Erica is Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Faculty of Health and an Industry Fellow in the Institute of Sustainable Futures. Erica has a background in psychology and health science. Her research interests are in the areas of mental health and wellbeing, health services use and self-care, complementary and integrative medicine, treatment decision-making, health and the built environment and planetary health. Erica has experience with a range of research methodologies including, qualitative and quantitative research design and analysis. Currently, Erica’s research is seeking to understand women’s strategies for coping with chronic illness, health practitioner decision-making, complementary self-care in the Australian population, the impact of contamination on residents mental health and wellbeing, and healthy higher density living.
- Industry Fellow, Institute of Sustainable Futures
- Australian Psychological Society (APS)
- Public Health Association of Australia (PHAA)
- International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE)
- Naturopaths and Herbalists Association of Australia (NHAA)
- Secretary, (APS) Psychology and Complementary Therapies Interest Group
- Executive Committee Member, Mental Health Special Interest Group (PHAA)
- Peer reviewer
Scholarships and awards
Outstanding Thesis Prize, Faculty of Business, Justice and Behavioural Sciences, Charles Sturt University.
International Naturopathy Research Leadership Program. Research Fellowship Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine (ARCCIM), Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney.
Fellow, Naturopaths and Herbalists Association of Australia (NHAA)
Can supervise: YES
- Mental health
- Health and the build environment
- Effects of changing environments on metal health and wellbeing
- Health behaviour
- Treatment decision-making
- Traditional, complementary and intergrative medicine
- Personality and individual differences
- Environment, Health and Sustainability (Planetary Health)
- Environmental Health
- Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Medicine
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017. This book presents the current clinical evidence on the efficacy of herbal and nutritional treatments for anxiety that is experienced in association with psychiatric disorders, and explains how health professionals can apply this knowledge to the benefit of patients presenting with a wide range of symptoms, including comorbid mood disorders. All chapters are written by world-leading researchers who draw on the findings of human clinical trials to provide uncompromising assessments of individual treatments, including herbal anxiolytics with sedative actions, adaptogens, cognitive anxiolytics, and nutraceuticals. Traditional treatments requiring further study - including the plant-based psychotropic Ayahuasca and other phytotherapies of potential value in the treatment of anxiety - are also reviewed. In the closing chapters, a series of helpful case studies are provided by mental health clinicians in order to illustrate how herbal and nutritional treatments can best be integrated into an overall treatment plan for individuals with a range of comorbid diagnoses. Mental health professionals, researchers, and general readers will find that the book provides an excellent review of current scientific knowledge gained from the study of herbal and nutritional treatments, together with important clinical recommendations for their use in patients experiencing clinically significant levels of anxiety.
Frawley, JE, McManus, K, McIntyre, E, Seale, H & Sullivan, E 2020, 'Uptake of funded influenza vaccines in young Australian children in 2018; parental characteristics, information seeking and attitudes', Vaccine, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 180-186.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Objective: Infants and children under 5-years are at an increased risk of complications from influenza. We aimed to evaluate characteristics associated with uptake of Australian state and territory funded influenza vaccine programs in 2018 for children aged 6-months to 5-years. Materials and methods: A national online survey of 1002 Australian parents with at least one child aged between 6-months and 5-years (response rate 29.9%). A 23-item online questionnaire asked parents about health service use, 2017 and 2018 influenza vaccine uptake, and routine childhood vaccine status for their youngest child. Parents were also asked a range of questions about their demographics, sources of vaccine information, and beliefs and attitudes towards immunisation. Results: A total of 1002 parents completed the questionnaire and 52.9% of children aged 6-months to 5-years in our sample were immunised against influenza in 2018; representing a significant increase from 2017. Knowing the vaccine was free for their child, and being influenced by a pharmacist increased the likelihood that their child received the influenza vaccine. Not receiving an influenza vaccine recommendation from a health care provider significantly reduced the likelihood of immunisation. Some parents were worried about the safety of the influenza vaccine for their child (36.4%), while 26.5% of parents agreed that you can catch influenza from the vaccine. Conclusions: Uptake of influenza vaccine for Australian children aged 6-months to 5-years increased significantly in 2018. Continuing efforts to build parents’ trust in childhood influenza vaccination are still required. Increasing opportunities for health care providers to recommend vaccination will lead to further improvements in uptake for young children.
McIntyre, E, Saliba, A & McKenzie, K 2020, 'Subjective wellbeing in the Indian general population: a validation study of the Personal Wellbeing Index.', Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
PURPOSE:The Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) is a commonly used measure of life satisfaction that reflects a person's level of subjective wellbeing (SWB). The present study aimed to establish the validity and reliability of the PWI in a large sample of Indian adults and describe their SWB. METHODS:2004 Indian adults completed a cross-sectional online survey, which was presented in English and included the PWI and demographic questions. The sample was split to assess the psychometric properties of the 7-item (n = 981) and 8-item (n = 937) versions of the PWI. RESULTS:Both the 7- and 8-item versions of the PWI demonstrated adequate internal consistency (α = .89 and .88, respectively). The global means for both versions of the PWI (7-item = 74.43, 8-item = 73.82) were within the normative range for Western countries. Achieving in life had the lowest domain scores for both the 7-item (M = 70.51) and 8-item (M = 68.37) versions; the spirituality or religion domain had the highest domain score in the 8-item version (M = 78.84). CONCLUSION:The findings suggest that both the 7- and 8-item versions of the PWI are valid and reliable measures of life satisfaction for use in India. The global mean scores for both versions of the PWI were within the normative range for Western countries. In this study, Indians reported high levels of satisfaction with their spirituality or religion, suggesting this domain may be an important contributor of SWB; however, more research is needed to determine this.
