Professor Edwards joined the Management Discipline Group in 2006 after previously working at the University of Western Sydney, Australia. Prior to pursuing an academic career in 1995, Deborah worked extensively in the hospitality and hotel sectors in Australia and overseas. Her PhD was on volunteerism at cultural attractions specifically urban museums and art museums. Deborah has been the principle investigator for a number of large industry studies in the areas of business events impacts, tourists' spatial movements, sustainable tourism management, and urban precinct management and development.
Her extensive industry experience underpins her philosophy as a researcher and drives her to ensure that academic research is co-produced with, and communicated to, industry and relevant partners in a meaningful way. Deborah views industry liaison as integral to delivering applied research that assists industry to meet desired objectives.
She has written extensively on sustainable tourism including: Sustainable Tourism Planning Module; Sustainable Tourism Operations Management Module; Sustainable Meetings and Event Management Module; research agendas in private sector innovation, managing risk and crisis, corporate social responsibility, and tourism’s contribution to quality of life; and case studies on innovation for sustainable tourism. Her module on ‘Sustainable Tourism Planning’ is widely used by those working in communities in developing countries.
For 12 years Deborah has been an executive member of the BEST Education Network (BEST EN). BEST EN an international consortium of university educators committed to furthering the development and free dissemination of knowledge in the field of sustainable tourism. BEST EN acknowledges that the sustainable business has interdependent economic, environmental and social objectives, and understands that long-term viability depends on integrating all three objectives in decision-making.
2011 CAUTHE Fellows Award
Dr Deborah Edwards was presented with the 2011 CAUTHE Fellows Award by Leo Jago and Larry Dwyer for her substantial contribution to hospitality and tourism education and/or research.
BEST Education Network, Executive Member
Deborah is leading the following projects:
UTS Visitor tracking project: using social networks to understand tourist dispersal beyond gateway cities. UTS Travel Tracks http://traveltracks.bus.uts.edu.au/
The National Long Term Tourism Strategy encourages the dispersal of tourists beyond gateway cities to stimulate regional growth and economic productivity, however only a relatively small number of international tourists visit a regional area.
To address this issue an interdisciplinary research team from the UTS Business School and the UTS Advanced Analytics Institute (AAI) in conjunction with Destination New South Wales are examining visitor dispersal beyond Sydney by piloting an innovative research methodology incorporating the creative application of digital technologies to track tourist behaviour. The purpose of this study is to improve our understanding of the places visited by international tourists to NSW. The information collected will be used to improve experiences for visitors and foster increased visitation to regional areas of NSW.
Urban Tourism Visitor Experience Management
Maintaining the attractiveness of destinations for the communities who live there and the people who visit needs to be informed by an understanding of fundamental processes and relationships between the structural elements and the interests of the various stakeholders. For tourism destination management to be effective a comprehensive understanding of the interrelationship between local residents and tourism is required. Although social science perspectives on resident-visitor relationships are extensive little of this work has been conducted in urban environments.
The purpose of this project is to assess the urban residents’ perception of tourism, the impact of tourism on urban municipalities and in particular how tourism affects social and spatial qualities of cities.
Tracking Tourists Using GPS and Understanding their Expectations in Urban Destinations
This was a multi-stage study conducted between 2007 and 2009.
It aims to enhance the understanding of tourist experiences and behaviour in urban destinations by analysing the spatial movements of tourists, and identifying the key attributes they are seeking in urban destinations.
Using GPS, we collected the spatial movements of tourists visiting Sydney and Canberra in September/October 2007 and January 2008.
In 2008/2009 we undertook a survey of tourists expectations based on 39 urban destination attributes that were grouped into five broad categories, and the perceived performance of the destinations in relation to these attributes.
The ultimate aim of this project was to inform and guide the future governance and improved functioning of urban tourism destinations by developing a better understanding of the tourist in such settings. Project was conducted in Sydney and Canberra.
Deborah's research interests are in tourists spatial behaviour, sustainable tourism management, urban precincts, tourism planning, tourism sustainability, crowd control and festival and event impacts including inscope expenditure studies and the legaces of busines events.
Deborah is an Associate Professor and Director (Postgaduate Research) UTS Business School
A chance encounter at a conference sets up a series of unfolding events.
In 1982, immunologist Ian Frazer attended his first international
gastroenterology conference in Canberra, Australia. After his presentation
on genital warts, a colleague, Dr Gabrielle Medley, discussed with him the
potential link between the human papillomavirus and cancer. This meeting proved fateful, as it helped to put him on the path that would ultimately lead to the development of the HPV vaccine. This vaccine is now used across the globe, and may eradicate cervical cancer within a generation.
This book seeks to explore and understand these long-term outcomes:
what we loosely refer to as the 'long tail' of conference impact. By doing
so, we hope to add to an increasingly complex picture of the value of
conferences. For, despite the costs and effort involved in hosting and
attending conferences, despite all the online communication options for
the circulation of knowledge and commentary, many thousands of events,
involving many thousands of people coming together, take place around
the world each year. What makes them so worthwhile? How can we plan
and design conferences to allow for the full range of potential benefits and outcomes?
Carlsen, J., Liburd, J. & Edwards, D.C. 2012, Innovation Networks for Sustainable Tourism: Case studies and cross-case analysis, Tilde University Press, Victoria.
Hayllar, B.R., Edwards, D.C., Griffin, T. & Aldrigui, M. 2011, Turismo em Cidades: Espacos Urbanos, Lugares Turisticos, Spanish Edition, Elsevier, Brazil.
Cheng, M. & Edwards, D. 2017, 'A comparative automated content analysis approach on the review of the sharing economy discourse in tourism and hospitality'.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Using the sharing economy (SE) as the context, this article provides a coherent and nuanced methodological understanding of automated content analysis (ACA) in tourism and hospitality (TH) field. By adopting a comparative ACA approach, the paper compares the current TH Western academic literature of the SE with news media discourse in TH from the period 2011–2016 (August) (inclusive). The emerging issues from the news media discourse, such as mobility, SE companies and the role of government, are absent in current tourism academic research. Findings reveal that ACA can facilitate a more systematic comparison between different sources of data. This paper offers a starting point for tourism scholars to methodologically engage with ACA that can draw useful insights on a particular context.
Edwards, D., Cheng, M., Wong, A., Zhang, J. & Wu, Q. 2017, 'Ambassadors of Knowledge Sharing: Co-produced Travel Information Through Tourist-Local Social Media Exchange', International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 690-708.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Purpose: The aim of this study is to understand the knowledge sharing structure and co-production of trip-related knowledge through online travel forums.
Design/methodology/approach: The travel forum threads were collected from TripAdvisor Sydney travel forum for the period from 2010 to 2014, which contains 115,847 threads from 8,346 conversations. The data analytical technique was based on a novel methodological approach - visual analytics including semantic pattern generation and network analysis.
Findings: Findings indicate that the knowledge structure is created by community residents who camouflage as local experts, serve as ambassadors of a destination. The knowledge structure presents collective intelligence co-produced by community residents and tourists. Further findings reveal how these community residents associate with each other and form a knowledge repertoire with information covering various travel domain areas.
Practical implications: The study offers valuable insights to help destination management organizations and tour operators identify existing and emerging tourism issues to achieve a competitive destination advantage.
Originality/value: This study highlights the process of social media mediated travel knowledge co-production. It also discovers how community residents engage in reaching out to tourists by camouflaging as ordinary users.
Wearing, S.L., Edwards, D. & Foley, C. 2016, 'Understanding the Tourist Experience of Cities and Urban Places', Annals of Tourism Research.
Dickson, T.J., Darcy, S., Edwards, D. & Terwiel, F.A. 2015, 'Sport mega-event volunteers' motivations and postevent intention to volunteer: The Sydney World Masters Games, 2009', Event Management, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 227-245.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp. Investment in mega-sport events is frequently justified on the basis that there are infrastructure and social legacies that remain after the event. This research explores the claims of a social legacy through a pre-and post-Games survey of volunteers at the Sydney World Masters Games 2009 (SWMG). Through online surveys the research explores pre-and post-volunteer motivations, postevent volunteering intentions before the Games and actual volunteer behavior after the Games. The pre-Games survey supports previous research that a desire to be involved in the event motivates people to volunteer. However, the postevent expression of motivations shifted to a more altruistic focus. The postevent volunteering intentions as indicated in the preevent survey would support the claim of a social legacy; however, this was not supported by the postevent measures of volunteering levels. The use of a pre-and postevent survey has highlighted that the timing of measures of motivations can influence responses and one may not depend on preevent intentions as an indicator of postevent behaviors.
