Cutler, RL, Torres-Robles, A, Wiecek, E, Drake, B, Van der Linden, N, Benrimoj, SIC & Garcia-Cardenas, V 2019, 'Pharmacist-led medication non-adherence intervention: reducing the economic burden placed on the Australian health care system.', Patient Preference and Adherence, vol. 13, pp. 853-862.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background: Scarcity of prospective medication non-adherence cost measurements for the Australian population with no directly measured estimates makes determining the burden medication non-adherence places on the Australian health care system difficult. This study aims to indirectly estimate the national cost of medication non-adherence in Australia comparing the cost prior to and following a community pharmacy-led intervention. Methods: Retrospective observational study. A de-identified database of dispensing data from 20,335 patients (n=11,257 on rosuvastatin, n=6,797 on irbesartan and n=2,281 on desvenlafaxine) was analyzed and average adherence rate determined through calculation of PDC. Included patients received a pharmacist-led medication adherence intervention and had twelve months dispensing records; six months before and six months after the intervention. The national cost estimate of medication non-adherence in hypertension, dyslipidemia and depression pre- and post-intervention was determined through utilization of disease prevalence and comorbidity, non-adherence rates and per patient disease-specific adherence-related costs. Results: The total national cost of medication non-adherence across three prevalent conditions, hypertension, dyslipidemia and depression was $10.4 billion equating to $517 per adult. Following enrollment in the pharmacist-led intervention medication non-adherence costs per adult decreased $95 saving the Australian health care system and patients $1.9 billion annually. Conclusion: In the absence of a directly measured national cost of medication non-adherence, this estimate demonstrates that pharmacists are ideally placed to improve patient adherence and reduce financial burden placed on the health care system due to non-adherence. Funding of medication adherence programs should be considered by policy and decision makers to ease the current burden and improve patient health outcomes moving forward.
Stumpf Tonin, FS, Wiecek, E, Torres Robles, AJ, Pontarolo, R, Benrimoj, SI, Fernandez-Llimos, F & Garcia Cardenas, MV 2019, 'An innovative and comprehensive technique to evaluate different measures of medication adherence: The network meta-analysis', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 358-365.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Poor medication adherence is associated with adverse health outcomes and higher costs of care. However, inconsistencies in the assessment of adherence are found in the literature.
To evaluate the effect of different measures of adherence in the comparative effectiveness of complex interventions to enhance patients' adherence to prescribed medications.
A systematic review with network meta-analysis was performed. Electronic searches for relevant pairwise meta-analysis including trials of interventions that aimed to improve medication adherence were performed in PubMed. Data extraction was conducted with eligible trials evaluating short-period adherence follow-up (until 3 months) using any measure of adherence: self-report, pill count, or MEMS (medication event monitoring system). To standardize the results obtained with these different measures, an overall composite measure and an objective composite measure were also calculated. Network meta-analyses for each measure of adherence were built. Rank order and surface under the cumulative ranking curve analyses (SUCRA) were performed.
Ninety-one trials were included in the network meta-analyses. The five network meta-analyses demonstrated robustness and reliability. Results obtained for all measures of adherence were similar across them and to both composite measures. For both composite measures, interventions comprising economic + technical components were the best option (90% of probability in SUCRA analysis) with statistical superiority against almost all other interventions and against standard care (odds ratio with 95% credibility interval ranging from 0.09 to 0.25 [0.02, 0.98]).
Torres Robles, A, Wiecek, E, Cutler, R, Drake, B, Benrimoj, SI, Fernandez-Llimos, F & Garcia Cardenas, M 2019, 'Using dispensing data to evaluate adherence implementation rates in community pharmacy', Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wiecek, E, Tonin, FS, Torres-Robles, A, Benrimoj, SI, Fernandez-Llimos, F & Garcia-Cardenas, V 2019, 'Temporal effectiveness of interventions to improve medication adherence: A network meta-analysis.', PloS one, vol. 14, no. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
INTRODUCTION:Adherence-enhancing interventions have been assessed in the literature, however heterogeneity and conflicting findings have prohibited a consensus on the most effective approach to maintain adherence over time. With the ageing population and growth of chronic conditions, evaluation of sustainable strategies to improve and maintain medication adherence long term is paramount. We aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness of interventions for improving medication adherence over time among adults with any clinical condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Meta-analyses evaluating interventions to improve medication adherence were searched in PubMed in January 2019 and reviewed for primary studies. Experimental studies with a comparison group assessing an intervention to enhance medication adherence in adult patients with reported adherence outcomes were included. Two authors extracted data for study characteristics, interventions and adherence outcomes. Interventions were categorized into four groups or combinations: educational, attitudinal, technical and rewards. Four network meta-analyses were performed to compare interventions based on patient follow-up time. Medication adherence effect sizes were reported as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% credibility interval (CrI) and surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) to allow ranking probabilities. Risk of bias was assessed as per Cochrane guidelines. RESULTS:Data was obtained from 69 meta-analyses with 468 primary studies being included in qualitative synthesis. The four networks compromised of 249 studies in total (0-3 month follow-up: 99 studies, 4-6 months: 104, 7-9 months: 18, ≥10 months: 94). Interventions showing success in follow-ups of less than 10 months varied across time. Significant effects compared to standard of care (SOC) were found in technical (4-6 months: OR 0.34, 95% CrI 0.25-0.45) and attitudinal interventions (7-9 months: 0.37, 0.17-0.84). Multicomponent interventions demonstrated...
Garcia Cardenas, M, Torres Robles, A, Wiecek, E, Tonin, F, Benrimoj, S & Fernandez-Llimos, F 2018, 'Comparison of Interventions to Improve Long-Term Medication Adherence Across Different Clinical Conditions: A Systematic Review With Network Meta-Analysis', Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 9.View/Download from: Publisher's site