Catling, C, Rossiter, C & McIntyre, E 2019, 'Developing the Australian Midwifery Workplace Culture instrument', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING PRACTICE.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Leech, B, McIntyre, E, Steel, A & Sibbritt, D 2019, 'Risk factors associated with intestinal permeability in an adult population: A systematic review', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, vol. 73, no. 10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Malhotra, V, Harnett, J, McIntyre, E, Steel, A, Wong, K & Saini, B 2019, 'The prevalence and characteristics of complementary medicine use by Australians living with sleep disorders – Results of a cross-sectional study', Advances in Integrative Medicine.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Objectives: To report the prevalence and characteristics of complementary medicine use and product utilization by Australians living with sleep disorders. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: 2025 adults representative of the Australian population by age, gender and state/territory of residence completed a survey consisting of 50 items including demographic, health services and complementary product/service utilization and health status items. The sociodemographic characteristics, prevalence and frequency of complementary medicine (CM) use, and out of pocket CM expenses were compared between those reporting a sleep disorder to those without a sleep disorder. Results: Of the 2019 respondents completing the online survey, 265 (13%) reported sleep disorders. Of these 265 respondents, the median age bracket was 40–50 years; 54.7% were females. The mean health-related quality of life score in this group was 44.8 ± 23.3; the group had a higher level of comorbid conditions compared to those without sleep disorders (p < 0.001). Two thirds (63.8%) of participants with a sleep disorder used complementary medicine compared to 52% of those without a sleep disorder (p < 0.001). Massage therapists and chiropractors were the main complementary medicine practitioners consulted by the group with sleep disorders; the average annual amount spent on visits to complementary medicine practitioners was significantly higher in this group (Australian dollars, AUD 160.0 ± 545.0) than in participants without sleep disorders (AUD 62.8 ± 251.0), p < 0.001. There were no significant differences in spending on complementary medicine products annually - those with a sleep disorder spent on average AUD 59.73 ± 266.38 annually, whilst those without spent AUD 62.8 ± 251.0 (p = 0.42). Of those with a sleep disorder, 97% reported consulting a general practitioner compared with 89.3% in the non-sleep disorders group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Both complementary medicine and con...
Harnett, J, Schloss, J, Van De Venter, C, Rickwood, C & McIntyre, E 2019, 'The diagnostic and clinical management of individuals recommended gluten free diets by complementary medicine practitioners', Advances in Integrative Medicine.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Objectives: Excluding gluten containing foods from the diet is medically indicated for the management of coeliac disease, wheat allergy, gluten ataxia, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, and dermatitis herpetiformis. However, the number of people following a gluten free diet (GF diet) far exceeds the number of people with an indication for such dietary restriction. It has been suggested that 70% of individuals who are recommended GF diets by complementary medicine practitioners have not had coeliac disease adequately excluded. The aim of this study was to describe the diagnostic and clinical management practices of naturopaths, Western herbalists and nutritionists (non-dietetic) associated with recommending GF diets. Design, subjects and outcome measures: A cross-sectional 40-item questionnaire was developed and administered online to 145 Australian naturopaths, nutritionists (non-dietetic) or Western herbal medicine practitioners via professional associations and a practice based network (PRACI) between February and April 2017. Demographic data and practice information related to recommending GF diets was collected. Results: A total of 56.5% (82/145) practitioners reported that in the majority of cases they did not undertake any recommended diagnostic process, and 48% (71/145) of practitioners referred to a general practitioner to exclude medical conditions related to gluten ingestion prior to recommending a GF diet. A total of 10% (15/145) ordered coeliac serology through local laboratories, and 17% (24/145) through functional pathology companies. Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity was diagnosed by 56% (82/145) through an elimination and reintroduction diet, and 61% (88/145) used a diet and symptom diary. IgG antibody tests were used by 23% (33/145) of practitioners, and 5% (7/145) used kinesiology prior to recommending a GF diet. Conclusion: Clinical guidelines for the diagnosis of gluten related disorders are not followed by a substantial number ...
Adams, J, McIntyre, E, Frawley, J, Lauche, R, Broom, A & Sibbritt, D 2019, 'Formal and informal health care behaviours of women with chronic illness: A cross-sectional analysis of 1,925 women', International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 73, no. 4.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
McIntyre, E, Saliba, AJ, Wiener, KKK & Bishop, FL 2019, 'Predicting the intention to use herbal medicines for anxiety symptoms: a model of health behaviour.', Journal of Mental Health, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 589-596.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Anxiety is a prevalent mental health condition in the Western world. Adults experiencing anxiety have been found to use a range of herbal medicines to manage anxiety symptoms.This study aimed to test a theoretical model based on the theory of planned behaviour that predicted the intention to use herbal medicines for anxiety symptoms, and to identify individual predictors of intention.An online survey was conducted with Australian adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines (N = 400). A two-step approach to structural equation modelling was used to test a path model predicting the intention to use herbal medicines.The model was found to be well-fitting. Attitude, subjective norms, control beliefs and severity of anxiety symptoms each significantly positively predicted intention to use herbal medicines for anxiety symptoms explaining 56% of the variance.The results suggest that mental health practitioners and policy makers need to ensure people experiencing anxiety have access to accurate and reliable information about herbal medicines to ensure they can effectively manage anxiety symptoms and safely engage in self-care.