This research note seeks to examine a vast amount of tourism-related Chinese social media posts using a visual analytic approach. Visual analytics turns information overload into an opportunity. In this case, the mainstream Chinese microblog service, Sina Weibo, was selected as it generates large volumes of data, representing significant consumer insights, that are challenging to analyse by other common research methods. The most frequently reposted tourist visa news in the first eight months of 2014 were harvested and used as a case study. Findings from this study demonstrate that a visual analytic approach can offer insights into the impact of travel news on Chinese consumers. These insights include potential tourist generating regions, the life span of travel news, and tourists' attitudes towards travel policy changes. Such insights provide important implications for scholars and practitioners, such as enabling real-time decisions of Destination Management Organizations' social media marketing strategies in China.
Dwyer, L.M., Cvelbar, L.K., Edwards, D.J. & Mihalič, T.A. 2014, 'Tourism Firms' Strategic Flexibility: the Case of Slovenia', International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 377-387.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Le-Klähn, D.-.T. & Edwards, D. 2014, 'Conference Report: The Best Education Network Think Tank XIII: Engaging Communities in Sustainable Tourism Development, Taylors University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2013', Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, vol. 14, pp. 1-5.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Foley, C.T., Edwards, D.C. & Schlenker, K. 2014, 'Business Events and Friendship: Leveraging the Sociable Legacies', Event Management: an international journal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 53-64.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Business events are celebrated for their contributions to community and industry. They are understood to be shared social contexts in which people meet to advance knowledge, sell products, and network. Less celebrated and, arguably, less understood is that business events provide a context for the development of friendships. In 2011 an online survey was conducted with the delegates of five international business events held in Sydney, Australia in the period 2009–2011. The survey was designed to investigate business legacies of the events (such as investment opportunities, research collaborations) rather than sociable legacies. however, a surprising number of references to friendship were made in the 'additional comments sections of the questionnaire. reflecting on this finding, this article argues that friendships forged at business events contribute to, respectively: the well-being of delegates, association membership levels, conference attendance, retention of personnel in the profession, successful research and professional collaborations, and creativity and innovation in the sector. Business event planners can maximize opportunities for sociable outcomes among delegates by designing warm and inviting event spaces that facilitate interaction, and by providing social space for the development of relationships, optimal conditions for sociability, and opportunities for play to stimulate creativity and build community.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T., Dwyer, A., Schlenker, K. & Hergesell, A. 2014, 'Evaluating the economic contribution of a large indoor entertainment venues: an inscope expenditure study', Event Management: an international journal.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Harris, R., Edwards, D. & Homel, P. 2014, 'Managing Alcohol and Drugs in Event and Venue Settings: The Australian Case', Event Management: an international journal, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 457-470.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
One of the major challenges of operating events and venues is that of managing attendee/patron alcohol and drug use. In the Australian context, a rising number of alcohol and drug-related incidents in and around these settings have resulted in a renewed focus on how these negative outcomes can be more effectively controlled. In order to aid those charged with the task of addressing this matter—event and venue managers, police, security firms, alcohol and drug regulatory bodies, and governments at all levels—this article seeks to identify those variables with the potential to impact this management issue. Further, it aims to provide the previously identified stakeholders with a deeper appreciation of the raft of practices that are currently in use, and potentially available to them, as they build responses to this challenge at the individual state, precinct, venue, or event level. The research approach used involved an extensive literature review and a series of in-depth interviews with key stakeholders across three states—New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia.
Edwards, D.C. & Griffin, T. 2013, 'Understanding tourists' spatial behaviour: GPS tracking as an aid to sustainable destination management', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 580-595.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The spatial behaviour of tourists within cities is not well understood, partly because of the complexities of cities as spaces and partly because few studies have addressed this phenomenon. This paper reports on collaborative research studies, conducted in conjunction with destination-management agencies in the Australian cities of Sydney and Melbourne. The studies used Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking devices to find out how various kinds of tourists moved around each city, supplemented by semi-structured interviews with the tourists to help explain their movement patterns. A total of 154 participant groups took part. Each study sought to provide information to destination-management agencies to help them improve aspects of the visitor's experience by improving wayfinding systems. Findings were analysed visually using a space syntax approach. Tourists walked between 10 and 35 km per day. Lack of knowledge of public transport systems and ticketing was a major constraint on public transport use. Melbourne's street pattern and its free city circle tram were found more user-friendly than Sydney's street pattern and public transport. The resulting visual maps provided destination managers with a valuable diagnostic tool; a range of new initiatives have been developed, including better conference visitor information, and training for information centre staff.
Foley, C.T., Schlenker, K., Edwards, D.C. & Lewis-Smith, L. 2013, 'Determining business event legacies beyond the tourism spend: an Australian case study approach', Event Management: an international journal, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 311-322.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Government and industry are aware that the full value of the business event sector needs to be established. To date, the sector has been evaluated on the economic contribution it makes to host destination tourism. The tourism contributions have been impressive in themselves; however, this narrow focus has failed to account for a more extensive set of contributions to economies and communities. Impacts from business events in areas such as innovation, education, networking, trade, research, and practice are generally considered to outweigh the financial returns of the tourism spend. Although anecdotal evidence of the value of business events beyond the tourism dimension has been evident for some time, empirical research in this area is limited. This article has four objectives: first, to highlight the research need for understanding the broader impacts of business events beyond the tourism spend; second, to identify the range and impact of contributions made by business events to host communities beyond the tourism spend; third, to examine five Australian business events utilizing a grounded theory approach and present a range of identified legacies in the categories of knowledge expansion; networking, relationships, and collaboration; educational outcomes; raising awareness and profiling; and showcasing and destination reputation. Finally, the article discusses the implications of these findings for the business events sector.
Dwyer, L., Kenzevic Cvelbar, L., Edwards, D.C. & Mihalic, T. 2012, 'Fashioning a destination tourism future: The case of Slovenia', Tourism Management, vol. 33, pp. 305-316.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Achieving competitive advantage for any destination in times of rapid global change requires tourism stakeholders to have a clear understanding of the direction of change and its implications for business or destination management. The challenges are particularly acute for emerging destinations such as Slovenia. The paper discusses tools for measuring destination performance with particular focus on ImportancePerformance Analysis (IPA). Using IPA the paper develops a priority ordering for Slovenian tourism stakeholders to debate, modify and to adopt actions that can help them prepare for the challenges arising from global trends. The survey instrument used for this study asks respondents to highlight both the important areas that should be addressed by tourism stakeholders in Slovenia and also the performance of Slovenia in respect of the success or otherwise of the strategies that are currently being pursued to enhance destination competitiveness. The findings reveal that there are a number of areas in which the Slovene tourism industry considers itself to be underperforming in the implementation of strategies to eliminate drift. The paper explores some of the implications of the findings for strategic action and implementation, making some concluding comments on destination development strategy while highlighting areas for further research.
Gretzel, U., Prebezac, D., Joppe, M. & Edwards, D.C. 2012, 'TEFI 2011 World Congress 'Activating Change in Tourism Education' May 18-21, 2011, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States', Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 118-122.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Founded in 2007, the Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI) has organized several meetings to discuss critical issues that need to be addressed in creating desirable and sustainable tourism education futures. In the past, these meetings took on the form of small think tanks with invited participants. In 2011, TEFI decided to open up to the public to share the findings of these previous years in the form of a World Congress that took place May 1821, 2011, in Philadelphia, PA.
