Devleena Ghosh teaches in the Social Inquiry program in the Faculty of Communication. Her undergraduate courses include ones on Colonialism and on Ideologies. She has supervised a number of PhDs and Doctorates of Creative Arts to completion.
Her research interests lie in the fields of colonial, postcolonial, environmental and global studeis, specifically in the Indian Ocean region. Her projects include culture and commerce in the Indian Ocean region, intercolonial networks in the Indian Ocean, gender and citizenship among Muslim women in Sydney, cultural participation and community building in Western Sydney, connections between Indian and Australian women during the Cold War period, contestations around water and coal mining in India and Indian cosmopolitanism and religion.
Devleena has been on numerous advisory panels for the Australian Federal and NSW state governments, dealing specifically on issues relating to the Indian community. She was also a member of the boards of Urban Theatre Project and Powerhouse Youth Theatre
Devleena Ghosh is a member of the South Asian Studies Association, the Asian Studies Association of Australia, the Australian Historical Association and the Regional Editor of the Asian Studies Review. She is also the Director of the Indian Ocean and South Asia Research Network at UTS.
Can supervise: YES
Devleena teaches and researches in the following areas with a specific focus on the Indian Ocean region
Asian and Pacific Studies (especially South Asia and Fiji)
Diaspora, migration and transnational communities
Colonial and Postcolonial studies
The India Ocean
Feminism and women's studies (Asia)
Youth culture and participation (especially migrant communities)
Cosmopoltanism (especially in the Indian Ocean region)
Devleena teaches and researches in the following areas:
Colonial and Postcolonial studies
Environmental Studies (especially South Asia)
Gender and citizenship (especially in South Asian communities)
Cosmopoltanism (especially South Asia)
Youth culture and participation (especially migrant communities)
This article foregrounds some of the ethical dilemmas and physical and emotional risks involved in the experience of doing ethnographic fieldwork in a contested and violent political environment where one's academic enterprise might impinge upon the security of one's respondents. How does one undertake genuine collaboration with local researchers, community members and grassroots organizations in volatile conflict-ridden spaces where respondents are wary of participating in 'research' since data from past research activities has led to undesirable impacts on their lives, yet they also want a more accurate representation of their needs, demands and desires? In this situation fieldwork research has to be carefully analysed and organised so that it has the least potential for harm. This may involve voluntarily withdrawing from tense situations, making quick and unscheduled visits, avoiding attention and so on. These solutions create new problems. Drawing from fieldwork conducted over three years, this article discusses how research questions and findings are often limited by personal possibilities and positionalities, and reflects on the ethical dilemmas and emotional challenges of fieldwork and the limitations of research.
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The decades from the 1940s to the 1960s were ones of increasing contacts between women of India and Australia. These were not built on a shared British colonial history, but on commitments to visions circulating globally of equality between races, sexes, and classes. Kapila Khandvala from Bombay and Lucy Woodcock from Sydney were two women who met during such campaigns. Interacting roughly on an equal footing, they were aware of each other's activism in the Second World War and the emerging Cold War. Khandvala and Woodcock both made major contributions to the women's movements of their countries, yet have been largely forgotten in recent histories, as have links between their countries. We analyse their interactions, views, and practices on issues to which they devoted their lives: women's rights, progressive education, and peace. Their beliefs and practices on each were shaped by their respective local contexts, although they shared ideologies that were circulating internationally. These kept them in contact over many years, during which Kapila built networks that brought Australians into the sphere of Indian women's awareness, while Lucy, in addition to her continuing contacts with Kapila, travelled to China and consolidated links between Australian and Chinese women in Sydney. Their activist world was centred not in Western Europe, but in a new Asia that linked Australia and India. Our comparative study of the work and interactions of these two activist women offers strategies for working on global histories, where collaborative research and analysis is conducted in both colonizing and colonized countries.
