgan, F.G. & Pompon, J. 2013, 'Potato resistance against insect herbivores: resources and opportunities' in Insect Pests of Potato, pp. 439-462.
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Horgan, F.G. 2012, 'Diversity and Defence: Plant-Herbivore Interactions at Multiple Scales and Trophic Levels' in Biodiversity and Insect Pests: Key Issues for Sustainable Management, pp. 241-258.
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Horgan, F.G. 2009, 'Mechanisms of resistance: a major gap in understanding planthopper-rice interactions' in Heong, K.L. & Hardy, B. (eds), Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia, International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, pp. 281-302.

Conferences

Reyna Zeballos, J.L., Horgan, F.G., Ramp, D. & Meier, P. 2017, 'Using Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) as an Assessment Tool in Geological Sciences.', Proceedings of the International Technology, Education and Development Conference INTED2017, Valencia, Spain, The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017, INTED 2017, Valencia (Spain), pp. 40-40.
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This study explores learner-generated digital media (LGDM) as an assessment tool in Geological Sciences. The aim was to engage students with the geology subject further and to develop their digital media literacies. For this purpose, a cohort of 97 students from the undergraduate Geological Processes subject (Autumn 2016) at the University of Technology Sydney, were randomly allocated to groups of 2-5 students. The students were asked to produce a five-minute digital media presentation on a chosen study topic. A lecture and workshop on digital media principles were delivered to prepare the students for the task early in the semester. Support and feedback were provided across the entire semester by the lecturer and digital media tutor through computer practicals and preparatory assignments. Group contribution was monitored using the SPARKPlus application. An online questionnaire was used at the end of the semester to gauge students' attitude towards LGDM. The survey assessed demographics, digital media support, attitudes toward the assignment, and the contribution of LGDM to skills development. Methodological triangulation was used with data sets from the questionnaire, group work and marks obtained. Our preliminary results indicate that students had a positive attitude towards LGDM as an assessment tool and that the assessment provided a novel opportunity for students to apply attributes such as 'creativity' to their learning experience of geology. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed.

Journal articles

Horgan, F.G., Ramal, A.F., Villegas, J.M., Almazan, M.L.P., Bernal, C.C., Jamoralin, A., Pasang, J.M., Orboc, G., Agreda, V. & Arroyo, C. 2017, 'Ecological engineering with high diversity vegetation patches enhances bird activity and ecosystem services in Philippine rice fields', Regional Environmental Change, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1355-1367.
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© 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergThis study examines the potential for ecological engineering to enhance the beneficial ecosystem services provided by birds in tropical rice fields. Bird activities were monitored at six sites in the Philippines with high-diversity vegetation patches (HDVPs) established as an ecological engineering approach to restore ecosystem services. Adjacent plots of conventional rice were monitored as controls. Predatory birds (shrikes, Lanius spp., grassbirds, Megalurus palustris, and kingfishers, Halcyon spp.) were more active in the ecological engineering fields where they foraged for arthropods and snails among the rice plants. Pied trillers, Lalage nigra, and yellow vented bulbuls, Pycnonotus goiavier, foraged more in the HDVPs than in rice. These birds mainly responded to the availability of bamboo for perching in the HDVPs, although patch vegetation beneath the bamboo was also used for perching by some species. Aerial hunters such as swallows, Hirundo spp., avoided HDVPs likely because the tall vegetation and bamboo stakes represented an obstacle for their flight. Small changes in the design of HDVPs could avoid any negative effects on foraging by swallows and swifts. The results indicate that ecological engineering of rice paddies can have multiple benefits for farmers and the environment, including improved nutrition for farming communities, the creation of habitat for wildlife, and the enhancement of regulatory ecosystem services provided by insectivorous and snail-eating birds.
Horgan, F.G., Nogues Palenzuela, A., Stuart, A.M., Naredo, A.I., Ramal, A.F., Bernal, C.C. & Almazan, M.L.P. 2017, 'Effects of silicon soil amendments and nitrogen fertilizer on apple snail (Ampullariidae) damage to rice seedlings', Crop Protection, vol. 91, pp. 123-131.
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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd This study examines the potential for silicon soil amendments and nitrogen to reduce apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, damage to rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. A rate of 75 kg/ha of nitrogen applied as (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 to rice (cv IR64 and cv YTH183) seedbeds increased seedling biomass, allowing the seedlings to gain critical stem thickness and avoid snail herbivory. These seedlings remained relatively large afte r exposure to snails in pot experiments, mainly because of faster growth rates, but also due to lower damage from snails to > 21 day-old IR64 seedlings. Silicon applied as Na 2 O 3 Si9H 2 0 alone (without nitrogen) reduced seedling growth compared to control seedlings. When nitrogen and silicon were applied together, the addition of silicon resulted in reduced seedling growth in YTH183 compared to seedlings treated with nitrogen alone. However, the same effect was not noted for IR64 seedlings, indicating clear variety-specific responses to seedbed inputs. Regardless of variety, silicon-treated seedlings that were transplanted to snail-infested pots at 21 days after seeding (DAS) had lower biomass than seedlings without silicon despite silicon-treated IR64 seedlings having less snail damage than untreated controls. From an experiment conducted in snail-infested ponds, we found no difference between snail damage to silicon (SiO 2 )-treated and control cv IR50 seedlings. Although we did not determine silicon levels in plant tissues, our results indicate that the effects of silicon soil amendments are largely insufficient to reduce the impact of apple snails to young rice seedlings (21 DAS).
