Emi Otsuji is Co-ordinator, Internationalisation for the School of International Studies. She also coordinates the Japan major within the International Studies degree. She completed a Masters in Applied Linguistics at Macquarie University in Sydney and obtained a Ph.D from University of Technology, Sydney. Her Ph.D thesis received the 2009 Michael Clyne prize for the best postgraduate research on ‘Immigrant bilingualism and language contact’ from the Australian Linguistics Society (ALS) and Applied Linguistics Association of Australia (ALAA).
Emi Otsuji is the co-author (with Prof. Alastair Pennycook) of the book, Metrolingualism: Language in the City, (2015), Routledge, and is the co-editor (with Dr. Ikuko Nakane and Dr. William Armour) of Languages and Identities in a Transitional Japan: From Internationalization to Globalization (2015), Routledge. She is the Japanese editor of Japan Journal of Multilingualism and Multiculturalism (JJMM) and has published a number of book chapters and articles in various journals including Applied Linguistics, Journal of Sociolinguistics, International Journal of Multilingualism and Multiculturalism, International Journal of Bilingual Education, and Linguistic Landscape.
Emi Otsuji is currently working on a Multilingual University repertoire project, which examines the ways by which people use multiple languages in and around university contexts. Her specific interest in this project is understanding how students draw on multilingual resources as part of the ways they study. She is also involved in a 'Language citizenship' book project with Prof. Hosokawa (Waseda University) and Dr. Marcellar Marriotti (from Ca' Foscari University of Venice).
Emi Otsuji is the representative delegate (Daigiin) of Asian and Oceania block for International Association of Japanese Language Education (Nihongo kyoiku gakkai)
Japanese Editor for Japan Journal of Multilingualism and Multiculturalism
Australian representative (with Dr. Ikuko Nakane) of Japanese Language Global Network
Editorial board member: SLCE: Studies of Language and Cultural Education (Gengobunka Kyouiku Kenkyu)
Can supervise: YES
Her research interests include:
1 language and globalization (metrolingualism and multilingualism);
2. performativity theory of language and identities;
3 critical pedagogy and language ideologies; and,
4 transcultural communication and linguistic citizenship in language teaching.
Emi Otsuji work (together with Prof. Alastair Pennycook) is well known for introducing the concept of metrolingualism or the phenomena which assumes the use of mixed language to be the norm, and links language practices more intimately to the urban areas.
Emi Otsuji teaches transcultural communication in Japanese, language and identities in Japanese, and Japanese language and culture subjects. She also supervise PhD students.
Otsuji, E, Gavran, M, Groeneveld, S, Andersen, M, Jeffreys, E, Goodman, DSG, Vanni Accarigi, I, Maggiora de Iturralde, P, Fletcher, N, Sharp, L, Sheldon, M, Browitt, J, Donald, S, Harbon, L, Mikula, M, Giovanangeli, A, Loda, A, Allatson, P, Hurley, A, Barclay, K, Robert, J, Rodriguez, M, Leigh, B, McCormack, J, Manganas, N, Wyndham, M & Aponte Ortiz, L 2019, Geographies of Food: The BA International Studies 25th Anniversary Cookbook, ed. Paul Allatson, Angela Giovanangeli and Emi Otsuji., 1st, School of International Studies and Education, FASS, UTS, Sydney.
Hosokawa, H, Otsuji, E & Marriotti, M 2016, 市民生形成とことばの教育:母語・第二言語・外国語を超えて, Kuroshio, Tokyo.
Nakane, I, Otsuji, E & Armour, WS 2015, Languages and Identities in a Transitional Japan From Internationalization to Globalization, Routledge.
From Internationalization to Globalization Ikuko Nakane, Emi Otsuji, William S.
Armour ... of looking at language and identity issues in a transitional Japan by
linking both the local and global as well as the grassroots and policy level.
This book is about language and the city. Pennycook and Otsuji introduce the notion of 'metrolingualism', showing how language and the city are deeply involved in a perpetual exchange between people, history, migration, architecture, urban landscapes and linguistic resources. Cities and languages are in constant change, as new speakers with new repertoires come into contact as a result of globalization and the increased mobility of people and languages. Metrolingualism sheds light on the ordinariness of linguistic diversity as people go about their daily lives, getting things done, eating and drinking, buying and selling, talking and joking, drawing on whatever linguistic resources are available. Engaging with current debates about multilingualism, and developing a new way of thinking about language, the authors explore language within a number of contemporary urban situations, including cafés, restaurants, shops, streets, construction sites and other places of work, in two diverse cities, Sydney and Tokyo. This is an invaluable look at how people of different backgrounds get by linguistically. Metrolingualism: Language in the city will be of special interest to advanced undergraduate/postgraduate students and researchers of sociolinguistics and applied linguistics.