Griffin, T. & Edwards, D.C. 2012, 'Importance-Performance Analysis As a Diagnostic Tool for Urban Destination Managers', Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 32-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper reports on the application of importanceperformance analysis to two Australian urban tourism destinations, Sydney and Canberra. The study involved asking tourists to rate the importance of 39 destination attributes and how well each destination had performed in relation to these. These importance and performance scores were then combined. From a management perspective, the most significant combination is where the destination is performing poorly in relation to attributes that tourists regard as most important. The technique represents a very useful diagnostic tool for destination managers, who can use it to identify current problems with tourist experiences and then to assign priorities to measures that are designed to improve those experiences.
Schulenkorf, N. & Edwards, D.C. 2012, 'Maximizing Positive Social Impacts: Strategies for Sustaining and Leveraging the Benefits of Inter-Community Sport Events in Divided Societies', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 379-390.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Building on the evidence of social impacts generated by sport events, there is a need for research to identify strategies suitable for maximizing event benefits for disparate interest communities. This paper investigates the opportunities and strategic means for sustaining and leveraging social event benefits arising from intercommunity sport events in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, findings are derived from the analysis of two focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. To maximize event benefits, findings suggest that event organizers and host communities focus strategically on children as catalysts for change; increase ethnically mixed team sport activities; provide event-related sociocultural opportunities; combine large-scale events with regular sport-for-development programs; and engage in social, cultural, political and educational event leverage. By implementing these strategies and tactics, intercommunity sport events are likely to contribute to local capacity building and inclusive social change, which can have flow-on effects to the wider community. These findings extend the academic literature on strategic event planning, management and leverage, as they provide a focus on community event leverage for social purposes in a developing world context â an area which has thus far received limited empirical research.
Cities are shaped by flows of people, money and goods. Amongst the people who move through cities are tourists. The types of activities and spaces within cities that satisfy a tourist's needs are often concentrated into distinctive geographic areas – precincts – and the tourist's experience is most commonly one of moving between these precincts in search of the city's highlights. While the movement of tourists through cities is observable, it is complex and not well understood. Understanding tourists' spatial behaviour can greatly assist those engaged in the management and planning of urban destinations. To address this issue, since 2007 researchers in the Urban Tourism Program at the University of Technology Sydney have been examining tourists' spatial behaviour using GPS technology, in tandem with other methods that assist with 'interpreting' the spatial activity. Studies have been conducted in Sydney, Canberra, London and Melbourne. This paper provides insights into how tourists view and use the city, highlighting differences in their general patterns and range of movement in these cities.
Benckendorff, P., Edwards, D.C., Jurowski, L., Liburd, J., Moscardo, G. & Miller, G. 2009, 'Exploring the Future of Tourism and Quality of Life', Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 171-183.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The article reports on the future of tourism and its impact on the quality of life of residents. There has been very little research into the impact tourism has on residents and their community or their attitudes towards tourism. A research model used for determining the future of tourism is the Futures Wheel which is a structured mind-mapping method that looks into trends and decisions. During the mind-mapping one should focus on identifying the most ideal methods and futures for tourism as well as possible outcomes.
Dwyer, L. & Edwards, D.C. 2009, 'Tourism Product and Service Innovation to Avoid 'Strategic Drift'', International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 321-335.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Dealing with change in the external environment creates substantial challenges for tourism managers. Given the complexity of strategy formulation it is difficult for managers to analyse all aspects of their environment or establish precise objectives, consequently business strategies tend to be characterised by small strategic adjustments or incrementalism. However, these marginal adjustments of strategy within an organisation's existing culture may lead to strategic drift reflecting strategies that are inconsistent with changes taking place in the external environment. The paper begins with a brief overview of the global trends that comprise the remote environment of tourism organisations. It argues that the standard response of tourism organisations to changes in the remote environment can be characterised as strategic incrementalism. The paper also addresses the concern that strategic incrementalism can give rise to strategic drift. In the face of changing global trends the paper explores some of the barriers that must be overcome, discussing seven areas of importance on which managers can focus to assist them to avoid strategic drift.
Dwyer, L.M., Edwards, D.C., Mistilis, N., Carolina, R. & Scott, N. 2009, 'Destination and enterprise management for a tourism future', Tourism Management, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 63-74.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A key element of a successful tourism industry is the ability to recognise and deal with change across a wide range of key factors and the way they interact. Key drivers of global change within the external environment can be classified as economic, political, environmental, technological, demographic and social. Based on a series of workshops comprising a range of Australian tourism stakeholders this paper explores the way in which these key drivers could affect the global tourism industry to the year 2020. An exploration of these trends allows important change agents, on both the supply side and the demand side of tourism, to be highlighted and discussed. In response, innovative strategies can be formulated by destination managers and tourism operators to avoid strategic drift for their organizations and to develop tourism in a sustainable way.
These three case studies explore the key drivers, processes, barriers and networks associated with innovation for sustainable tourism. The case studies were presented by representatives of the three very distinct organisations, yet reveal common issues when describing their approach to innovation. The common denominator that runs through both small and large organisations is the need for collaboration networks that support, communicate and disseminate the benefits of innovation. Tourism and Hospitality Research
Edwards, D.C., Griffin, T. & Hayllar, B.R. 2008, 'Urban tourism research: developing an agenda', Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1032-1052.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Edwards, D.C. 2007, 'Corporate Social Responsibility Of Large Urban Museums: The Contribution Of Volunteer Programs', Tourism Review International, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 167-174.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Out of a growing concern about the erosion of social infrastructure has come an increase in pressure on business to take up more of the responsibility to invest in building strong communities. While many tourism organizations have been slow to involve themselves in any long-term and meaningful way with communities, the volunteer programs of large Australian museums unintentionally create partnerships of engagement, participation, and involvement between the museum and their urban communities. These volunteer programs represent a contribution to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Drawing on the author's previous work, the CSR literature, and museum reports and information posted on the Internet, this article discusses why and how this occurs. First, the article explores the relationship between CSR and social capital. Second, the contribution that museums make to social capital through their volunteer programs is outlines. Third, it is considered whether museums could do more in terms of their CSR and volunteer programs. Finally, suggestions are made for the way in which museums can continue to fulfill and advance their CSR activities. Museums, in acknowledging and documenting the CSR activities of their volunteer programs, can improve CSR outcomes and enhance the social and economic outcomes for both the community and the museum.
People construct socially salient identities of others that in some cases affect their morally significant perceptions of, and interactions with, those groups. If these perceptions are flawed, this has a bearing on fundamental ethical questions: in particular, how one sees, treats and understands those groups. Museum volunteers are a group that are often viewed with differing positive and negative associations and values. The objective of this article is to explore the values and commitment of serious leisure volunteers in order to make a more appropriate representation of volunteers. The article presents the results of a study of volunteers at three large museums and art galleries. The results show that these volunteers place a very high value on the work they do for the institution, and that their commitment to the institution is a combination of affective and continuance commitment. These findings challenge typified representations of volunteers, and the implications for ethical volunteer management are discussed.
Edwards, D.C. & Graham, M. 2006, 'Museum volunteers: a discussion of challenges facing managers in the cultural and heritage sectors', Australian Journal on Volunteering, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 19-27.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Edwards, D.C. 2005, 'It's Mostly About Me: Reasons why volunteers contribute their time to museums and art museums', Tourism Review International, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Museums and art museums make a significant contribution to the tourism and leisure industries. In Australia they contribute to the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of the communities and regions in which they are located. However, museums are facing challenges that are leading them to rethink their products and services, to improve their economic position, and to remain competitive in the marketplace. In this climate of change, the role of the volunteer is growing increasingly important to the operation of museums and art museums. However, why persons choose to volunteer for these attractions is not well understood. This article reports on initial findings from a wider study of volunteers in museums and art museums that was designed to explore volunteer motivation, expectations, values, and commitment. Factor analysis identified eight underlying dimensions to volunteer motivation for individuals in this field. This article has three objectives: first, to set the sustainable context in which museums and art museums operate; secondly, to present the initial findings of volunteer motivation; and thirdly, to discuss the implications they have for sustainable volunteer management.
Presbury, R. & Edwards, D.C. 2005, 'Incorporating Sustainability in Meetings and Event Management Education', International Journal of Event Management Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 30-45.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Events and other meetings are an important component of the tourism industry. The activities around events and other meetings bring people together and offer communities an opportunity to celebrate and showcase their traditions, culture and way of life. As the major stakeholders in such activities realise the significant economic benefits of holding events and meetings, governments and operators are making significant capital investment in developing the necessary facilities and infrastructure to accommodate this sector of the tourism industry.