© 2016 Elsevier LtdIndia's energy needs and development imperatives mandate an increase in power generation which at the current time is largely dependent on fossil fuel. The discourses surrounding development in these contexts subsume the rights of forest dwelling people to the necessities of power generation and therefore to coal mines. This article discusses the responses of a community of adivasis in Chhattisgarh to the imminent takeover of their land for new mines. The article then discusses the ramifications of ignoring the displacement of these people and the loss of their land and livelihoods and sets out some policy recommendations to remediate the impact of land acquisition through the strengthening of already existing laws and Government Acts. It calls for a holistic look at India's energy sources, methods to ensure compliance with compensation awarded, clarification of some parts of the Lands Acquisition Act and the speedy implementation of Community Forest Rights under the Forest Rights Act.
© 2016 Asian Studies Association of Australia The large-scale movement of people between Burma and Bengal in the early twentieth century has been explored recently by authors such as Sugata Bose and Sunil Amrith who locate Burma within the wider migratory culture of the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia. This article argues that the long and historical connections between Bengalis and Burmese were transformed by the British colonisation of the region. Through an analysis of selected literary texts in Bengali, some by well-known and others by obscure writers, this article shows that, for Indians, Burma constituted an elsewhere where the fantastic and superhuman were within reach, and caste and religious constraints could be circumvented and radical possibilities enabled by masquerade and disguise.
Goodall, H & Ghosh, D 2015, 'Beyond the 'poison of prejudice': Indian and Australian women talk about the White Australia policy', History Australia, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 116-140.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This article opens two new inquiries into Australia–India relations. First,
substantial existing analysis of the White Australia policy after the Second
World War begins from Australian perspectives and sources: this article
starts from the Indian side. It focuses on Indian women – on what they
were reading in public media and what they said in speeches – because
Indian women's personal and political contacts with Australia increased
during the Cold War. Secondly, we explore the contemporary potential of
cross-cultural collaboration – between researchers from Australian and
Indian backgrounds – to identify the dissonances in our interpretations
and ask why those differences have arisen
Call centre workers are expected to `listen' and provide both practical assistance and emotional support to customers across the world. At the same time, they are supposed to subscribe to cultural and social traditions that ensure that they remain within family and societal control. This article discusses gender and work transformations of call centre workers in the context of the networks they create in their engagements, not only with their managers and co-workers but with their invisible clients and families and communities.
Ghosh, D & Osuri, G 2012, 'India/cinema: an archive of politics and pleasure', Continuum Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 799-802.
This article explores unregulated circulation of people from South Asia to Australia and argues that these movements constitute both an integral and a destabilizing element in the conceptualization of the nation state and diasporic movements in the19th and 20th centuries. Differential mobility for populations, depending on race, class, and gender, meant that attempts by imperial and colonial governments to control the movements of their subjects met with indifferent success. Such unregulated journeys were hard to monitor, difficult to police and, ultimately, impossible to regulate within the expanded imperial networks of communication and transport, which opened up new ways for people, ideas, and technologies to circulate under the radar of Empire
Ghosh, D. & Garcia, B.C. 2011, 'Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction', PORTAL Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1-6.