Schloss, J, McIntyre, E, Rickwood, C, Van de Venter, C & Harnett, J 2019, 'Identification of the conditions that complementary medicine practitioners recommend gluten free diets for in Australia', Advances in Integrative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 87-91.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Introduction: A gluten free diet (GFD) is indicated for the medical management of coeliac disease as well as gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis, and wheat allergy. Complementary medicine practitioners (CMPs) recommend removing gluten from the diet, but it is not known what symptoms or conditions they recommend gluten free diets for. The aim of this study is to describe for what conditions Australian naturopaths, Western herbalists and nutritionists (non-dietetic) recommend a gluten free diet. Methods: This was a sub-group analysis nested within a cross-sectional survey of practitioners recruited through the PRACI practice-based research network and relevant professional associations. A 40-item survey collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, practice and professional characteristics and specific questions on gluten related disorders between February and August 2017. Data was described using frequencies and percentages along with one-way ANOVA to determine group differences. Results: One hundred and forty-five complementary practitioners responded to the survey. The gastrointestinal conditions most frequently prescribed a GFD for were non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (99%), medically diagnosed coeliac disease (95.2%), inflammatory bowel disease (73.1%) and irritable bowel syndrome (60%). The most frequently prescribed GFDs for extra-intestinal conditions were skin conditions (60%), children with developmental disorders (53.1%), mental health conditions (46.2%) and weight management. Discussion: Results suggest that given the broad application of GFDs by CMPs, there may be therapeutic benefits for conditions other than known gluten related disorders. However, in the absence of appropriate investigations for gluten related disorders, the recommendation and positive response to a GFD may be inadvertently treating an undiagnosed gluten related disorder. In addition, a GFD may also be inadvertently managing other unknown intolerances that req...
Gan, WC, Smith, L, McIntyre, E, Steel, A & Harnett, JE 2019, 'The prevalence, characteristics, expenditure and predictors of complementary medicine use in Australians living with gastrointestinal disorders: A cross-sectional study.', Complementary therapies in clinical practice, vol. 35, pp. 158-169.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
AIMS:To determine the prevalence, characteristics, expenditure and predictors of complementary medicine (CM) use in Australian adults living with gastrointestinal disorders (GID). METHODS:A cross-sectional study involving 2,025 Australian adults was conducted. Participants were recruited through purposive convenience sampling. Descriptive statistics were conducted to report the prevalence of people living with GIDs and their CM use, including CM products, mind-body practices and CM practitioner services. Chi-square test and independent-samples t-test were used to determine the associations between sociodemographic or health-related variables with CM use. Binary logistic regression was conducted to determine the significant predictors of CM use in GID participants. Economic data was calculated based on the mean out-of-pocket expenditure on CM. RESULTS:Of the 293 participants reporting a GID, 186 (63.5%) used CM products, 55 (18.8%) used a mind-body practice and 141 (48.1%) visited at least one CM practitioner in the last 12 months. Collectively, the majority of GID participants using any type of CM were female, aged 40-49 years, married and employed. The mean score for health-related quality of life was 49.6 out of 100 in GID participants and 68.2 in participants without a GID (p < 0.001). Average annual out-of-pocket expenditure on CM products was AUD127.29 by CM products users with a GID. The predictors of CM products, mind-body practices and CM practitioner services use differed. Of the 111 CM product users with a GID, 103 (92.8%) disclosed all or some of their CM use to general practitioner, 89 (80.2%) to specialist doctor, 79 (71.2%) to pharmacist and 69 (62.1%) to hospital doctor. CONCLUSIONS:A substantial proportion of Australian adults living with GID use CM products, mind-body practices and CM practitioner services. This study provides important insights to inform and guide the development of a more coordinated health care services for individuals living ...
Harnett, JE, McIntyre, E, Steel, A, Foley, H, Sibbritt, D & Adams, J 2019, 'Use of complementary medicine products: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2019 Australian adults.', BMJ open, vol. 9, no. 7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
OBJECTIVES:To provide a contemporary description of complementary medicine (CM) product use in Australia. DESIGN:Cross-sectional survey. SETTING:Online. PARTICIPANTS:A nationally representative sample (n=2019) of the Australian adult population. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Primary outcomes measures included the use and type of CM products used, and source of recommendation. Secondary measures included disclosure of CM product use to health practitioners, concomitant use of pharmaceuticals and predictors of use. RESULTS:Prevalence of CM product use was 50.3%, with the most frequently used being vitamin and mineral supplements (VMSs; 47.8%) and homoeopathic medicines the least used (6.8%). A majority of respondents using CM products were also using pharmaceutical products, and small but significant associations were found between the use of CM products and pharmaceuticals (p<0.05). Small statistically significant associations were found between use of vitamin products and disclosure of use to general practitioners (GPs; Cramer's V=0.13, p=0.004) and hospital doctors (Cramer's V=0.11, p=0.04), and between use of herbal medicines and disclosure to both GPs (Cramer's V=0.11, p=0.02) and hospital doctors (Cramer's V=0.12, p=0.03). Women, those with higher education and those with no private health insurance were more likely to use CM products (p<0.05), while those without chronic conditions were less likely to use CM products (p<0.05) (χ2(29)=174.70, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The number of Australians using CM products has remained relatively stable and substantial for nearly two decades. The majority of CM use relates to VMSs. Given the number of Australians using both CM products and pharmaceutical medicines, it is important to evaluate the potential clinical implications of such practices to ensure safe, effective and coordinated health policy and patient care.