Schlenker, K., Edwards, D.C. & Sheridan, L. 2005, 'A flexible framework for evaluating the socio-cultural impacts of a small festival', International Journal of Event Management Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 66-77.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The increasing popularity of festivals and events, coupled with their positive and negative impacts on host communities, has led to a growing body of research on the impacts of festivals and events. As a substantial amount of this research has focused on assessing the economic impacts of festivals, there is growing demand for the measurement of the socio-cultural impacts of these festivals and events. To address this issue a study was conducted that developed a framework for the social impact evaluation of festivals and piloted a tool that measured the community perceptions of socio-cultural impacts.
Dwyer, L., Mellor, R., Livaic, Z., Edwards, D. & Kim, C. 2004, 'Attributes of destination competitiveness: A factor analysis', Tourism Analysis, vol. 9, no. 1-2, pp. 91-101.
© 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp. A model is developed to capture the main elements of competitiveness highlighted in the general literature, while appreciating the special issues involved in exploring the notion of destination competitiveness as emphasized by tourism researchers. Associated with the model is a set of indicators that can be used to measure the competitiveness of any given destination. These indicators, comprising both objective and subjective measures, were identified from the major elements comprising the generic destination competitiveness model and also from discussions at workshops held in Korea and Australia in 2001. This article has three major objectives: to display a model of destination competitiveness that identifies key success factors in determining destination competitiveness; to display the findings arising from the application of factor analysis to survey data collected in a study of Australian and Korean tourism industry stakeholders; to explore issues for further research arising from the study.
Dwyer, L., Mellor, R., Livaic, Z., Edwards, D.C. & Chulwon, K. 2004, 'Attributes of Destination Effectiveness: A factor analysis', Tourism Analysis, vol. 9, no. 1-2, pp. 91-101.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A model is developed to capture the main elements of competitiveness highlighted in the general literature, while appreciating the special issues involved in exploring the notion of destination competitiveness as emphasized by tourism researchers. Associated with the model is a set of indicators that can be used to measure the competitiveness of any given destination. These indicators, comprising both objective and subjective measures, were identified from the major elements comprising the generic destination competitiveness model and also from discussions at workshops held in Korea and Australia in 2001. This article has three major objectives: to display a model of destination competitiveness that identifies key success factors in determining destination competitiveness; to display the findings arising from the application of factor analysis to survey data collected in a study of Australian and Korean tourism industry stakeholders; to explore issues for further research arising from the study.
Edwards, D.C. & Presbury, R. 2004, 'BEST Sustainable Tourism Think Tank III 'The Role of Tourism in Community Development, Culture and Environmental Stewardship'', Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 95-100.
Carlsen, J. & Edwards, D.C. 2013, 'Tasting Arizona Sustainable Food Networks' in Liburd, J.L., Carlsen, J. & Edwards, D. (eds), Networks for Innovation in Sustainable Tourism, Tilde University Press, Prahran, Australia, pp. 49-55.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Tasting Arizona is a network of tourism, non-government, indigenous, farming, education, community, festival and food organisations that aims to provide 'local flavour' to customers in Arizona. The consortium believes that consumers want local flavour, and has identified a range of food products that represent the taste and feel of Arizona. Tasting Arizona represents an llUlovative approach to reviving local foods and traditional farming activities and countering the decline in small farming communities taking place in the US. The benefits of this revival extend well beyond providing visitors with local flavours, as the foods are linked with preserving traditional farming practices, conserving areas for wildlife, educating youth, keeping food pure and free from genetic modification, maintaining agricultural diversity and biodiversity and protecting cultural traditions. Wild foods such as the mesquite bean flour and pure varieties of fruit and vegetables are just two examples of traditional local foods that have been revived.
Carlsen, J. & Edwards, D.C. 2013, 'The Diablo Trust Planning sustainable land use' in Liburd, J.L., Carlsen, J. & Edwards, D. (eds), Networks for Innovation in Sustainable Tourism, Tilde University Press, Prahran, Australia, pp. 41-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In 1993, two Arizona ranch families, the Prossers of the Bar T Bar Ranch and the Metzgers of the Flying M Ranch, both located in Northern Arizona, initiated a land stewardship collaboration called the Diablo Trust. The idea was to develop a collaborative process that included the wide and disparate views and agendas from ranchers, state and federal agencies, wildlife enthusiasts, academics and environmentalists. The Trust was named after th" Diablo Canyon that separates the two ranches, and was formed to promote the social, biological and economic sustainability of federal, state and private lands by engaging in a collaborative stewardship process in harmony with the natural environment and broader community. Their mission is to ensure the long-term economic, social and ecological sustainability of the Diablo Trust land area by providing a forum for active community participation in a collaborative land stewardship process.
Dwyer, L. & Edwards, D.C. 2013, 'Ecotourism and the triple bottom line' in Ballantyne, R. & Packer, J. (eds), International Handbook on Ecotourism, Edward Elgar Publishing, UK, pp. 245-263.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Good managers recognize the monetary value that corporate reputation, employee loyalty, job satisfaction and positive government relations have on the single bottom line. Such factors enhance shareholder value. From this some theorists argue that a focus exclusively on profit will naturally inculcate behaviours that are socially and environmentally responsible. A contrary view is that, in reality, there exists today unprecedented pressure on business managers to satisfy short-term profits and immediate success, resulting not only in adverse social and environmental impacts of business operations but economic problems as well, as evidenced by the recent Global Financial Crisis. On what is perhaps the 'standard view' of industry responsibility, reflecting social movements, loose, flexible, evolving partnerships that create new market dynamics, the tourism industry shares with local residents, governments and community the obligation to protect and maintain the natural and cultural heritage resources of our planet, both to sustain economies and be passed on unimpaired to future generations (UNEP, 2001; WTO, 1995). Perhaps in no sector of tourism is meeting this responsibility more expected than in ecotourism.
Schulenkorf, N. & Edwards, D.C. 2013, 'Planning and evaluating sport events for sustainable development in disadvantaged communities' in Pernecky, T. & Luck, M. (eds), Events, Society and Sustainability: Critical and contemporary approaches, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 79-94.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Sport events of all forms and sizes have been growing in volume and importance over the past century. Sport events can vary in scale and type and represent a temporary drawing together of resources to provide structured sport activities for participants, spectators and other stakeholders. These activities can feature either informal or formal competition between organised individuals and teams of athletes. Sport events are popular in many societies as they can provide people and their communities with both economic and social opportunities such as entertainment, socialisation and the establishment of contacts and networks between people and groups. A growing awareness of the social opportunities by government agencies and community groups has lead to sport events being used as a method for fostering community development and delivering broader social benefits. This chapter illustrates the significance of sport events in our society and examines their ability to contribute to sustainable development in disadvantaged communities. The chapter discusses opportunities and challenges in the areas of sport event planning and evaluation. Moreover, it introduces the Sport-for-Development (S4D) Framework that can be used to guide and facilitate the creation of sport event activities designed to benefit people in (disadvantaged) communities.
An event workforce comprises a range of different types of employees including paid staff, external suppliers, contractors and volunteers. Event organisers depend on volunteers who are recognised as an integral part of the workforce at local, regional, national and international events. This chapter describes how event organisations face a series of unique challenges and additional complexity when they are recruiting, training, managing, rewarding and retaining a volunteer workforce. With events increasingly depending on the volunteer worker, it has become essential to develop mechanisms of management that ensure the provision of a positive and satisfying volunteer experience, and the retention of volunteers.
Schulenkorf, N. & Edwards, D.C. 2012, 'Sport event management: Creating engaging experiences' in Leberman, S., Collins, C. & Trenberth, L. (eds), Sport Business Management in New Zealand and Australia, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne, pp. 320-332.