Berger, M & Ghosh, D 2010, 'Geopolitics And The Cold War Developmental State In Asia: From The Culture Of National Development To The Development Of National Culture In Independent India', Geopolitics, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 586-605.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Contrary to the view of some observers who insist that the Cold War was of limited or no relevance to the transition from colonies to nation-states after 1945 we argue that the geopolitics of the Cold War played a crucial role in shaping the character an
Goodall, H., Ghosh, D. & Todd, L. 2008, 'Jumping Ship - Skirting Empire: Indians, Aborigines and Australians across the Indian Ocean', Transforming Cultures eJournal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 44-74.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Relationships between South Asians and Australians during the colonial period have been little investigated. Closer attention to the dramatically expanded sea trade after 1850 and the relatively uncontrolled movement of people, ideas and goods which occurred on them, despite claims of imperial regulation, suggests that significant numbers of Indians among others entered Australia outside the immigration restrictions of empire or settlers. Given that many of them entered or remained in Australia without official sanction, their histories will not be found in the official immigration records, but rather in the memories and momentos of the communities into which they might have moved. Exploring the histories of Aboriginal communities and of maritime working class networks does allow a previously unwritten history to emerge: not only of Indian individuals with complex personal and working histories, but often as activists in the campaigns against racial discrimination and in support of decolonization. Yet their heritage has been obscured. The polarizing conflict between settlers and Aboriginal Australians has invariably meant that Aboriginal people of mixed background had to `choose sides to be counted simplistically as either `black or `white. The need to defend the communitys rights has meant that Aboriginal people had to be unequivocal in their identification and this simplification has had to take precedence over the assertion of a diverse heritage. In working class histories, the mobilization of selective ethnic stereotyping has meant that the history of Indians as workers, as unionists and as activists has been distorted and ignored.
The articles in this special issue section of PORTAL had their first iteration as presentations in the Eighth Women in Asia Conference held at the University of Technology Sydney in 2005, the theme of which was `Shadow Lines. The concept `Women in Asia is problematic since some of the major debates in gender or womens studies have focused on the diversity of womens life worlds and beings and the contested nature of the term `Asia. As a theme it has the potential to become a holdall phrase for scholarship, research and activist work `from Suez to Suva. However, reflecting on these difficult terms can be a creative and rewarding process. The attempt to locate Australia within the region, rather than within a putative `west, and to deal with her geography rather than just her white history, can be an effective way of challenging many current `white blindfold discourses. At the same time, gendered analyses of society, politics and culture that attempt a re-insertion of `herstories into academic discourses have to be sophisticated enough to demonstrate the intrinsic gendering of all-embracing, supposedly `neutral, ideas such as race, nationalism, ethics, and the state, rather than simply `adding in women. The marginalised spaces of womens activities have to be legitimated as crucial elements of all social relations, highlighting the intimate relationships and connections between men and women. These concerns animate the papers collected in this issue.
Ghosh, D. & Muecke, S. 2005, 'It's time to foster the future that lies to our west', Sydney Morning Herald.
Ghosh, D. & Muecke, S. 2000, 'Indian Ocean Stories', UTS Review, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 24-43.
Ghosh, D & Muecke, S 2000, 'Editor's Introduction', UTS Review, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1-5.
Ghosh, D & Goodall, H 2018, 'Not as a stranger or a tourist': Leonora Gmeiner and the first girls' school in Delhi' in Bandyopadhyay, S & Buckingham, J (eds), Indians and the Antipodes: Networks, Boundaries and Circulation, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
Goodman, J, Ghosh, D & Morton, T 2018, 'Climate technology and climate justice: energy transitions in Germany, India and Australia' in Jafry, T (ed), Routledge Handbook of Climate Justice, Routledge, Abingdon, UK and New York, USA, pp. 237-250.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The Routledge Handbook of Climate Justice will be essential reading for students and scholars, as well as being a vital reference tool for those practically engaged in the field.
Ghosh, D. & Jain, A. 2017, 'Green marketing and green consciousness in India' in Green Asia: Ecocultures, sustainable lifestyles, and ethical consumption, Routledge.