McIntyre, E, Adams, J, Foley, H, Harnett, J, Leach, MJ, Reid, R, Schloss, J & Steel, A 2019, 'Consultations with Naturopaths and Western Herbalists: Prevalence of Use and Characteristics of Users in Australia.', Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 181-188.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
OBJECTIVES:To report the prevalence of naturopathic and Western herbal medicine service utilization in Australia, and describe the characteristics of individuals who use these services. DESIGN:This is a national cross-sectional study. SETTINGS:Online survey platform. SUBJECTS:Purposive convenience sampling was used to recruit 2025 adults who were matched to Australian population demographics by gender, age, and state of residence. INTERVENTIONS:A survey instrument consisting of 50 items covering demographics, health service utilization, health status, health literacy, and medicine disclosure to complementary healthcare providers. OUTCOME MEASURES:The prevalence, frequency, and cost of naturopathy and Western herbal medicine consultations and sociodemographic characteristics of users of naturopathic and Western herbalist services and associations between these factors. RESULTS:The final data set included 2019 participants: 6.2% (n = 126) consulted a naturopath and 3.8% (n = 76) a Western herbalist. These health services were most commonly used to improve well-being. An average of AUD$102.67 and AUD$49.64 was spent per user on consultations with naturopaths and Western herbalists, respectively, in the previous year. The most prevalent users were those between 18 and 29 years of age (39.3%), in a relationship (51%), employed (70%), and held a bachelor degree or higher (40.5%). Some degree of financial difficulty was reported by 65.4% of users. Having a chronic illness (p < 0.01) and using both conventional and complementary medicines (p = 0.05) were both associated with using naturopathic or Western herbal medicine services. Less than 40% of participants disclosed their use of conventional medicines to Western herbalists. CONCLUSIONS:Naturopathy and Western herbal medicine services are used by a substantial number of Australian adults who also use conventional health services. Accordingly, research is needed to determine how these health professions can be better in...
Reid, R, Steel, A, Wardle, J, McIntyre, E, Harnett, J, Foley, H & Adams, J 2019, 'The prevalence of self-reported diagnosed endometriosis in the Australian population: results from a nationally-representative survey.', BMC research notes, vol. 12, no. 1.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
OBJECTIVE:Currently, it is estimated that one in 10 women of reproductive age are affected by the reproductive condition known as endometriosis. However, there has been limited research and policy attention on the prevalence of endometriosis in Australia. Utilising a nationally-representative Australian sample (N = 2025), this study aimed to report on the prevalence of endometriosis in the general population and to examine the sociodemographic factors associated with the condition. RESULTS:The results identified a prevalence rate for endometriosis of 3.4%, which aligns with previous Australian research on this topic. However, the prevalence rate from this data set is lower than the estimate prevalence from the Global Burden of Disease Study. In addition, this study reported that women self-reporting diagnosis of endometriosis, were between 40-49 years of age, with a higher proportion living in South Australia (18.2%) compared to women within the general population (8.4%). The findings highlight endometriosis as a significant health care issue warranting further research and policy attention. While acknowledging some limitations, the study provides an important foundation for further large-scale research to be conducted on this important women's health topic.
Connon, I, Prior, JH, McIntyre, E, Adams, J & Madden, B 2019, 'How does living with a disability affect resident worry about environmental contamination? A study of a long-term pervasive hazard', Environmental Hazards, vol. 18, no. 5.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
While a growing body of research within the environmental hazards scholarship examines how disability affects human responses to major, sudden-onset environmental disasters, little attention has been given to understanding how disability affects responses to long-term, pervasive environmental hazards. Research analysing human responses to land and groundwater legacy contamination in residential areas has identified the significance of demographic and psychosocial determinants of worry, however the question of how living with a disability affects resident worry about contamination remains unanswered. This article provides a cornerstone study for exploring the relation between worry about environmental contamination and disability. A study of 486 adults living in 13 urban residential areas in Australia affected by a range of contaminants was undertaken in 2014. Ordinal logistic regression analysis found respondents with a disability were significantly more likely to worry about contamination than those without. People living with a disability had significantly higher amounts of worry about the contamination than those living without. Changes to residents’daily habits in response to the contamination and perceptions of personal control over exposure to the contamination present important considerations for understanding the implications of worry for people living with and without a disability in the environmental contamination context.