This chapter is concerned with an increasingly popular area of the experience economy, the management of sport events. Sport events represent a temporary drawing together of resources to create a particular experience for participants, spectators and other stakeholders. Depending on the size of the sport event it can take weeks, months or years of preparation to deliver an experience that is over in a matter of hours or days. Sport event management is fundamentally about creating engaging experiences, and leveraging them to achieve lasting benefits for all those involved. Getting the experience right such that participants, spectators and other stakeholders are satisfied is critically important for the future popularity of any sport event. This chapter focuses on examining sport event experiences and investigates the meanings attached to them. It combines the areas of event planning, management and design and uses examples from Australia, New Zealand and international contexts to illustrate the significance of sport events in our society. In particular, the chapter presents an overview of how sport activities can be designed to impact positively on people, so that engaging experiences (Pine and Gilmore, 2011) can be created.
Dwyer, L. & Edwards, D.C. 2010, 'Sustainable tourism planning' in Liburd, J.J. & Edwards, D. (eds), Understanding the Sustainable Development of Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers Ltd, Oxford, UK, pp. 20-44.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Tourism not properly planned and managed can leave permanent footprints on the physical, social, cultural and economic environments of destinations. Tourism development can be alienating to local residents, overcrowded, noisy, architecturally tasteless, and place pressures on infrastructure. Inappropriate types and scales of development may arise due to laissez-faire tourism policies and a lack of national, regional or local planning and regulation. Governments and stakeholders in the tourism sector have a responsibility to ensure that in the development of tourism long-term prosperity and the quality of life of future generations are not placed at risk.
Edwards, D.C., Dickson, T.J., Griffin, T. & Hayllar, B.R. 2010, 'Tracking the urban visitor: Methods for examining tourists' spatial behaviour and visual representations' in Richards, G. & Munsters, W. (eds), Cultural Tourism Research Methods, CABI, UK, pp. 104-114.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Understanding the places tourists visit, the time they spend and the services they utilize can provide valuable information for many engaged in the management or study of tourism. This information can be used for such purposes as informing location choices for rest!1luants, accommodation or attractions in order to maximize exposure to visitor traffic. Government agencies and destinatiou managers can use the information to infonn planning decisions, redirect visitor flows to avoid overcrowding, minimize adverse impacts on sensiUve sites, concentrate marketing activities, inform transport policies and more broadly distribute expected benefits.
Liburd, J. & Edwards, D.C. 2010, 'The future of sustainability' in Liburd, J.J. & Edwards, D. (eds), Understanding the Sustainable Development of Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers Ltd, Oxford, UK, pp. 225-237.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Tourism constitutes exceptional opportunities as a phenomenon, industry, career and lifestyle. Sustaining the economic, social and environmental elements of tourism will be essential to maintaining a phenomenon that can support communities, provide employment and meet the experiential needs of customers. Thus, it is vital to provide the tourism managers of tomorrow with an explicit understanding of, and the capability to effect creative and innovative solutions for the sustainable development of tourism. Aiming to effectively enhance the understanding of sustainable tourism development through information sharing and social interaction, BESTEN has been producing educational modules since 200l.
Presbury, R. & Edwards, D.C. 2010, 'Managing sustainable festivals, meetings and events' in Liburd, J.J. & Edwards, D. (eds), Understanding the Sustainable Development of Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers Ltd, Oxford, UK, pp. 163-187.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Festivals, meetings and events (FMEs) are an important component of the tourism industry. FMEs provide opportunities for social and cultural exchange, exchange of new and innovative ideas, business contacts, and learning. They play a key role in many destinations in attracting tourists, providing recreational activities for the community and developing and strengthening a destination's image. Each FME provides a specific kind of appeal and experience, which in most cases cannot be repeated. As the appreciation of the benefits of holding festivals, meetings and events grows, governments and operators are continuing to invest in developing the necessary facilities and infrastructure to accommodate this tourism activity.
Presbury, R. & Edwards, D.C. 2010, 'Sustainable operations management' in Liburd, J.J. & Edwards, D. (eds), Understanding the Sustainable Development of Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers Ltd, Oxford, UK, pp. 45-66.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Unlike many business sectors, tourism is an amalgamation of various industries offering products and services ranging from airline and cruise ship travel and accommodation to restaurant meals, entertainment, souvenirs and gifts, park services, recreational vehicles, resort development, safaris, leisure and recreational opportunities. There is growing recognition that established management practices have led to undesirable social and environmental impacts, some of which, in turn, threaten the sustainablllty of tourism operations. It is consequently the management of tourism operations, at the local and individual level, that has major implications for sustainability. It is essential that forces of change begin with company policy and actions at the organisational level.
The focus of this chapter is on understanding how positive social impacts can be created and leveraged through sport events to achieve lasting peaceful outcomes for disparate communities. The chapter builds on practical work in Sri Lanka and suggests ways for event planners and managers to maximise and leverage social benefits for participants, spectators, supporters and the wider community. The chapter is underpinned by a discussion of the concept of intergroup relations and an examination of previous research on the contribution sport events make to peace and inclusive social development. Strategies for maximising sport event benefits are highlighted; they represent valuable learning opportunities for those interested in fostering peace through sport event tourism
Hayllar, B.R., Edwards, D.C., Griffin, T. & Dickson, T.J. 2009, 'Inside the triangle: Images of a Capital' in Maitland, R. & Ritchie, B.W. (eds), City Tourism: National Capital Perspectives, CABI, UK, pp. 77-93.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Edwards, D. & Foley, C. 2009, 'Australian war memorial, Australian museum, and the art gallery of New South Wales: Mutually satisfying relationships: The secrets of successful volunteer programs in Australian museums' in Managing Volunteers in Tourism: Attractions, Destinations and Events, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, pp. 161-174.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Edwards, D.C. & Foley, C.T. 2009, 'Australian War Memorial, Australian Museum and the Art Gallery of New South Wales' in Holmes, K. & Smith, K. (eds), Managing Volunteers in Tourism, Elsevier, London, UK, pp. 159-173.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This case study tells the story of how three large museums in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory in Australia manage their volunteers. Each museum operates a successful volunteer program for which there is a waiting list of volunteers. The volunteers at each museum are well managed, happy, and doing a valuable job for their respective organizations. We can learn something from their success. The volunteer coordinators from each organization have also identified areas in which their volunteers could be better managed in terms of the volunteer programs' integration into the larger organization and the ongoing support and training of the managers and coordinators who supervise volunteers. These are significant insights from practitioners in the field, which provide valuable learning opportunities. The case study provides an overview of the three organizations and their successful volunteer programs, and identifies key issues and a model for successful volunteer management. Three prominent Australian museums are the center of this case study: The Australian War Memorial (the Memorial), located in Canberra, the capital city of Australia, in the Australian Capital Territory; the Australian Museum (the Museum), located next to Hyde Park in the center of Sydney, New South Wales; and, also in central Sydney, the Art Gallery of New South Wales (the Gallery), located in The Domain.
Dwyer, L., Edwards, D.C., Mistilis, N. & Roman, C. 2008, 'Tourism' in Newton, P.W. (ed), Transitions: pathways towards sustainable urban development in Australia, Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 103-111.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Cities are always shaped by mobility - or, by flows - of people, money and goods. Changes are taking place globally that will influence the shape of urban destinations in the future. The coming decade and a half should see major shifts in the leisure and tourism environment reflecting changing consumer values, political forces, environmental changes and the explosive growth of information and communication technology. How urban destination managers and tourism operators respond to these changes will influence the way in which these destinations are developed. Since the future cannot be known with certainty, public and private sector tourism organisations must use the information they have today to allocate resources, maintain/achieve competitive advantage and to inform strategic planning for their destinations. A key element of a sustainable urban tourism industry is the ability to recognise and deal with change across a wide range of key factors. The challenge for urban tourism destination managers is to account for these changes pro-actively to achieve and maintain competitive advantage for their destinations. To realise these goals it is important to know how world events influence consumers and suppliers of goods and services and consequently how this shapes urban tourism environments. There is increasing competition in the tourism and hospitality industries - between urban destinations worldwide (between established markets and from new markets), between urban destinations domestically, and between firms within an urban destination. Achieving competitive advantage in times of rapid change requires tourism stakeholders to have a clear understanding of the direction of change and its implications for destination management.
Edwards, D.C., Griffin, T. & Hayllar, B.R. 2008, 'Darling Harbour: Looking back and moving forward' in Hayllar, B., Griffin, T. & Edwards, D. (eds), City Spaces - Tourist Places: Urban Tourism Precincts, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, pp. 275-294.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Edwards, D.C., Griffin, T. & Hayllar, B.R. 2008, 'Urban tourism precincts: An overview of key themes and issues' in Hayllar, B., Griffin, T. & Edwards, D. (eds), City Spaces - Tourist Places: Urban Tourism Precincts, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, pp. 95-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Griffin, T., Hayllar, B.R. & Edwards, D.C. 2008, 'Places and people: A precinct typology' in Hayllar, B., Griffin, T. & Edwards, D. (eds), City Spaces - Tourist Places: Urban Tourism Precincts, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, pp. 39-62.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Griffin, T., Hayllar, B.R. & Edwards, D.C. 2008, 'Precinct planning and design, management and marketing: An overview' in Hayllar, B., Griffin, T. & Edwards, D. (eds), City Spaces - Tourist Places: Urban Tourism Precincts, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, pp. 245-260.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hayllar, B.R., Griffin, T. & Edwards, D.C. 2008, 'City spaces - tourist places: A reprise' in Hayllar, B., Griffin, T. & Edwards, D. (eds), City Spaces - Tourist Places: Urban Tourism Precincts, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, pp. 359-374.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hayllar, B.R., Griffin, T. & Edwards, D.C. 2008, 'Urban tourism precincts: Engaging with the field' in Hayllar, B., Griffin, T. & Edwards, D. (eds), City Spaces - Tourist Places: Urban Tourism Precincts, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, pp. 3-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Holmes, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2008, 'Volunteers as hosts and guests in museums' in Lyons, K.D. & Wearing, S. (eds), Journeys of Discovery in Volunteer Tourism, CABI, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 155-165.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter uses the extant research on museum audiences to conceptualize the relationship between museum visiting and volunteering. First, the chapter examines the literature relating to museum visitors; second, it considers research on museum volunteers; and finally these two literatures are compared and a conceptual model of museum visiting and volunteering is presented.
Dwyer, L. & Edwards, D.C. 2005, 'Planning for Sustainable Tourism Development: Guiding Values and Impacts' in Chandra, A. & Nigam, D. (eds), Tourism, Environment and Ecology, Shree Publications, New Delhi, India, pp. 171-184.
Edwards, D.C. 2004, 'Defining field characteristics of museums and art museums: an Australian perspective' in Stebbins, R.A. & Graham, M. (eds), Volunteering as Leisure/Leisure as Volunteering: An international perspective., CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 137-150.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Scerri, M., Edwards, D. & Foley, C. 2016, 'The Economic Impact of Architecture to Tourism', The Chaning Landscapre of Tourism and Hospitality: The impact of emerging markets and emerging destinations, CAUTHE 26th Annual Conference, Blue Mountains Hotel Management School, Sydney, pp. 436-457.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Iconic architecture assists in the identification of a place, city or precinct. Structural, functional and aesthetic aspects of architecture, particularly those that represent unique features, attract tourists. The aim of this study is to explore the value of iconic buildings to tourism with particular focus on the recently opened University of Technology Sydney Business School's Gehry designed Dr Chau Chak Wing (CCW) building. Five case studies which estimate the economic and social value of buildings to tourism are examined and the benefits transfer method is used to estimate the value of the CCW to tourism.
Cheng, M., Edwards, D. & Darcy, S. 2015, 'A novel review approach on adventure tourism scholarship', BEST EN Think Tank XV The Environment-People Nexus in Sustainable Tourism : Finding the Balance, South Africa, pp. 187-189.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
As a niche market, adventure tourism has been developing rapidly in many regions and territories, evidenced by increasing number of participants and intensive growth of adventure tourism products (Adventure Travel Trade Association, 2013; Tourism New Zealand, 2013). It has become an important component of the tourism industry in many Western countries (e.g. New Zealand) and is gaining some prominence in domestic tourism in select emerging countries (e.g. China and Brazil). This particular growth of adventure tourism sector in past two decades is closely related to the increase of all types of nature based tourism. Adventure tourism has been strongly likened to outdoor and adventure recreation (Buckley, 2006; Pomfret & Bramwell, 2014; Sung, Morrison, & O'Leary, 1996). Buckley (2006), for example, sees little distinction between the terms adventure tourism, nature tourism, outdoor and adventure recreation in some cases. However, research in adventure tourism has been slight, especially when compared with the large number of other dominant special interest tourism studies (Buckley, 2010). As such, an updated review article on adventure tourism in the tourism context seems essential.
Schlenker, K., Foley, C.T., Edwards, D.C. & Veal, A.J. 2014, 'Bums on Seats: Attendance trends in culture and sport', Liveability & Loveability Taskforce Meeting, Committee for Sydney, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Foley, C.T., Schlenker, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2013, 'Beyond Tourism Benefits - Measuring the social legacies of business events', Making Waves, ICE 2013 - International Conference on Events, Bournemouth, United Kingdom.
Schlenker, K., Foley, C.T. & Edwards, D.C. 2013, 'Events at the Sydney Entertainment Centre: economic and social contributions', Making Waves, ICE 2013 - International Conference on Events, Bournemouth, United Kingdom.
Barton, C., Schlenker, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2012, 'Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Tourism Businesses', The new Golden Age of Tourism Hospitality. Proceedings of the 22th Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, CAUTHE, CAUTHE Conference, CAUTHE, Melbourne, Victoria, pp. 59-76.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
It is widely believed that Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) face many constraints in engaging in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It is also believed that SMEs require guidelines and tools to successfully implement CSR. One commonly acknowledged gap in research on CSR in SMEs is that it needs to be sector and region specific, as the tools and guidelines needed by SMEs will differ depending on their industry and geographic location. This research addresses this gap, by examining CSR engagement in Small and Medium Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs) based in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia. A mixed methods approach was used, revealing that owner-managed SMTEs engage in CSR for personal reasons, whereas non owner-managed businesses engage in CSR mainly for the business benefits they may realise. Finally, a model is presented that reflects three types of CSR engagement identified in SMTEs: reactive, proactive and active.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. 2012, 'The Sydney Entertainment Centre: Measuring the inscope expenditure into Chinatown, Darling Harbour and the City of Sydney.', Sydney Entertainment Centre Leadership Team, Sydney.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. 2012, 'The Sydney Entertainment Centre: Measuring the inscope expenditure into Chinatown, Darling Harbour and the City of Sydney.', Darling Harbour Convention and Exhibition (DHCE) Executive Committee, Sydney, Australia.
Harris, R., Schlenker, K., Foley, C.T. & Edwards, D.C. 2012, 'Australian Event Symposium 2012', Academic Paper Proceedings, Australian Centre for Event Management, University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney.
Foley, C.T., Edwards, D.C. & Schlenker, K. 2011, 'Event legacies: Beyond the tourism spend', Proceedings from the 2011 Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Leisure in Transition: People, Policy and Places., Leisure Studies Association, Southampton, England, UK.
Foley, C.T., Schlenker, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2011, 'The sociable aspects of conferences: Lessons for associations and business event organisers', Challenging Leisure: Australia and New Zealand Association of Leisure Studies 10th Biennial Conference, Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies, Dunedin, New Zealand, pp. 56-57.
Edwards, D.C. & Hayllar, B.R. 2010, 'Tracking the Paths of Visitors to London', Congress of the International Academy of Legal Medicine, Hobart.
Edwards, D.C., Griffin, T., Hayllar, B.R. & Dickson, T. 2010, 'Examining the performance of urban destinations: A comparison Of domestic and international tourists to two Australian capital cities', Proceedings of the 20th Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, CAUTHE, Hobart, Australia, pp. 1-24.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Edwards, Griffin and Hayllar (2007) argued that research on urban tourism was not reflective of its degree of importance relative to tourism in other types of destinations. Further there is a paucity of Australian-based research. To partially address this imbalance, this study aimed to enhance the understanding of both domestic and international tourists experiences of two Australian urban destinations, Sydney and Canberra, through an examination of the key attributes sought by visitors to those destinations. Additionally, the study sought to understand the relative importance of these destination attributes and the extent to which tourists were satisfied with their experiences of these attributes.
Russell, A.J., King, S., Kaji-O'Grady, S. & Edwards, D.C. 2009, 'Mapping Ultimo, Sydney, for sustainable urbanism', Proceedings of the Urban Design Research: Method and Application, Urban Design Research: Method and Application, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK, pp. 149-164.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A 2009 research project in Sydney, Australia, developed ways of working with digital tools to capture the urban experience and its dynamic systems, as well as its physical composition. The project saw a unique collaboration between researchers, practitioners and students from the disciplines of architecture and tourism. It drew on the theoretical frameworks, skills and interests of all those involved.
Schlenker, K., Edwards, D.C., Hayllar, B.R. & Griffin, T. 2010, 'City spaces, functional places: Functions of urban tourism precincts', Proceedings of the 20th Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, CAUTHE, Hobart, Australia, pp. 1-12.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Tourism precincts form an important part of the phenomenon of urban tourism. The pattern of tourist visitation in an urban destination tends to be concentrated in specific tourism precincts, where tourists tend to spend a large proportion of their time (Griffin, Hayllar, & King, 2006; Hayllar & Griffin, 2006). Precincts perform a range of functions that play an important role in providing visitors with a satisfying and fulfilling experience of the city overall. Previous research suggests a range of precinct functions relating to providing visitors with a connection to the city and its people; providing contrast and respite from a citys CBD; acting as a meeting place, or place of orientation for tourists (Griffin & Hayllar, 2006, 2007; Griffin, et al., 2006; Hayllar & Griffin, 2005; Hayllar & Griffin, 2006).
Schulenkorf, N. & Edwards, D.C. 2009, 'Social development through sport and events: Strategies for sustaining and leveraging event benefits', Kufstein Congress on Sports & Culture: Sustainable Event Management - Lessons Learnt & Prospects, Kufstein Congress on Sports & Culture, Books on Demand GmbH, Kufstein, pp. 183-198.
There is increasing evidence that community based sport and event programs can be used to achieve positive social development within and among communities in developing countries (Gasser & Levinsen, 2004; Schulenkorf, 2008; Stidder & Haasner, 2007; Sugden, 2006). According to Moscardo (2007), social development consists of three major, interrelated constructs: social capital, social change and community capacity building. The focus of this paper is on investigating how these social development constructs can be advanced through strategic event planning. Two âsport for developmentâ event projects in war-torn Sri Lanka are examined to identify how event planners and managers can maximise and leverage social benefits for direct participants, supporting stakeholders and the wider community.
Edwards, D.C., Griffin, T., Hayllar, B.R. & Dickson, T. 2009, 'Making tracks and collecting images: new methods for examining tourists' spatial behaviour in cities', Congress of the International Academy of Legal Medicine, Fremantle.
Edwards, D.C., Hayllar, B.R., Griffin, T. & Dickson, T. 2009, 'Tracking Visitors in Urban Environments', State of the Cities: Unlocking the Data Conference.
Dwyer, L.M. & Edwards, D.C. 2008, 'Tourism Management to avoid âStrategic Driftâ', ATINER Conference, Athens, Greece.
Hayllar, B.R., Edwards, D.C. & Griffin, T. 2008, 'Trails and tales...Tracking Visitors in urban environments', Selling or Telling? Paradoxes in Tourism, Culture and Heritage. ATLAS Annual Conference, Brighton, UK.
Edwards, D.C., Schlenker, K., Griffin, T. & Hayllar, B.R. 2008, 'Sites of experience: The functions of urban tourism precincts', Tourism and Hospitality Research, Training and Practice: 'Where the `bloody hell' are we?' Proceedings of the 18th Annual Council for the Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, CAUTHE, Conference, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Training and Practice: "Where the 'bloody hell' are we?", Griffith University and CAUTHE, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 1-24.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A key element of a successful tourism industry is the ability to recognize and deal with change across a wide range of key factors and the way they interact. Key drivers of global change can be classified as Economic, Social, Political, Technological and Environmental. This paper explores the way in which these key drivers could affect the global tourism industry to the year 2020. An exploration of these trends allows important change agents, on both the supply side and the demand side of tourism, to be highlighted and discussed. In response, innovative strategies can be formulated by destination managers and tourism operators to avoid strategic drift for their organisations and to develop tourism in a sustainable way.
Griffin, T., Edwards, D.C., Schlenker, K. & Hayllar, B.R. 2008, 'Shared playgrounds: contrasting visitor perspectives on tourism precincts in cities', BEST Education Network Think Tank VIII, Izmir, Turkey.
Dwyer, L.M. & Edwards, D.C. 2007, 'Innovation and New Service Development in Tourism', Proceedings BEST Education Network, Think Tank VII, Innovation for Sustainable Tourism, Northern Arizona, USA.
Dwyer, L.M., Edwards, D.C., Mistilis, N. & Roman, C. 2007, 'Destination and Enterprise Management for a Tourism Future', BEST Education Network Think Tank VII, BEST Education Network Think Tank, University of Technology Sydney, Arizona, USA, pp. 48-61.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A key element of a successful tourism industry is the ability to recognize and deal with change across a wide range of key factors and the way they interact. Key drivers of global change can be classified as Economic, Social, Political, Technological and Environmental. This paper explores the way in which these key drivers could affect the global tourism industry to the year 2020. An exploration of these trends allows important change agents, on both the supply side and the demand side of tourism, to be highlighted and discussed. In response, innovative strategies can be formulated by destination managers and tourism operators to avoid strategic drift for their organisations and to develop tourism in a sustainable way.
Dwyer, L.M., Edwards, D.C., Mistilis, N. & Roman, C. 2007, 'Gambling with our tourism future: the role of research in destination and enterprise strategies to avoid strategic drift', Proceedings 38th TTRA Conference, Las Vegas, USA.
Griffin, T., Edwards, D.C. & Hayllar, B.R. 2007, 'Urban tourism research priorities: Contrasting perspectives of industry and academia', CAUTHE: Proceedings of 17th Annual Conference: Past Achievements, Future Challenges, Tourism - Past Achievements, Future Challenges, University of Technology, Sydney, Manly, pp. 1-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Holmes, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2007, 'Volunteers as Hosts and Guests in Museums', CAUTHE: Proceedings of 17th Annual Conference: Past Achievements, Future Challenges, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, University of Technology, Sydney, Manly, Sydney, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper proposes two arguments: one, that volunteering in museums can be considered an extension of visiting; and two, museum volunteers act as both hosts and guests. Volunteers are an extremely important resource to museums worldwide. In addition, there is a clear link between volunteer motivation and the reasons that people give for visiting a museum. This paper argues that museums volunteers are a part of the museum's audience, forming a link between more conventional visitors and paid staff. They are both hosts and guests at the same time.
Meyer, P. & Edwards, D.C. 2007, 'The Future Of Volunteer Managed Festivals - Where Do We Go From Here?', CAUTHE: Proceedings of 17th Annual Conference: Past Achievements, Future Challenges, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, University of Technology, Sydney, Manly, Sydney, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Agricultural shows are community based festivals that represent a majority of festivals staged in rural destinations. These shows are predominantly volunteer managed festivals which are finding it difficult to survive in an increasingly competitive and challenging environment. However little is understood about the volunteer managers of these festivals in terms of their motivation, skills and effectiveness in managing these festivals. To address these issues this paper has three aims. First it will present a review of the literature on volunteer managed festivals. Second the paper presents preliminary findings from a study conducted during 2005/2006 on rural agricultural shows. Third this paper discusses the implications for the management of future rural agricultural shows.
Edwards, D.C. 2006, 'How volunteers are organized: a review of three museums', Cutting Edge Research in Tourism: new directions, challenges and applications, Cutting Edge Research in Tourism, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Edwards, D.C. 2006, 'Leisure seeking volunteers in large urban museums: are they committed?', To the city and beyond...: Proceedings of the 16th Annual CAUTHE Conference, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 659-675.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Within the Australian tourism industry, the prominent use of volunteers occurs in museums and art museums, botanic gardens, zoological parks and festivals and events. Large museums in urban environments, in particular, are heavily reliant on the continuous contribution of a large number of leisure seeking volunteers. These volunteers come from a wide cross section of the community but little is known about their values and commitment. Values are an important construct that offer insights into human belief and behaviour. In the workplace a person's values can influence job satisfaction, turnover and commitment. If museums can understand what volunteers' value in relation to their work then they can place volunteers in situations which will not be at odds with their values. The objective of this paper is to explore how different aspects of work are valued by museum volunteers and the influence these values have on volunteer commitment to the organizations they contribute to. This paper presents results of a study of volunteers at three large museums and art museums in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. Results found that these volunteers place a very high value on the work they do for the institution and their commitment to the institution is a combination of affective and continuance commitment. It also found that volunteer commitment is influenced by Pfeffer (1997) three conditions for commitment; choice, publicness and explicitness. The implications of these findings for volunteer management are discussed.
Edwards, D.C. 2006, 'Leisure Seeking Volunteers In Large Urban Museums: Are They Committed?', Inaugural National Volunteering Research Symposium, Melbourne, Victoria.
Sawoniewska, M. & Edwards, D.C. 2006, 'Barriers to Developing a Sustainable Rural Tourism Sector: a case study of rural tourism in the Macarthur region', 16th International Research Conference of the Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, Victoria University, Victoria, Australia, pp. 742-759.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Developing a sustainable rural tourism sector involves a holistic approach of ensuring economic, social and environmental values are realised. This requires an understanding of the stakeholders that develop rural tourism, consume rural tourism and contribute to sustainable rural tourism development. This paper investigates the development of a sustainable rural tourism sector in the Macarthur region, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of this paper is to report on the application of a model that identifies the obstacles to sustainable rural tourism development. Results indicate that complex zoning, policy, and regulatory requirements are major barriers to sustainable rural tourism development. Comparisons with other studies are drawn and implications for sustainable rural tourism development are discussed.
Schlenker, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2006, 'Residents' expectations and perceptions of the social impacts of community festivals', Cutting Edge Research in Tourism: new directions, challenges and applications, Cutting Edge Research in Tourism, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Edwards, D.C. 2005, 'Understanding the Organisation of Volunteers.', Conference Proceedings UNCOVER 2003 - Research in the Museum Sector, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Edwards, D.C., Reid, S. & Schlenker, K. 2005, 'Methodological considerations in pretesting social impact questionnaires: Reporting on the use of focus groups', The Impact of Events: Triple Bottom Line Evaluation and Event Legacies - Proceedings of International Event Management Research Conference, International Event Management Research Conference, ACEM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 144-157.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Schlenker, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2003, 'Community perceptions of socio-cultural impacts arising from festivals and events.', Festivals and Events Association (FEA) National Events Conference, "Shaping the Landscape, Creating Inspiration", Sydney.
Schlenker, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2003, 'Evaluating the socio-cultural impacts of a festival on a host community: a case study of the Australian Festival of the Book', Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference of the Asia Pacific Tourism Association, School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, pp. 580-593.
Schlenker, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2003, 'The Delphi technique as a tool for the evaluation of socio-cultural impacts of festivals and events on host communities', International Festival and Events Association Research Symposium, Anaheim, California.
The purpose of this study is to provide BESydney with an improved understanding of the characteristics of incentive delegates inclusive of expenditure on shopping, attractions and food and beverage; satisfaction with Sydney; and a comparison of Sydney to other destinations; with a focus on the Asian incentive market.
Foley, C.T., Edwards, D.C., Schlenker, K. & Hergesell, A. UTS 2014, Beyond Tourism Benefits: Building an International Profile, Future Convention Cities Initiative, pp. 1-81, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This is a study of Business Events held in Seoul, Sydney,
Toronto and Durban by the University of Technology,
Sydney (UTS), on behalf of the Future Convention Cities
Initiative (FCCI). The methodology adopted and sources
of information used by the authors are outlined in this
report. While all care and diligence has been exercised
in the preparation of this report, the authors assume
no responsibility for any inaccuracies or omissions. No
indications were found during our investigations that
information contained in this report as provided is false.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. UTS 2012, The Sydney Entertainment Centre: Measuring the inscope expenditure into Chinatown, Darling Harbour and the City of Sydney, The Sydney Entertainment Centre, pp. 1-50, Australia.
Griffin, T. & Edwards, D.C. University of Technology Sydney 2011, Sydney Tourist Wayfinding Report. Prepared for Destination New South Wales, pp. 1-16, Sydney.
Edwards, D.C., Griffin, T. & Hayllar, B.R. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd 2010, Understanding Urban Tourism Impacts: An Australian Study. Technical Report, pp. 1-65, Gold Coast.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
As of 30 June 2009, Australias major cities were home to more than two-thirds (69%) of the population (ABS, 2010). In contrast, just 2 per cent of the total population lived in remote or very remote areas of Australia and 29 per cent lived in regional areas (ABS, 2010). In addition to housing the bulk of Australias population, Australias capital cities are also key gateways for international tourism and significant destinations for domestic tourism. For 2008, Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane respectively rated as the top three regions for expenditure by domestic and international visitors (Access Economics 2009). Tourists constitute a `transient population using cities either as gateways to other destinations or as a home for ephemeral periods of time contributing to the rise and fall of urban populations as each new wave of visitors replaces the last (Edwards, Griffin & Hayllar, 2008). During their stay, tourists interact with the host destination and impacts may arise from this interaction. Edwards, Griffin and Hayllar (2008) have argued that a dialectic engagement takes place in cities between host and visitors they question whether cities, originally designed to accommodate permanent residents and concentrations of economic and physical activity, face their own set of consequences that differ to regional contexts.
The purpose of this study is to provide an empirically-based assessment of the range and impact of contributions made by business events to host communities beyond the tourism dimension. This project is classified as a scoping study, delivering baseline data on which future stages of research could be built. Future stages of the project could be designed to deliver quantitative data on the contributions made by business events to complement the more qualitative focus of this study. It is well established that business events make a substantial contribution to the Australian economy from a tourism perspective. However, the Business Events Council of Australia (2009a) argues that impacts from business events in areas such as innovation, education, networking, trade, research and practice are likely to far outweigh the financial returns of the tourism spend. They have called for evidence-based research to be undertaken in this area (Business Events Council of Australia 2009b)
Edwards, D.C., Griffin, T., Hayllar, B.R., Dickson, T. & Schweinsberg, S.C. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd. 2009, Understanding Tourism Experiences and Behaviour in Cities: An Australian Case Study, pp. 1-103, Gold Coast.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study aims to enhance the understanding of tourist experiences and behaviour in urban destinations by analysing the spatial movements of tourists, identifying the key attributes they are seeking in urban destinations, determining how important these attributes are to their experiences, evaluating how two urban destinations performed in relation to these attributes, and assessing whether there are key differences between different types of visitors to urban destinations. The ultimate aim of this project is to inform and guide the future governance and improved functioning of urban tourism destinations by developing a better understanding of the tourist in such settings.
Dwyer, L., Edwards, D.C., Mistilis, N., Roman, C., Scott, N. & Cooper, C. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd 2008, Megatrends underpinning tourism to 2020: analysis of key drivers for change., pp. 1-65, Gold Coast.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A key element of a successful tourism industry is the ability to recognise and deal with change across a wide range of behavioural, environmental and technological factors and the way they interact. The coming decade and a half should see major shifts in the leisure and tourism environment, reflecting changing consumer values, political forces, environmental changes and the explosive growth of information technology. No aspect of the industry will remain untouched. The challenge for tourism stakeholders in both the private and public sectors is to account for these changes proactively to achieve and maintain competitive advantage for their organisations. This report explores the way in which some key drivers could affect the tourism industry, both international and domestic, to the year 2020. An exploration of these trends allows important change agents, on both the supply side and the demand side of tourism, to be highlighted and discussed, strategies formulated by destination managers, and tourism operators to develop tourism in a sustainable way. While the implications extend to all tourism destinations and operations, the focus is on Australia in particular.
Business Events Sydney
International Convetion Cnentre Sydney
Destination New South Wales