Lee, LK, Bryant, KJ, Bouveret, R, Lei, P-W, Duff, AP, Harrop, SJ, Huang, EP, Harvey, RP, Gelb, MH, Gray, PP, Curmi, PM, Cunningham, AM, Church, WB & Scott, KF 2013, 'Selective inhibition of human group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) signaling reveals arachidonic acid metabolism is associated with colocalization of hGIIA to vimentin in rheumatoid synoviocytes.', The Journal of biological chemistry, vol. 288, no. 21, pp. 15269-15279.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Human group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) promotes tumor growth and inflammation and can act independently of its well described catalytic lipase activity via an alternative poorly understood signaling pathway. With six chemically diverse inhibitors we show that it is possible to selectively inhibit hGIIA signaling over catalysis, and x-ray crystal structures illustrate that signaling involves a pharmacologically distinct surface to the catalytic site. We demonstrate in rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes that non-catalytic signaling is associated with rapid internalization of the enzyme and colocalization with vimentin. Trafficking of exogenous hGIIA was monitored with immunofluorescence studies, which revealed that vimentin localization is disrupted by inhibitors of signaling that belong to a rare class of small molecule inhibitors that modulate protein-protein interactions. This study provides structural and pharmacological evidence for an association between vimentin, hGIIA, and arachidonic acid metabolism in synovial inflammation, avenues for selective interrogation of hGIIA signaling, and new strategies for therapeutic hGIIA inhibitor design.
Munro, TP, Mahler, SM, Huang, EP, Chin, DY & Gray, PP 2011, 'Bridging the gap: facilities and technologies for development of early stage therapeutic mAb candidates.', mAbs, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 440-452.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base.
Tao, L, Chen, G, Zhao, L, Xu, J, Huang, E, Liu, A, Marquis, CP & Davis, TP 2011, 'Protein release from biodegradable polyHPMA-lysozyme conjugates resulting in bioactivity enhancement.', Chemistry, an Asian journal, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1398-1404.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A novel biodegradable thiazolidine-2-thione functional chain transfer agent was synthesized and employed as a reversible additional fragmentation chain transfer agent to prepare well-defined semitelechelic poly-N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamides (polyHPMAs) with predetermined molecular weights and narrow polydispersities. The protein reactive group, thiazolidine-2-thione, was located at the polymer chain ends fixed by biodegradable disulfide bonds. The functional polyHPMA chains were subsequently conjugated to protein (lysozyme) by exploiting reactions between the thiazolidine-2-thione functionality and amine residues on the protein surface to form covalent amide linkages. The in vitro bioactivities of the lysozyme-polyHPMA conjugates were assessed by using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as substrates. The lysozyme bioactivity was significantly reduced following the conjugation procedure. However, cleavage of the polymer chains from the bioconjugates (under reducing conditions) yielded free protein and a remarkable recovery of bioactivity. In vivo tests were performed by subcutaneous injection into mice and clearly demonstrated decreased proteolytic degradation for the protein-polymer conjugate when compared with native protein, indicating effective protein protection through a conjugation strategy. This bioreversible approach to conjugation allows for a balance to be made between protein protection and effective bioactivity maintenance.
Huang, EP, Marquis, CP & Gray, PP 2007, 'Development ofSuper-CHO protein-free medium based on a statistical design', Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 431-441.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, EP, Marquis, CP & Gray, PP 2004, 'Process development for a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line utilizing a metal induced and amplified metallothionein expression system.', Biotechnology and bioengineering, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 437-450.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The suspension Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, 13-10-302, utilizing the metallothionein (MT) expression system producing recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) was studied in a serum-free and cadmium-free medium at different fermentation scales and modes of operation. Initial experiments were carried out to optimize the concentration of metal addition to induce the MT promoter. Subsequently, the cultivation of the 13-10-302 cell line was scaled up from spinner flasks into bioreactors, and the cultivation duration was extended with fed-batch and perfusion strategies utilizing 180 microM zinc to induce the promoter controlling expression of recombinant hGH. It was shown that a fed-batch process could increase the maximum cell numbers twofold, from 3.3 to 6.3 x 10(6) cell/mL, over those obtained in normal batch fermentations, and this coupled with extended fermentation times resulted in a fourfold increase in final hGH titer, from 135 +/- 15 to 670 +/- 70 mg/L at a specific productivity q(hGH) value of 12 pg cell(-1)d(-1). The addition of sodium butyrate increased the specific productivity of hGH in cells to a value of approximately 48 pg cell(-1)d(-1), resulting in a final hGH titer of over a gram per liter during fed-batch runs. A BioSep acoustic cell recycler was used to retain the cells in the bioreactor during perfusion operation. It was necessary to maintain the specific feeding rates (SFR) above a value of 0.2 vvd/(10(6) cell/mL) to maintain the viability and productivity of the 13-10-302 cells; under these conditions the viable cell number increased to over 10(7) cell/mL and resulted in a volumetric productivity of over 120 mg(hGH) L(-1)d(-1). Process development described in this work demonstrates cultivation at various scales and sustained high levels of productivity under cadmium free condition in a CHO cell line utilizing an inducible metallothionein expression system.