Prior, JH, Gorman-Murray, A, McIntyre, E, Connon, I, Adams, J & Madden, B 2019, 'A geography of residents' worry about the disruptive effects of contaminated sites', Geographical Research, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 52-66.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bradley, R, Harnett, J, Cooley, K, McIntyre, E, Goldenberg, J & Adams, J 2019, 'Naturopathy as a Model of Prevention-Oriented, Patient-Centered Primary Care: A Disruptive Innovation in Health Care.', Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), vol. 55, no. 9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background and Objective: The concept of a "disruptive innovation," recently extended to health care, refers to an emerging technology that represents a new market force combined with a new value system, that eventually displaces some, or all, of the current leading "stakeholders, products and strategic alliances." Naturopathy is a distinct system of traditional and complementary medicine recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO), emerging as a model of primary care. The objective here is to describe Naturopathy in the context of the criteria for a disruptive innovation. Methods: An evidence synthesis was conducted to evaluate Naturopathy as a potentially disruptive technology according to the defining criteria established by leading economists and health technology experts: (1) The innovation must cure disease; (2) must transform the way medicine is practiced; or (3) have an impact that could be disruptive or sustaining, depending on how it is integrated into the current healthcare marketplace. Results: The fact that Naturopathy de-emphasizes prescription drug and surgical interventions in favor of nonpharmacological health promotion and self-care could disrupt the present economic model that fuels health care costs. The patient-centered orientation of Naturopathy, combined with an emphasis on preventive behaviors and popular complementary and integrative health services like natural products, mind and body therapies, and other therapies not widely represented in current primary care models increase the likelihood for disruption. Conclusions: Because of its patient-centered approach and emphasis on prevention, naturopathy may disrupt or remain a durable presence in healthcare delivery depending on policymaker decisions.
Schloss, J, McIntyre, E, Steel, A, Bradley, R, Harnett, J, Reid, R, Hawrelak, J, Goldenberg, J, Van De Venter, C & Cooley, K 2019, 'Lessons from outside and within: Exploring advancements in methodology for naturopathic medicine clinical research', Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 135-140.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
McIntyre, E, Lauche, R, Frawley, J, Sibbritt, D, Reddy, P & Adams, J 2019, 'Physical activity and depression symptoms in women with chronic illness and the mediating role of health-related quality of life.', Journal of affective disorders, vol. 252, pp. 294-299.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the impact of physical activity on depression symptom severity in women 45 years and older with a chronic illness diagnosis, and explore relations between physical activity and psychological and health-related characteristics predicting depression symptoms. METHODS:1932 women diagnosed with one of five chronic illnesses: asthma, depression, diabetes, osteoarthritis, or osteoporosis participated in a sub-study of the 45 and Up Study-a cross-sectional study of people aged 45 years and older. The survey included items measuring demographics, depression symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), health-related hardiness, sleep quality, and health behaviours, such as physical activity. RESULTS:A multiple regression model explained 43% of the variance in depression symptoms (R2 = 0.43, F (18) = 61.72, p < .001); intensity of physical activity was a significant predictor of depression symptoms (p < .001), and HRQoL was found to explain the most variance (B = -10.00) in depression symptoms. Mediation analysis confirmed that HRQoL partially mediated the relation between physical activity and depression symptoms; however, the effect was very small. LIMITATIONS:Cross-sectional data and self-report measures limit the implications of the findings. CONCLUSION:Women with chronic illness engaging in more vigorous physical activity had less severe depression symptoms. Findings suggest that improving HRQoL is critical to the prevention and management of depression symptoms in women with chronic illness. Psychological and health-related factors that influence HRQoL, such as sleep quality and health-related hardiness, are important clinical considerations for health practitioners.
Frawley, JE, McIntyre, E, Wardle, J & Jackson, D 2018, 'Is there an association between the use of complementary medicine and vaccine uptake: results of a pilot study.', BMC research notes, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 217-217.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Despite the incredible success of paediatric immunisation, support is not universal. It has been suggested that complementary medicine practitioners enable vaccine rejection and his study aims to explore the relationship between complementary medicine use and paediatric vaccination. A total of 149 Australian parents were recruited via a parenting website and Facebook groups to complete an online questionnaire.The majority of parents (66.4%) stated that their children's vaccination status was up-to-date. Vaccination status was associated with parental education, area of residence, income, private health insurance, and having a Health Care Card (p < 0.05). Children's vaccinations were more likely to be up-to-date if they had consulted a general practitioner in the previous 12 months (OR 21.75; p < 0.001), and less likely to be up-to-date if they had consulted a complementary medicine practitioner (OR 0.10; p < 0.001) in the same period. Concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy were the most common reasons for a child's immunisation status not being up-to-date. These findings highlight an interface between lower vaccine uptake and visits to complementary medicine practitioners. These results emphasise the need to examine the routine paediatric care practices of complementary medicine practitioners as a crucial piece of the puzzle in understanding vaccine rejection.
Frawley, JE, Foley, H & McIntyre, E 2018, 'The associations between medical, allied and complementary medicine practitioner visits and childhood vaccine uptake.', Vaccine, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 866-872.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Vaccination rates have remained steady for a number of years in Australia, however geographical areas of lower vaccine coverage remains a day-to-day challenge. The study explores parental attitudes, beliefs and intentions in relation to vaccination and examines the early effects of recent No Jab No Pay legislation.A national survey of was conducted, using an online questionnaire. Parents from all states in Australia with at least one child aged <6 years were invited to participate.A total of 429 parents participated in the study. The substantial majority of participants reported having their youngest child's vaccination status up to date (n = 401, 93.5%). A child's vaccinations were more likely to be up to date if they had consulted a paediatrician in the previous 12-months (OR 5.01; 95%CI 1.05, 23.92; p = .043). Conversely they were less likely to be vaccinated if they were influenced by information from a complementary medicine (CM) practitioner (OR 0.03; 95%CI 0.01, 0.15; p < .001) or had visited a CM-practitioner (OR 0.09; 95%CI 0.02, 0.33; p < .001) in the previous 12-months. A total of 2.6% of parents had immunised their child as a result of the No Jab No Pay legislation, while 3.9% stated the legislation had no effect, and 1.2% said it had made them less likely to vaccinate. A further 1.2% of parents stated they are considering vaccination as a result of the legislative changes.Parents who have not vaccinated their children appear to trust non-mainstream sources of information such as CM-practitioners. Further research is required to determine how to manage the challenges and opportunities of CM-practitioners as a source of vaccine information.