Pennycook, AD & Otsuji, E 2017, 'Fish, phone cards and semiotic assemblages in two Bangladeshi shops in Sydney and Tokyo', Social Semiotics, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 434-450.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhu, H, Otsuji, E & Pennycook, AD 2017, 'Multilingual, multisensory and multimodal repertoires in corner shops, streets and markets: introduction', Social Semiotics, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 383-393.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The research described in the papers in this special issue is situated in a diversity of contexts:
a street market and small shops in Mumbai, a subway in Cape Town, a greengrocer in
Copenhagen, Bangladeshi-run stores in Tokyo and Sydney, a Polish-run shop in London,
Afghan- and Iranian-run stores in a Sydney suburb and markets in Hong Kong. These
diverse studies share several principal concerns: they focus on interactions in markets
and small shops; they all employ a broad understanding of social semiotics that includes
body, space, gesture, senses and objects; they look at the intersecting modes of multilingual,
multimodal and multisensory semiosis; and they rely on complex forms of linguistic
(or semiotic) ethnography as a research tool.
The papers all focus on sites of commercial transaction in what we might call every day,
small, or local sites of transaction (or "extreme locality" in Quentin Williams' terms, this issue).
It is not so much the commercial transactions themselves that matter for these analyses,
however, but rather the complexity of social, spatial, linguistic, cultural and semiotic
relations. Markets and small shops, more than any other city space, define human engagement
with difference – with different people, different clothes, different goods and different
ways of speaking. Markets, as Hiebert, Rath, and Vertovec (2015, 16) suggest, offer "an ideal
setting to explore the relationship between economy and society, especially when we consider
the ways that these markets reflect, but also shape, the nature and meaning of social
and cultural diversity." The market, both as a concept and a physical location "is central to
any understanding of intercultural exchange" (Wood and Landry 2008, 148).
Cahusac de Caux, B 2016, 'Ikuko Nakane, Emi Otsuji and William S. Armour (eds),Languages and Identities in a Transitional Japan: From Internationalization to Globalization', Japanese Studies, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 136-137.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There is a potential tension between the descriptions of language use by contemporary sociolinguistic researchers keen to focus on metro- poly- or translanguaging – with a focus on repertoires of semiotic resources – and the terms used by language users themselves – which may accord much more with traditional linguistic labels. While we tried to account for this disparity in previous discussions by focusing on the push and pull between fluid and fixed language use and descriptions, we focus in this paper on the negotiations around the labels used by the participants themselves. While it is certainly the case that the tools for discussing language use and affiliation in everyday discourse are themselves linguistically constrained (using commonly accepted language labels) the terms people use to talk about their multilingual environments are not necessarily as normative as they first appear. Such apparently stable referents are themselves part of a more complex set of identity repertoires that are always being reworked. What is at stake, therefore, is not so much a polarisation between fluid language use and fixed language ascriptions as a constant reconfiguration of language meanings.
Simon, S 2016, 'Pennycook, Alastair and Otsuji, Emi (2015): Metrolingualism. Language in the City. Routledge: London/New York, 205 pages', Meta: Journal des traducteurs, vol. 61, pp. 178-178.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Moving away from logocentric studies of the linguistic landscape, this paper explores the relations between linguascapes and smellscapes. Often regarded as the least important of our senses, smell is an important means by which we relate to place. Based on an olfactory ethnography of a multicultural suburb in Sydney, we show how the intersection of people, objects, activities and senses make up the spatial repertoire of a place. We thus take a broad view of the semiotic landscape, including more than the visual and the intentional, and suggest that we are interpellated by smells as part of a broader relation to space and place. Understanding the semiotics of the urban smellscape in associational terms, we therefore argue not merely that smell has generally been overlooked in semiotic landscapes, nor that this can be rectified by an expanded inventory of sensory signs, but rather that the interpellative and associational roles of smells invite us towards an alternative semiotics of time and place.
© , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Drawing on data recorded in two city markets, this article analyzes the language practices of workers and customers as they go about their daily business, with a particular focus on the ways in which linguistic resources, everyday tasks, and social spaces are intertwined in producing metrolingua francas. The aim of the article is to come to a better understanding of the relationships among the use of diverse linguistic resources (drawn from different languages, varieties, and registers), the repertoires of the workers, the activities in which they are engaged, and the larger space in which this occurs. Developing the idea of spatial repertoires as the linguistic resources available in particular places, we explore the ways in which metrolingua francas (metrolingual multilingua francas) emerge from the spatial resources of such markets.
Pennycook, AD & Otsuji, E 2014, 'Metrolingual multitasking and spatial repertoires: 'Pizza mo two minutes coming'', Journal of Sociolinguistics, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 161-184.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Drawing on data from two restaurants in Sydney and Tokyo, this paper describes the ways in which linguistic resources, everyday tasks and social space are intertwined in terms of metrolingual multitasking. Rather than the demolinguistic enumeration of mappable multilingualism or the language-to-language or language-to-person focus of translingualism, metrolingualism focuses on everyday language practices and their relations to urban space. In order to capture the dynamism of the urban linguistic landscape, this paper explores this relationship between metrolingual multitasking the ways in which linguistic resources, activities and urban space are bound together and spatial repertoires the linguistic resources available in a particular place arguing that a focus on resources, repertoires, space, place and activity helps us understand how multilingualism from below operates in complex urban places.
Looking at two sets of conversations, among Greek adolescents, and between Japanese and Australian workers, this article shows how a poststructuralist understanding of the ways in which participants use and mix elements of their language repertoires implies a view of language as performative. Although the poststructuralist element of our approach on the one hand foregrounds a questioning of stable categories of language, identity, and assumed modes of mixing, our development of an understanding of performativity allows us to consider seriously the processes by which language and identity are constantly being remade. For the participants themselves, this is not simply a question of fluid language practices, but rather the interplay of fixed and unfixed language elements, cultural identifications, and social relationships. Reinvigorating Butlers account of performativity, our analysis and comparison of these two sets of data shows how a poststructuralist consideration of performativity sheds light on the relationship between the ongoing production of subjectivity and the deployment of fixed, stable, or stereotypical categories of identity.
Otsuji, E 2011, 'Metrolingualism and Japanese language education: Linguistic competence across borders', Literacies, vol. 9, pp. 21-30.
This paper critically examines what constitutes language competency and language education within the globalised society by elucidating ways in which language, culture, ethnicities and identities are constructed in and through conversations between` Japanese and` Australians. While Japanese language education is still primarily premised on the monolingual mindset failing to situate Japanese language within multilingual environments, the paper proposes that language education should take into account the newly defined notion of metrolingualism. Metrolingualism is a productive linguistic space which emerges through the interaction between normative and fixed understandings of language and fluid (hybrid) and dynamic understandings. It is suggested that metrolingualism will allow students to develop their capacity to construct their own linguistic environment by manipulating and managing their own diverse linguistic resources and proposes the need to incorporate metrolingual perspectives in understanding linguistic competency and language education theory within globalisation
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, AD 2011, 'Social inclusion and metrolingual practices', International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 413-426.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all too often premised on an understanding of language use that cannot escape its origins in statist understandings of language ideologieswhere a particular language is associated with a particular cultural, ethnic or geographical configuration.
By extending the notion of metroethnicity, this paper proposes the notion of metrolingualism, creative linguistic practices across borders of culture, history and politics. Metrolingualism gives us a way to move beyond current terms such as 'multilingualism' and 'multiculturalism'. It is a product of modern and often urban interaction, describing the ways in which people of different and mixed backgrounds use, play with and negotiate identities through language. The focus is not so much on language systems as on languages as emergent from contexts of interaction. Looking at data from workplaces where metrolingual language use is common, we show how the use of both fixed and fluid linguistic and cultural identities is part of the process of language use. The notion of metrolingualism gives us ways of moving beyond common frameworks of language, providing insights into contemporary, urban language practices, and accommodating both fixity and fluidity in its approach to language use.
Kinoshita Thomson, C & Otsuji, E 2009, 'Multidimensional examination of gender in a business Japanese textbook', Japanese-Language Education around the Globe, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 49-67.