Ghosh, D & Jain, A 2017, 'Green marketing and green consciousness in India' in Lewis, T (ed), Green Asia: Ecocultures, sustainable lifestyles, and ethical consumption, Routledge, UK, pp. 37-50.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In front of the Cornersmith Café in Marrickville, Sydney, there is a long queue of mostly black-clad young people waiting patiently for a table. Others have put their names down on a waiting list and promise to return later. The café is small, the food as good as many other inner-Sydney cafes, but its attraction lies mostly in its 'green' credentials. Their website proudly announces, 'We believe in sustainable and ethical food production and business practices. We have a seasonal menu and use locally-sourced produce from small-scale growers and makers, ethically produced meats, and a whole lot of our housemade pickles' (Cornersmith 2010). For between $140 and $150, you can learn to preserve, with or without sugar, make gluten-free products, or bake pastries
Ghosh, D 2015, 'Arundhati Roy versus the State of India: The Politics of Celebrity Philanthropy' in Jeffreys, E & Allatson, P (eds), Celebrity Philanthropy, Intellect Ltd, Bristol, UK, pp. 151-169.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ghosh, D. 2012, 'Shadowlines: Interrogating 'Woman' and 'Asia'' in Devleena Ghosh (ed), Shadowlines: Women and Borders in Contemporary Asia, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle-on-Tyne, pp. 1-12.
Ghosh, D 2012, ''Madhu pretends to be Mary': Gender, Labour and the Making of Meaning in Bangalore Call Centres' in Devleena Ghosh (ed), Shadowlines: Women and Borders in Contemporary Asia, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle-on-Tyne, pp. 120-144.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
When Kwame Anthony Appiah and Homi Bhabha discussed the relationship between postcolonialism and postmodernism over a decade ago, they differed in their analyses of the problem. As Mustafa Bayoumi points out, Appiah considered postcolonialism to be in an ambivalent relationship with postmodern commodification while Bhabha located it as a reconfiguration of postmodern contingency via a type of wily agency. Both scholars noted the importance of disestablishing the primacy of the Self-Other division in this equation and championed the circulations and hybridities of contemporary cultures. Appiah's conclusion was, 'we are all already contaminated by each other' (Bayoumi 2001: 146). This shuttling back and forth between various worlds works not in terms of opposition but of epistemic complicity within an environment of disorder and chaos, subverting the order supposedly imposed by technology. The postcolonial notion of Indianness in the global context demands traditional and predictable markers of identity-names, accent, style-from which call centre workers are supposed to depart in their service of international customers.
Ghosh, D & Goodall, H 2012, 'Unauthorised Voyagers across Two Oceans: Africans, Indians and Aborigines in Australia' in Toledano, Ehud & R (eds), African Communities in Asia and the Mediterranean: Identities between Integration and Conflict, Africa World Press, Inc, Trenton, New Jersey, pp. 147-168.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Considering movements of people between South Asia, Africa and Australia offers an opporrunity to rethink Empire and more broadly to question the way we have understood the meaning of land and landscapes. In Australia, until the mid-twentieth century, history focused on the distance between the colony of Australia and that of metropolitan Britain, tracing the impact that the enormity of that distance and the duration of travel had in shaping the colony. More recently, historians have focused attention on the links between settler colonies and the movements of ideology, policy, popular culture and people between these colonies of America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Canada and even South America.
Ghosh, D. 2010, 'Sweet Dreams are Made of This: Bollywood and Transnational South Asians in Australia' in Hassam, A. & Paranjape, M. (eds), Bollywood in Australia: Transnationalism & Cultural Production, University of Western Australia Press, Crawley, pp. 159-176.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
About ten years ago I wrote an article that examined the domestic cultures of young Indo-Fijians who had migrated to Sydney after the coups in Fiji. At that time, I remarked that many of the parents of my interlocutors identified the viewing of Hindi films as essential to feeling Indian. Ninety per cent of my informants watched at least one Hindi film per week, usually at the weekend. and as· a family practice. Most families had large electronic collections of Indian films and episodes of the Ramayana and Mahabharata, legal or pirated, and Hindi film music and song formed by far the largest category of popular music in the Indo-Fijian community. TV and DVD viewing appeared to offer powerful representations of both Indian and Australian· culture for the Indo-Fijian community and the DVD player seems to have been appropriated by many parents as a means of recreating cultural traditions, though their efforts appeared to be both subverted and diverted by young people.