Hudson, L.N., Newbold, T., Contu, S., Hill, S.L.L., Lysenko, I., De Palma, A., Phillips, H.R.P., Alhusseini, T.I., Bedford, F.E., Bennett, D.J., Booth, H., Burton, V.J., Chng, C.W.T., Choimes, A., Correia, D.L.P., Day, J., Echeverría-Londoño, S., Emerson, S.R., Gao, D., Garon, M., Harrison, M.L.K., Ingram, D.J., Jung, M., Kemp, V., Kirkpatrick, L., Martin, C.D., Pan, Y., Pask-Hale, G.D., Pynegar, E.L., Robinson, A.N., Sanchez-Ortiz, K., Senior, R.A., Simmons, B.I., White, H.J., Zhang, H., Aben, J., Abrahamczyk, S., Adum, G.B., Aguilar-Barquero, V., Aizen, M.A., Albertos, B., Alcala, E.L., Del Mar Alguacil, M., Alignier, A., Ancrenaz, M., Andersen, A.N., Arbeláez-Cortés, E., Armbrecht, I., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Aumann, T., Axmacher, J.C., Azhar, B., Azpiroz, A.B., Baeten, L., Bakayoko, A., Báldi, A., Banks, J.E., Baral, S.K., Barlow, J., Barratt, B.I.P., Barrico, L., Bartolommei, P., Barton, D.M., Basset, Y., Batáry, P., Bates, A.J., Baur, B., Bayne, E.M., Beja, P., Benedick, S., Berg, Å., Bernard, H., Berry, N.J., Bhatt, D., Bicknell, J.E., Bihn, J.H., Blake, R.J., Bobo, K.S., Bóon, R., Boekhout, T., Böhning-Gaese, K., Bonham, K.J., Borges, P.A.V., Borges, S.H., Boutin, C., Bouyer, J., Bragagnolo, C., Brandt, J.S., Brearley, F.Q., Brito, I., Bros, V., Brunet, J., Buczkowski, G., Buddle, C.M., Bugter, R., Buscardo, E., Buse, J., Cabra-García, J., Cáceres, N.C., Cagle, N.L., Calviño-Cancela, M., Cameron, S.A., Cancello, E.M., Caparrós, R., Cardoso, P., Carpenter, D., Carrijo, T.F., Carvalho, A.L., Cassano, C.R., Castro, H., Castro-Luna, A.A., Rolando, C.B., Cerezo, A., Chapman, K.A., Chauvat, M., Christensen, M., Clarke, F.M., Cleary, D.F.R., Colombo, G., Connop, S.P., Craig, M.D., Cruz-López, L., Cunningham, S.A., D'Aniello, B., D'Cruze, N., da Silva, P.G., Dallimer, M., Danquah, E., Darvill, B., Dauber, J., Davis, A.L.V., Dawson, J., de Sassi, C., de Thoisy, B., Deheuvels, O., Dejean, A., Devineau, J.-.L., Diekötter, T., Dolia, J.V., Domínguez, E., Dominguez-Haydar, Y., Dorn, S., Draper, I., Dreber, N., Dumont, B., Dures, S.G., Dynesius, M., Edenius, L., Eggleton, P., Eigenbrod, F., Elek, Z., Entling, M.H., Esler, K.J., de Lima, R.F., Faruk, A., Farwig, N., Fayle, T.M., Felicioli, A., Felton, A.M., Fensham, R.J., Fernandez, I.C., Ferreira, C.C., Ficetola, G.F., Fiera, C., Filgueiras, B.K.C., Fırıncıolu, H.K., Flaspohler, D., Floren, A., Fonte, S.J., Fournier, A., Fowler, R.E., Franzén, M., Fraser, L.H., Fredriksson, G.M., Freire, G.B., Frizzo, T.L.M., Fukuda, D., Furlani, D., Gaigher, R., Ganzhorn, J.U., García, K.P., Garcia-R, J.C., Garden, J.G., Garilleti, R., Ge, B.-.M., Gendreau-Berthiaume, B. & et al. 2017, 'The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project.', Ecol Evol, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 145-188.
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The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
Crisol-Martínez, E., Ford, G., Horgan, F.G., Brown, P.H. & Wormington, K.R. 2017, 'Ecology and conservation of insectivorous bats in fragmented areas of macadamia production in eastern Australia', Austral Ecology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 597-610.
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© 2016 Ecological Society of Australia Microbats perform important ecological services in agro-ecosystems, but several species are globally threatened by loss of roosting and breeding habitats. The successful conservation of bats in agricultural land requires adequate knowledge of their ecology. Using ultrasonic recorders, we studied the activity of insectivorous bats in areas of macadamia production in eastern Australia at two spatial scales: across woodland-orchard transects at the local scale and across three levels of fragmentation at the landscape scale. At the local scale, activity patterns of 'clutter' and 'edge' specialists were consistently higher in woodland patches, gradually decreasing towards isolated orchards, where only a few 'open' specialists were active. At the landscape scale, bat community activity was affected by the level of fragmentation, partly because three of the most recorded taxa (Austronomus australis, Saccolaimus flaviventris and Miniopterus australis) had their highest activity in less-fragmented areas. A distance-based model explained 24% of the bat community activity based on a combination of six environmental variables. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that a number of bat taxa were associated with open areas of macadamia, whereas other taxa were associated with increasing values of landscape composition, and arthropod and water availability. In addition, total bat activity was highly correlated with foraging rate. These results suggest that most bat taxa were influenced by proximity to woodland and the degree of fragmentation, and only few taxa were able to exploit isolated orchards. Environmental factors that promote bat activity could be exploited to strengthen conservation efforts. Preserving remnant woodland and promoting habitat heterogeneity will benefit several bat species. In particular, the foraging activity of 'edge' specialists could be fostered by increasing landscape connectivity and maintaining unobstructe...