In Japanese "female language" and "male language" are "language resources" (Nakamura 2007), which people use or avoid using to construct one's gender identities. This study examined a business Japanese textbook from gender perspective. In order to understand the Japanese language teaching and learning practices in terms of gender, the study engaged in the content analysis of the textbook, email interviews of the textbook writers, classroom observations, as well as interviews of the teacher and students. The discussion of data includes how gender was understood, and expressed in the textbook and how it was taught and learned using the textbook. The study found that it is difficult for even the most experienced teacher to critically consume the textbook content; and the events surrounding the textbook are quite complex. It therefore suggests the needs for textbooks to have explicit explanations and tasks that enable learners to use the "language resources" effectively. The paper also advocates the multi-perspective textbook analysis in order to capture the complexity.
Otsuji, E & Kinoshita Thomson, C 2009, 'Promoting 'Third Space' Identities: A Case Study of the Teaching of Business Japanese', Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-21.
This paper argues that the teaching and learning of a foreign language involves students in the construction of their own identities between cultural and linguistic practices. The study looks at the interconnected practices of the content of the textbook, the classroom teaching and teachers ideological stance in relation to students gender identity construction. It examines how all the practices jointly contribute to a foreign language learning experience. In particular, the construction of (gender) identities of the learners explicated through a case study of a Japanese business classroom practice.
Maher, D, Seaton, L, McMullen, CM, Fitzgerald, T, Otsuji, E & Lee, A 2008, ''Becoming and being writers': the experiences of doctoral students in writing groups', Studies in Continuing Education, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 263-275.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The use of writing groups to support students undertaking post-graduate research within universities has begun to receive attention from academic supervisors and doctoral researchers. Very little has been written by doctoral students themselves on the benefits of working within such writing groups. In this article, the experiences of working within a doctoral writing group at an Australian University are presented, primarily from the perspective of students. The authors identify two main benefits they have experienced through participating in a writing group using a 'multi-voiced' approach. First, they discuss the kind of learning that they achieved through working in a writing group. They do this with reference to key principles of peer learning and of peer review. Second, they focus on the ways the group worked as a community of discursive social practice. An overarching message for them in participating in the group and now writing this article is the shift in their thinking and experience of writing from seeing writing as an essentially private and implicit process to writing becoming a matter of public and shared work. These two notions are bound by the concept of identity building, drawing from the literature on communities of practice.
There has been a sharp increase in the number of foreigner registrations in Japan with a record of 2.5 million at the end of 2017, which is an increase of 7.5% on the previous year. Japan is going through a rapid transition politically, socio-culturally and economically, and this has inevitably had an impact on everyday language life and landscapes in Japan. Drawing on everyday interactional data from Tokyo, a site which has increasingly become socio-culturally and linguistically diverse due to the incoming flow of people, goods, ideas, practices and language, this chapter shows that in order to understand everyday linguistic diversity in the city (in this case Tokyo), or what we call "metrolingualism", we have to explore both the idea of space and of diversity in greater depth. This chapter argues how metrolingualism's enquiries into everyday language use from a local perspective and its focus on the dynamic relations between semiotic resources, activities, artifacts and space (i.e., special repertoires, metrolingua francas and metrolingual assemblages) as people go about their daily lives, provide a new way of understanding multilingualism in the city and the sense of affordance brought about by multilingual practices. This approach is particularly important where people are left in an ambivalent space between the Japanese government's animosity towards the proliferation of cultural diversity and the everyday reality of cultural and linguistic diversity, and argues that metrolingualism can offer Japanese sociolinguistics a new perspective during this critical time of transition.
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, A 2019, 'Sydney's Metrolingual Assemblages: Yellow Matters' in Chik, A, Benson, P & Moloney, R (eds), Multilingual Sydney, Routledge, UK, pp. 40-50.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Following our earlier work on metrolingualism, we propose an alternative to the demolinguistic mapping of ethnolinguistic communities, which tends to present a bird's eye view of the city from above, and to present the city as a relatively stable space, with people assigned to particular places, and multilingual and intercultural interactions occurring on the borders where communities meet. We approach urban diversity, by contrast, through more of a cat's eye view of the city from below, focusing on the very particularity of local interactions. Central to our understanding is the idea of semiotic assemblages, which enables us to show how histories of migration, configurations of suburbs, flows of goods, and deployment of language resources come together at particular moments and places. This paper highlights the semiotics of color (and yellow in particular) in these assemblages, arguing that colour may play a dynamic role in semiotic relations. The momentary assemblopoetics of people, colours, things and linguistic resources are part of the production of the city, and it is this view from below, of everyday multilingualism, of the spatial repertoires that encompass vegetables, people and semiotic resources, that are the stuff of metrolingualism.