Ghosh, D. & Muecke, S. 2009, ''The Fisherman's Lot': popular responses to the Indian Ocean in economic and ecological crisis' in Ghosh, D., Goodall, H. & Donald, S. (eds), Water, Sovereignty and Borders in Asia and Oceania, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 72-86.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ghosh, D., Goodall, H. & Muecke, S. 2009, 'Introduction - fresh and salt' in Ghosh, D., Goodall, H. & Donald, S. (eds), Water, Sovereignty and Borders in Asia and Oceania, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1-13.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ghosh, D. 2008, 'Coda: Eleven Stars over the Last Moment of Andalusia' in Allatson, P. & McCormack, J. (eds), Exile Cultures, Misplaced Identities, Rodopi, Amsterdam, New York, pp. 277-287.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Nixon, D.A. & Ghosh, D. 2008, 'Fires in the Kangra: A british Soldier's Story of Partition' in Roy, A.G. & bhatia, N. (eds), Partitioned Lives: Narratives of Home, Displacement, and Resettlement, Pearson Education, Delhi, India, pp. 174-191.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ghosh, D. 2008, ''I didn't eat the baby, the dingo ate the baby':' in Lee, H. (ed), Ties to the Homeland: Second Generation Transnationalism, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle UK, pp. 181-196.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ghosh, D. 2008, 'Performing Outside One's Comfort Zone: India@Oz' in As others see us: the values debate in Australia, Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne Australia, pp. 125-136.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ghosh, D. 2007, 'India@Oz: The Curry Pacific' in Lawson, S. & Peake, W. (eds), Globalization and Regionalization: Views from the Pacific Rim, Editorial Centro Universitario de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara Mexico.
Ghosh, D. 2005, 'Re-Crossing a Different water: Colonialism, Indigenism and Indo-Fijian migration' in Globalization, Regionalization and Social Change in the Pacific Rim, Editorial Centro Univeritario de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Guadaljara, Mexico, pp. 284-315.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ghosh, D. 2005, ''Harem women seem the happiest to me' Novel women, fictions of domesticity and national development in India' in Mikula Maja (ed), Women, Activism and Social Change: Stretching Boundaries, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 157-178.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ghosh, D & Muecke, S 2004, 'Commerce and Culture in the Pre-Colonial Indian Ocean' in Iwabuchi, K, Muecke, S & Thomas, M (eds), Rogue Flows: Trans -Asian Cultural Traffic, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, China, pp. 13-30.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ghosh, D. 2003, ''I can make chutney out of anything': young Indians growing up in Sydney' in Butcher, M. & Thomas, M. (eds), Ingenious: emerging youth cultures in urban Australia, Pluto Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 66-84.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ghosh, D. 2000, 'Home Away from Home: the Indo-Fijian Community in Sydney' in Ang, I., Chalmers, S., Law, L. & Thomas, M. (eds), Alter/Asians: Asian-Australian Identities in Art, Media and Popular Culture, Pluto Press, Sydney Australia, pp. 68-86.
Ghosh, D. 2000, 'A Place called Home' in Bissoondayal, U. (ed), Decolonisation, Mahatma Gandhi Institute, Mauritius.
Ghosh, D. 1999, 'The Best-Seller and the Media Empire: the Case of Bengal 1947-1983' in Brendon, D. (ed), Essays in Honour of Yasmine Gooneratne, Argus Publications, London.
Ghosh, D, Goodman, J & Humphrys, E 2017, 'Addressing Heat Disease: Trade Unions and Climate Heat in the Workplace', 29th Annual Scientific Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology, University of Sydney.
Ghosh, D & Mandal, C 2016, 'Layout validation using graph grammar and generation of yard specific safety properties for railway interlocking verification', Proceedings - Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC, pp. 330-337.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. In railway electronic interlocking system, the automatic signalling equipment is programmed with the configuration data derived manually from the yard layout. This step is prone to human errors and any error can be a severe threat to signalling safety. The yard-layout data and the configured system both need to be verified to satisfy the desired safety requirements. The configured signalling system is needed to be verified against those relevant safety properties before deploying. Accordingly, the contributions in this paper include, (a) validation of input in terms of yard-layout data against some spatial properties (b) generation of yard-specific properties from the validated layout data for interlocking system verification. The work described in this paper is applied for signalling rules followed by Indian Railways. To capture the actual environment, a set of complex properties including properties involving timers is considered. Higher level safety properties such as no-collision and no-derailment are also considered for enumeration.
Roy, G, Ghosh, D & Mandal, C 2016, 'A Virtual Laboratory Package to Support Teaching of Logic Design and Computer Organization', Proceedings - IEEE 7th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2015, pp. 3-6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. This paper presents a web based virtual laboratory package which provides a hierarchical module level logic design tool equipped with a logic simulator, a set of pre-designed experiments with a facility to add new experiments. The tool contains a repertoire of components and design functionalities and provides features for aiding learning through experiments. For complex experiments, such as CPU design, the tool provides an interface for specifying the controller abstractly as an algorithmic state machine. A set of techniques has been introduced in the tool for efficient simulation catering to the requirement of the lab. All the experiments can be conveniently conducted on a regular desktop or laptop computer and can be saved with user identification at any point and resumed later. This virtual lab has been successfully deployed to support several experiments of a post graduate level course at IIT Kharagpur.
Roy, G, Ghosh, D & Mandal, C 2016, 'A virtual laboratory for computer organisation and logic design (COLDVL) and its utilisation for MOOCs', Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE 3rd International Conference on MOOCs, Innovation and Technology in Education, MITE 2015, pp. 284-289.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. This paper presents the usabilities of a newly developed web based virtual laboratory package as a self-learning tool in association with online courses with the facility for evaluation of user assignments without the intervention of the instructor. This virtual lab contains a hierarchical module level logic design tool equipped with a logic simulator, a set of pre-designed experiments and also the facility to add new experiments to enhance learning. The tool contains a repertoire of components and design functionalities to aid learning through experiments. For complex experiments, such as CPU design, the tool provides an interface for specifying the controller abstractly as a control state chart. All the experiments can be conducted on a regular desktop or a laptop computer and can be saved with user identification at any point and resumed later. This virtual lab has been successfully deployed to support several of courses at IIT Kharagpur. Additionally, workshops to familiarize this system to teachers and students in several colleges have been conducted. Feedback from an academic institute conducting the lab with online courses indicating satisfactory usability has been gathered.
Mandal, C & Mitra, I 2016, 'Aiding Teaching of Logic Design and Computer Organization through Dynamic Problem Generation and Automatic Checker Using COLDVL Tool', Proceedings - IEEE 7th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2015, pp. 15-22.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. This paper presents an approach to aid teaching of Digital Logic and Computer Organization through generation of dynamic assignment statements along with development of automatic generic checkers for those assignments using the COLDVL virtual laboratory package. Dynamically generated problem statements ensure a fairly large set of, distinct problems. The automated generic checkers allow the solutions developed by the students to be evaluated rapidly online. Here we illustrate this concept by presenting three classes of dynamic problems for three topics and their corresponding checkers. The strength of the scheme presented here is that the checker may be developed using the COLDVL tool itself and does not require the instructor to develop special skills, such as mastering formal verification techniques for this purpose. More such problem classes would need to be developed to make this scheme deployable. The results of the current effort are encouraging. Satisfactory evaluation studies of COLDVL are also presented here.
Goodall, H., Ghosh, D. & Todd, L. 2006, 'Behind the back of Empire: people, technologies and ideas 'jumping ship' India and Australia 1788 - 1948', Culture, Identity and Performance, CAPSTRANS, University of Woollongong.
Devleena Ghosh has worked with following external partners:
Kings College London
University of Bergen, Norway
University of Aarhus, Denmark
Freie University, Berlin
University of Aix-Marseille, France
University of Chicago
University of Delhi
Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
Jawaharlal Nehru University
Indian Institute of Science Bangalore