Horgan, F.G., Ramal, A.F., Villegas, J.M., Jamoralin, A., Bernal, C.C., Perez, M.O., Pasang, J.M., Naredo, A.I. & Almazan, M.L.P. 2017, 'Effects of bund crops and insecticide treatments on arthropod diversity and herbivore regulation in tropical rice fields', Journal of Applied Entomology, vol. 141, pp. 587-599.
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© 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Ecological engineering using vegetable or flower strips is promoted as a potential pest management strategy in irrigated rice. Farmers in the Philippines often plant rice levees (bunds) with vegetables, particularly string beans (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walpers) to supplement income, but without considering the potential for pest management. This study examines the effects of planted bunds on rice herbivores and their natural enemies. We compared arthropods in (a) rice fields that had string beans planted on bunds, (b) fields without string beans and without any insecticide applications and (c) fields without string beans but with insecticide treatments (standard practice). Rice yield was similar across all treatments; however, the vegetation strips produced an extra 3.6 kg of fresh string bean pods per metre of bund. There were no apparent increases in major natural enemy groups in fields with string beans compared to fields with conventional bunds. Fields with insecticide treatments had higher damage from leaffolders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The sprayed fields also had lower parasitism of planthopper eggs and fewer predatory dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata). Furthermore, the mortality of planthopper (Delphacidae: Hemiptera) and stemborer (Pyralidae) eggs by parasitoids and predators was density dependent only in the unsprayed fields (with and without string beans). Our results demonstrate that planting string beans on rice bunds improves the productivity of rice farms, but our ecological engineering system did not appreciably affect natural enemy or herbivore abundance; however, chemical insecticides adversely affected pest regulatory ecosystem functions leading to higher pest damage.
Horgan, F.G. & Ferrater, J.B. 2017, 'Benefits and potential trade-offs associated with yeast-like symbionts during virulence adaptation in a phloem-feeding planthopper', Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 112-125.
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© 2017 The Netherlands Entomological Society Insect herbivores form symbioses with a diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. A role for endosymbionts during host feeding on nutrient-poor diets – including phloem – is now supported by a large body of evidence. Furthermore, symbiont-herbivore associations have been implicated in feeding preferences by host races (mainly aphids) on multiple plant species. However, the role of symbionts in mediating herbivore preferences between varieties of the same plant species has received little research attention despite the implications for virulence adaptation to resistant crops. This study investigates the role of yeast-like symbionts (YLS) in virulence adaptation and host plant switching among populations of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), that were selected on various rice [Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae)] lines differing in their resistance against herbivores. Planthopper fitness (nymph weight) declined where YLS densities were depleted through heat treatment. However, compared to normal symbiotic planthoppers, the depletion of symbionts did not generally change the relative fitness of planthoppers (each 'adapted' to a single natal host) when switched to feed on a range of rice lines (exposed hosts). In some cases, this occurred despite differences in YLS density responses to the various hosts. Furthermore, we detected no fitness costs associated with YLS in adapted populations. Therefore, the result s of this study suggest that, whereas YLS are essential for planthopper nutrition, changes in YLS density play little role during virulence adaptation and host plant switching by the brown planthopper.
Horgan, F.G., Kudavidanage, E.P., Weragodaarachchi, A. & Ramp, D. 2017, 'Traditional 'maavee' rice production in Sri Lanka: environmental, economic and social pressures revealed through stakeholder interviews', Paddy and Water Environment.
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The Nilwala Ganga Basin of Sri Lanka includes important natural wetlands that are habitat for vulnerable animal and plant species. Flood protection and intensive rice production in the Basin have resulted in degraded acid soils and declining rice yields. However, traditional 'maavee' rice production outside the flood protection scheme has continued to generate a high-value rice product. This study reports on interviews conducted with farmers and other stakeholders to document the production practices and the potential environmental and economic benefits associated with maavee rice paddies. The maavee production system has prevailed for at least several decades. Farmers apply no chemicals to their paddies, relying instead on alluvial deposits as a source of nutrients, and on the natural pest and disease resistance of their traditional varieties. The maavee rice product can attain three times the selling price of rice from conventional farms making it more economically viable than conventional rice production. However, much of maavee production is for home consumption and the system is threatened by increasing labour costs, an ageing farming population and pressures to increase rice yields. Non-invasive production practices and the proximity of maavee paddies to regenerating wetlands in the Kirala Kele Sanctuary suggest that traditional paddies may constitute an important habitat for vulnerable wildlife; however, maavee farmers also perceive wetland birds as potentially damaging to rice. Based on a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis, we make recommendations for future research needs and potential management actions to safeguard the environmental and economic sustainability of the maavee system.