Pennycook, A & Otsuji, E 2019, 'Lingoing and everyday metrolingual metalanguage' in Jaspers, J & Madsen, LM (eds), Critical perspectives on linguistic fixity and fluidity, Routledge, New York, pp. 76-96.
While the ways in which people talk about their everyday language use suggest that they live in a languagised world (a world in which language labels and enumerations are the common stuff of everyday language talk), their understanding of what those language labels mean may be both diverse and flexible. It is important not to make top-down assumptions about the meanings behind language labels. In this paper we are interested in the metrolingual metalanguage people use to describe everyday language use. This is not a question of a disjuncture between a delanguagised realm of academic analysis (such as the recent move towards translingual terminology) and a languagised realm of everyday metalanguage (where languages are named and labelled along normative lines), but rather a call to make visible what lies beneath such everyday terms and linguistic labels. Through an analysis of various discussions of everyday language use, we argue that although people often appear to talk in terms of fixed languages, such accounts are often flexible, negotiable and contestable. This is not therefore best understood in terms of a polarity between fixity and fluidity but rather as a flexible array of entangled language ideologies.
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, A 2018, 'The translingual advantage: Metrolingual student repertoires' in Choi, J & Ollerhead, S (eds), Plurilingualism in teaching and learning: Complexities across contexts, Routledge, New York, pp. 71-88.
This chapter looks at the metrolingual practices of students in two tertiary institutions in Tokyo and Sydney. Focusing as much on out-of-class as in-class language use, we look at the diverse repertoires of students as they go about their daily university-related lives. The argument here is that a focus only on the medium of instruction, or translingual educational practices, may overlook the diverse semiotic resources students bring to their educational experiences. Contemporary students in particular, with their interlinked online and offiine worlds, their ease of communication in and across the boundaries of educational institutions, inhabit worlds where a diversity of linguistic and other semiotic resources are easily available. They engage in diverse forms of popular culture--from music to TV dramas-and chat to friends elsewhere using a range of creative textual means. When it comes to srudy itself, students' multilingual worlds confer not so much a 'bilingual advantage' as this has been narrowly defined from a more cognitive perspective, but rather a 'translingual advantage' that makes it possible to draw on a range of resources to construct meaning and develop learning
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, AD 2018, 'Sydney's intersecting worlds of languages and things' in Smakman, D & Heinrich, P (eds), Urban Sociolinguistics: The City as a Linguistic Process and Experience, Routledge, UK, pp. 204-219.
A man of South Asian-background, who has arrived in his white van at the Kyeemagh market gardens to collect vegetables, walks out into the field to pick bitter melons. The suburb of Kyeemagh (with about 10% Greek, 3% Lebanese and 2.5% Cypriot overseas born population) sits at the intersection between the north-south line of older Greek and Lebanese migration in the inner west suburbs of Banksia (8% Macedonian, 4% Chinese, 3% Lebanese) and Arncliffe (8% Lebanese, 5% Macedonian, 3% Chinese) or the older Greek-dominated suburbs that run down the west shore of Botany Bay (Brighton-Le-Sands, Monterey, Ramsgate – the names reflecting their British and other early inhabitants), and the Chinese dominated suburbs to the west (Rockdale – 11% Chinese, 8% Nepalese, 4% Macedonian; Kogarah – 12% Chinese, 7% Nepalese, 5% Bangladeshi; Hurstville – 34% Chinese, 5% Hong Kong, 3% Nepalese) (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016).
Abstract: In this paper we examine different ways in which seemingly joking
encounters reconfirm, reinforce and reinscribe participants into particular lines
of difference through language play. Our focus here is not only on interactive
joking behavior in the workplace but also on the ways in which fellow workers
are described, on the significant work that casually humorous language does in
making and unmaking boundaries. Metrolingual conviviality, as people engage
in everyday multilingual practices, and both celebrate and challenge the diverse
environments in which they live and work, is often double-edged. The interaction
between fixity (pre-given fixed ascriptions of linguistic and cultural identities
and practices) and fluidity (creative linguistic and cultural forces that transgress
fixity) that underpins light-hearted banter creates an urban space of doubleedged
conviviality, reconfirming, reinforcing, subverting or adjusting the original
fixity. Playful language works on multiple levels, both constructing solidarities
(of the workplace, masculinity, or ethnicity) and creating potential fissures. This
analysis of the complex roles of language play in the making of conviviality sheds
light on the different cultural and linguistic tensions at play in the city.