Frawley, JE, McIntyre, E, Sibbritt, D, Wardle, J, Schloss, J, Lauche, R & Adams, J 2018, 'Associations Between Cancer Screening Behavior and Complementary Medicine Use: Results of a National Cross-Sectional Survey of 9151 Australian Women.', Integrative cancer therapies, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 979-985.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Complementary medicine (CM) use has been found to influence the uptake of conventional cancer treatment. This study examines associations between CM use and cancer screening rates.Women aged 62 to 67 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding their use of cancer screening initiatives. Associations between cancer screening behavior and visits to CM practitioners were analyzed.Of the 9151 women, 9049 (98.9%) completed questions about cancer screening. A total of 65.1% of women had received a clinical skin examination, 54.3% colorectal cancer screening, 56.2% Pap test (within past 2 years), 83.3% mammogram (within past 2 years), 55.8% clinical breast examination, and 55.8% had conducted breast self-examination. Women who had consulted a massage therapist were more likely to undergo clinical skin examination ( P = .002), clinical breast examination ( P = .018), and mammogram ( P = .001). Women who had consulted a chiropractor were more likely to undergo a clinical skin examination ( P = .001), colorectal cancer screening ( P = .020), and mammogram ( P = .011). Women who had consulted an acupuncturist were more likely to undergo colorectal cancer screening ( P = .019), and those who consulted with an osteopath were more liable to have a Pap test ( P = .049).Women who visit CM practitioners are more likely to participate in cancer screening initiatives. Research is required to understand the current and potential role that CM practitioners (can) have as public health advocates, recommending preventative health measures such as cancer screening. Such an examination will help ensure optimal screening utilization and effective, timely care for all cancer patients.
Steel, A, McIntyre, E, Harnett, J, Foley, H, Adams, J, Sibbritt, D, Wardle, J & Frawley, J 2018, 'Complementary medicine use in the Australian population: Results of a nationally-representative cross-sectional survey', Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In order to describe the prevalence and characteristics of complementary medicine (CM) practice and product use by Australians, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey with Australian adults aged 18 and over. Rates of consultation with CM practitioners, and use of CM products and practices were assessed. The sample (n = 2,019) was broadly representative of the Australian population. Prevalence of any CM use was 63.1%, with 36% consulting a CM practitioner and 52.8% using any CM product or practice. Bodywork therapists were the most commonly consulted CM practitioners (massage therapists 20.7%, chiropractors 12.6%, yoga teachers 8.9%) and homeopaths were the least commonly consulted (3.4%). Almost half of respondents (47.8%) used vitamin/mineral supplements, while relaxation techniques/meditation were the most common practice (15.8%). CM users were more likely to be female, have a chronic disease diagnosis, no private health insurance, a higher education level, and not be looking for work. Prevalence of CM use in Australia has remained consistently high, demonstrating that CM is an established part of contemporary health management practices within the general population. It is critical that health policy makers and health care providers acknowledge CM in their attempts to ensure optimal public health and patient outcomes.
Prior, JH, Connon, I, McIntyre, E, Adams, J, Capon, T, Kent, J, Rissel, C, Thomas, L, Thompson, S & Westcott, H 2018, 'Built environment interventions for human and planetary health: integrating health in climate change adaption and mitigation', Public Health Research and Practice, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. e2841831-e2841831.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Objectives: Human-generated climate change is causing adverse health effects through multiple direct pathways (e.g. heatwaves, sea-level rise, storm frequency and intensity) and indirect pathways (e.g. food and water insecurity, social instability). Although the health system has a key role to play in addressing these health effects, so too do those professions tasked with the development of the built environment (urban and regional planners, urban designers, landscapers and architects), through improvements to buildings, streets, neighbourhoods, suburbs and cities. This article reports on the ways in which urban planning and design, and architectural interventions, can address the health effects of climate change; and the scope of climate change adaptation and mitigation approaches being implemented by the built environment professions.
Type of program or service: Built environment adaptations and mitigations and their connections to the ways in which urban planning, urban design and architectural practices are addressing the health effects of climate change.
Methods: Our reflections draw on the findings of a recent review of existing health and planning literature. First, we explore the ways in which ‘adaptation’ and ‘mitigation’ relate to the notion of human and planetary health. We then outline the broad scope of adaptation and mitigation interventions being envisioned, and in some instances actioned, by built environment professionals.
Results: Analysis of the review’s findings reveals that adaptations developed by built environment professions predominantly focus on protecting human health and wellbeing from the effects of climate change. In contrast, built environment mitigations address climate change by embracing a deeper understanding of the co-benefits inherent in the interconnectedness of human health and wellbeing and the health of the ecosystem on which it depends. In the final section, we highlight the ethical transition that these approaches de...
McIntyre, E, Prior, J, Connon, ILC, Adams, J & Madden, B 2018, 'Sociodemographic predictors of residents worry about contaminated sites.', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 643, pp. 1623-1630.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The management and remediation of contaminated environments increasingly involves engagement with affected local residents. Of late, risk communication tools and guidelines have drawn attention to the stress and concern of residents as a result of heightened awareness of localised contamination and the need to address these less visible impacts of contamination when engaging with affected communities. Despite this emerging focus, there is an absence of research exploring the factors that predict resident worry about neighbourhood contamination. This paper aims to address this shortcoming by drawing on data from a cross-sectional survey of 2009 adult residents in neighbourhoods near 13 contaminated sites across Australia. Analyses used ordered logistic regression to determine the sociodemographic, environmental, and knowledge-based factors that influence residents' degree of worry. The findings suggest age, gender and income significantly affect residents' degree of worry. Being knowledgeable about the contaminant was associated with lower degrees of worry. Conversely, having a stronger sense of place within a neighbourhood predicted higher degrees of worry. Type of contaminant also impacted resident worry, with residents being less likely to worry about hydrocarbon, asbestos and waste than other types of contaminants. Our analyses suggest resident worry can be reduced through improving access to accurate information and the development of specific risk reduction strategies tailored to each neighbourhood and aimed at the heterogeneous distribution of worry amongst residential populations.
McIntyre, E 2016, 'Management of mental health in Australia: A critical role for herbalists and naturopaths', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 69-72.
© NHAA 2016. Mental health problems are highly prevalent in Australia, with one in five Australian adults experiencing a common mental disorder in the previous 12 months. Many people with mental health problems use complementary medicines, including herbal medicines; however, relatively few of these people consult with herbal medicine practitioners. While naturopaths and herbalists are not integrated within the mental health care system, they have the potential to play an important role in the treatment and prevention of mental illness; however, there are a number of barriers to achieving this. This article outlines the prevalence of common mental illness in Australia, herbal medicine use for mental health, the current mental health care system in Australia, the role of herbal medicine practitioners in managing mental health, the barriers for herbal medicine practitioners to effectively manage mental health, and proposes a way forward to ensure people with mental illness can have access to quality mental health care provided by Western herbalists and naturopaths.
McIntyre, E, Ovington, LA, Saliba, AJ & Moran, CC 2016, 'Qualitative study of alcohol consumers who choose to avoid wine', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 182-189.View/Download from: Publisher's site
McIntyre, E, Saliba, AJ, Wiener, KK & Sarris, J 2016, 'Herbal medicine use behaviour in Australian adults who experience anxiety: a descriptive study', BMC COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 16.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mcintyre, E, Saliba, AJ & Moran, CC 2015, 'Herbal medicine use in adults who experience anxiety: A qualitative exploration', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUALITATIVE STUDIES ON HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, vol. 10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
McIntyre, E, Saliba, AJ, Wiener, KKK & Sarris, J 2015, 'Prevalence and predictors of herbal medicine use in adults experiencing anxiety: A critical review of the literature', Advances in Integrative Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 38-48.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Objective: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent group of mental health disorders. Having anxiety has been found to predict the use of CAM (including herbal medicines), and anxiety has been identified as one of the most common health problems treated with CAM. This review aims to: determine the prevalence rates of herbal medicine use in adults experiencing anxiety, and to identify and critically discuss the beliefs and attitudes that predict herbal medicine use in this cohort. Method: A critical literature review was conducted. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified with a comprehensive search across a range of databases. Results: Eight studies were found across four countries reporting the prevalence of herbal medicine use in people experiencing anxiety - use ranged from 2.39% to 22%. No studies were found that explored attitudes and beliefs as predictors of herbal medicine use in adults with anxiety specifically. Therefore, the criteria were expanded to include other cohorts. Seventeen cross-sectional studies were found, with only one of the studies measuring herbal medicine use specifically, and the remaining studies measuring herbal medicine use within the umbrella of CAM. Three main categories of beliefs and attitudes were identified: belief systems/philosophies, treatment beliefs and attitudes, and control and empowerment beliefs and attitudes. Conclusions: Herbal medicines are being used to treat anxiety symptoms to varying degrees, with people experiencing worse anxiety symptoms using more herbal medicines. Future research on herbal medicine prevalence in adults with anxiety needs to be valid and comparable using standardized definitions and measures. It is hypothesized that personal control over health, satisfaction with the medical encounter and treatment outcome may be important predictors of herbal medicine use in adults with anxiety, and may help explain why those with more severe anxiety are using more herbal...
McIntyre, E, Wiener, KKK & Saliba, AJ 2015, 'Compulsive Internet use and relations between social connectedness, and introversion', COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR, vol. 48, pp. 569-574.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wardle, J, Steel, A & McIntyre, E 2013, 'Independent registration for naturopaths and herbalists in Australia: The coming of age of an ancient profession in contemporary healthcare', Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 25, no. 3.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Recent changes in the healthcare landscape in Australia have prompted renewed debate regarding the most appropriate regulatory model for naturopaths and herbalists. Numerous government reports have recommended independent statutory regulation yet naturopaths and Western herbalists are yet to be included in the National Registration and Accreditation Scheme. This has left professional associations to carry the administrative burden and manage the conflicting interests of practitioner regulation and professional advocacy. The outcome of this self-regulatory model has damaged advancement of these professions through limiting the scope of professional associations to promote the value of practitioners within contemporary healthcare. It has also left naturopaths and Western herbalists vulnerable to health policy reform which impact on unregistered practitioners. In response, an independent registration body, the Australian Register of Naturopaths and Herbalists (ARONAH) has been established which mirrors the NRAS process and offers legitimacy to the professions whilst also safeguarding the public. This paper outlines: the history of the registration debate in Australia; the scope and role of ARONAH; the relationship between ARONAH and the existing professional associations and the rationale underpinning important standards and guidelines developed by ARONAH for its members. © National Herbalists Association of Australia 2013.
Sarris, J, McIntyre, E & Camfield, DA 2013, 'Plant-Based Medicines for Anxiety Disorders, Part 1 A Review of Preclinical Studies', CNS DRUGS, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 207-219.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sarris, J, McIntyre, E & Camfield, DA 2013, 'Plant-Based Medicines for Anxiety Disorders, Part 2: A Review of Clinical Studies with Supporting Preclinical Evidence', CNS DRUGS, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 301-319.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Adams, J, Prior, JH, Sibbritt, D, Connon, I, Dunston, R, McIntyre, E & Lauche, R 2019, 'The use of self-care practices and products by women with chronic illness: A case study of older women with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis' in Adams, J, Steel, A, Broom, A & Frawley, J (eds), Women's Health and Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Routledge, New York, pp. 77-94.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Adams, J, Sibbritt, D, Prior, JH, Connon, I, McIntyre, E, Dunston, R, Lauche, R & Steel, A 2019, 'The role and influence of women in the workforce and practice of complementary and integrative medicine: Contemporary trends and future prospects' in Adams, J, Steel, A, Broom, A & Frawley, J (eds), Women's Health and Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Routledge, New York, pp. 142-151.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Adams, J, Prior, J, Sibbritt, D, Connon, I, Dunston, R, McIntyre, E & Lauche, R 2018, 'The use of self-care practices and products by women with chronic illness' in Women’s Health and Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Routledge, pp. 77-93.View/Download from: Publisher's site
McIntyre, E, Worsfold, K & Arthur, R 2018, 'The Psychological System' in Hechtman, L (ed), Clinical Naturopathic Medicine, Elsevier, Australia, pp. 1360-1403.
McIntyre, E, Frawley, J & Lauche, R 2018, 'Women’s mental health and complementary and integrative medicine' in Adams, J, Steel, A, Frawley, J & Broom, A (eds), Women's Health and Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Routledge, London.
The aim of this chapter is to explore complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) use for the two most prevalent mental health conditions: depression and anxiety. The model of integrative mental health care (IMHC) is explored, and is an important model for providing optimal mental health outcomes for women. The large variability in prevalence estimates was due to a range of factors such as culture, age, area of residence (urban or rural), economic status, and gender. Mind-body medicine is an umbrella term covering a wide variety of therapeutic techniques focusing on the ways in which emotional, mental, social, spiritual, experiential, and behavioural factors can directly affect health. Herbal medicines have been used since antiquity for anxiety and depression symptoms, and a variety of herbs are available for these conditions with varying levels of efficacy. Evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture for mental health is very limited, and considered insufficient for depression.
Camfield, DA, McIntyre, E & Sarris, J 2017, 'The need for evidence-based herbal and nutritional anxiety treatments in psychiatry' in Evidence-Based Herbal and Nutritional Treatments for Anxiety in Psychiatric Disorders, Springer, Germany, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This book presents the current clinical evidence on the efficacy of herbal and nutritional treatments for anxiety that is experienced in association with psychiatric disorders, and explains how health professionals can apply this knowledge ...
McIntyre, E, Camfield, DA & Sarris, J 2017, 'Potential herbal anxiolytics' in Evidence-Based Herbal and Nutritional Treatments for Anxiety in Psychiatric Disorders, Springer, Germany, pp. 139-152.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This book presents the current clinical evidence on the efficacy of herbal and nutritional treatments for anxiety that is experienced in association with psychiatric disorders, and explains how health professionals can apply this knowledge ...
Sarris, J & McIntyre, E 2017, 'Herbal anxiolytics with sedative actions' in Evidence-Based Herbal and Nutritional Treatments for Anxiety in Psychiatric Disorders, Springer, Germany, pp. 11-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This book presents the current clinical evidence on the efficacy of herbal and nutritional treatments for anxiety that is experienced in association with psychiatric disorders, and explains how health professionals can apply this knowledge ...
Connon, ILC, Prior, J, Kent, JL, Thomas, L, McIntyre, E, Adams, J, Capon, A, Rissel, C & Thompson, SM 2019, 'Conceptualising health for understanding healthy higher density living: A systematic narrative literature review', 23rd IUHPE World Conference on Health Promotion, Rotorua, Aotearoa New Zealand.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Connon, I, Prior, J, McIntyre, E, Adams, J & Madden, B 2018, 'The relations between disability and residents worry about environmental contamination', Australian Public Health Conference 2018, Australian Public Health Conference, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
McIntyre, E, Saliba, A & Wiener, K 2017, 'The use of herbal medicine by adults with anxiety: A critical exploration of health behaviour', 15th World Congress on Public Health, Melbourne, Australia.
Connon, I, Prior, J, Kent, JL, Thompson, S, Rissel, C, McIntyre, E, Adams, J, Capon, A, Thomas, L & Westcott, H Landcom 2019, What Evidence is Available to Translate into Planning Strategies for Healthy Higher Density Living?, Sydney, Australia.