Srinivasan, T.S., Almazan, M.L.P., Bernal, C.C., Ramal, A.F., Subbarayalu, M.K. & Horgan, F.G. 2016, 'Interactions between nymphs of Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on resistant and susceptible rice varieties', APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 81-90.
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Horgan, F.G., Naik, B.S., Iswanto, E.H., Almazan, M.L.P., Ramal, A.F. & Bernal, C.C. 2016, 'Responses by the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, to conspecific density on resistant and susceptible rice varieties', ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 284-294.
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Horgan, F.G., Ramal, A.F., Bernal, C.C., Villegas, J.M., Stuart, A.M. & Almazan, M.L.P. 2016, 'Applying ecological engineering for sustainable and resilient rice production systems', Procedia Food Science, vol. 6, pp. 7-15.
Schmidt, A., John, K., Auge, H., Brandl, R., Horgan, F.G., Settele, J., Zaitsev, A.S., Wolters, V. & Schaedler, M. 2016, 'Compensatory mechanisms of litter decomposition under alternating moisture regimes in tropical rice fields', APPLIED SOIL ECOLOGY, vol. 107, pp. 79-90.
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A conversion from permanently flooded rice cropping systems to crop rotations that include non-flooded upland crops is heavily promoted in tropical regions to meet the challenges of sustainable food production while reducing water consumption and trace gas emissions. Shorter periods of flooding and manipulation of fertilizer inputs affect belowground community composition, biomass and functioning. However, there have been no previous studies of how such shifts in rice field management might affect soil biota and decomposition. Our objective was to examine how crop diversification, which demands different moisture regimes and nitrogen inputs, influences belowground invertebrate assemblages and their contribution to the decomposition of crop residues. We conducted a litterbag experiment in lowland paddy fields at the experimental field sites of the DFG-ICON project (Laguna, the Philippines) that were either continuously flooded, had seasonally alternating wet and dry periods, or were continuously dry. Additionally, subplot treatments within these crop rotations included different N fertilizer management practices. At a total of 36 plots we used litterbags with two different mesh sizes to assess decomposition with and without fauna over a period of 72 days. Furthermore, we sampled soil microfauna and mesofauna in both the wet (rainy) and dry seasons.
Ferrater, J.B. & Horgan, F.G. 2016, 'Does Nilaparvata lugens gain tolerance to rice resistance genes through conspecifics at shared feeding sites?', ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 77-82.
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Castonguay, A.C., Burkhard, B., Mueller, F., Horgan, F.G. & Settele, J. 2016, 'Resilience and adaptability of rice terrace social-ecological systems: a case study of a local community's perception in Banaue, Philippines', ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY, vol. 21, no. 2.
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Horgan, F.G., Crisol-Martinez, E., Almazan, M.L.P., Romena, A., Ramal, A.F., Ferrater, J.B. & Bernal, C.C. 2016, 'Susceptibility and tolerance in hybrid and pure-line rice varieties to herbivore attack: biomass partitioning and resource-based compensation in response to damage', ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 200-213.
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Horgan, F.G., Srinivasan, T.S., Nails, B.S., Ramal, A.F., Bernal, C.C. & Almazan, M.L.P. 2016, 'Effects of nitrogen on egg-laying inhibition and ovicidal response in planthopper-resistant rice varieties', CROP PROTECTION, vol. 89, pp. 223-230.
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Schmidt, A., John, K., Auge, H., Brandl, R., Horgan, F.G., Settele, J., Zaitsev, A.S., Wolters, V. & Schaedler, M. 2016, 'Compensatory mechanisms of litter decomposition under alternating moisture regimes in tropical rice fields', APPLIED SOIL ECOLOGY, vol. 107, pp. 79-90.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
A conversion from permanently flooded rice cropping systems to crop rotations that include non-flooded upland crops is heavily promoted in tropical regions to meet the challenges of sustainable food production while reducing water consumption and trace gas emissions. Shorter periods of flooding and manipulation of fertilizer inputs affect belowground community composition, biomass and functioning. However, there have been no previous studies of how such shifts in rice field management might affect soil biota and decomposition. Our objective was to examine how crop diversification, which demands different moisture regimes and nitrogen inputs, influences belowground invertebrate assemblages and their contribution to the decomposition of crop residues. We conducted a litterbag experiment in lowland paddy fields at the experimental field sites of the DFG-ICON project (Laguna, the Philippines) that were either continuously flooded, had seasonally alternating wet and dry periods, or were continuously dry. Additionally, subplot treatments within these crop rotations included different N fertilizer management practices. At a total of 36 plots we used litterbags with two different mesh sizes to assess decomposition with and without fauna over a period of 72 days. Furthermore, we sampled soil microfauna and mesofauna in both the wet (rainy) and dry seasons.
Jones, C.R., Lorica, M.R.P., Villegas, J.M., Ramal, A.F., Horgan, F.G., Singleton, G.R. & Stuart, A.M. 2016, 'The stadium effect: rodent damage patterns in rice fields explored using giving-up densities.', Integrative Zoology.
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Rodents are globally important pre-harvest pests of rice. In South-east Asia, rodent damage to growing rice crops is commonly concentrated towards the center of rice fields, away from the field edge resulting in a clear pattern known as the 'stadium effect'. To further understand this behavior of rodent pests and develop recommendations for future research and management, we examined the relation between giving-up densities (GUDs) and damage patterns. In Tanay, Luzon, Philippines, GUD trays containing pieces of coconut in a matrix of sand were placed at four different distances from the field edge to quantify the perceived risk of predation in a rice field pest, Rattus tanezumi. GUDs were recorded during a dry and wet season crop at the reproductive and ripening stages of rice. In addition, assessments of active burrows, tracking tile activity and rodent damage to the rice crop, were conducted in the dry season. GUDs were significantly lower in the center of the rice fields than on the field edges suggesting that rodent damage to rice is greater in the middle of rice fields due to a lower perceived predation risk. Furthermore, this perception of predation risk (or fear) increases towards the field edge and is greatest on the rice bund, where there was no vegetation cover. We discuss the implications for rodent management and rodent damage assessments in rice fields. This is the first documented use of GUDs in a rice agro-ecosystem in Asia, thus we identify the challenges and lessons learned through this process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, A., John, K., Arida, G., Auge, H., Brandl, R., Horgan, F.G., Hotes, S., Marquez, L., Radermacher, N., Settele, J., Wolters, V. & Schaedler, M. 2015, 'Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community', PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 7.
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Settele, J., Spangenberg, J.H., Heong, K.L., Burkhard, B., Bustamante, J.V., Cabbigat, J., Chien, H.V., Escalada, M., Grescho, V., Hai, L.H., Harpke, A., Horgan, F.G., Hotes, S., Jahn, R., Kuehn, I., Marquez, L., Schaedler, M., Tekken, V., Vetterlein, D., Villareal, S.B., Westphal, C. & Wiemers, M. 2015, 'Agricultural landscapes and ecosystem services in South-East Asia-the LEGATO-Project', BASIC AND APPLIED ECOLOGY, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 661-664.
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Westphal, C., Vidal, S., Horgan, F.G., Gurr, G.M., Escalada, M., Chien, H.V., Tscharntke, T., Heong, K.L. & Settele, J. 2015, 'Promoting multiple ecosystem services with flower strips and participatory approaches in rice production landscapes', BASIC AND APPLIED ECOLOGY, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 681-689.
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Moreira, A.S., Horgan, F.G., Murray, T.E. & Kakouli-Duarte, T. 2015, 'Population genetic structure of Bombus terrestris in Europe: Isolation and genetic differentiation of Irish and British populations', MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 3257-3268.
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Klotzbuecher, T., Leuther, F., Marxen, A., Vetterlein, D., Horgan, F.G. & Jahn, R. 2015, 'Forms and fluxes of potential plant-available silicon in irrigated lowland rice production (Laguna, the Philippines)', PLANT AND SOIL, vol. 393, no. 1-2, pp. 177-191.
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Horgan, F.G., Ramal, A.F., Bentur, J.S., Kumar, R., Bhanu, K.V., Sarao, P.S., Iswanto, E.H., Chien, H.V., Phyu, M.H., Bernal, C.C., Phyu, M.H., Bernal, C.C., Liberty, M.P.A., Alam, M.Z., Lu, Z. & Huang, S.-.H. 2015, 'Virulence of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) populations from South and South East Asia against resistant rice varieties', CROP PROTECTION, vol. 78, pp. 222-231.
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Ferrater, J.B., Naredo, A.I., Almazan, M.L.P., de Jong, P.W., Dicke, M. & Horgan, F.G. 2015, 'Varied responses by yeast-like symbionts during virulence adaptation in a monophagous phloem-feeding insect', ARTHROPOD-PLANT INTERACTIONS, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 215-224.
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Srinivasan, T.S., Almazan, M.L.P., Bernal, C.C., Fujita, D., Ramal, A.F., Yasui, H., Subbarayalu, M.K. & Horgan, F.G. 2015, 'Current utility of the BPH25 and BPH26 genes and possibilities for further resistance against plant- and leafhoppers from the donor cultivar ADR52', APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 533-543.
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Hudson, L.N., Newbold, T., Contu, S., Hill, S.L.L., Lysenko, I., De Palma, A., Phillips, H.R.P., Senior, R.A., Bennett, D.J., Booth, H., Choimes, A., Correia, D.L.P., Day, J., Echeverria-Londono, S., Garon, M., Harrison, M.L.K., Ingram, D.J., Jung, M., Kemp, V., Kirkpatrick, L., Martin, C.D., Pan, Y., White, H.J., Aben, J., Abrahamczyk, S., Adum, G.B., Aguilar-Barquero, V., Aizen, M.A., Ancrenaz, M., Arbelaez-Cortes, E., Armbrecht, I., Azhar, B., Azpiroz, A.B., Baeten, L., Baldi, A., Banks, J.E., Barlow, J., Batary, P., Bates, A.J., Bayne, E.M., Beja, P., Berg, A., Berry, N.J., Bicknell, J.E., Bihn, J.H., Boehning-Gaese, K., Boekhout, T., Boutin, C., Bouyer, J., Brearley, F.Q., Brito, I., Brunet, J., Buczkowski, G., Buscardo, E., Cabra-Garcia, J., Calvino-Cancela, M., Cameron, S.A., Cancello, E.M., Carrijo, T.F., Carvalho, A.L., Castro, H., Castro-Luna, A.A., Cerda, R., Cerezo, A., Chauvat, M., Clarke, F.M., Cleary, D.F.R., Connop, S.P., D'Aniello, B., da Silva, P.G., Darvill, B., Dauber, J., Dejean, A., Diekoetter, T., Dominguez-Haydar, Y., Dormann, C.F., Dumont, B., Dures, S.G., Dynesius, M., Edenius, L., Elek, Z., Entling, M.H., Farwig, N., Fayle, T.M., Felicioli, A., Felton, A.M., Ficetola, G.F., Filgueiras, B.K.C., Fonte, S.J., Fraser, L.H., Fukuda, D., Furlani, D., Ganzhorn, J.U., Garden, J.G., Gheler-Costa, C., Giordani, P., Giordano, S., Gottschalk, M.S., Goulson, D., Gove, A.D., Grogan, J., Hanley, M.E., Hanson, T., Hashim, N.R., Hawes, J.E., Hebert, C., Helden, A.J., Henden, J.-.A., Hernandez, L., Herzog, F., Higuera-Diaz, D., Hilje, B., Horgan, F.G., Horvath, R., Hylander, K., Isaacs-Cubides, P., Ishitani, M., Jacobs, C.T., Jaramillo, V.J., Jauker, B., Jonsell, M., Jung, T.S., Kapoor, V., Kati, V., Katovai, E., Kessler, M., Knop, E., Kolb, A., Koroesi, A., Lachat, T., Lantschner, V., Le Feon, V., LeBuhn, G., Legare, J.-.P., Letcher, S.G., Littlewood, N.A., Lopez-Quintero, C.A., Louhaichi, M., Loevei, G.L., Lucas-Borja, M.E., Luja, V.H., Maeto, K., Magura, T., Mallari, N.A., Marin-Spiotta, E., Marshall, E.J.P., Martinez, E., Mayfield, M.M., Mikusinski, G., Milder, J.C., Miller, J.R., Morales, C.L., Muchane, M.N., Muchane, M., Naidoo, R., Nakamura, A., Naoe, S., Nates-Parra, G., Navarrete Gutierrez, D.A., Neuschulz, E.L., Noreika, N., Norfolk, O., Noriega, J.A., Noeske, N.M., O'Dea, N., Oduro, W., Ofori-Boateng, C., Oke, C.O., Osgathorpe, L.M., Paritsis, J., Parra-H, A., Pelegrin, N., Peres, C.A., Persson, A.S., Petanidou, T., Phalan, B., Philips, T.K., Poveda, K., Power, E.F., Presley, S.J., Proenca, V., Quaranta, M., Quintero, C., Redpath-Downing, N.A., Reid, J.L. & et al. 2014, 'The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts', ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, vol. 4, no. 24, pp. 4701-4735.
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Stuart, A.M., Palenzuela, A.N., Bernal, C.C., Ramal, A.F. & Horgan, F.G. 2014, 'Effects of fertiliser applications on survival and recruitment of the apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)', CROP PROTECTION, vol. 64, pp. 78-87.
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Vu, Q., Quintana, R., Fujita, D., Bernal, C.C., Yasui, H., Medina, C.D. & Horgan, F.G. 2014, 'Responses and adaptation by Nephotettix virescens to monogenic and pyramided rice lines with Grh-resistance genes', ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 179-190.
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Yanes Figueroa, J., Almazan, M.L.P. & Horgan, F.G. 2014, 'Reducing seed-densities in rice seedbeds improves the cultural control of apple snail damage', CROP PROTECTION, vol. 62, pp. 23-31.
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Horgan, F.G., Stuart, A.M. & Kudavidanage, E.P. 2014, 'Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands', ACTA OECOLOGICA-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, vol. 54, pp. 90-100.
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Horgan, F.G., Yanes Figueroa, J. & Almazan, M.L.P. 2014, 'Seedling broadcasting as a potential method to reduce apple snail damage to rice', CROP PROTECTION, vol. 64, pp. 168-176.
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Horgan, F.G., Imelda Felix, M., Portalanza, D.E., Sanchez, L., Moya Rios, W.M., Farah, S.E., Wither, J.A., Andrade, C.I. & Espin, E.B. 2014, 'Responses by farmers to the apple snail invasion of Ecuador's rice fields and attitudes toward predatory snail kites', CROP PROTECTION, vol. 62, pp. 135-143.
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Felix, I., Horgan, F.G. & Stuart, A. 2014, 'Flying heroes of Ecuador's rice fields', Appropriate Technology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 44-45.
Moreira, A.S., Horgan, F.G., Murray, T.E. & Kakouli-Duarte, T. 2013, 'Bumblebee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) sample storage for a posteriori molecular studies: Interactions between sample storage and DNA-extraction techniques', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 419-425.
Murray, T.E., Coffey, M.F., Kehoe, E. & Horgan, F.G. 2013, 'Pathogen prevalence in commercially reared bumble bees and evidence of spillover in conspecific populations', BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, vol. 159, pp. 269-276.
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Ferrater, J.B., de Jong, P.W., Dicke, M., Chen, Y.H. & Horgan, F.G. 2013, 'Symbiont-mediated adaptation by planthoppers and leafhoppers to resistant rice varieties', ARTHROPOD-PLANT INTERACTIONS, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 591-605.
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Fujita, D., Kohli, A. & Horgan, F.G. 2013, 'Rice Resistance to Planthoppers and Leafhoppers', CRITICAL REVIEWS IN PLANT SCIENCES, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 162-191.
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Horgan, F.G. & Crisol, E. 2013, 'Hybrid rice and insect herbivores in Asia', ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 1-19.
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Crisol, E., Almazan, M.L.P., Jones, P.W. & Horgan, F.G. 2013, 'Planthopper-rice interactions: unequal stresses on pure-line and hybrid rice under similar experimental conditions', ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 18-32.
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Morris, K., Horgan, F.G. & Griffin, C.T. 2013, 'Spatial and temporal dynamics of Meloidogyne minor on creeping bentgrass in golf greens', PLANT PATHOLOGY, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1166-1172.
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Horgan, F.G., Quiring, D.T., Lagnaoui, A. & Pelletier, Y. 2013, 'Tuber production, dormancy and resistance against Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) in wild potato species', JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY, vol. 137, no. 10, pp. 739-750.
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Horgan, F.G., Quiring, D.T., Lagnaoui, A. & Pelletier, Y. 2012, 'Life Histories and Fitness of Two Tuber Moth Species Feeding on Native Andean Potatoes', NEOTROPICAL ENTOMOLOGY, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 333-340.
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Horgan, F.G. 2012, 'Effects of leaf damage on oviposition choice in an invasive paropsine beetle', JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 271-281.
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Savary, S., Horgan, F., Willocquet, L. & Heong, K.L. 2012, 'A review of principles for sustainable pest management in rice', CROP PROTECTION, vol. 32, pp. 54-63.
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Chen, Y.H., Bernal, C.C., Tan, J., Horgan, F.G. & Fitzgerald, M.A. 2011, 'Planthopper "adaptation" to resistant rice varieties: Changes in amino acid composition over time', JOURNAL OF INSECT PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1375-1384.
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Horgan, F.G. 2011, 'Outbreak of an invasive paropsine beetle in south-west Ireland: preference, performance and damage to Eucalyptus', JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY, vol. 135, no. 8, pp. 621-633.
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Morris, K.S., Horgan, F.G., Downes, M.J. & Griffin, C.T. 2011, 'The effect of temperature on hatch and activity of second-stage juveniles of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor, an emerging pest in north-west Europe', NEMATOLOGY, vol. 13, pp. 985-993.
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Penalver Cruz, A., Arida, A., Luen Heong, K. & Horgan, F.G. 2011, 'Aspects of brown planthopper adaptation to resistant rice varieties with the Bph3 gene', ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 245-257.
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Horgan, F.G., Quiring, D.T., Lagnaoui, A., Salas, A.R. & Pelletier, Y. 2010, 'Variations in resistance against Phthorimaea operculella in wild potato tubers', ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 269-279.
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Noreiga, J.A., Horgan, F.G., Larsen, T.H. & Valencia, G. 2010, 'Records of an invasive dung beetle species, Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787)(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), in Peru', Acta Zoológica Mexicana (ns), vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 451-456.
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Horgan, F.G., Quiring, D.T., Lagnaoui, A. & Pelletier, Y. 2009, 'Effects of altitude of origin on trichome-mediated anti-herbivore resistance in wild Andean potatoes', FLORA, vol. 204, no. 1, pp. 49-62.
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Horgan, F.G., Quiring, D.T., Lagnaoui, A. & Pelletier, Y. 2009, 'Trade-off between foliage and tuber resistance to Phthorimaea operculella in wild potatoes', ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 130-137.
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Horgan, F.G. 2009, 'Invasion and retreat: shifting assemblages of dung beetles amidst changing agricultural landscapes in central Peru', BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION, vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 3519-3541.
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Noreiga Alvarado, J.A., Gillet, C., Sandoval Mojica, A., Horgan, F.G., Blanco, J.I., Valencia, G., Pardo, L.C. & Santibanez, A.S. 2009, 'New records and distribution range extension for Phanaeus haroldi Kirsch, 1871: A consolidation of biological and biogeogrphic information', Lambillionea, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 403-414.
Bellvert, J., Crombie, K. & Horgan, F.G. 2008, 'Comparative efficiency of the Fenwick can and Schuiling centrifuge in extracting nematode cysts from different soil types', JOURNAL OF NEMATOLOGY, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 30-34.
Horgan, F.G. 2008, 'Dung beetle assemblages in forests and pastures of El Salvador: a functional comparison', BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2961-2978.
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Bellvert, J., Crombie, K. & Horgan, F.G. 2008, 'Effect of sample size on cyst recovery by flotation methods: Recommendations for sample processing during EU monitoring of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp.)', EPPO Bulletin, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 205-210.
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Under EC Council Directive 2007/33/EC member states of the European Union are recommended to take soil samples ranging from 100 mL to > 1500 mL to monitor populations of potato cyst nematodes [PCN] (Globodera spp.) in targeted fields. This study examines the effects of varying sample size on sample processing and cyst extraction using two widely used laboratory methods. Cyst recovery was stable using the Fenwick can from 100 mL up to the physical limits of the can. Recovery was significantly lower for low density 50 mL samples; however, this was partly due to a statistical artefact since higher numbers of cysts were lost from successively larger samples with constant cyst numbers (i.e. decreasing densities). The Schuiling centrifuge had functional limits of < 100 mL and > 500 mL. Outside this range, cyst recovery from low density samples was significantly reduced. Cyst recovery from samples of varying size, but with equal numbers of cysts was only constant above 100 mL. However, samples ranging from 200-500 mL were optimal for the Schuiling centrifuge. Cyst extraction efficiency was similar using both methods for samples ranging from 150 mL to 1500 mL, where larger samples were divided into < 500 mL portions. However, processing times (i.e. cyst extraction and microscopic examination) and water consumption increased significantly with increasing sample size and were significantly higher when using the Fenwick can. &copy; 2008 The Authors.
Horgan, F.G. 2007, 'Dung beetles in pasture landscapes of Central America: proliferation of synanthropogenic species and decline of forest specialists', BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 2149-2165.
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Horgan, F.G., Quiring, D.T., Lagnaoui, A. & Pelletier, Y. 2007, 'Variable responses of tuber moth to the leaf trichomes of wild potatoes', ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 1-12.
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Horgan, F.G., Quiring, D.T., Lagnaoui, A., Salas, A.R. & Pelletier, Y. 2007, 'Periderm- and cortex-based resistance to tuber-feeding Phthorimaea operculella in two wild potato species', ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 249-258.
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Horgan, F.G. 2006, 'Aggregation and coexistence of dung beetles in montane rain forest and deforested sites in central Peru', JOURNAL OF TROPICAL ECOLOGY, vol. 22, pp. 359-370.
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Horgan, F.G. 2005, 'Two types of refuge have opposite effects on the size of larval aggregations in a tropical defoliator', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 225-230.
Horgan, F.G. 2005, 'Effects of deforestation on diversity, biomass and function of dung beetles on the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes', FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, vol. 216, no. 1-3, pp. 117-133.
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Horgan, F.G. & Fuentes, R.C. 2005, 'Asymmetrical competition between Neotropical dung beetles and its consequences for assemblage structure', ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 182-193.
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Horgan, F.G. 2005, 'Aggregated distribution of resources creates competition refuges for rainforest dung beetles', ECOGRAPHY, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 603-618.
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Horgan, F.G. 2005, 'Predatory hypogaeic beetles are attracted to buried winter moth (Lepidoptera : Geometridae) Pupae: Evidence using a new trap design', COLEOPTERISTS BULLETIN, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 41-46.
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Horgan, F.G. & Myers, J.H. 2004, 'Interactions between predatory ground beetles, the winter moth and an introduced parasitoid on the Lower Mainland of British Columbia', PEDOBIOLOGIA, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 23-35.
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Horgan, F.G. & Chávez, J.C. 2004, 'Field boundaries restrict dispersal of a tropical tiger beetle, megacephala angustata chevrolat 1841 (coleoptera: Cicindelidae)', Entomotropica, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 147-152.
Field boundaries may divide populations of predatory invertebrates into local populations at the fi eld scale by restricting between-fi eld dispersal. Th is could reduce recolonisation rates after pesticide use or decrease the effi ciency of numerical responses by natural enemies to pest outbreaks. Th e present study examines the impact of fi eld boundaries on dispersal of the predatory tiger beetle, Megacephala angustata Chevrolat 1841 at a farm in coastal El Salvador. Pitfall trapping indicated that beetles occurred in most habitats on the farm. In pastures, captures were higher in open, unshaded areas than under fi eld boundaries. Beetle dispersal was examined in a capture-mark-recapture study at the site. Movement between fi elds was very rare as indicated by a linear relationship between the accumulated number of marked beetles and the proportion of recaptures in each of three fi elds. In spite of frequent recaptures, three weeks after marking, only 2 of 401 beetles were found outside the fi elds where they had been originally captured and marked. &copy; 2004, Sociedad Venezolana de Entomolog&iacute;a.
Horgan, F.G. & Berrow, S.D. 2004, 'Hooded crow foraging from dung pats: Implications for the structure of dung beetle assemblages', Biology and Environment, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 119-124.
The occurrence of dung beetles in the diet of hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix L.) was examined in order to identify possible biases in predation that could influence the structure of local dung beetle assemblages. Pellets and gizzards collected in southern Ireland indicated that crows fed largely on insects between March and September, and dung beetles (particularly Aphodius prodromus (Brahm)) were the most common insects in the diet in March and April. An abundance of alternative prey items, including Carabidae and Curculionidae, may have protected late summer dung beetles from intense crow predation. Small beetles (i.e. Hydrophilidae 2mm body length) did not occur in the pellets or gizzards and may be ignored or avoided by foraging crows. Field observations and diet analyses suggest that crows prefer to forage from fresh equine dung rather than fresh cattle dung. We suggest that such predation biases could play a role in determining dung beetle assemblage structures at microhabitat (dung type) and macrohabitat scales.
Horgan, F.G. 2002, 'Shady field boundaries and the colonisation of dung by coprophagous beetles in Central American pastures', AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT, vol. 91, no. 1-3, pp. 25-36.
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Horgan, F.G. 2001, 'Burial of bovine dung by coprophagous beetles (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae) from horse and cow grazing sites in El Salvador', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL BIOLOGY, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 103-111.
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Horgan, F.G., Myers, J.H. & Van Meel, R. 1999, 'Cyzenis albicans (Diptera : Tachinidae) does not prevent the outbreak of winter moth (Lepidoptera : Geometridae) in birch stands and blueberry plots on the lower mainland of British Columbia', ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 96-107.

·         Dr. Enoka Kudavidanage - Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

·         Dr. Alex Stuart – International Rice Research Institute (Philippines)

·         LEGATO Project (Land-use intensity and ecological engineering-assessment tools for risks and opportunities in irrigated rice based production systems)

·         Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research (Philippines)