Otsuji, E 2016, 'メトロリンガリズムとアイデンティティ：複数同時活動と場のレパートリーの視点から' in ことばと社会 18号 アイデンティティ研究の新展開, Sangensha, Tokyo, pp. 11-34.
Otsuji, E 2016, '世界とつながる言語レパートリー：トランスリンガリズムの視点からの言語教育' in 人とつながり、世界とつながる日本語教育, Kuroshio, Tokyo, pp. 44-67.
Nakane, I, Otsuji, E & Armour, WS 2015, 'Japan-in-Transition: Reflections and Futures' in Languages and Identities in a Transitional Japan: From Internationalization to Globalization, Routledge, New York, pp. 191-194.
Nakane, I, Otsuji, E & Armour, WS 2015, 'Languages and Identities in a Transitional Japan' in Nakane, I, Otsuji, E & Armour, WS (eds), Languages and Identities in a Transitional Japan: From Internationalization to Globalization, Routledge, pp. 1-14.
Otsuji, E 2015, 'Metrolingual Tokyo: "C'est un Peu Difficile, mais it's very Fan desu yo"' in Nakane, I, Otsuji, E & Armour, W (eds), Languages and Identities in a Transitional Japan: From Internationalization to Globalization, Routledge, New York, pp. 101-120.
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, AD 2014, 'Unremarkable Hybridities and Metrolingual Practices' in Rubdy, R & Alsagoff, L (eds), The Global_Local Interface and Hybridity, Multilingual Matters, Bristol, pp. 83-99.
Otsuji, E 2010, ''Where Am I From': Performative and 'Metro' Perspectives of Origin' in Nunan, D & Choi, J (eds), Language and Culture, Routledge, New York, pp. 186-193.
I am sitting at a desk in 'my' room in Tokyo. It is the desk which was passed on to me from my father. Next to the desk, a doll that was bought on one of the family trips to Italy when I was a primary school student is sitting on top of an old upright piano. I open the lid of the piano and I touch the scratches on the space beside the piano keys. I can hear my piano teacher's voice: 'Play ten times for each piece every day.' The scratches must have been from ten yen coins when r transferred them from one side of the piano to the other each time I practiced a piece. An old fashioned bookshelf is half opened and First Love by Ivan Turgenev, The Great Gatsby by Scott Fitzgerald, and Golden Pavilion by Yukio Mishima are peeking out. As I further open the bookshelf, the smell of old papers tingles my nose. On the wall, there is my oil painting of Queens Park in Edinburgh, the view from my window when I was living there at the age of twelve, with five sheep of identical size between the top and the bottom of the hill; I also see the picture ofShwedagon Pagoda that was given to me when I was backpacking in Burma at the age of twenty. This is the room where I stayed up all night st ruggling to write an essay on Martin Heidegger's Being and Time regretting that I started at the last minute. I used to belong to and played a big role in constructing this culturally 'schizophrenic' space twenty years ago when I was a university student. Now this room is used as a guest room and I also have been an occasional sojourner for almost twenty years. Theoretically, I do not 'own' this room anymore, but whenever I find any traces from my past, I feel as if r have found a precious shiny marble in the bottom of my drawer. 1 write in this room in 2008 back from Sydney visiting my mother to spend Christmas and New Year.
Lee, A & Otsuji, E 2009, 'Critical Discourse Analysis and the Problem of Methodology' in Le, T, La, Q & Short, M (eds), Critical discourse analysis : an interdisciplinary perspective, Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp. 65-78.
Otsuji, E 2000, 'The application of critical discourse analysis to intercultural interaction' in Mackie, V, Skoutarides, A & Tokita, A (eds), Japanese studies: communities, cultures, critiques, vol 4: New directions in Japanese linguistics, Monash Asia Institute, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 93-104.
Otsuji, E 2005, 'Are we bastardising English and Japanese?- Translingual Casual Conversation between Japanese and Australians in a Workplace Situation', 9th International Pragmatics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy.