Director, Institute for Biomedical Materials & Devices (IBMD), Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS)
Director, UTS-SUStech Joint Research Centre for Biomedical Materials & Devices (IBMD), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology (SUTtech)
Science Director, ARC Research Hub for Integrated Device for End-user Analysis at Low-levels (IDEAL Hub)
co-Director, Australia-China Science and Research Fund Joint Research Centre for Point of Care Testing
PhD, 2003 July – 2007 May, Macquarie University, Supervisor Prof Jim Piper, a well-respected laser physicist. During his PhD research, Professor Jin invented “time-gated fluorescence flow cytometry” (US patent, US2010/0032584, WO/2008/019448, PCT/AU2007/001168).
BSc 1998–2002, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, followed by postgraduate study,
2002–2003, in optoelectronics at shanghai institute of fine mechanics and optics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
Employment summary: In 2015, Prof Jin joined UTS as a chair professor to lead its research strength in Materials and Technology and to establish an integrated research Institute for Biomedical Materials & Devices with a $7m budget. By transforming advances in photonics and materials into revolutionary biomedical technologies, his institute will leverage multi-disciplinary sciences in instrumental physics, materials science, photonics, nanotechnology, molecular biology and engineering to develop a range of research capabilities, and new technology solutions in the areas of cancer, neuron, pathogen, data storage (security), displays, wearable devices, and implantable biomaterials and devices.
Since his shift to UTS for the last 26 months, Prof Jin has established a new team of 20 PhD students, 8 postdoc researchers and 5 visiting research fellows. He developed a new research consortium of four UTS based research groups, four research groups from the University of South Australia, and six Australian biotechnology companies, and successfully secured funding of $6.8 m ($3.7 from ARC) to build the ARC Research Hub for Integrated Device for End-user Analysis at Low-levels (IDEAL Hub).
Prof Jin was previously at Macquarie University where, after his PhD, he had established the Advanced Cytometry Laboratories, engaging a network of collaborators from 14 world-leading research institutions and six companies in Australia, the USA, China, Singapore, France and Germany. He had been promoted to Lecturer in 2010, Senior Lecturer in 2013, Associate Professor in 2014 and Professorial Fellow in 2015.
Professor Jin is a lead inventor on five active international patents (three in national phase, two filed in 2015):
· Jin D, Lu Y, Piper J, "Two-dimensional scanning for luminescence microscopy" PCT/AU2013/000559 – describing the invention of a high-speed scanning detection device for detection of rare cells.
· Jin D, Lu Y, Zhao J, "Multiplex suspension assay/array using lifetime coding" PCT/AU2013/000672 – disclosing the “τ-Dots” technology for high speed bio-assays and anti-counterfeiting applications.
· Jin D, Zhao J, "Enhancing upconversion luminescence in rare earth doped particles" PCT/AU2013/001055 – covering the discovery of the brightest known nanocrystals, the SuperDot® (Trademark # 1582355) technology.
· Jin D, Xi P, "Mirror enhanced axial narrowing super-resolution microscopy" Australian Provisional Patent Application No. 2015902932, discovering a simple way to convert fluorescence microscopy for super resolution nanoscopy based on growing cells on a tiny mirror.
· Jin D, Liu D, Xu X, "Controlled growth of three-dimensional heterogeneous nanocrystals" Australian Provisional Patent Application No. 2015902932, disclosing Hyper Dots technology for programmable and precise engineering of multi-functional nanocrystals for bio-imaging, diagnostics and nanomedicine.
Major Awards and Honours
2017 the Prime Minister’s Malcolm McIntosh Prize for Physical Scientist of the Year
2017 the Australian nominee for the APEC Science Prize for Innovation, Research and Education 2017 (by The Minister for Industry, Innovation and Science Senator the Hon. Arthur Sinodinos AO and the Australian Academ of Science)
2017 John Booker Medallist (by the Australian Academy of Science). The John Booker Medal in engineering science is awarded annually by the Australian Academy of Science to recognise outstanding research in the sciences that underpin chemical, civil, electrical, mechanica or materials engineering, and their associated discipines.
2016 Listed by the Knowledge Society and the Office of the Chief Scientist in conjunction with The Australian newspaper as one of Australia's "Knowledge Nation 100", described as "visionaries, intellects, founders and game changers building the industries and institutions that will underwrite the nation’s future prosperity"
2015 led the SuperDots team, along with Prof. Tanya Monro from the University of South Australia and Prof Bradley Walsh from Minomic International Ltd, and won the UNSW Australian Museum Eureka Prize for Excellence in Interdisciplinary Scientific Research - one of Australia’s most prestigious science awards. http://australianmuseum.net.au/media/2015-eureka-interdisciplinary-scientific-research
The diverse impact of Super Dots technologies - from non-invasive cancer diagnosis and rapid pathogen detection to invisible coding for authentication of pharmaceuticals, passports and banknotes - is based on advances in diverse fields: material chemistry, optical physics, nanotechnology, biotechnology, computational modelling and instrumentation engineering.
2014 Outcomes profiled in the ARC Annual report – “Nanoparticles revolutionizing health care diagnostics”
2014 Outcomes highlighted in Macquarie University’s 50 years anniversary book
2014 Shortlisted for the Prime Minister’s McIntosh Prize for Physical Scientist of the Year
2014 Appointed a guest professor with the National Natural Science Foundation of China to build a satellite research lab at Peking University focusing on super resolution optical nanoscopy technology and applications in cell biology and materials characterizations
2013 Awarded an “Excellence in Research – Science & Engineering Award” at the Macquarie University Research Award Ceremony for his invention of Super Dots technology
2012 Became the youngest recipient of a Macquarie University Vice-Chancellor’s Innovation Fellowship targeting transformational research, commercialization and industry partnerships
2010 Awarded Early Career Researcher of the Year at the Macquarie University Research Award Ceremony (sole recipient)
2010 Awarded the Asia Nano Forum 2010 Best Presentation Award (sole winner; Oct 2010, Singapore, at Asia Nanotech Camp, 50 selected representatives from 14 countries)
2007 Became the first Australian recipient of the five-year ISAC Scholar Award from the International Society for Analytical Cytology, as one of the Emerging Young Scientists in the field of cell biology methods
2006 Awarded the Macquarie University Postgraduate Award and Innovation Award for his invention of a “low-cost, accurate and portable flow cytometer” device (sole recipient)
2006 Poster Award by International Imaging and Flow Cytometry Association (Pittsburgh, USA);
Milestone Journal Publications: Since his PhD in 2007, Prof Jin has published over 80 peer-reviewed publications across the disciplines of photonics engineering, nanotechnology and cell biology methods, including his six milestone papers in Nature journals (as principal inventor, research project leader and corresponding author †).
2017 January - JIN's lab in Australian and Xi's lab in China, after 6 years of experments, has demonstrated a low-power upconversion super-resolution nanoscopy and discovered a new route to alleviate the square root law in super resolution. This work was published by Nature;
– Liu Y, Lu Y, Yang X, Zheng X, Wen S, Wang F, Vidal X, Zhao, Liu D, Zhou Z, Ma C, Zhou J, Piper J, Xi P, Jin D+, “Amplified stimulated emission in upconversion nanoparticles for super resolution nanoscopy”, accepted on 9th Jan 2017, DOI: 10.1038/nature21366
2016 January – JIN’s lab led the frontier in nanomaterials engineering by realising controlled fabrication of rare-earth-doped nanomaterials with designed size, shape, surface and composition placements, towards building hybrid nanocrystals with integrated multiple functionalities. This work was published by Nature Communications;
– Liu D, Xu X, Du Y, Qin X, Zhang Y, Ma C, Wen S, Ren W, Goldys E, Piper J, Dou S, Liu X, Jin D†, “Three-dimensional controlled growth of monodisperse sub-50 nm heterogeneous nanocrystals”, 7, 10254. [over 12,000 downloads since its publication on 8 Jan 2016]
2015 November – As a world leader in upconversion nanotechnology, JIN was invited by Nature Nanotechnology to publish this review paper with his collaborator Prof Xiaogang Liu at National University of Singapore.
– Zhou B, Shi B, Jin D†, and Liu X, “Controlling upconversion nanocrystals for emerging applications”, 10, 924-936. [invited review]
2014 May – JIN’s pioneering work on high-speed lifetime decoding technology for rapid pathogen detection was published by Nature Communications;
– Lu Y, Lu J, Zhao J, Cusido J, Raymo F, Yuan J, Yang S, Leif R, Huo Y, Piper J, Robinson J, Goldys E, Jin D† “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays”, 5, 3741, IF = 11; [40 citations]
2014 Jan. – JIN’s pioneering work on time-domain nanophotonics sensing was published by Nature Photonics; (press release by ABC Science “Nanocrystals could help prevent forgery” 16 Dec 2013; Australian Pharmacist Feb. 2014 “Biotech offers rapid diagnostics and antidrug counterfeiting”).
– Lu Y, Zhao J, Zhang R, Liu Y, Liu D, Goldys E, Yang X, Xi P, Sunna A, Lu J, Shi Y, Leif R, Huo Y, Shen J, Piper J, Robinson J, Jin D† “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals”, 8, 32-36. IF = 32; [150 citations]
2013 Sep. – JIN’s breakthrough work on creating the brightest nanoparticles, the SuperDots®, was published by Nature Nanotechnology; (press release by the Statesman newspaper “turning the light up” on 4 Sep 2013; Nature highlights ¾ “Super-bright nanocrystals” Nature 501, 8).
– Zhao J, Jin D†, Schartner E, Lu Y, Liu Y, Zhang L, Zvyagin A, Dawes J, Xi P, Piper J, Goldys E, Monro T “Single nanocrystal sensitivity achieved by enhanced upconversion luminescence”, 8, 729-734; IF = 34; [170 citations]
Research funding income:
Since his PhD in 2007, Prof Jin has attracted competitive research funding of over $40 m ($10 m as lead or sole Chief Investigator, including four consecutive research fellowship awards).
2016 An ARC Research Hub for Integrated Device for End-user Analysis at Low-levels (IDEAL Hub, as Director; $3.7m from ARC; $1.1m from five Australian Biotechnology industry partners; $2m from UTS and University of South Australia)
2015 A major ARC LIEF grant ($0.8m; as lead Chief Investigator) to build a National Live Cell Scanning Platform for Nanoparticle Tracking
2014 An ARC Linkage grant (as lead Chief Investigator; $480k) with Sydney-based AusDiagnostics to explore new photonic and biochemistry approaches to DNA recognition for rapid pathogen detection
2013 An ARC Centre of Excellence grant for Nanoscale Bio Photonics ($23m as Chief Investigator). Prof Jin attracted cash contributions from two of his partners: $0.3m from Olympus and $0.5m from Peking University. Prof Jin co-leads the “Illuminate” Science Theme to develop strategic research direction on advanced functional/optical materials, and oversee the progress of Centre programs to deliver a library of efficient nanoscale light sources.
2014 A Commercialisation Australia Entrepreneur grant to support the Super Dots business plan, targeting potential markets in diagnostics, medicine, lighting and security
2013 An ARC Future Fellowship to develop highly sensitive, nanophotonics luminescent probes for more accurate detection and diagnosis of cancer and infection
2013 An ARC Linkage grant (as the Lead Chief Investigator, $617k) with Sydney-based Minomic International Ltd and Melbourne-based Patrys Ltd to develop rapid detection of rare-event cancer cells by Super Dots
2009 An ARC International Collaboration Award to establish the Advanced Cytometry Laboratories at Macquarie
2009 An ARC Postdoctoral Fellowship (APD) to develop cytometry, functional nano-/micro- particles for high-throughput biomolecular discovery
2008 A Macquarie University Research Fellowship (success rate 6%) for biosensors underpinning analytical cytology
Media coverage: Prof Jin’s research has gained over 100 media mentions, including on:
· AustraliaUnlimited (“Harnessing light for a healthcare revolution” 9 Aug 2016)
· ABC Radio (interview, “Nanotechnology offering cancer treatment, diagnosis and surgery solutions” 11 Jan 2016)
· 4BC news talk (live interview, “Prize winning nano torch to help fight disease” 31 Aug 2015)
· ABC Science (“Nanocrystals could help prevent forgery” 16 Dec 2013)
· The Statesman newspaper (“Turning the light up” 4 Sep 2013 and “Taking turns in the spotlight” 12 Feb 2014)
· ScienceNewsline (“Timing is everything in new nanotechnology for medicine, security and research” 16 Dec 2013)
· Australian Pharmacist (“Biotech offers rapid diagnostics and antidrug counterfeiting” Feb 2014)
Invited Speaker and Invitations: Keynote and invited talks at international conferences include the International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (2014, 2016); Asia-Pacific Conference on Near-field Optics and Nanophotonics (2013, 2015); 15th Asian Chemical Congress (2013); and the Light, Energy and the Environment Congress (2014). Prof Jin has been invited to present a plenary speech at the Association of Regulatory and Clinical Scientists Australian Congress (May 2016), and keynote talks at the following in 2016: 1st Conference and Spring School on Properties, Design and Applications of Upconverting Nanomaterials; International Symposium on Luminescence, Spectroscopy and Applications; and 9th Singapore International Chemical Conference.
Since 2011 − Grant assessor for Australian Research Council, Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development, Austrian Science Fund, and the Belgium FWO Research Foundation; Since 2011 − International Advisory Committee of Asia-Pacific Near-field Optics, and Strategic planning committee of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry; Journal referee for more than 30 multi-disciplinary journals and societies including regular reviewer for the top ranked journals of Nature Nanotechnology, Nature Photonics, Nature Communications, Advanced Materials, Cytometry A, NanoScale, Scientific Report (editorial board), Applied Physics Letters, Optics Letters, Small, and Analytical Chemistry.
Can supervise: YES
In 2015, Professor Jin accepted an offer to join UTS as a full professor to lead its research strength in Materials and Technology at School of Physical Sciences and grow the research Institute of Biomedical Materials & Devices (IBMD) with a $2 m seeding budget plus ten research fellowship and a dozen of PhD scholarship positions. Prof. Jin will maintain his relationship with Macquarie University through an Adjunct Professor role, to continue his numerous research projects and supervision of PhD students and postdocs at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics. IBMD will further develop the next-generation technologies for multi-functional hybrid biomaterials, rapid diagnostics, point-of-care sensing, targeted delivery systems and biomedical device engineering. By 2020, IBMD aims to become a transformational research hub to incubate 10 mid-career leaders, train 50 skilled PhD students, fill gaps between physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and engineering, network with 30 leading international research institutes, and build 10 industry partnerships to transform leading-edge and cost-effective technologies.
Mentorship/Supervision: Prof Jin currently mentors more than ten early-/mid-career researchers and more than twenty PhD students (eight PhD completions). Over the past five years, his students and postdoc researchers have won 16 prestigious national and international fellowships, including five ARC DECRA fellowships, two NHMRC Career Development Fellowships, an ARC Future Fellowship, a Marie Curie Fellowship, a Humboldt Research Fellowship (Germany), a Concordia University Fellowship (Canada), and six University Chancellors' Fellowships.
Vasilescu, SA, Bazaz, SR, Jin, D, Shimoni, O & Warkiani, ME 2020, '3D printing enables the rapid prototyping of modular microfluidic devices for particle conjugation', Applied Materials Today, vol. 20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd Antibody micro/nano-particle conjugates have proven to be essential tools in many diagnostic and nanomedicine applications. However, their production with homogenous coating and in a continuous fashion remains a tedious, labor-intensive, and costly process. In this regard, 3D micromixer-based microfluidic devices offer significant advantages over existing methods, where manipulating the flow in three dimensions increases fluid contact area and surface disruption, facilitating efficient mixing. While conventional softlithography is capable of fabricating simple 2D micromixers, complications arise when processing 3D structures. In this paper, we report the direct fabrication of a 3D complex microchannel design using additive manufacturing for the continuous conjugation of antibodies onto particle surfaces. This method benefits from a reduction in cost and time (from days to hours), simplified fabrication process, and limited post-processing. The flexibility of direct 3D printing allows quick and easy tailoring of design features to facilitate the production of micro and nanoparticles conjugated with functional antibodies in a continuous mixing process. We demonstrate that the produced antibody-functionalized particles retain their functionality by a firm and specific interaction with antigen presenting cells. By connecting 3D printed micromixers across the conjugation process, we illustrate the role of 3D printed microchannels as modularized components. The 3D printing method we report enables a broad spectrum of researchers to produce complex microfluidic geometries within a short time frame.
Bazaz, SR, Amiri, HA, Vasilescu, S, Mehrizi, AA, Jin, D, Miansari, M & Warkiani, ME 2020, 'Obstacle-free planar hybrid micromixer with low pressure drop', MICROFLUIDICS AND NANOFLUIDICS, vol. 24, no. 8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gao, L, Shan, X, Xu, X, Liu, Y, Liu, B, Li, S, Wen, S, Ma, C, Jin, D & Wang, F 2020, 'Correction: Video-rate upconversion display from optimized lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles.', Nanoscale.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Correction for 'Video-rate upconversion display from optimized lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles' by Laixu Gao et al., Nanoscale, 2020, DOI: 10.1039/d0nr03076g.
Gao, L, Shan, X, Xu, X, Liu, Y, Liu, B, Li, S, Wen, S, Ma, C, Jin, D & Wang, F 2020, 'Video-rate upconversion display from optimized lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles', Nanoscale.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Volumetric displays that create bright image points within a transparent bulk are one of the most attractive technologies in everyday life. Lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising luminescent nanomaterials for background free, full-colour volumetric displays of transparent bulk materials. However, video-rate display using UCNPs has been limited by their low emission intensity. Herein, we developed a video-rate upconversion display system with much enhanced brightness. The integral emission intensity of the single UCNPs was fully employed for video-rate display. It was maximized by optimizing the emitter concentration and, more importantly, by temporally synchronizing the scanning time of the excitation light to the the raised emission time of the single UCNPs. The excitation power dependent emission response and emission time decay curves were systematically characterized for the single UCNPs with various emitter concentrations from 0.5% to 6%. 1%Tm3+ doped UCNPs presented the highest integral emission intensity. By embedding this UCNPs into a polyvinyl acetate (PVA) film, we achieved a two-dimensional (2D) upconversion display with a frame rate of 29 Hz for 35 by 50 pixels. This work demonstrates that the temporal response as well as the integral emission intensity enable video-rate upconversion display.
Huang, G, Lin, G, Zhu, Y, Duan, W & Jin, D 2020, 'Emerging technologies for profiling extracellular vesicle heterogeneity', LAB ON A CHIP, vol. 20, no. 14, pp. 2423-2437.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Li, D, Wen, S, Kong, M, Liu, Y, Hu, W, Shi, B, Shi, X & Jin, D 2020, 'Highly Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles for In Vivo Applications Under Mild Excitation Power.', Analytical chemistry, vol. 92, no. 16, pp. 10913-10919.View/Download from: Publisher's site
One of the major challenges in using upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is to improve their brightness. This is particularly true for in vivo studies, as the low power excitation is required to prevent the potential photo toxicity to live cells and tissues. Here, we report that the typical NaYF4:Yb0.2,Er0.02 nanoparticles can be highly doped, and the formula of NaYF4:Yb0.8,Er0.06 can gain orders of magnitude more brightness, which is applicable to a range of mild 980 nm excitation power densities, from 0.005 W/cm2 to 0.5 W/cm2. Our results reveal that the concentration of Yb3+ sensitizer ions plays an essential role, while increasing the doping concentration of Er3+ activator ions to 6 mol % only has incremental effect. We further demonstrated a type of bright UCNPs 12 nm in total diameter for in vivo tumor imaging at a power density as low as 0.0027 W/cm2, bringing down the excitation power requirement by 42 times. This work redefines the doping concentrations to fight for the issue of concentration quenching, so that ultrasmall and bright nanoparticles can be used to further improve the performance of upconversion nanotechnology in photodynamic therapy, light-triggered drug release, optogenetics, and night vision enhancement.
Li, M, Li, Y, Liu, W, Lal, A, Jiang, S, Jin, D, Yang, H, Wang, S, Zhanghao, K & Xi, P 2020, 'Structured illumination microscopy using digital micro-mirror device and coherent light source', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 116, no. 23.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liao, J, Jin, D, Chen, C, Li, Y & Zhou, J 2020, 'Helix Shape Power-Dependent Properties of Single Upconversion Nanoparticles', JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 2883-2890.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, Y, Wang, F, Lu, H, Fang, G, Wen, S, Chen, C, Shan, X, Xu, X, Zhang, L, Stenzel, M & Jin, D 2020, 'Super-Resolution Mapping of Single Nanoparticles inside Tumor Spheroids', SMALL, vol. 16, no. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mahmoudi, T, Tazehkand, AP, Pourhassan-Moghaddam, M, Alizadeh-Ghodsi, M, Ding, L, Baradaran, B, Bazaz, SR, Jin, D & Warkiani, ME 2020, 'PCR-free paper-based nanobiosensing platform for visual detection of telomerase activity via gold enhancement', MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 154.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Razavi Bazaz, S, Rouhi, O, Raoufi, MA, Ejeian, F, Asadnia, M, Jin, D & Ebrahimi Warkiani, M 2020, '3D Printing of Inertial Microfluidic Devices', Scientific Reports, vol. 10, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020, The Author(s). Inertial microfluidics has been broadly investigated, resulting in the development of various applications, mainly for particle or cell separation. Lateral migrations of these particles within a microchannel strictly depend on the channel design and its cross-section. Nonetheless, the fabrication of these microchannels is a continuous challenging issue for the microfluidic community, where the most studied channel cross-sections are limited to only rectangular and more recently trapezoidal microchannels. As a result, a huge amount of potential remains intact for other geometries with cross-sections difficult to fabricate with standard microfabrication techniques. In this study, by leveraging on benefits of additive manufacturing, we have proposed a new method for the fabrication of inertial microfluidic devices. In our proposed workflow, parts are first printed via a high-resolution DLP/SLA 3D printer and then bonded to a transparent PMMA sheet using a double-coated pressure-sensitive adhesive tape. Using this method, we have fabricated and tested a plethora of existing inertial microfluidic devices, whether in a single or multiplexed manner, such as straight, spiral, serpentine, curvilinear, and contraction-expansion arrays. Our characterizations using both particles and cells revealed that the produced chips could withstand a pressure up to 150 psi with minimum interference of the tape to the total functionality of the device and viability of cells. As a showcase of the versatility of our method, we have proposed a new spiral microchannel with right-angled triangular cross-section which is technically impossible to fabricate using the standard lithography. We are of the opinion that the method proposed in this study will open the door for more complex geometries with the bespoke passive internal flow. Furthermore, the proposed fabrication workflow can be adopted at the production level, enabling large-scale manufacturing of inertial micro...
Ren, W, Lin, G, Clarke, C, Zhou, J & Jin, D 2020, 'Optical Nanomaterials and Enabling Technologies for High-Security-Level Anticounterfeiting', ADVANCED MATERIALS, vol. 32, no. 18.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tang, ZM, Liu, YY, Ni, DL, Zhou, JJ, Zhang, M, Zhao, PR, Lv, B, Wang, H, Jin, DY & Bu, WB 2020, 'Biodegradable Nanoprodrugs: "Delivering" ROS to Cancer Cells for Molecular Dynamic Therapy', Advanced Materials.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Biodegradable nanoprodrugs, inheriting the antitumor effects of chemotherapy drugs and overcoming the inevitable drawback of side effects on normal tissues, hold promise as next-generation cancer therapy candidates. Biodegradable nanoprodrugs of transferrin-modified MgO2 nanosheets are developed to selectively deliver reactive oxygen species to cancer cells for molecular dynamic therapy strategy. The nanosheets favor the acidic and low catalase activity tumor microenvironment to react with proton and release nontoxic Mg2+. This reaction simultaneously produces abundant H2O2 to induce cell death and damage the structure of transferrin to release Fe3+, which will react with H2O2 to produce highly toxic ·OH to kill tumor cells.
Wang, M, Chang, M, Chen, Q, Wang, D, Li, C, Hou, Z, Lin, J, Jin, D & Xing, B 2020, 'Au2Pt-PEG-Ce6 nanoformulation with dual nanozyme activities for synergistic chemodynamic therapy / phototherapy', Biomaterials, vol. 252.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd Although synergistic therapy for tumors has displayed significant promise for effective treatment of cancer, developing a simple and effective strategy to build a multi-functional nanoplatform is still a huge challenge. By virtue of the characteristics of tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia, slight acidity and H2O2 overexpression, Au2Pt-PEG-Ce6 nanoformulation is constructed for collaborative chemodynamic/phototherapy of tumors. Specifically, the Au2Pt nanozymes with multiple functions are synthesized in one step at room temperature. The photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) is covalently linked to Au2Pt nanozymes for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Interestingly, the Au2Pt nanozymes possess catalase- and peroxidase-like activities simultaneously, which not only can generate O2 for relaxation of tumor hypoxia and enhancement of PDT efficiency but also can produce ∙OH for chemodynamic therapy (CDT). In addition, the high photothermal conversion efficiency (η = 31.5%) of Au2Pt-PEG-Ce6 nanoformulation provides the possibility for photoacoustic (PA) and photothermal (PT) imaging guided photothermal therapy (PTT). Moreover, the presence of high-Z elements (Au and Pt) in Au2Pt-PEG-Ce6 nanoformulation endows it with the ability to act as an X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging contrast agent. All in all, the Au2Pt-PEG-Ce6 exhibits great potential in multimodal imaging-guided synergistic PTT/PDT/CDT with remarkably tumor specificity and enhanced therapy.
Yang, X, Yang, Z, Wu, Z, He, Y, Shan, C, Chai, P, Ma, C, Tian, M, Teng, J, Jin, D, Yan, W, Das, P, Qu, J & Xi, P 2020, 'Mitochondrial dynamics quantitatively revealed by STED nanoscopy with an enhanced squaraine variant probe', NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 11, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zheng, P, Su, QP, Jin, D, Yu, Y & Huang, XF 2020, 'Prevention of Neurite Spine Loss Induced by Dopamine D2 Receptor Overactivation in Striatal Neurons', Frontiers in Neuroscience, vol. 14.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Copyright © 2020 Zheng, Su, Jin, Yu and Huang. Psychosis has been considered a disorder of impaired neuronal connectivity. Evidence for excessive formation of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) – disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) complexes has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in psychotic symptoms. Here, we investigated how excessive D2R–DISC1 complex formation induced by D2R agonist quinpirole affects neurite growth and dendritic spines in striatal neurons. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), and cell penetrating-peptide delivery were used to study the cultured striatal neurons from mouse pups. Using these striatal neurons, our study showed that: (1) D2R interacted with DISC1 in dendritic spines, neurites and soma of cultured striatal neurons; (2) D2R and DISC1 complex accumulated in clusters in dendritic spines of striatal neurons and the number of the complex were reduced after application of TAT-D2pep; (3) uncoupling D2R–DISC1 complexes by TAT-D2pep protected neuronal morphology and dendritic spines; and (4) TAT-D2pep prevented neurite and dendritic spine loss, which was associated with restoration of expression levels of synaptophysin and PSD-95. In addition, we found that Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and GSK3β were involved in the protective effects of TAT-D2pep on the neurite spines of striatal spiny projection neurons. Thus, our results may offer a new strategy for precisely treating neurite spine deficits associated with schizophrenia.
© 2020, Springer Nature Limited. Tremendous progress in nanotechnology has enabled advances in the use of luminescent nanomaterials in imaging, sensing and photonic devices. This translational process relies on controlling the photophysical properties of the building block, that is, single luminescent nanoparticles. In this Review, we highlight the importance of single-particle spectroscopy in revealing the diverse optical properties and functionalities of nanomaterials, and compare it with ensemble fluorescence spectroscopy. The information provided by this technique has guided materials science in tailoring the synthesis of nanomaterials to achieve optical uniformity and to develop novel applications. We discuss the opportunities and challenges that arise from pushing the resolution limit, integrating measurement and manipulation modalities, and establishing the relationship between the structure and functionality of single nanoparticles.
Liu, B, Chen, C, Di, X, Liao, J, Wen, S, Su, QP, Shan, X, Xu, Z-Q, Ju, LA, Mi, C, Wang, F & Jin, D 2020, 'Upconversion Nonlinear Structured Illumination Microscopy', NANO LETTERS, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 4775-4781.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, Springer Nature Limited. The injection of rare-earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles into the eyes of mice allows them to visualize near-infrared light with a wavelength of ~1 μm.
Chen, Y, Ju, LA, Zhou, F, Liao, J, Xue, L, Su, QP, Jin, D, Yuan, Y, Lu, H, Jackson, SP & Zhu, C 2019, 'An integrin αIIbβ3 intermediate affinity state mediates biomechanical platelet aggregation.', Nature materials, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 760-769.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Integrins are membrane receptors that mediate cell adhesion and mechanosensing. The structure-function relationship of integrins remains incompletely understood, despite the extensive studies carried out because of its importance to basic cell biology and translational medicine. Using a fluorescence dual biomembrane force probe, microfluidics and cone-and-plate rheometry, we applied precisely controlled mechanical stimulations to platelets and identified an intermediate state of integrin αIIbβ3 that is characterized by an ectodomain conformation, ligand affinity and bond lifetimes that are all intermediate between the well-known inactive and active states. This intermediate state is induced by ligand engagement of glycoprotein (GP) Ibα via a mechanosignalling pathway and potentiates the outside-in mechanosignalling of αIIbβ3 for further transition to the active state during integrin mechanical affinity maturation. Our work reveals distinct αIIbβ3 state transitions in response to biomechanical and biochemical stimuli, and identifies a role for the αIIbβ3 intermediate state in promoting biomechanical platelet aggregation.
Ding, B, Shao, S, Jiang, F, Dang, P, Sun, C, Huang, S, Ma, P, Jin, D, Kheraif, AAA & Lin, J 2019, 'MnO 2 -Disguised Upconversion Hybrid Nanocomposite: An Ideal Architecture for Tumor Microenvironment-Triggered UCL/MR Bioimaging and Enhanced Chemodynamic Therapy', Chemistry of Materials, vol. 31, pp. 2651-2660.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and MnO 2 hybrid theranostic nanoplatform (UCMn) is highly desired; however, the rational design of such UCMn hybrid nanomaterials is still a great challenge. Herein, a simple and versatile strategy for the in situ growth of MnO 2 on the surfaces of UCNPs was reported using a sacrificial template method to construct an ideal MnO 2 -disguised and tumor microenvironment-triggered architecture. Such sophisticated architecture not only achieves activatable magnetic resonance imaging and restorable upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging with over 100-fold enhancement of UCL in vivo but also significantly improves the efficiency of chemodynamic therapy (CDT) by glutathione depletion- and cisplatin-activation-enhanced • OH generation simultaneously. Additionally, the synergetic effect of CDT and chemotherapy presents excellent therapeutic effect in vivo as compared to either CDT or chemotherapy alone. We believe that the ideal design of the MnO 2 -disguised upconversion hybrid nanocomposite will provide more revelations on the future research on nanoscale theranostic systems.
Gu, Y, Guo, Z, Yuan, W, Kong, M, Liu, Y, Liu, Y, Gao, Y, Feng, W, Wang, F, Zhou, J, Jin, D & Li, F 2019, 'High-sensitivity imaging of time-domain near-infrared light transducer', Nature Photonics, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 525-531.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. The optically transparent biological window in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range allows deep-tissue excitation and the detection of fluorescence signals1,2. Spectrum-domain discrimination of NIR contrast agents via an upconversion or downshifting scheme requires sufficient (anti-) Stokes shift to separate excitation and fluorescence emission. Here, we report a time-domain (τ) scheme in which about 5,000 ytterbium signal transducers are condensed within an optically inert and biocompatible CaF2 shell (2.3 nm), which forms a 14.5 nm τ-dot. Because of the long-lived and spectrally narrowly defined excited state of pure ytterbium ions, the NIR τ-dot can convert the NIR pulsed excitation into long-decaying luminescence with an efficiency approaching 100%. Within a safe injection dosage of 13 μg g−1, an excitation power density of 1.1 mW cm−2 was sufficient to image organs with a signal-to-noise ratio of >9. The high brightness of τ-dots further allows long-term in vivo passive targeting and dynamic tracking in a tumour-bearing mouse model.
Gu, Y, Guo, Z, Yuan, W, Kong, M, Liu, Y, Liu, Y, Gao, Y, Feng, W, Wang, F, Zhou, J, Jin, D & Li, F 2019, 'High-sensitivity imaging of time-domain near-infrared light transducer (vol 13, pg 525, 2019)', NATURE PHOTONICS, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 580-580.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gulzar, A, Xu, J, Wang, C, He, F, Yang, D, Gai, S, Yang, P, Lin, J, Jin, D & Xing, B 2019, 'Tumour microenvironment responsive nanoconstructs for cancer theranostic', Nano Today, vol. 26, pp. 16-56.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd The tumour mass is made up of not only of a heterogeneous population of cancer cells nonetheless also a mixture of resident as well as the infiltrating host cells, secreted factors besides extracellular matrix proteins, together recognized as the tumour microenvironment (TME). Tumour development is overwhelmingly affected through the dealings of cancer cells with their environment which eventually conclude whether the primary tumour is eliminated, metastasizes or creates dormant micro metastases. The TME may perhaps shape therapeutic responses as well as resistance. Some inimitable features of TME, for example vascular abnormalities, hypoxia, acidic pH and glutathione (GSH) are comparative to normal tissue. Several types of cells, together with tumour cells, macrophages, immune and fibroblast cells are nourished by flawed blood vessels in the solid tumour. To dispense anticancer agents to tumour sites nanovehicles can be competent carts. For augmented therapeutic efficacy, TME is the key for designing of nanoparticles (NPs). In this review, we will discuss the TME and summarize the current advancement in several nano-formulations for cancer therapy, with an extraordinary stress on TME-responsive ones. Scheme 1 highlights several TME modulation tactics with positive cancer therapeutic competence. The design of nanoconstructs and future challenges, consideration and opportunities are also discussed in detail. We have confidence in that these modulation approaches of TME tender a reliable opportunity for the practical translation of nanoparticle formulas into clinic.
Mi, C, Zhou, J, Wang, F & Jin, D 2019, 'Thermally enhanced NIR-NIR anti-Stokes emission in rare earth doped nanocrystals.', Nanoscale, vol. 11, no. 26, pp. 12547-12552.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Nanoparticles with anti-Stokes emissions have enabled many sensing applications, but their efficiencies are considerably low. The key to enable the process of anti-Stokes emissions is to create phonons that assist the excited photons to be pumped from a lower energy state onto a higher one. Increasing the temperature will generate more phonons, but it unavoidably quenches the luminescence. Here by quantifying the number of phonons being generated from the host crystal and those at the surface of Yb3+/Nd3+ co-doped nanoparticles, we systematically investigated mechanisms towards the large enhancements of the phonon-assisted anti-Stokes emissions from 980 nm to 750 nm and 803 nm. Moreover, we provided direct evidence that moisture release from the nanoparticle surface at high temperature was not the main reason. We further demonstrated that the brightness of 10 nm nanoparticles was enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude, in stark contrast to the thermal quenching effect.
Mi, C, Zhou, J, Wang, F, Lin, G & Jin, D 2019, 'Ultrasensitive Ratiometric Nanothermometer with Large Dynamic Range and Photostability', Chemistry of Materials, vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 9480-9487.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society. Thermally responsive fluorescent nanoparticles can be constructed to allow robust, rapid, and noninvasive temperature measurements. Furthermore, due to their tiny size, they can be used to detect temperature changes at the nanoscale. In this way, such sensors are ideally suited to emerging applications including intracellular temperature sensing and microelectronics failure diagnostics. Despite their potential, current nanothermometers still suffer from limited sensitivity, dynamic range, and stability. By introducing thermal enhanced anti-Stokes emission from a pair of lanthanide ions, ytterbium and neodymium, we show an increase of more than 1 order of magnitude in both the sensitivity and the dynamic range when compared to conventional ytterbium and erbium-codoped nanothermometers. Here, we report heterogeneous temperature-responsive nanoparticles with a new record of sensitivity (9.6%/K at room temperature and above 2.3%/K at elevated temperatures up to 413 K) that can be used for ratiometric thermometry. The heterogeneous nanostructure design shows that the thermal responses can be fine-tuned by the controlled growth of nanoparticles. The stability of the ultrasensitive nanothermometers has enabled long-term noncontact monitoring of local heat dissipation of a microelectronic device.
Nasiri, N, Jin, D & Tricoli, A 2019, 'Nanoarchitechtonics of Visible-Blind Ultraviolet Photodetector Materials: Critical Features and Nano-Microfabrication', Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 7, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Accurate measurement of ultraviolet radiation is key to many technologies including wearable devices for skin cancer prevention, optical communication systems, and missile launch detection. Nanostructuring of wide bandgap semiconductors, such as GaN, ZnO, and SiC, promises some benefits over established commercial solutions relying on n–p type Si-homojunction technology. In the past decade, a variety of carefully nanostructured architectures have been demonstrated as efficient designs for visible-blind UV photodetectors featuring superior detectivity, thermal stability, robust radiation hardness, and very low operation bias and power consumption. Here, a comprehensive review of the latest achievements on ultraviolet photodetector materials is presented, with focus on the multiscale engineering of composition and nano-microscale morphology. The review concludes with a critical assessment and comparison of state-of-the-art devices aiming to provide guidelines and research directions for the next generation of UV photodetector materials.
Razavi Bazaz, S, Kashaninejad, N, Azadi, S, Patel, K, Asadnia, M, Jin, D & Ebrahimi Warkiani, M 2019, 'Rapid Softlithography Using 3D-Printed Molds', Advanced Materials Technologies, vol. 4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a long-standing material of significant interest in microfluidics due to its unique features. As such, rapid prototyping of PDMS-based microchannels is of great interest. The most prevalent and conventional method for fabrication of PDMS-based microchips relies on softlithography, the main drawback of which is the preparation of a master mold, which is costly and time-consuming. To prevent the attachment of PDMS to the master mold, silanization is necessary, which can be detrimental for cellular studies. Additionally, using coating the mold with a cell-compatible surfactant adds extra preprocessing time. Recent advances in 3D printing have shown great promise in expediting microfabrication. Nevertheless, current 3D printing techniques are sub-optimal for PDMS softlithography. The feasibility of producing master molds suitable for rapid softlithography is demonstrated using a newly developed 3D-printing resin. Moreover, the utility of this technique is showcased for a number of widely used applications, such as concentration gradient generation, particle separation, cell culture (to show biocompatibility of the process), and fluid mixing. This can open new opportunities for biologists and scientists with minimum knowledge of microfabrication to build functional microfluidic devices for their basic and applied research.
Wang, L, Cui, D, Ren, L, Zhou, J, Wang, F, Casillas, G, Xu, X, Peleckis, G, Hao, W, Ye, J, Dou, SX, Jin, D & Du, Y 2019, 'Boosting NIR-driven photocatalytic water splitting by constructing 2D/3D epitaxial heterostructures', Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 7, no. 22, pp. 13629-13634.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Heterostructures, which can possess advantages of materials with different properties, have attracted enormous attention in various research fields including solar cells, photocatalysts, and optical electronic devices. In this work, a 2D/3D atomic epitaxial heterostructure with ultrathin BiOCl nanosheets and YF3:Yb, Tm octahedral crystals was fabricated via the halogen atom exchange method in the solution phase. The epitaxial heterointerface can facilitate energy transfer between BiOCl and YF3:Yb, Tm and suppress the energy quenching induced by grain boundaries. By carrying out single-particle confocal characterization, the energy upconverted by YF3:Yb, Tm is quantitatively confirmed to be transferred to ultrathin BiOCl nanosheets. As a result, YF3:Yb, Tm@BiOCl displays outstanding NIR-driven water splitting and waste-water cleaning properties. This study paves the way to fabricate 2D/3D epitaxial heterostructures, which helps to broaden the application of typical 2D materials.
Wei, Y, Xing, G, Liu, K, Li, G, Dang, P, Liang, S, Liu, M, Cheng, Z, Jin, D & Lin, J 2019, 'New strategy for designing orangish-red-emitting phosphor via oxygen-vacancy-induced electronic localization.', Light, science & applications, vol. 8, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes (pc-WLED) have been extensively employed as solid-state lighting sources, which have a very important role in people's daily lives. However, due to the scarcity of the red component, it is difficult to realize warm white light efficiently. Hence, red-emitting phosphors are urgently required for improving the illumination quality. In this work, we develop a novel orangish-red La4GeO8:Bi3+ phosphor, the emission peak of which is located at 600 nm under near-ultraviolet (n-UV) light excitation. The full width at half maximum (fwhm) is 103 nm, the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) exceeds 88%, and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) is 69%. According to Rietveld refinement analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, Bi3+ ions randomly occupy all La sites in orthorhombic La4GeO8. Importantly, the oxygen-vacancy-induced electronic localization around the Bi3+ ions is the main reason for the highly efficient orangish-red luminescence. These results provide a new perspective and insight from the local electron structure for designing inorganic phosphor materials that realize the unique luminescence performance of Bi3+ ions.
Wen, S, Zhou, J, Schuck, PJ, Suh, YD, Schmidt, TW & Jin, D 2019, 'Future and challenges for hybrid upconversion nanosystems', Nature Photonics, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 828-838.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, Springer Nature Limited. To improve the efficiency of photon upconversion, a hybrid approach of combining organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles is proving successful, especially in the form of dye-sensitized lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles, nanoparticle-sensitized molecular triplet–triplet annihilation systems and metal–organic-framework nanoparticles. In this Review, we survey the latest advances and examine the key factors affecting upconversion performance, such as spectral overlap, core–shell design and the management of triplet excitons and quenchers at the interface between materials. Although issues such as stability, triplet-state quenching, concentration quenching and reabsorption must still be overcome, smart designs of hybrid nanosystems offer exciting opportunities for applications such as solar photovoltaic devices, deep-tissue biomedical imaging, optogenetics and nanomedicine among others.
Xu, J, Gulzar, A, Yang, P, Bi, H, Yang, D, Gai, S, He, F, Lin, J, Xing, B & Jin, D 2019, 'Recent advances in near-infrared emitting lanthanide-doped nanoconstructs: Mechanism, design and application for bioimaging', Coordination Chemistry Reviews, vol. 381, pp. 104-134.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Lanthanide-doped nanoconstructs (LDNCs) have been widely studied in the biomedical field. Especially, LDNCs with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence show great promise in biological imaging. The fluorescence in the NIR window (700–1700 nm) affords increased tissue penetration due to the reduced light absorption, photon scattering and autofluorescence. Actually, LDNCs with various lanthanide-dopings can emit ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and NIR photons through upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) processes. Moreover, there are review papers introducing different aspects of bioimaging based on LDNCs. Nevertheless, there has not been a review that systematically summarizes NIR fluorescent LDNCs. Herein, we summarize the recent progress made on NIR fluorescence imaging by highlighting the increasingly developing trend of NIR emitting LDNCs. The NIR emission mechanism of LDNCs activated by different lanthanide ions was discussed in detail, and their advantages as NIR fluorescent probes will be systematically introduced. From the aspect of realizing multimodal imaging, the advances made by combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and so on with NIR optical imaging were summarized. Finally, we discuss the superiority of NIR-II (1000–1700 nm) emitting LDNCs when applied in biomedical imaging, with an emphasis on how to use them to realize imaging guided cancer therapy.
Zhanghao, K, Chen, X, Liu, W, Li, M, Liu, Y, Wang, Y, Luo, S, Wang, X, Shan, C, Xie, H, Gao, J, Chen, X, Jin, D, Li, X, Zhang, Y, Dai, Q & Xi, P 2019, 'Super-resolution imaging of fluorescent dipoles via polarized structured illumination microscopy.', Nat Commun, vol. 10, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fluorescence polarization microscopy images both the intensity and orientation of fluorescent dipoles and plays a vital role in studying molecular structures and dynamics of bio-complexes. However, current techniques remain difficult to resolve the dipole assemblies on subcellular structures and their dynamics in living cells at super-resolution level. Here we report polarized structured illumination microscopy (pSIM), which achieves super-resolution imaging of dipoles by interpreting the dipoles in spatio-angular hyperspace. We demonstrate the application of pSIM on a series of biological filamentous systems, such as cytoskeleton networks and λ-DNA, and report the dynamics of short actin sliding across a myosin-coated surface. Further, pSIM reveals the side-by-side organization of the actin ring structures in the membrane-associated periodic skeleton of hippocampal neurons and images the dipole dynamics of green fluorescent protein-labeled microtubules in live U2OS cells. pSIM applies directly to a large variety of commercial and home-built SIM systems with various imaging modality.
Previdi, R, Levchenko, I, Arnold, M, Gali, M, Bazaka, K, Xu, S, Ostrikov, K, Bray, K, Jin, D & Fang, J 2019, 'Plasmonic platform based on nanoporous alumina membranes: order control via self-assembly', Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 7, no. 16, pp. 9565-9577.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Royal Society of Chemistry. A novel approach to significantly enhance and comprehensively assess the level of nanochannel ordering in self-assembled nanoporous membranes is proposed and tested. An advanced technique based on a two-step anodization and two-step chemical treatment was used to prepare the perfect through membranes by opening channels from the bottom via electrochemical enlargement, and chemical removal of a residual metal and barrier alumina layer. The influence of the process parameters on the self-assembled ordering was studied, and various methods of order assessment were proposed and tested, such as distributions of equivalent disc radii, 2D Fourier transformations, autocorrelation, Hough transformations, Minkowski connectivity, and distributions of nanochannel centre positions. We have demonstrated that self-assembled ordering in nanoscaled membranes could be efficiently tuned by the process parameters, and different assessment methods should be used to comprehensively characterize the order of nanochannels in the nanoporous membranes. To demonstrate the potential of this technique, we show simulations of the narrowing of plasmon spectra in these materials. The proposed fabrication and assessment methods could be used to drastically enhance the properties of nanoporous membranes for nanoelectronics, filters, sensors, bio-active devices and other advanced emerging applications. Finally, our approach could be used for enhancing and tailoring other self-assembled systems and devices of considerable complexity.
Zhou, Y, Chen, Y, He, H, Liao, J, Duong, HTT, Parviz, M & Jin, D 2019, 'A homogeneous DNA assay by recovering inhibited emission of rare earth ions-doped upconversion nanoparticles', Journal of Rare Earths, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 11-18.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Chinese Society of Rare Earths Robust and easy-to-use kits specific for a particular DNA sequence are desirable for early detection of diseases. However, the major challenge with these tests is often the background fluorescence artifacts arising from biological species due to employing UV and visible range of light. Here, we have reported a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence "turn-on" kit based on rare earth ions doped nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which forms a fluorescence-quencher pair, brought together by a hairpin structure through the formation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), with quenched upconversion luminescence. In the presence of analytes, the molecular beacon opens to push AuNPs away from UCNPs, with a distance longer than the efficient quenching distance, so that the inhibited upconversion emission will be restored. We demonstrated that this assay provides a homogeneous, facile, simple and highly selective HIV-1 based DNA detection system with restore efficiency up to 85%, and the detection limit of 5 nm.
Fang, G, Lu, H, Law, A, Gallego-Ortega, D, Jin, D & Lin, G 2019, 'Gradient-sized control of tumor spheroids on a single chip', LAB ON A CHIP, vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 4093-4103.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sun, Y, Zhang, W, Wang, B, Xu, X, Chou, J, Shimoni, O, Ung, AT & Jin, D 2018, 'A supramolecular self-assembly strategy for upconversion nanoparticle bioconjugation.', Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), vol. 54, no. 31, pp. 3851-3854.View/Download from: Publisher's site
An efficient surface modification for upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is reported via supramolecular host-guest self-assembly. Cucurbituril (CB) can provide a hydrophilic surface and cavities for most biomolecules. High biological efficiency, activity and versatility of the approach enable UCNPs to be significantly applied in bio-imaging, early disease detection, and bio-sensing.
Wang, F, Wen, S, He, H, Wang, B, Zhou, Z, Shimoni, O & Jin, D 2018, 'Microscopic inspection and tracking of single upconversion nanoparticles in living cells', Light: Science and Applications, vol. 7, no. 4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 The Author(s). Nanoparticles have become new tools for cell biology imaging, sub-cellular sensing, super-resolution imaging, and drug delivery. Long-term 3D tracking of nanoparticles and their intracellular motions have advanced the understanding of endocytosis and exocytosis as well as of active transport processes. The sophisticated operation of correlative optical-electron microscopy and scientific-grade cameras is often used to study intercellular processes. Nonetheless, most of these studies are still limited by the insufficient sensitivity for separating a single nanoparticle from a cluster of nanoparticles or their aggregates8. Here we report that our eyes can track a single fluorescent nanoparticle that emits over 4000 photons per 100 milliseconds under a simple microscope setup. By tracking a single nanoparticle with high temporal, spectral and spatial resolution, we show the measurement of the local viscosity of the intracellular environment. Moreover, beyond the colour domain and 3D position, we introduce excitation power density as the fifth dimension for our eyes to simultaneously discriminate multiple sets of single nanoparticles.
Abbasnejad, B, Thorby, W, Razmjou, A, Jin, D, Asadnia, M & Ebrahimi Warkiani, M 2018, 'MEMS piezoresistive flow sensors for sleep apnea therapy', Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, vol. 279, pp. 577-585.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier B.V. A MEMS liquid crystal polymer (LCP), used in the membrane-based pressure sensor, has been found highly useful as a flow sensor. Here we conducted a set of elaborate experiments using an air flow generator to investigate the potential of our LCP flow sensor for sleep apnea therapy. Critical properties of the LCP flow sensor, including flow range, resolution (sensitivity), accuracy, and response time, have been systematically characterized. As a result, LCP flow sensor achieves a limit of detection of 8 LPM to measure flow rate, better than the commercial flow sensor (>10 LPM). Our LCP flow sensor shows a favourable response in a large flow range (8–160 LPM) with a sensitivity of detecting a linear voltage response of 0.004 V per 1 LPM flow rate. With minimum detectable flow, high sensitivity and resolution, we further demonstrated our LCP flow sensor for detecting human respiration. Moreover, using a two- dimensional simulation in COMSOL Multiphysics, we demonstrated the deformation of LCP membrane in response to different flow velocities which leads to resistance change in sensor's strain gauge.
Gai, S, Yang, G, Yang, P, He, F, Lin, J, Jin, D & Xing, B 2018, 'Recent advances in functional nanomaterials for light–triggered cancer therapy', Nano Today, vol. 19, pp. 146-187.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Photo–triggered therapeutic modalities for cancer have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to the easily focused and tuned properties of irradiation light that enable the localized treatment with non–invasive, direct and accurate characteristics. In addition, by using new developed functional nanomaterials, different therapeutic modalities can be integrated into a single platform, and co–therapies with dramatically enhanced anti–cancer ability by synergetic therapeutic effects are obtained. In the view of the fast development of anti–cancer strategy, we present an in–depth review of major breakthroughs in recent advanced functional nanomaterials for photo–triggered therapy. This review first summarizes the organic and inorganic photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT), four kinds of photothermal materials for photothermal therapy (PTT), as well as photo–switchable molecules or photolabile chemical groups bonded materials for chemotherapy. For each part, the therapeutic materials, mechanisms, superiorities and typical representatives are examined extensively. Then, we systematically discuss the optimized multifunctional nanomaterials consist of the above materials for PTT/PDT co–therapy, PTT/chemo co–therapy, PDT/chemo co–therapy and radiotherapy–composed co–therapy etc. And the synergetic therapeutic mechanism, anti–cancer efficiency, safety and design of therapeutic materials are highlighted. Finally, we give an outlook of the future directions of the rapidly growing functional nanomaterials for photo–triggered therapy, and propose several associated challenges and potential solutions.
Guan, M, Zhou, Z, Mei, L, Zheng, H, Ren, W, Wang, L, Du, Y, Jin, D & Zhou, J 2018, 'Direct cation exchange of surface ligand capped upconversion nanocrystals to produce strong luminescence', CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 54, no. 69, pp. 9587-9590.View/Download from: Publisher's site
He, H, Liu, B, Wen, S, Liao, J, Lin, G, Zhou, J & Jin, D 2018, 'Quantitative Lateral Flow Strip Sensor Using Highly Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles.', Analytical chemistry, vol. 90, no. 21, pp. 12356-12360.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Paper-based lateral flow assays, though being low-cost and widely used for rapid in vitro diagnostics, are indicative and do not provide sufficient sensitivity for the detection and quantification of low abundant biomarkers for early stage cancer diagnosis. Here, we design a compact device to create a focused illumination spot with high irradiance, which activates a range of highly doped 50 nm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to produce orders of magnitude brighter emissions. The device employs a very low-cost laser diode, simplified excitation, and collection optics and permits a mobile phone camera to record the results. Using highly erbium ion (Er3+)-doped and thulium ion (Tm3+)-doped UCNPs as two independent reporters on two-color lateral flow strips, new records of limit of detection (LOD), 89 and 400 pg/mL, have been achieved for the ultrasensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) biomarkers, respectively, without crosstalk. The technique and device presented in this work suggests a broad scope of low-cost, rapid, and quantitative lateral flow assays in early detection of bioanalytes.
Jin, D, Xi, P, Wang, B, Zhang, L, Enderlein, J & van Oijen, AM 2018, 'Nanoparticles for super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule tracking.', Nature methods, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 415-423.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We review the use of luminescent nanoparticles in super-resolution imaging and single-molecule tracking, and showcase novel approaches to super-resolution imaging that leverage the brightness, stability, and unique optical-switching properties of these nanoparticles. We also discuss the challenges associated with their use in biological systems, including intracellular delivery and molecular targeting. In doing so, we hope to provide practical guidance for biologists and continue to bridge the fields of super-resolution imaging and nanoparticle engineering to support their mutual advancement.
Li, D, Wen, S, Sun, W, Zhang, J, Jin, D, Peng, C, Shen, M & Shi, X 2018, 'One-step loading of gold and Gd2O3 nanoparticles within PE gylated polyethylenimine for dual mode computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of tumors', ACS Applied Bio Materials, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 221-225.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 American Chemical Society. We report here a facile method for one-step loading of gold (Au) and gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) within polyethylenimine (PEI) premodified with polyethtylene glycol (PEG) for dual mode computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of tumors. PEGylated PEI was used as a template to complex Au(III) and Gd(III) salts, followed by sodium borohydride reduction and acetylation of remaining PEI surface amines to generate the hybrid PEI@Au/Gd2O3 NPs. The hybrid NPs exhibit a remarkable colloidal stability and cytocompatibility and possess a high X-ray attenuation efficacy and r1 relaxivity, enabling their uses for dual mode CT/MR imaging of tumors.
Ma, T, Chen, L, Shi, M, Niu, J, Zhang, X, Yang, X, Zhanghao, K, Wang, M, Xi, P, Jin, D, Zhang, M & Gao, J 2018, 'Developing novel methods to image and visualize 3D genomes.', Cell biology and toxicology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 367-380.View/Download from: Publisher's site
To investigate three-dimensional (3D) genome organization in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, three main strategies are employed, namely nuclear proximity ligation-based methods, imaging tools (such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its derivatives), and computational/visualization methods. Proximity ligation-based methods are based on digestion and re-ligation of physically proximal cross-linked chromatin fragments accompanied by massively parallel DNA sequencing to measure the relative spatial proximity between genomic loci. Imaging tools enable direct visualization and quantification of spatial distances between genomic loci, and advanced implementation of (super-resolution) microscopy helps to significantly improve the resolution of images. Computational methods are used to map global 3D genome structures at various scales driven by experimental data, and visualization methods are used to visualize genome 3D structures in virtual 3D space-based on algorithms. In this review, we focus on the introduction of novel imaging and visualization methods to study 3D genomes. First, we introduce the progress made recently in 3D genome imaging in both fixed cell and live cells based on long-probe labeling, short-probe labeling, RNA FISH, and the CRISPR system. As the fluorescence-capturing capability of a particular microscope is very important for the sensitivity of bioimaging experiments, we also introduce two novel super-resolution microscopy methods, SDOM and low-power super-resolution STED, which have potential for time-lapse super-resolution live-cell imaging of chromatin. Finally, we review some software tools developed recently to visualize proximity ligation-based data. The imaging and visualization methods are complementary to each other, and all three strategies are not mutually exclusive. These methods provide powerful tools to explore the mechanisms of gene regulation and transcription in cell nuclei.
Ren, W, Wen, S, Tawfik, SA, Su, QP, Lin, G, Ju, LA, Ford, MJ, Ghodke, H, van Oijen, AM & Jin, D 2018, 'Anisotropic functionalization of upconversion nanoparticles.', Chemical science, vol. 9, no. 18, pp. 4352-4358.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite significant advances toward accurate tuning of the size and shape of colloidal nanoparticles, the precise control of the surface chemistry thereof remains a grand challenge. It is desirable to conjugate functional bio-molecules onto the selected facets of nanoparticles owing to the versatile capabilities rendered by the molecules. We report here facet-selective conjugation of DNA molecules onto upconversion nanoparticles via ligand competition reaction. Different binding strengths of phosphodiester bonds and phosphate groups on DNA and the surfactant molecules allow one to create heterogeneous bio-chemistry surface for upconversion nanoparticles. The tailored surface properties lead to the formation of distinct self-assembly structures. Our findings provide insight into the interactions between biomolecules and nanoparticles, unveiling the potential of using nanoparticles as fundamental building blocks for creating self-assembled nano-architectures.
Ren, W, Zhou, Y, Lin, G, Wen, S, He, H, Liu, D & Jin, D 2018, 'DNA-mediated Anisotropic Silica Coating of Upconversion Nanoparticles', Chemical Communications, vol. 54, no. 52.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Teng, B, Han, Y, Zhang, X, Xiao, H, Yu, C, Li, H, Cheng, Z, Jin, D, Wong, KL, Ma, P & Lin, J 2018, 'Phenanthriplatin(iv) conjugated multifunctional up-converting nanoparticles for drug delivery and biomedical imaging', Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 6, no. 31, pp. 5059-5068.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2018. Platinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are widely used in the clinical treatment of cancer. However, the clinical applications of platinum-based drugs are greatly limited by the side-effects, lack of selectivity, fast blood clearance, and intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. In this study, we report an anticancer drug delivery system based on phenanthriplatin(iv) (Phen-Pt(iv))-conjugated NaGdF4:Yb3+/Er3+nanoparticles. The upconversion luminescent NaGdF4:Yb3+/Er3+nanoparticles (UCNPs) were further modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the cancer targeting ligand arginine-glycine-aspartic peptide (RGD), resulting in the formation of water-dispersible and biologically functionalized UCNP@PEI-Phen-Pt-PEG-RGD nanoparticles. The Phen-Pt-conjugated UCNP@PEI-Phen-Pt-PEG-RGD nanoparticles exhibited an obvious cytotoxic effect on Hep-2 cells (Human Laryngeal Carcinoma cell line) via MTT assay. Meanwhile, the endocytosis process of Phen-Pt-conjugated NaGdF4:Yb3+/Er3+nanoparticles by Hep-2 cells was demonstrated through flow cytometry and ICP-MS. In addition, the upconversion luminescence image of UCNP@PEI-Phen-Pt-PEG-RGD taken up by cells shows green emission under 980 nm infrared laser excitation, making the UCNP@PEI-Phen-Pt-PEG-RGD nanocomposites promising candidates as bioimaging agents. Moreover, these UCNPs were further explored for in vitro and in vivo T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The in vivo experiments on mice also confirmed that the Phen-Pt(iv)-conjugated nanoparticles have a relatively high tumor inhibition rate. These results indicate that the multifunctional nanoparticles can be expected to be a platform for simultaneous imaging and cancer therapeutic applications.
© 2018, China Science Publishing & Media LTD. All right reserved. Single particle tracking(SPT) technique locates and tracks individual fluorescent or scattering particles within a cell with the help of microscope system. Based on the ability of real-time monitoring of the complex and highly dynamic changes in tissue structure within living cells and the ability to provide dynamic relationships between structure and function, SPT has important applications in cell biology. In this review,the mechanism of SPT and its application on cells are summarized. Firstly, the dynamics of SPT are introduced, including single particle localization, trajectory reconstruction and analysis. Then the optical materials and instruments that SPT technology focuses on at the present stage are described. Finally, the application of SPT in cell membrane, intracellular signaling pathway, molecular transport mechanism, genetic information expression, and viral infection mechanism are proposed. In addition, the advance of SPT technology are prospected in this paper.
Wang, M, Chen, M, Zhanghao, K, Zhang, X, Jing, Z, Gao, J, Zhang, MQ, Jin, D, Dai, Z, Xi, P & Dai, Q 2018, 'Polarization-based super-resolution imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles with orientational information', NANOSCALE, vol. 10, no. 42, pp. 19757-19765.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wen, S, Zhou, J, Zheng, K, Bednarkiewicz, A, Liu, X & Jin, D 2018, 'Advances in highly doped upconversion nanoparticles.', Nature communications, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 2415-2415.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are capable of converting near-infra-red excitation into visible and ultraviolet emission. Their unique optical properties have advanced a broad range of applications, such as fluorescent microscopy, deep-tissue bioimaging, nanomedicine, optogenetics, security labelling and volumetric display. However, the constraint of concentration quenching on upconversion luminescence has hampered the nanoscience community to develop bright UCNPs with a large number of dopants. This review surveys recent advances in developing highly doped UCNPs, highlights the strategies that bypass the concentration quenching effect, and discusses new optical properties as well as emerging applications enabled by these nanoparticles.
Yu, C, Ding, B, Zhang, X, Deng, X, Deng, K, Cheng, Z, Xing, B, Jin, D, Ma, P & Lin, J 2018, 'Targeted iron nanoparticles with platinum-(IV) prodrugs and anti-EZH2 siRNA show great synergy in combating drug resistance in vitro and in vivo.', Biomaterials, vol. 155, pp. 112-123.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Resistance to platinum agents is challenging in cancer treatment with platinum drugs. Such resistant cells prevent effective platinum accumulation intracellular and alter cellular adaptations to survive from cytotoxicity by regulating corresponding proteins expression. Ideal therapeutics should combine resolution to these pump and non-pump relevant resistance of cancer cells to achieve high efficacy and low side effect. Fe3O4 nanocarrier loaded with drugs could enter cells in a more efficient endocytosis manner which circumvents pump-relevant drug resistance. EZH2 protein which was previously found to be over-expressed in drug-resistant cancer cells was reported to be involved in platinum drug resistance and play a vital role in anti-apoptosis pathways. Here, we report Fe3O4 nanoparticles loaded with siEZH2 (siRNA), a platinum prodrug in +4 oxidation state (cis, cis, trans-diamminedichlorodisuccinato-platinum-(IV), namely Pt(IV)) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) targeting polypeptides. Results show that targeted nanoparticles loading with siEZH2 synergize with Pt(IV) and result in similar cell killing performance to A2780/DDP cells (cisplatin resistant) compared with non-siEZH2 loaded nanoparticles to A2780 cells (cisplatin sensitive). Thus, this Fe3O4@PEI-Pt(IV)-PEG-LHRH@siEZH2 nanoparticles reverse the cisplatin resistance from the pump and non-pump relevant aspects, fully taking advantage of nanocarrier system.
Zhanghao, K, Gao, J, Jin, D, Zhang, X & Xi, P 2018, 'Super-resolution fluorescence polarization microscopy', Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 The Author(s). Fluorescence polarization is related to the dipole orientation of chromophores, making fluorescence polarization microscopy possible to reveal structures and functions of tagged cellular organelles and biological macromolecules. Several recent super resolution techniques have been applied to fluorescence polarization microscopy, achieving dipole measurement at nanoscale. In this review, we summarize both diffraction limited and super resolution fluorescence polarization microscopy techniques, as well as their applications in biological imaging.
Zhao, L, Ge, X, Zhao, H, Shi, L, Capobianco, JA, Jin, D & Sun, L 2018, 'Double-Sensitive Drug Release System Based on MnO2 Assembled Upconversion Nanoconstruct for Double-Model Guided Chemotherapy', ACS Applied Nano Materials, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1648-1656.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 American Chemical Society. A double-sensitive drug release system based on MnO2 nanosheets was synthesized using a facile method for imaging guided chemotherapy in cancer cells. The upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as core are used for upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging, and the coating of mesoporous silica shows excellent ability for loading drug. The assembly with MnO2 nanosheets can respond to low intracellular pH and GSH in cancer cells. The obtained UCNPs@mSiO2-MnO2 nanoparticles with excellent biocompatibility can be applied as drug carriers. As expected, the UCNPs@mSiO2(DOX)-MnO2 (UCDMs) nanoconstruct loading with DOX offer practical chemotherapeutic effects in vitro, suggesting the active drug release in cancer cells. The luminescence intensity and magnetic resonance signals increased with the decomposition of the MnO2 nanosheets and the release of DOX under low pH and high levels of GSH. In addition, the UCDMs exhibit excellent intracellular UCL imaging, indicating that they can be used as a selective imaging agent in a cancerous environment. Thus, the UCDMs present potential application for use as theranostic agents in imaging guided therapy.
© 2018 The Publisher. Efficient photon upconversion is desired for applications ranging from molecular sensing to solar-energy harvesting. Now, the population of hidden triplet state electrons, created on dye antennas and rare-earth-doped nanoparticles, has been amplified to brighten upconversion by five orders of magnitude.
Zhou, J, Leaño, JL, Liu, Z, Jin, D, Wong, K-L, Liu, R-S & Bünzli, J-CG 2018, 'Impact of Lanthanide Nanomaterials on Photonic Devices and Smart Applications.', Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), vol. 14, no. 40.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Half a century after its initial emergence, lanthanide photonics is facing a profound remodeling induced by the upsurge of nanomaterials. Lanthanide-doped nanomaterials hold promise for bioapplications and photonic devices because they ally the unmatched advantages of lanthanide photophysical properties with those arising from large surface-to-volume ratios and quantum confinement that are typical of nanoobjects. Cutting-edge technologies and devices have recently arisen from this association and are in turn promoting nanophotonic materials as essential tools for a deeper understanding of biological mechanisms and related medical diagnosis and therapy, and as crucial building blocks for next-generation photonic devices. Here, the recent progress in the development of nanomaterials, nanotechnologies, and nanodevices for clinical uses and commercial exploitation is reviewed. The candidate nanomaterials with mature synthesis protocols and compelling optical uniqueness are surveyed. The specific fields that are directly driven by lanthanide doped nanomaterials are emphasized, spanning from in vivo imaging and theranostics, micro-/nanoscopic techniques, point-of-care medical testing, forensic fingerprints detection, to micro-LED devices.
Zhou, J, Wen, S, Liao, J, Clarke, C, Tawfik, SA, Ren, W, Mi, C, Wang, F & Jin, D 2018, 'Activation of the surface dark-layer to enhance upconversion in a thermal field', Nature Photonics, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 154-158.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 The Author(s). Thermal quenching, in which light emission experiences a loss with increasing temperature, broadly limits luminescent efficiency at higher temperature in optical materials, such as lighting phosphors1-3and fluorescent probes4-6. Thermal quenching is commonly caused by the increased activity of phonons that leverages the non-radiative relaxation pathways. Here, we report a kind of heat-favourable phonons existing at the surface of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanomaterials to combat thermal quenching. It favours energy transfer from sensitizers to activators to pump up the intermediate excited-state upconversion process. We identify that the oxygen moiety chelating Yb3+ions, [Yb···O], is the key underpinning this enhancement. We demonstrate an approximately 2,000-fold enhancement in blue emission for 9.7 nm Yb3+-Tm3+co-doped nanoparticles at 453 K. This strategy not only provides a powerful solution to illuminate the dark layer of ultra-small upconversion nanoparticles, but also suggests a new pathway to build high-efficiency upconversion systems.
Chen, C, Wang, F, Wen, S, Su, QP, Wu, MCL, Liu, Y, Wang, B, Li, D, Shan, X, Kianinia, M, Aharonovich, I, Toth, M, Jackson, SP, Xi, P & Jin, D 2018, 'Multi-photon near-infrared emission saturation nanoscopy using upconversion nanoparticles.', Nature communications, vol. 9, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy (MPM), using near infrared excitation light, provides increased penetration depth, decreased detection background, and reduced phototoxicity. Using stimulated emission depletion (STED) approach, MPM can bypass the diffraction limitation, but it requires both spatial alignment and temporal synchronization of high power (femtosecond) lasers, which is limited by the inefficiency of the probes. Here, we report that upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can unlock a new mode of near-infrared emission saturation (NIRES) nanoscopy for deep tissue super-resolution imaging with excitation intensity several orders of magnitude lower than that required by conventional MPM dyes. Using a doughnut beam excitation from a 980 nm diode laser and detecting at 800 nm, we achieve a resolution of sub 50 nm, 1/20th of the excitation wavelength, in imaging of single UCNP through 93 μm thick liver tissue. This method offers a simple solution for deep tissue super resolution imaging and single molecule tracking.
Kianinia, M, Bradac, C, Sontheimer, B, Wang, F, Tran, TT, Nguyen, M, Kim, S, Xu, Z-Q, Jin, D, Schell, AW, Lobo, CJ, Aharonovich, I & Toth, M 2018, 'All-optical control and super-resolution imaging of quantum emitters in layered materials.', Nature communications, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 874-874.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Layered van der Waals materials are emerging as compelling two-dimensional platforms for nanophotonics, polaritonics, valleytronics and spintronics, and have the potential to transform applications in sensing, imaging and quantum information processing. Among these, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is known to host ultra-bright, room-temperature quantum emitters, whose nature is yet to be fully understood. Here we present a set of measurements that give unique insight into the photophysical properties and level structure of hBN quantum emitters. Specifically, we report the existence of a class of hBN quantum emitters with a fast-decaying intermediate and a long-lived metastable state accessible from the first excited electronic state. Furthermore, by means of a two-laser repumping scheme, we show an enhanced photoluminescence and emission intensity, which can be utilized to realize a new modality of far-field super-resolution imaging. Our findings expand current understanding of quantum emitters in hBN and show new potential ways of harnessing their nonlinear optical properties in sub-diffraction nanoscopy.
Chen, Y, Duong, HTT, Wen, S, Mi, C, Zhou, Y, Shimoni, O, Valenzuela, SM & Jin, D 2018, 'Exonuclease III-Assisted Upconversion Resonance Energy Transfer in a Wash-Free Suspension DNA Assay.', Analytical Chemistry, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 663-668.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sensitivity is the key in optical detection of low-abundant analytes, such as circulating RNA or DNA. The enzyme Exonuclease III (Exo III) is a useful tool in this regard; its ability to recycle target DNA molecules results in markedly improved detection sensitivity. Lower limits of detection may be further achieved if the detection background of autofluorescence can be removed. Here we report an ultrasensitive and specific method to quantify trace amounts of DNA analytes in a wash-free suspension assay. In the presence of target DNA, the Exo III recycles the target DNA by selectively digesting the dye-tagged sequence-matched probe DNA strand only, so that the amount of free dye removed from the probe DNA is proportional to the number of target DNAs. Remaining intact probe DNAs are then bound onto upconversion nanoparticles (energy donor), which allows for upconversion luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) that can be used to quantify the difference between the free dye and tagged dye (energy acceptor). This scheme simply avoids both autofluorescence under infrared excitation and many tedious washing steps, as the free dye molecules are physically located away from the nanoparticle surface, and as such they remain "dark" in suspension. Compared to alternative approaches requiring enzyme-assisted amplification on the nanoparticle surface, introduction of probe DNAs onto nanoparticles only after DNA hybridization and signal amplification steps effectively avoids steric hindrance. Via this approach, we have achieved a detection limit of 15 pM in LRET assays of human immunodeficiency viral DNA.
Duong, HTT, Chen, Y, Tawfik, SA, Wen, S, Parviz, M, Shimoni, O & Ab, DJ 2018, 'Systematic investigation of functional ligands for colloidal stable upconversion nanoparticles†', RSC Advances, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 4842-4849.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2018. Despite intense efforts on surface functionalization to generate hydrophilic upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), long-term colloidal stability in physiological buffers remains a major concern. Here we quantitatively investigate the competitive adsorption of phosphate, carboxylic acid and sulphonic acid onto the surface of UCNPs and study their binding strength to identify the best conjugation strategy. To achieve this, we designed and synthesized three di-block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate and a polymer block bearing phosphate, carboxylic or sulphonic acid anchoring groups prepared by an advanced polymerization technique, Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT). Analytical tools provide the evidence that phosphate ligands completely replaced all the oleic acid capping molecules on the surface of the UCNPs compared with incomplete ligand exchange by carboxylic and sulphonic acid groups. Meanwhile, simulated quantitative adsorption energy measurements confirmed that among the three functional groups, the calculated adsorption strength for phosphate anchoring ligands is higher which is in good agreement with experimental results regarding the best colloidal stability, especially in phosphate buffer solution. This finding suggests that polymers with multiple anchoring negatively charged phosphate moieties provide excellent colloidal stability for lanthanide ion-doped luminescent nanoparticles for various potential applications.
He, H, Howard, CB, Chen, Y, Wen, S, Lin, G, Zhou, J, Thurecht, KJ & Jin, D 2018, 'Bispecific Antibody-Functionalized Upconversion Nanoprobe.', Analytical chemistry, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 3024-3029.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are new optical probes for biological applications. For specific biomolecular recognition to be realized for diagnosis and imaging, the key lies in developing a stable and easy-to-use bioconjugation method for antibody modification. Current methods are not yet satisfactory regarding conjugation time, stability, and binding efficiency. Here, we report a facile and high-yield approach based on a bispecific antibody (BsAb) free of chemical reaction steps. One end of the BsAb is designed to recognize methoxy polyethylene glycol-coated UCNPs, and the other end of the BsAb is designed to recognize the cancer antigen biomarker. Through simple vortexing, BsAb-UCNP nanoprobes form within 30 min and show higher (up to 54%) association to the target than that of the traditional UCNP nanoprobes in the ELISA-like assay. We further demonstrate its successful binding to the cancer cells with high efficiency and specificity for background-free fluorescence imaging under near-infrared excitation. This method suggests a general approach broadly suitable for functionalizing a range of nanoparticles to specifically target biomolecules.
Bao, G, Wong, K-L, Jin, D & Tanner, PA 2018, 'A stoichiometric terbium-europium dyad molecular thermometer: energy transfer properties.', Light: Science and Applications, vol. 7, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The optical thermometer has shown great promise for use in the fields of aeronautical engineering, environmental monitoring and medical diagnosis. Self-referencing lanthanide thermo-probes distinguish themselves because of their accuracy, calibration, photostability, and temporal dimension of signal. However, the use of conventional lanthanide-doped materials is limited by their poor reproducibility, random distance between energy transfer pairs and interference by energy migration, thereby restricting their utility. Herein, a strategy for synthesizing hetero-dinuclear complexes that comprise chemically similar lanthanides is introduced in which a pair of thermosensitive dinuclear complexes, cycTb-phEu and cycEu-phTb, were synthesized. Their structures were geometrically optimized with an internuclear distance of approximately 10.6Å. The sensitive linear temperature-dependent luminescent intensity ratios of europium and terbium emission over a wide temperature range (50-298K and 10-200K, respectively) and their temporal dimension responses indicate that both dinuclear complexes can act as excellent self-referencing thermometers. The energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ is thermally activated, with the most important pathway involving the 7F1 Eu3+J-multiplet at room temperature. The energy transfer from the antenna to Eu3+ was simulated, and it was found that the most important ligand contributions to the rate come from transfers to the Eu3+ upper states rather than direct ligand-metal transfer to 5D1 or 5D0. As the first molecular-based thermometer with clear validation of the metal ratio and a fixed distance between the metal pairs, these dinuclear complexes can be used as new materials for temperature sensing and can provide a new platform for understanding the energy transfer between lanthanide ions.
Bao, G, Zha, S, Liu, Z, Fung, Y-H, Chan, C-F, Li, H, Chu, P-H, Jin, D, Tanner, PA & Wong, K-L 2018, 'Reversible and Sensitive Hg2+ Detection by a Cell-Permeable Ytterbium Complex.', Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 120-128.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A cell-permeable ytterbium complex shows reversible binding with Hg2+ in aqueous solution and in vitroby off-on visible and NIR emission. The fast response and 150 nM sensitivity of Hg2+ detection is based upon FRET and the lanthanide antenna effect. The reversible Hg2+ detection can be performed in vitro, and the binding mechanism is suggested by NMR employing the motif structure in a La complex and by DFT calculations.
Shang, Y, Bao, G, Zhou, J, Wong, K, Yang, C & Jin, D 2018, 'Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion Luminescent Materials for Point of Care Diagnosis', Zhongguo Xitu Xuebao/Journal of the Chinese Rare Earth Society, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 129-146.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018, Editorial Office of Journal of the Chinese Society of Rare Earths. All right reserved. Point of care (POC) diagnosis has attracted much research interest due to its rapid, specific and sensitive detection of biomarkers and pathogens. This decentralized diagnostic approach undoubtedly has huge advantage over laboratory testing at large hospitals or community laboratories regarding cost-effectiveness, healthcare delivery, especially with the emerging and spreading of smart technologies. Among all the materials for POC, lanthanides have become a rising star because of their excellent photophysical properties such as long life time, characteristic luminescence. Here, we focus on the wide-spread platforms of POC diagnostic devices and the applications of lanthanide upconverting materials in this field. With the market and social trend analysis, we will give our future perspective about the applications of lanthanide materials in POC.
Clarke, C, Liu, D, Wang, F, Liu, Y, Chen, C, Ton-That, C, Xu, X & Jin, D 2018, 'Large-scale dewetting assembly of gold nanoparticles for plasmonic enhanced upconversion nanoparticles.', Nanoscale, vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 6270-6276.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Plasmonic nanostructures have been broadly investigated for enhancing many photophysical properties of luminescent nanomaterials. Precisely controlling the distance between the plasmonic nanostructure and the luminescent material is challenging particularly for the large-scale production of individual nanoparticles. Here we report an easy and reliable method for the large-scale dewetting of plasmonic gold nanoparticles onto core-shell (CS) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). A commensurate NaYF4 shell with a thickness between 5 nm and 15 nm is used as a tunable spacer to control the distance between the UCNP and the plasmonic gold nanoparticles. The upconversion emission intensity of single gold decorated core-inert shell (Au-CS) UCNPs is quantitatively characterized using a scanning confocal microscope. The results demonstrate the highest feasible enhancement of upconversion emission and a record reduction in lifetime for UCNPs fabricated in this manner. The Au-CS UCNPs are further investigated by simulation and synchrotron near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis.
Deng, K, Li, C, Huang, S, Xing, B, Jin, D, Zeng, Q, Hou, Z & Lin, J 2017, 'Recent Progress in Near Infrared Light Triggered Photodynamic Therapy', Small, vol. 13, no. 44, pp. 1-27.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Nowadays, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is under the research spotlight as an appealing modality for various malignant tumors. Compared with conventional PDT treatment activated by ultraviolet or visible light, near infrared (NIR) light-triggered PDT possessing deeper penetration to lesion area and lower photodamage to normal tissue holds great potential for in vivo deep-seated tumor. In this review, recent research progress related to the exploration of NIR light responsive PDT nanosystems is summarized. To address current obstacles of PDT treatment and facilitate the effective utilization, several innovative strategies are developed and introduced into PDT nanosystems, including the conjugation with targeted moieties, O 2 self-sufficient PDT, dual photosensitizers (PSs)-loaded PDT nanoplatform, and PDT-involved synergistic therapy. Finally, the potential challenges as well as the prospective for further development are also discussed.
Fu, L, Morsch, M, Shi, B, Wang, G, Lee, A, Radford, R, Lu, Y, Jin, D & Chung, R 2017, 'A versatile upconversion surface evaluation platform for bio-nano surface selection for the nervous system', NANOSCALE, vol. 9, no. 36, pp. 13683-13692.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, Y, Lu, Y, Yang, X, Zheng, X, Wen, S, Wang, F, Vidal, X, Zhao, J, Liu, D, Zhou, Z, Ma, C, Zhou, J, Piper, JA, Xi, P & Jin, D 2017, 'Amplified stimulated emission in upconversion nanoparticles for super-resolution nanoscopy', Nature, vol. 543, no. 7644, pp. 229-233.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lanthanide-doped glasses and crystals are attractive for laser applications because the metastable energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide ions facilitate the establishment of population inversion and amplified stimulated emission at relatively low pump power1,2,3. At the nanometre scale, lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can now be made with precisely controlled phase, dimension and doping level4,5. When excited in the near-infrared, these UCNPs emit stable, bright visible luminescence at a variety of selectable wavelengths6,7,8,9, with single-nanoparticle sensitivity10,11,12,13, which makes them suitable for advanced luminescence microscopy applications. Here we show that UCNPs doped with high concentrations of thulium ions (Tm3+), excited at a wavelength of 980 nanometres, can readily establish a population inversion on their intermediate metastable 3H4 level: the reduced inter-emitter distance at high Tm3+ doping concentration leads to intense cross-relaxation, inducing a photon-avalanche-like effect that rapidly populates the metastable 3H4 level, resulting in population inversion relative to the 3H6 ground level within a single nanoparticle. As a result, illumination by a laser at 808 nanometres, matching the upconversion band of the 3H4 → 3H6 transition, can trigger amplified stimulated emission to discharge the 3H4 intermediate level, so that the upconversion pathway to generate blue luminescence can be optically inhibited. We harness these properties to realize low-power super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and achieve nanometre-scale optical resolution (nanoscopy), imaging single UCNPs; the resolution is 28 nanometres, that is, 1/36th of the wavelength. These engineered nanocrystals offer saturation intensity two orders of magnitude lower than those of fluorescent probes currently employed in stimulated emission depletion microscopy, suggesting a new way of alleviating the square-root law that typically li...
Ma, C, Xu, X, Wang, F, Zhou, Z, Liu, D, Zhao, J, Guan, M, Lang, CI & Jin, D 2017, 'Optimal Sensitizer Concentration in Single Upconversion Nanocrystals.', Nano Letters, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 2858-2864.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Each single upconversion nanocrystal (UCNC) usually contains thousands of photon sensitizers and hundreds of photon activators to up-convert near-infrared photons into visible and ultraviolet emissions. Though in principle further increasing the sensitizers' concentration will enhance the absorption efficiency to produce brighter nanocrystals, typically 20% of Yb3+ ions has been used to avoid the so-called "concentration quenching" effect. Here we report that the concentration quenching effect does not limit the sensitizer concentration and NaYbF4 is the most bright host matrix. Surface quenching and the large size of NaYbF4 nanocrystals are the only factors limiting this optimal concentration. Therefore, we further designed sandwich nanostructures of NaYbF4 between a small template core to allow an epitaxial growth of the size-tunable NaYbF4 shell enclosed by an inert shell to minimize surface quenching. As a result, the suspension containing 25.2 nm sandwich structure UCNCs is 1.85 times brighter than the homogeneously doped ones, and the brightness of each single 25.2 nm heterogeneous UCNC is enhanced by nearly 3 times compared to the NaYF4: 20% Yb3+, 4% Tm3+ UCNCs in similar sizes. Particularly, the blue emission intensities of the UCNCs with the sandwich structure in the size of 13.6 and 25.2 nm are 1.36 times and 3.78 times higher than that of the monolithic UCNCs in the similar sizes. Maximizing the sensitizer concentration will accelerate the development of brighter and smaller UCNCs as more efficient biomolecule probes or photon energy converters.
Marciniak, L, Pilch, A, Arabasz, S, Jin, D & Bednarkiewicz, A 2017, 'Heterogeneously Nd3+ doped single nanoparticles for NIR-induced heat conversion, luminescence, and thermometry.', Nanoscale, vol. 9, no. 24, pp. 8288-8297.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The current frontier in nanomaterials engineering is to intentionally design and fabricate heterogeneous nanoparticles with desirable morphology and composition, and to integrate multiple functionalities through highly controlled epitaxial growth. Here we show that heterogeneous doping of Nd3+ ions following a core-shell design already allows three optical functions, namely efficient (η > 72%) light-to-heat conversion, bright NIR emission, and sensitive (SR > 0.1% K-1) localized temperature quantification, to be built within a single ca. 25 nm nanoparticle. Importantly, all these optical functions operate within the transparent biological window of the NIR spectral region (λexc ∼ 800 nm, λemi ∼ 860 nm), in which light scattering and absorption by tissues and water are minimal. We find NaNdF4 as a core is efficient in absorbing and converting 808 nm light to heat, while NaYF4:1%Nd3+ as a shell is a temperature sensor based on the ratio-metric luminescence reading but an intermediate inert spacer shell, e.g. NaYF4, is necessary to insulate the heat convertor and thermometer by preventing the possible Nd-Nd energy relaxation. Moreover, we notice that while temperature sensitivity and luminescence intensity are optically stable, increased excitation intensity to generate heat above room temperature may saturate the sensing capacity of temperature feedback. We therefore propose a dual beam photoexcitation scheme as a solution for possible light-induced hyperthermia treatment.
Shi, B, Zheng, M, Tao, W, Chung, R, Jin, D, Ghaffari, D & Farokhzad, OC 2017, 'Challenges in DNA Delivery and Recent Advances in Multifunctional Polymeric DNA Delivery Systems', Biomacromolecules, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 2231-2246.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 American Chemical Society. After more than 20 years of intensive investigations, gene therapy has become one of the most promising strategies for treating genetic diseases. However, the lack of ideal delivery systems has limited the clinical realization of gene therapy's tremendous potential, especially for DNA-based gene therapy. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in the application of polymer-based DNA delivery systems for gene therapy, especially through multifunctional systems. The core concept behind multifunctional polymeric DNA delivery systems is to endow one single DNA carrier, via materials engineering and surface modification, with several active functions, e.g., good cargo DNA protection, excellent colloidal stability, high cellular uptake efficiency, efficient endo/lysosome escape, effective import into the nucleus, and DNA unpacking. Such specially developed vectors would be capable of overcoming multiple barriers to the successful delivery of DNA. In this review, we first provide a comprehensive overview of the interactions between the protein corona and DNA vectors, the mechanisms and challenges of nonviral DNA vectors, and important concepts in the design of DNA carriers identified via past reports on DNA delivery systems. Finally, we highlight and discuss recent advances in multifunctional polymeric DNA delivery systems based on "off-the-shelf" polycations including polyethylenimine (PEI), poly-l-lysine (PLL), and chitosan and offer perspectives on future developments.
Shi, B, Zheng, M, Tao, W, Chung, R, Jin, D, Ghaffari, D & Farokhzad, OC 2017, 'Challenges in DNA Delivery and Recent Advances in Multifunctional Polymeric DNA Delivery Systems', BIOMACROMOLECULES, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 2231-2246.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Teng, B, Ma, P, Yu, C, Zhang, X, Feng, Q, Wen, L, Li, C, Cheng, Z, Jin, D & Lin, J 2017, 'Upconversion nanoparticles loaded with eIF4E siRNA and platinum(IV) prodrug to sensitize platinum based chemotherapy for laryngeal cancer and bioimaging', Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 307-317.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Royal Society of Chemistry. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E is a valuable marker in cancer prognostics in many human cancers. Silencing eIF4E via delivery of siRNA may be able to overcome chemoresistance. Cisplatin, used as a first-line anti-cancer reagent, has been widely accepted for its great success in clinical applications but it is restricted due to severe side effects such as nephrotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, and hearing loss. Moreover, platinum drug resistance is a major obstacle to its use. Platinum(iv) prodrugs (denoted as Pt(iv)) which could be reduced to Pt(ii) by various reductants, i ncluding mercaptan and glutathione, within cancer cells have very limited toxicity and might overcome platinum resistance because of their chemical inertness. Moreover, combinational therapies that could sensitize the cancer cells to Pt drugs have received great attention nowadays around the world. Here we report a simple and effective upconversion nanoparticle carrier system loaded with both eIF4E siRNA and Pt(iv). We find that this theranostic system could sensitize laryngeal cancer cells to cisplatin based chemotherapy and allow bioimaging both in vitro and in vivo.
Xie, J, Xie, X, Mi, C, Gao, Z, Pan, Y, Fan, Q, Su, H, Jin, D, Huang, L & Huang, W 2017, 'Controlled Synthesis, Evolution Mechanisms, and Luminescent Properties of ScFx:Ln (x = 2.76, 3) Nanocrystals', Chemistry of Materials, vol. 29, no. 22, pp. 9758-9766.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 American Chemical Society. Kinetic or thermodynamic control has been employed to guide the selective synthesis of conventional organic compounds, and it should be a powerful tool as well for accessing unusual inorganic nanocrystals, particularly when a series of members with similar chemical compositions and phase structures exist. Indeed, a comprehensive mapping of the energy barrier distribution of each nanocrystal in a predefined reaction system will enable not only the precise synthesis of nanocrystals with expected sizes, morphologies, phase structures, and ultimately functionalities, but also disclosure of the evolution details of nanocrystals from one structure to another. Using ScF x :Ln (x = 2.76, 3) series as a proof-of-concept, we have successfully mapped out the energy barriers that correspond to each of the ScF x :Ln nanocrystals, unraveled suitable temperatures for each type of nanocrystal formation, recorded their phase transition procedures, and also discovered the relationships of the products at each reaction stage. To testify how this approach allows one to tailor the structure-related optical properties, different lanthanide-doped ScF x nanocrystals were synthesized and a wide-range of luminescence fine-tuning was achieved, which not only showcases high quality of the nanocrystals, but also provides more candidates for various luminescence applications, especially when single-particle upconversion emission is required.
Zou, R, Huang, J, Shi, J, Huang, L, Zhang, X, Wong, KL, Zhang, H, Jin, D, Wang, J & Su, Q 2017, 'Silica shell-assisted synthetic route for mono-disperse persistent nanophosphors with enhanced in vivo recharged near-infrared persistent luminescence', Nano Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2070-2082.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Near-infrared (NIR) persistent-luminescence nanoparticles have emerged as a new class of background-free contrast agents that are promising for in vivo imaging. The next key roadblock is to establish a robust and controllable method for synthesizing monodisperse nanoparticles with high luminescence brightness and long persistent duration. Herein, we report a synthesis strategy involving the coating/etching of the SiO 2 shell to obtain a new class of small NIR highly persistent luminescent ZnGa 2 O 4 :Cr 3+ ,Sn 4+ (ZGOCS) nanoparticles. The optimized ZGOCS nanoparticles have an excellent size distribution of ~15 nm without any agglomeration and an NIR persistent luminescence that is enhanced by a factor of 13.5, owing to the key role of the SiO 2 shell in preventing nanoparticle agglomeration after annealing. The ZGOCS nanoparticles have a signal-to-noise ratio ~3 times higher than that of previously reported ZnGa 2 O 4 :Cr 3+ (ZGC-1) nanoparticles as an NIR persistent-luminescence probe for in vivo bioimaging. Moreover, the persistent-luminescence signal from the ZGOCS nanoparticles can be repeatedly re-charged in situ with external excitation by a white lightemitting diode; thus, the nanoparticles are suitable for long-term in vivo imaging applications. Our study suggests an improved strategy for fabricating novel high-performance optical nanoparticles with good biocompatibility.
Wang, S, Clapper, A, Chen, P, Wang, L, Aharonovich, I, Jin, D & Li, Q 2017, 'Tuning Enhancement Efficiency of Multiple Emissive Centers in Graphene Quantum Dots by Core-Shell Plasmonic Nanoparticles.', Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 8, no. 22, pp. 5673-5679.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging luminescent nanomaterials for energy, bioimaging, and optoelectronic applications. However, unlike conventional fluorophores, GQDs contain multiple emissive centers that result in a complex interaction with external electromagnetic fields. Here we utilize core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles to simultaneously enhance and modulate the photoluminescence (PL) intensities and spectral profiles of GQDs. By analyzing the spectral profiles, we show that the emissive centers are highly influenced by the proximity to the metal particles. Under optimal spacer thickness of 25 nm, the overall PL displays a four-fold enhancement compared with a pristine GQD. However, detailed lifetime measurements indicate the presence of midgap states that act as the bottleneck for further enhancement. Our results offer new perspectives for fundamental understanding and new design of functional luminescent materials (e.g., GQDs, graphene oxide, carbon dots) for imaging, sensing, and light harvesting.
Xu, X, Clarke, C, Ma, C, Casillas, G, Das, M, Guan, M, Liu, D, Wang, L, Tadich, A, Du, Y, Ton-That, C & Jin, D 2017, 'Depth-profiling of Yb3+ sensitizer ions in NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles.', Nanoscale, vol. 9, no. 23, pp. 7719-7726.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Enhancing the efficiency of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and therefore their brightness is the critical goal for this emerging material to meet growing demands in many potential applications including sensing, imaging, solar energy conversion and photonics. The distribution of the photon sensitizer and activator ions that form a network of energy transfer systems within each single UCNP is vital for understanding and optimizing their optical properties. Here we employ synchrotron-based X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to characterize the depth distribution of Yb3+ sensitizer ions in host NaYF4 nanoparticles and systematically correlate the structure with the optical properties for a range of UCNPs with different sizes and doping concentrations. We find a radial gradient distribution of Yb3+ from the core to the surface of the NaYF4 nanoparticles, regardless of their size or the sensitizer's concentration. Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) was also used to further confirm the distribution of the sensitizer ions in the host matrix. These results have profound implications for the upconversion optical property variations.
Cong, Y, Shi, B, Lu, Y, Wen, S, Chung, R & Jin, D 2016, 'One-step Conjugation of Glycyrrhetinic Acid to Cationic Polymers for High-performance Gene Delivery to Cultured Liver Cell.', Scientific Reports, vol. 6, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gene therapies represent a promising therapeutic route for liver cancers, but major challenges remain in the design of safe and efficient gene-targeting delivery systems. For example, cationic polymers show good transfection efficiency as gene carriers, but are hindered by cytotoxicity and non-specific targeting. Here we report a versatile method of one-step conjugation of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) to reduce cytotoxicity and improve the cultured liver cell -targeting capability of cationic polymers. We have explored a series of cationic polymer derivatives by coupling different ratios of GA to polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer. These new gene carriers (GA-PPI dendrimer) were systematically characterized by UV-vis,(1)H NMR titration, electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light-scattering, gel electrophoresis, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that GA-PPI dendrimers can efficiently load and protect pDNA, via formation of nanostructured GA-PPI/pDNA polyplexes. With optimal GA substitution degree (6.31%), GA-PPI dendrimers deliver higher liver cell transfection efficiency (43.5% vs 22.3%) and lower cytotoxicity (94.3% vs 62.5%, cell viability) than the commercial bench-mark DNA carrier bPEI (25 kDa) with cultured liver model cells (HepG2). There results suggest that our new GA-PPI dendrimer are a promising candidate gene carrier for targeted liver cancer therapy.
Deng, X, Chen, Y, Cheng, Z, Deng, K, Ma, P, Hou, Z, Liu, B, Huang, S, Jin, D & Lin, J 2016, 'Rational design of a comprehensive cancer therapy platform using temperature-sensitive polymer grafted hollow gold nanospheres: simultaneous chemo/photothermal/photodynamic therapy triggered by a 650 nm laser with enhanced anti-tumor efficacy', NANOSCALE, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 6837-6850.View/Download from: Publisher's site
He, F, Li, C, Zhang, X, Chen, Y, Deng, X, Liu, B, Hou, Z, Huang, S, Jin, D & Lin, J 2016, 'Optimization of upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized BaGdF5-based nanostructures and their application in dual-modality imaging and drug delivery', DALTON TRANSACTIONS, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1708-1716.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hou, Z, Deng, K, Li, C, Deng, X, Lian, H, Cheng, Z, Jin, D & Lin, J 2016, '808 nm Light-triggered and hyaluronic acid-targeted dual-photosensitizers nanoplatform by fully utilizing Nd3+-sensitized upconversion emission with enhanced anti-tumor efficacy', Biomaterials, vol. 101, pp. 32-46.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.The current near-infrared (NIR) light-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) can enhance the tissue penetration depth to trigger photosensitizers (PSs) far from the surface. NIR-mediated PDT is still challenged by overheating effect on normal tissues, limited tumor selectivity and low reactive oxygen species (ROS) yields. Here we construct a dual-agent photosensitizing nanoplatform by combining UV-blue upconversion emitting NaYF4:Yb/Tm@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb@NaYF4 (labeled as UCNPs) multi-shell nanocrystals with titanium dioxide (TiO2, UV-light-excited PS) and hypocrellin A (HA, blue-light-excited PS), which can induce cancer cell apoptosis by 808 nm light-triggered and hyaluronic acid (Hyal)-targeted PDT. In this construction strategy, the crystallized TiO2 shells on the surface of UCNPs can play dual roles as UV-light excited PS and conjugation site for Hyal, and then Hyal is served as targeting-ligand as well as the carrier of HA simultaneously. The step-by-step reactive mode of loading PSs and modifying targeting-ligands is a controllable and ordered design based on the use of one intermediate product as the reaction site for the next component. The Nd3+-sensitized UCNPs with quenching reduction layer can efficiently convert 808 nm NIR light to UV-blue emission for simultaneous activation of two PSs with enhanced intracellular ROS generation. Through the in vitro and in vivo experiment results, the dual-photosensitizers nanoplatform presents enhanced anti-tumor efficacy by effective targeting cellular uptake and taking full advantage of upconversion emission, which may make a major step toward next generation of NIR-mediated PDT.
Liu, B, Li, C, Xie, Z, Hou, Z, Cheng, Z, Jin, D & Lin, J 2016, '808 nm photocontrolled UCL imaging guided chemo/photothermal synergistic therapy with single UCNPs-CuS@PAA nanocomposite', DALTON TRANSACTIONS, vol. 45, no. 33, pp. 13061-13069.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, B, Zhang, X, Li, C, He, F, Chen, Y, Huang, S, Jin, D, Yang, P, Cheng, Z & Lin, J 2016, 'Magnetically targeted delivery of DOX loaded Cu9S5@mSiO2@Fe3O4-PEG nanocomposites for combined MR imaging and chemo/photothermal synergistic therapy.', Nanoscale.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The combination of multi-theranostic modes in a controlled fashion has received tremendous attention for the construction of cooperative therapeutic systems in nanomedicine. Herein, we have synthesized a smart magnetically targeted nanocarrier system, Cu9S5@mSiO2@Fe3O4-PEG (labelled as CMF), which integrates NIR triggered photothermal therapy, pH/NIR-responsive chemotherapy and MR imaging into one nanoplatform to enhance the therapeutic efficacy. This new multifunctional paradigm has a uniform and monodisperse sesame ball-like structure by decorating tiny Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of Cu9S5@mSiO2 before a further PEG modification to improve its hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. With doxorubicin (DOX) payload, the as-obtained CMF-DOX composites can simultaneously provide an intense heating effect and enhanced DOX release upon 980 nm NIR light exposure, achieving a combined chemo/photothermal therapy. Under the influence of an external magnetic field, the magnetically targeted synergistic therapeutic effect of CMF-DOX can lead to highly superior inhibition of animal H22 tumor in vivo when compared to any of the single approaches alone. The results revealed that this Cu9S5 based magnetically targeted chemo/photothermal synergistic nanocarrier system has great promise in future MR imaging assisted tumor targeted therapy of cancer.
Liu, D, Xu, X, Du, Y, Qin, X, Zhang, Y, Ma, C, Wen, S, Ren, W, Goldys, EM, Piper, JA, Dou, S, Liu, X & Jin, D 2016, 'Three-dimensional controlled growth of monodisperse sub-50 nm heterogeneous nanocrystals', Nature Communications, vol. 7, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The ultimate frontier in nanomaterials engineering is to realize their composition control with atomic scale precision to enable fabrication of nanoparticles with desirable size, shape and surface properties. Such control becomes even more useful when growing hybrid nanocrystals designed to integrate multiple functionalities. Here we report achieving such degree of control in a family of rare-earth-doped nanomaterials. We experimentally verify the co-existence and different roles of oleate anions (OA−) and molecules (OAH) in the crystal formation. We identify that the control over the ratio of OA− to OAH can be used to directionally inhibit, promote or etch the crystallographic facets of the nanoparticles. This control enables selective grafting of shells with complex morphologies grown over nanocrystal cores, thus allowing the fabrication of a diverse library of monodisperse sub-50 nm nanoparticles. With such programmable additive and subtractive engineering a variety of three-dimensional shapes can be implemented using a bottom–up scalable approach.
Liu, D, Xu, X, Wang, F, Zhou, J, Mi, C, Zhang, L, Lu, Y, Ma, C, Goldys, E, Lin, J & Jin, D 2016, 'Emission stability and reversibility of upconversion nanocrystals', Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol. 4, no. 39, pp. 9227-9234.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Rare-earth doped upconversion nanocrystals have emerged as a novel class of luminescent probes for biomedical applications. The knowledge about their optical stability in aqueous solution under different pH and temperature conditions has not been comprehensively explored. Here we conduct a systematic investigation and report the emission stability and reversibility of typical NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals and their core–shell nanostructures in aqueous solution at different temperatures and with different pH values. These nanocrystals show reversible luminescence response to temperature changes, while low pH permanently quenches their luminescence. With the addition of inert shells, with thicknesses ranging from 1.5 nm to 8 nm, the emission stability and reversibility change significantly. Thicker inert shells not only lead to a significant enhancement in the emission intensity but also stabilize its optical responses which become less affected by temperature variations and pH conditions. This study suggests that upconversion nanocrystal-based sensitive temperature and pH sensors do not generally benefit from the core–shell structure usually recommended for enhanced upconversion luminescence.
Sayyadi, N, Justiniano, I, Connally, RE, Zhang, R, Shi, B, Kautto, L, Everest-Dass, AV, Yuan, J, Walsh, BJ, Jin, D, Willows, RD, Piper, JA & Packer, NH 2016, 'Sensitive Time-Gated Immunoluminescence Detection of Prostate Cancer Cells Using a TEGylated Europium Ligand', ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 88, no. 19, pp. 9564-9571.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Shi, Y, Shi, B, Dass, AVE, Lu, Y, Sayyadi, N, Kautto, L, Willows, RD, Chung, R, Piper, J, Nevalainen, H, Walsh, B, Jin, D & Packer, NH 2016, 'Stable Upconversion Nanohybrid Particles for Specific Prostate Cancer Cell Immunodetection.', Scientific Reports, vol. 6, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Prostate cancer is one of the male killing diseases and early detection of prostate cancer is the key for better treatment and lower cost. However, the number of prostate cancer cells is low at the early stage, so it is very challenging to detect. In this study, we successfully designed and developed upconversion immune-nanohybrids (UINBs) with sustainable stability in a physiological environment, stable optical properties and highly specific targeting capability for early-stage prostate cancer cell detection. The developed UINBs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and luminescence spectroscopy. The targeting function of the biotinylated antibody nanohybrids were confirmed by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. The UINB system is able to specifically detect prostate cancer cells with stable and background-free luminescent signals for highly sensitive prostate cancer cell detection. This work demonstrates a versatile strategy to develop UCNPs based sustainably stable UINBs for sensitive diseased cell detection.
Yang, X, Xie, H, Alonas, E, Liu, Y, Chen, X, Santangelo, PJ, Ren, Q, Xi, P & Jin, D 2016, 'Mirror-enhanced super-resolution microscopy.', Light: Science and Applications, vol. 5, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Axial excitation confinement beyond the diffraction limit is crucial to the development of next-generation, super-resolution microscopy. STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy offers lateral super-resolution using a donut-beam depletion, but its axial resolution is still over 500 nm. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is widely used for single-molecule localization, but its ability to detect molecules is limited to within the evanescent field of ~ 100 nm from the cell attachment surface. We find here that the axial thickness of the point spread function (PSF) during confocal excitation can be easily improved to 110 nm by replacing the microscopy slide with a mirror. The interference of the local electromagnetic field confined the confocal PSF to a 110-nm spot axially, which enables axial super-resolution with all laser-scanning microscopes. Axial sectioning can be obtained with wavelength modulation or by controlling the spacer between the mirror and the specimen. With no additional complexity, the mirror-assisted excitation confinement enhanced the axial resolution six-fold and the lateral resolution two-fold for STED, which together achieved 19-nm resolution to resolve the inner rim of a nuclear pore complex and to discriminate the contents of 120 nm viral filaments. The ability to increase the lateral resolution and decrease the thickness of an axial section using mirror-enhanced STED without increasing the laser power is of great importance for imaging biological specimens, which cannot tolerate high laser power.
Yang, X, Zhanghao, K, Wang, H, Liu, Y, Wang, F, Zhang, X, Shi, K, Gao, J, Jin, D & Xi, P 2016, 'Versatile Application of Fluorescent Quantum Dot Labels in Super-resolution Fluorescence Microscopy', ACS Photonics, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1611-1618.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 American Chemical Society. Quantum dots (QDs) are well known as bright and photostable inorganic fluorescent probes for microscopy imaging, with many attractive features superior to those found in organic dyes. However, their broadband excitation spectrum and emission blinking property have limited the applicability of QDs in modern super-resolution microscopy techniques. In this work, we systematically investigate practical approaches to overcoming these drawbacks and provide examples of their use across many commercially available super-resolution microscopy systems now accessible to biologists, with examples across the major super-resolution techniques. This work further maps out how QDs can be further engineered to facilitate their applications in the respective super-resolution microscopy techniques.
Zhanghao, K, Chen, L, Yang, X-S, Wang, M-Y, Jing, Z-L, Han, H-B, Zhang, MQ, Jin, D, Gao, J-T & Xi, P 2016, 'Super-resolution dipole orientation mapping via polarization demodulation', LIGHT-SCIENCE & APPLICATIONS, vol. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhao, J, Zheng, X, Schartner, EP, Ionescu, P, Zhang, R, Nguyen, TL, Jin, D & Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H 2016, 'Upconversion Nanocrystal-Doped Glass: A New Paradigm for Photonic Materials', Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1507-1517.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The integration of novel luminescent nanomaterials into glassy matrix can lead to new hybrid materials and photonic devices with promising material performance and device functions. Lanthanide-containing upconversion nanocrystals have become unique candidates for sensing, bioimaging, photon energy management, volumetric displays, and other photonic applications. Here, a versatile direct-doping approach is developed to integrate bright upconversion nanocrystals in tellurite glass with tailored nanoscale properties. Following our two-temperature glass-melting technique, the doping temperature window of 550-625 °C and a 5 min dwell time at 577 °C are determined as the key to success, which balances the survival and dispersion of upconversion nanocrystals in glass. It is identified that the fine spectra of upconversion emissions can be used to diagnose the survival and dissolution fraction of doped nanocrystals in the glass. Moreover, 3D dispersion of nanocrystals in the glass is visualized by upconversion scanning confocal microscopy. It is further demonstrated that a low-loss fiber, drawn from the highly transparent nanocrystals-doped glass retains the distinct optical properties of upconversion nanocrystals. These results suggest a robust strategy for fabrication of high-quality upconversion nanocrystal-doped glasses. The new class of hybrid glasses allows for fiber-based devices to be developed for photonic applications or as a useful tool for tailoring light-nanoparticles interactions study.
Zheng, X, Lu, Y, Zhao, J, Zhang, Y, Ren, W, Liu, D, Lu, J, Piper, JA, Leif, RC, Liu, X & Jin, D 2016, 'High-Precision Pinpointing of Luminescent Targets in Encoder Assisted Scanning Microscopy Allowing High-Speed Quantitative Analysis', ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 1312-1319.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zheng, X, Zhu, X, Lu, Y, Zhao, J, Feng, W, Jia, G, Wang, F, Li, F & Jin, D 2016, 'High-Contrast Visualization of Upconversion Luminescence in Mice Using Time-Gating Approach', ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 3449-3454.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ma, C, Xu, X, Wang, F, Zhou, Z, Wen, S, Liu, D, Fang, J, Lang, CI & Jin, D 2016, 'Probing the Interior Crystal Quality in the Development of More Efficient and Smaller Upconversion Nanoparticles', Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 7, pp. 3252-3258.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Optical biomedical imaging using luminescent nanoparticles as contrast agents prefers small size, as they can be used at high dosages and efficiently cleared from body. Reducing nanoparticle size is critical for the stability and specificity for the fluorescence nanoparticles probes for in vitro diagnostics and subcellular imaging. The development of smaller and brighter upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is accordingly a goal for complex imaging in bioenvironments. At present, however, small UCNPs are reported to exhibit less emission intensity due to increased surface deactivation and decreased number of dopants. Here we show that smaller and more efficient UCNPs can be made by improving the interior crystal quality via controlling heating rate during synthesis. We further developed a unique quantitative method for optical characterizations on the single UCNPs with varied sizes and the corresponding shell passivated UCNPs, confirming that the internal crystal quality dominates the relative emission efficiency of the UCNPs.
Cheng, R, Ou, S, Bu, Y, Li, X, Liu, X, Wang, Y, Guo, R, Shi, B, Jin, D & Liu, Y 2015, 'Starch-borate-graphene oxide nanocomposites as highly efficient targeted antitumor drugs', RSC Advances, vol. 5, no. 115, pp. 94855-94858.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. We synthesized novel borate antitumor drugs sourced from starch-borate-graphene oxide (SBG) nanocomposites. In vitro results suggest that SBG from the molar ratio of n starch :n borate :n GO at 2:1:1 exhibits excellent biocompatibility with normal human cells ( > 90% cell viability), but are highly toxic against cancer cells ( < 20% cell viability).
Song, B, Ye, Z, Yang, Y, Ma, H, Zheng, X, Jin, D & Yuan, J 2015, 'Background-free in-vivo Imaging of Vitamin C using Time-gateable Responsive Probe.', Scientific Reports, vol. 5, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sensitive optical imaging of active biomolecules in the living organism requires both a molecular probe specifically responsive to the target and a high-contrast approach to remove the background interference from autofluorescence and light scatterings. Here, a responsive probe for ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been developed by conjugating two nitroxide radicals with a long-lived luminescent europium complex. The nitroxide radical withholds the probe on its "off" state (barely luminescent), until the presence of vitamin C will switch on the probe by forming its hydroxylamine derivative. The probe showed a linear response to vitamin C concentration with a detection limit of 9.1 nM, two orders of magnitude lower than that achieved using electrochemical methods. Time-gated luminescence microscopy (TGLM) method has further enabled real-time, specific and background-free monitoring of cellular uptake or endogenous production of vitamin C, and mapping of vitamin C in living Daphnia magna. This work suggests a rational design of lanthanide complexes for background-free small animal imaging of biologically functional molecules.
Yang, M, Liang, Y, Gui, Q, Zhao, B, Jin, D, Lin, M, Yan, L, You, H, Dai, L & Liu, Y 2015, 'Multifunctional luminescent nanomaterials from NaLa(MoO4)2:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) with tunable decay lifetimes, emission colors, and enhanced cell viability.', Scientific Reports, vol. 5, pp. 1-12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A facile, but effective, method has been developed for large-scale preparation of NaLa(MoO4)2 nanorods and microflowers co-doped with Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions (abbreviated as: NLM:Ln(3+)). The as-synthesized nanomaterials possess a pure tetragonal phase with variable morphologies from shuttle-like nanorods to microflowers by controlling the reaction temperature and the amount of ethylene glycol used. Consequently, the resulting nanomaterials exhibit superb luminescent emissions over the visible region from red through yellow to green by simply changing the relative doping ratios of Eu(3+) to Tb(3+) ions. Biocompatibility study indicates that the addition of NLM:Ln(3+) nanomaterials can stimulate the growth of normal human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cells. Therefore, the newly-developed NaLa(MoO4)2 nanomaterials hold potentials for a wide range of multifunctional applications, including bioimaging, security protection, optical display, optoelectronics for information storage, and cell stimulation.
Yao, Q, Li, W, Yu, S, Ma, L, Jin, D, Boccaccini, AR & Liu, Y 2015, 'Multifunctional chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds for MC3T3-E1 cell stimulation and drug release.', Materials Science and Engineering C: Materials for Biological Applications, vol. 56, pp. 473-480.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Novel chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® (CS-PVP/BG) scaffolds were prepared via foam replication and chemical cross-linking techniques. The pristine BG, CS-PVP coated BG and genipin cross-linked CS-PVP/BG (G-CS-PVP/BG) scaffolds were synthesized and characterized in terms of chemical composition, physical structure and morphology respectively. Resistance to enzymatic degradation of the scaffold is improved significantly with the use of genipin cross-linked CS-PVP. The bio-effects of scaffolds on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were evaluated by studying cell viability, adhesion and proliferation. The CCK-8 assay shows that cell viability on the resulting G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold is improved obviously after cross-linking of genipin. Cell skeleton images exhibit that well-stretched F-actin bundles are obtained on the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. SEM results present significant improvement on the cell adhesion and proliferation for cells cultured on the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. The drug release performance on the as-synthesized scaffold was studied in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Vancomycin is found to be released in burst fashion within 24h from the pristine BG scaffold, however, the release period from the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold is enhanced to 7days, indicating improved drug release properties of the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. Our results suggest that the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffolds possess promising physicochemical properties, sustained drug release capability and good biocompatibility for MC3T3-E1 cells' proliferation and adhesion, suggesting their potential applications in areas such as MC3T3-E1 cell stimulation and bone tissue engineering.
Lu, J, Chen, Y, Liu, D, Ren, W, Lu, Y, Shi, Y, Piper, JA, Paulsen, IT & Jin, D 2015, 'One-step Protein Conjugation to Upconversion Nanoparticles', Analytical Chemistry, vol. 87, no. 20, pp. 10406-10413.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The emerging upconversion nanoparticles offer a fascinating library of ultrasensitive luminescent probes for a range of biotechnology applications from biomarker discovery to single molecule tracking, early disease diagnosis, deep tissue imaging, and drug delivery and therapies. The effective bioconjugation of inorganic nanoparticles to the molecule-specific proteins, free of agglomeration, nonspecific binding, or biomolecule deactivation, is crucial for molecular recognition of target molecules or cells. The current available protocols require multiple steps which can lead to low probe stability, specificity, and reproducibility. Here we report a simple and rapid protein bioconjugation method based on a one-step ligand exchange using the DNAs as the linker. Our method benefits from the robust DNA–protein conjugates as well as from multiple ions binding capability. Protein can be preconjugated via an amino group at the 3' end of a synthetic DNA molecule, so that the 5' end phosphoric acid group and multiple phosphate oxygen atoms in the phosphodiester bonds are exposed to replace the oleic acid ligands on the surface of upconversion nanoparticles due to their stronger chelating capability to lanthanides. We demonstrated that our method can efficiently pull out the upconversion nanoparticles from organic solvent into an aqueous phase. The upconversion nanoparticles then become hydrophilic, stable, and specific biomolecules recognition. This allows us to successfully functionalize the upconversion nanoparticles with horseradish peroxidise (HRP) for catalytic colorimetric assay and for streptavidin (SA)–biotin immunoassays.
Lu, Y, Lu, J, Zhao, J, Cusido, J, Raymo, FM, Yuan, J, Yang, S, Leif, RC, Huo, Y, Piper, JA, Paul Robinson, J, Goldys, EM & Jin, D 2014, 'On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays.', Nature Communications, vol. 5, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Significant multiplexing capacity of optical time-domain coding has been recently demonstrated by tuning luminescence lifetimes of the upconversion nanoparticles called 'τ-Dots'. It provides a large dynamic range of lifetimes from microseconds to milliseconds, which allows creating large libraries of nanotags/microcarriers. However, a robust approach is required to rapidly and accurately measure the luminescence lifetimes from the relatively slow-decaying signals. Here we show a fast algorithm suitable for the microsecond region with precision closely approaching the theoretical limit and compatible with the rapid scanning cytometry technique. We exploit this approach to further extend optical time-domain multiplexing to the downconversion luminescence, using luminescence microspheres wherein lifetimes are tuned through luminescence resonance energy transfer. We demonstrate real-time discrimination of these microspheres in the rapid scanning cytometry, and apply them to the multiplexed probing of pathogen DNA strands. Our results indicate that tunable luminescence lifetimes have considerable potential in high-throughput analytical sciences.
Lu, Y, Zhao, J, Zhang, R, Liu, Y, Liu, D, Goldys, EM, Yang, X, Xi, P, Sunna, A, Lu, J, Shi, Y, Leif, RC, Huo, Y, Shen, J, Piper, JA, Robinson, JP & Jin, D 2014, 'Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals', Nature Photonics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 32-36.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Optical multiplexing plays an important role in applications such as optical data storage, document security, molecular probes and bead assays for personalized medicine. Conventional fluorescent colour coding is limited by spectral overlap and background interference, restricting the number of distinguishable identities. Here, we show that tunable luminescent lifetimes τ in the microsecond region can be exploited to code individual upconversion nanocrystals. In a single colour band, one can generate more than ten nanocrystal populations with distinct lifetimes ranging from 25.6 μs to 662.4 μs and decode their well-separated lifetime identities, which are independent of both colour and intensity. Such 'τ-dots' potentially suit multichannel bioimaging, high-throughput cytometry quantification, high-density data storage, as well as security codes to combat counterfeiting. This demonstration extends the optical multiplexing capability by adding the temporal dimension of luminescent signals, opening new opportunities in the life sciences, medicine and data security. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Xie, H, Jin, D, Yu, J, Peng, T, Ding, Y, Zhou, C & Xi, P 2014, 'Schlieren confocal microscopy for phase-relief imaging.', Optics Letters, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1238-1241.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We demonstrate a simple phase-sensitive microscopic technique capable of imaging the phase gradient of a transparent specimen, based on the Schlieren modulation and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The incident laser is refracted by the phase gradient of the specimen and excites a fluorescence plate behind the specimen to create a secondary illumination; then the fluoresence is modulated by a partial obstructor before entering the confocal pinhole. The quantitative relationship between the image intensity and the sample phase gradient can be derived. This setup is very easy to be adapted to current confocal setups, so that multimodality fluorescence/structure images can be obtained within a single system.
Ye, Z, Zhang, R, Song, B, Dai, Z, Jin, D, Goldys, EM & Yuan, J 2014, 'Development of a functional ruthenium(II) complex for probing hypochlorous acid in living cells.', Dalton Transactions, vol. 43, no. 22, pp. 8414-8420.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A functional ruthenium(ii) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(AN-bpy)](PF6)2 (bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine, AN-bpy: 4-methyl-4'-(4-amino-3-nitro-phenoxy-methylene)-2,2'-bipyridine), has been designed and synthesized as a turn-on luminescent probe for the imaging of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in living cells. Due to the intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET), the ruthenium(ii) complex itself is almost non-luminescent. However, it can specifically and rapidly react with HOCl in aqueous media to afford a highly luminescent derivative, [Ru(bpy)2(HM-bpy)](PF6)2 (HM-bpy: 4-hydroxymethyl-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine), accompanied by a 110-fold luminescence enhancement. Taking advantage of high specificity and sensitivity, and excellent photophysical properties of the ruthenium(ii) complex probe, [Ru(bpy)2(AN-bpy)](PF6)2 was successfully applied to the luminescence imaging of the exogenous HOCl in living HeLa cells and the endogenous HOCl in porcine neutrophils. The results corroborate that indeed [Ru(bpy)2(AN-bpy)](PF6)2 is a useful luminescent probe for the monitoring of HOCl in biological systems.
Zhang, L, Zheng, X, Deng, W, Lu, Y, Lechevallier, S, Ye, Z, Goldys, EM, Dawes, JM, Piper, JA, Yuan, J, Verelst, M & Jin, D 2014, 'Practical implementation, characterization and applications of a multi-colour time-gated luminescence microscope.', Scientific Reports, vol. 4, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Time-gated luminescence microscopy using long-lifetime molecular probes can effectively eliminate autofluorescence to enable high contrast imaging. Here we investigate a new strategy of time-gated imaging for simultaneous visualisation of multiple species of microorganisms stained with long-lived complexes under low-background conditions. This is realized by imaging two pathogenic organisms (Giardia lamblia stained with a red europium probe and Cryptosporidium parvum with a green terbium probe) at UV wavelengths (320-400 nm) through synchronization of a flash lamp with high repetition rate (1 kHz) to a robust time-gating detection unit. This approach provides four times enhancement in signal-to-background ratio over non-time-gated imaging, while the average signal intensity also increases six-fold compared with that under UV LED excitation. The high sensitivity is further confirmed by imaging the single europium-doped Y₂O₂S nanocrystals (150 nm). We report technical details regarding the time-gating detection unit and demonstrate its compatibility with commercial epi-fluorescence microscopes, providing a valuable and convenient addition to standard laboratory equipment.
Zhang, Y, Zhang, L, Deng, R, Tian, J, Zong, Y, Jin, D & Liu, X 2014, 'Multicolor barcoding in a single upconversion crystal.', Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 136, no. 13, pp. 4893-4896.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We report the synthesis of luminescent crystals based on hexagonal-phase NaYF4 upconversion microrods. The synthetic procedure involves an epitaxial end-on growth of upconversion nanocrystals comprising different lanthanide activators onto the NaYF4 microrods. This bottom-up method readily affords multicolor-banded crystals in gram quantity by varying the composition of the activators. Importantly, the end-on growth method using one-dimensional microrods as the template enables facile multicolor tuning in a single crystal, which is inaccessible in conventional upconversion nanoparticles. We demonstrate that these novel materials offer opportunities as optical barcodes for anticounterfeiting and multiplexed labeling applications.
Ding, Y, Zhang, Y, Peng, T, Lu, Y, Jin, D, Ren, Q, Liu, Y, Han, J & Xi, P 2013, 'Observation of mesenteric microcirculatory disturbance in rat by laser oblique scanning optical microscopy', SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lu, J, Paulsen, IT & Jin, D 2013, 'Application of Exonuclease III-Aided Target Recycling in Flow Cytometry: DNA Detection Sensitivity Enhanced by Orders of Magnitude', ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 85, no. 17, pp. 8240-8245.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Song, Z, Anissimov, YG, Zhao, J, Nechaev, AV, Nadort, A, Jin, D, Prow, TW, Roberts, MS & Zvyagin, AV 2013, 'Background free imaging of upconversion nanoparticle distribution in human skin', JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS, vol. 18, no. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Xie, H, Liu, Y, Jin, D, Santangelo, PJ & Xi, P 2013, 'Analytical description of high-aperture STED resolution with 0-2 pi vortex phase modulation', JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1640-1645.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhang, L, Mckay, A & Jin, D 2013, 'High-throughput 3-dimensional time-resolved spectroscopy: simultaneous characterisation of luminescence properties in spectral and temporal domains', RSC ADVANCES, vol. 3, no. 23, pp. 8670-8673.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhao, J, Jin, D, Schartner, EP, Lu, Y, Liu, Y, Zvyagin, AV, Zhang, L, Dawes, JM, Xi, P, Piper, JA, Goldys, EM & Monro, TM 2013, 'Single-nanocrystal sensitivity achieved by enhanced upconversion luminescence', NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 729-734.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhao, J, Lu, Z, Yin, Y, Mcrae, C, Piper, JA, Dawes, JM, Jin, D & Goldys, EM 2013, 'Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size', NANOSCALE, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 944-952.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Calander, N, Jin, D & Goldys, EM 2012, 'Taking Plasmonic Core-Shell Nanoparticles Toward Laser Threshold', JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, vol. 116, no. 13, pp. 7546-7551.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ding, Y, Xie, H, Peng, T, Lu, Y, Jin, D, Teng, J, Ren, Q & Xi, P 2012, 'Laser oblique scanning optical microscopy (LOSOM) for phase relief imaging', OPTICS EXPRESS, vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 14100-14108.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Everest-Dass, AV, Jin, D, Thaysen-Andersen, M, Nevalainen, H, Kolarich, D & Packer, NH 2012, 'Comparative structural analysis of the glycosylation of salivary and buccal cell proteins: innate protection against infection by Candida albicans', GLYCOBIOLOGY, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1465-1479.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, Y, Ding, Y, Alonas, E, Zhao, W, Santangelo, PJ, Jin, D, Piper, JA, Teng, J, Ren, Q & Xi, P 2012, 'Achieving lambda/10 Resolution CW STED Nanoscopy with a Ti:Sapphire Oscillator', PLOS ONE, vol. 7, no. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lu, J, Martin, J, Lu, Y, Zhao, J, Yuan, J, Ostrowski, M, Paulsen, I, Piper, JA & Jin, D 2012, 'Resolving Low-Expression Cell Surface Antigens by Time-Gated Orthogonal Scanning Automated Microscopy', ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 84, no. 22, pp. 9674-9678.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lu, Y, Xi, P, Piper, JA, Huo, Y & Jin, D 2012, 'Time-Gated Orthogonal Scanning Automated Microscopy (OSAM) for High-speed Cell Detection and Analysis', SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Peng, T, Xie, H, Ding, Y, Wang, W, Li, Z, Jin, D, Tang, Y, Ren, Q & Xi, P 2012, 'CRAFT: Multimodality confocal skin imaging for early cancer diagnosis', JOURNAL OF BIOPHOTONICS, vol. 5, no. 5-6, pp. 469-476.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Schartner, EP, Jin, D, Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H, Piper, JA, Lu, Z & Monro, TM 2012, 'Lanthanide upconversion within microstructured optical fibers: improved detection limits for sensing and the demonstration of a new tool for nanocrystal characterization', NANOSCALE, vol. 4, no. 23, pp. 7448-7451.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tian, L, Dai, Z, Zhang, L, Zhang, R, Ye, Z, Wu, J, Jin, D & Yuan, J 2012, 'Preparation and time-gated luminescence bioimaging applications of long wavelength-excited silica-encapsulated europium nanoparticles', NANOSCALE, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 3551-3557.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhang, L, Wang, Y, Ye, Z, Jin, D & Yuan, J 2012, 'New Class of Tetradentate beta-Diketonate-Europium Complexes That Can Be Covalently Bound to Proteins for Time-Gated Fluorometric Application', BIOCONJUGATE CHEMISTRY, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1244-1251.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhang, R, Ye, Z, Yin, Y, Wang, G, Jin, D, Yuan, J & Piper, JA 2012, 'Developing Red-Emissive Ruthenium(II) Complex-Based Luminescent Probes for Cellular Imaging', BIOCONJUGATE CHEMISTRY, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 725-733.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhang, W, Zhang, R, Zhang, J, Ye, Z, Jin, D & Yuan, J 2012, 'Photoluminescent and electrochemiluminescent dual-signaling probe for bio-thiols based on a ruthenium(II) complex', ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA, vol. 740, pp. 80-87.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Deng, W, Jin, D, Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K, Yuan, J, Wu, J & Goldys, EM 2011, 'Ultrabright Eu-Doped Plasmonic Ag@SiO2 Nanostructures: Time-gated Bioprobes with Single Particle Sensitivity and Negligible Background', ADVANCED MATERIALS, vol. 23, no. 40, pp. 4649-+.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Deng, W, Sudheendra, L, Zhao, J, Fu, J, Jin, D, Kennedy, IM & Goldys, EM 2011, 'Upconversion in NaYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles amplified by metal nanostructures', NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 22, no. 32.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In the analytical fields of microbiology, disease diagnosis, and antibioterrorism, there are increasing demands for rapid yet inexpensive quantification of rare cells. This has proven to be challenging by the conventional spectral discrimination of using traditional fluorescent probes, since the strong autofluorescence from background cells or particles overlaps spectrally with the probe fluorescence. This is particularly true when the target cell occurs at very low frequency (one in more than 100,000 background cells) representing a needle-in-a-haystack problem. This chapter describes a low-cost solution to overcome this problem by employing a novel detection technology, namely the use of rare-earth (lanthanide) complex bioprobes with luminescence lifetimes in the hundreds of microseconds. Due to this long persistence in lifetime, microsecond duration luminescence can be detected under conditions where fluorescent backgrounds would overwhelm the emission of conventional fluorochromes. The nanosecond duration autofluorescence associated with cells can be suppressed by time-gated detection, allowing detection of long lifetime lanthanide-based bioprobes with minimal background interference. This technology is applicable to a broad range of detection technologies in both cytometry and imaging. In this chapter, we highlight a typical application in the monitoring of the rare microbial pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia against the complex background of concentrated drinking water. We also describe recent nanotechnological developments in the production of rare-earth nanoparticle bioprobes required for this technology. Other applications of rare-earth bioprobes and time-gated flow cytometry will also be discussed.
Jin, D & Piper, JA 2011, 'Time-Gated Luminescence Microscopy Allowing Direct Visual Inspection of Lanthanide-Stained Microorganisms in Background-Free Condition', ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 2294-2300.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lu, Y, Jin, D, Leif, RC, Deng, W, Piper, JA, Yuan, J, Duan, Y & Huo, Y 2011, 'Automated Detection of Rare-Event Pathogens Through Time-Gated Luminescence Scanning Microscopy', CYTOMETRY PART A, vol. 79A, no. 5, pp. 349-355.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Deng, W, Jin, D, Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K, Yuan, J & Goldys, EM 2010, 'Europium Chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) and Its Metal Nanostructure Enhanced Luminescence Applied to Bioassays and Time-Gated Bioimaging', LANGMUIR, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 10036-10043.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jiang, H, Wang, G, Zhang, W, Liu, X, Ye, Z, Jin, D, Yuan, J & Liu, Z 2010, 'Preparation and Time-Resolved Luminescence Bioassay Application of Multicolor Luminescent Lanthanide Nanoparticles', JOURNAL OF FLUORESCENCE, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 321-328.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jiang, L, Wu, J, Wang, G, Ye, Z, Zhang, W, Jin, D, Yuan, J & Piper, J 2010, 'Development of a Visible-Light-Sensitized Europium Complex for Time-Resolved Fluorometric Application', ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 2529-2535.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Deng, W, Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K, Jin, D & Goldys, EM 2009, 'Enhanced Flow Cytometry-Based Bead Immunoassays Using Metal Nanostructures', ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 81, no. 17, pp. 7248-7255.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jin, D, Piper, JA, Leif, RC, Yang, S, Ferrari, BC, Yuan, J, Wang, G, Vallarino, LM & Williams, JW 2009, 'Time-gated flow cytometry: an ultra-high selectivity method to recover ultra-rare-event mu-targets in high-background biosamples', JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS, vol. 14, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Leif, RC, Yang, S, Jin, D, Piper, J, Vallarino, LM, Williams, JW & Zucker, RM 2009, 'Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes', JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS, vol. 14, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Song, C, Ye, Z, Wang, G, Jin, D, Yuan, J, Guan, Y & Piper, J 2009, 'Preparation and time-gated luminescence bioimaging application of ruthenium complex covalently bound silica nanoparticles', TALANTA, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 103-108.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wu, J, Ye, Z, Wang, G, Jin, D, Yuan, J, Guan, Y & Piper, J 2009, 'Visible-light-sensitized highly luminescent europium nanoparticles: preparation and application for time-gated luminescence bioimaging', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1258-1264.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wu, J, Wang, G, Jin, D, Yuan, J, Guan, Y & Piper, J 2008, 'Luminescent europium nanoparticles with a wide excitation range from UV to visible light for biolabeling and time-gated luminescence bioimaging', CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, no. 3, pp. 365-367.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jin, D, Connally, R & Piper, J 2007, 'Practical time-gated luminescence flow cytometry. II: Experimental evaluation using UV LED excitation', CYTOMETRY PART A, vol. 71A, no. 10, pp. 797-808.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Connally, R, Jin, D & Piper, J 2006, 'High intensity solid-state UV source for time-gated luminescence microscopy', CYTOMETRY PART A, vol. 69A, no. 9, pp. 1020-1027.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jin, D, Connally, R & Piper, J 2006, 'Long-lived visible luminescence of UV LEDs and impact on LED excited time-resolved fluorescence applications', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 461-465.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Precise design and fabrication of heterogeneous nanostructures will enable nanoscale devices to integrate multiple desirable functionalities. But due to the diffraction limit (~200 nm), the optical uniformity and diversity within the heterogeneous functional nanostructures are hardly controlled and characterized. Here we report a set of nanobarcodes, each optically active section has its unique nonlinear responses to donut illumination patterns, so that one can discern each unit with super resolution. To achieve this, we first realized an approach of highly controlled epitaxial growth and produced a range of one-dimensional heterogeneous structures. Each section along the nanorod structure display tunable upconversion emissions, in four optically orthogonal dimensions, including colour, lifetime, excitation wavelength, and power dependency. Moreover, we demonstrated a 210 nm single nanorod as the smallest polychromatic light source for the on-demand generation of RGB photonic emissions. Remarkably, within a space of 50 nm, only 1/20th of the excitation wavelength, multiple codes can be successfully coded and decoded in 4 optical dimensions. This precision control enables the fabrication of super capacity geometrical barcodes with theoretical coding capacity up to (24-1)4. This work benchmarks our new ability towards the full control of sub-diffraction-limit optical diversities of single heterogeneous nanoparticles.
Jin, D, Lu, Y, Lief, RC, Yang, S, Rajendran, M & Miller, L 2014, 'How to build a time-gated luminescence microscope' in Current Protocols in Cytometry, John Wiley & Sons, USA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The sensitivity of filter-based fluorescence microscopy techniques is limited by autofluorescence background. Time-gated detection is a practical way to suppress autofluorescence, enabling higher contrast and improved sensitivity. In the past few years, three groups of authors have demonstrated independent approaches to build robust versions of time-gated luminescence microscopes. Three detailed, step-by-step protocols are provided here for modifying standard fluorescent microscopes to permit imaging time-gated luminescence
Deng, W, Jin, D & Goldys, EM 2011, 'Metal nanostructure-enhanced fluorescence and its biological applications' in Kane, D, Micolich, A & Rabeau, J (eds), Nanotechnology in Australia: Showcase of Early Career Research, Pan Stanford Publishing, USA, pp. 347-374.
Over the last two decades, fluorescence-based detection has become one of the leading sensing technologies in biomedical, biological, and related sciences. Its sensitivity makes it possible to detect a single biomolecule through labelling with a suitable fluorophore. Two principal fluorophore properties, brightness and photostability, are fundamentally important to achieve a high level of sensitivity, and in many conventional fluorophores these often fall short of the requirements.. Among the methods used to improve the sensitivity of fluorescence detection, the metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) technique has been recently actively developed. The MEF phenomenon occurs when an excited fluorophore is located in close proximity to metals, and it is particularly pronounced near noble metal nanostructures.. Electrons in such metal nanostructures exhibit strong resonances often located in the visible part of the spectrum (also known as surface plasmon resonance). They can interact with proximal fluorophores, modifying their optical properties and producing increased quantum yield (fluorescence efficiency) and improved photostability. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the MEF technique can increase fluorescence intensity up to several hundreds times. This chapter provides an overview of MEF, covering its basic theory, synthesis of metal nanostructures, and biological applications based on MEF. We focus on silver nanostructures because their strong surface plasmon resonance in the visible matches the absorption and emission bands of most fluorophores. We discuss traditional planar MEF substrates as well as silver nanostructures deposited on micrometre-sized silica beads, generating a fluorescence enhancement of more than one order of magnitude. This achievement allowed us to demonstrate for the first time MEF immunoassays on silica beads by using high-throughput flow cytometry. Furthermore, we discovered that these silver nanostructure-coated silica beads are ...
Jin, D, Yuan, J & Piper, J 2011, 'Long-lifetime luminescent nanobioprobes for advanced cytometry biosensing' in Kane, D, Micolich, A & Rabeau, J (eds), Nanotechnology in Australia: Showcase of Early Career Research, Pan Stanford Publishing, USA, pp. 317-345.
In biological discovery and disease diagnosis, there are increasing demands for rapid detection of trace amounts of cells, organisms, and molecules. one of the most popular methods is labelling the target analytes with fluorescent bioprobes, thus making the targets spectrally distinguishable. However, conventional molecular bioprobes are weak, photobleaching, and often not sufficient to suppress autofluorescence backgrounds by spectral discrimination, since many naturally occurring substances are autofluorescent under ultraviolet (uV) or visible-wavelength excitation. This represents a typical biosensing problem of detecting a needle in a haystack. Here we show long-lifetime luminescent silica nanoparticles as bioprobes to provide excellent opportunities in suppression of autofluorescence backgrounds in the temporal domain. This is due to the exceptionally long lifetime from lanthanide bioprobes in the order of several hundred microseconds, in contrast to the few-nanosecond-lifetime autofluorescence backgrounds. using a covalent-binding nanoencapsulation technique, the as-prepared ~40 nm monodisperse silica nanoparticle effectively protects thousands of lanthanide complex dyes against the quenching environment. This results in both remarkable signal amplification and enhanced photostability. Due to the large difference in the lifetime, the microsecondlived signal luminescence can be detected in a background-free condition against the nanosecond-lived autofluorescence using time-gated detection. Furthermore, the effective simultaneous confinement of multiple lanthanide-element dyes within nanoparticles also provides opportunities to produce multiplexing bioprobes. In this chapter, we showcase our successfully engineered microsecond-lifetime nanobioprobes for immunobioassays of human prostate-specific antigen (psA) and bioimaging applications of an environmental pathogen Giardia lamblia. our achievements include a radical extension of the excitation wavelength from...
Chen, C, Wang, F, Wen, S, Liu, Y, Shan, X & Jin, D 2019, 'Upconversion nanoparticles assisted multi-photon fluorescence saturation microscopy', NANOSCALE IMAGING, SENSING, AND ACTUATION FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS XVI, Conference on Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVI, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, San Francisco, CA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kianinia, M, Bradac, C, Sontheimer, B, Wang, F, Tran, TT, Nguyen, M, Kim, S, Xu, Z-Q, Jin, D, Schell, AW, Lobo, C, Aharanovich, I & Toth, M 2019, 'Enhanced Super-Resolution Imaging of Quantum Emitters in Hexagonal Boron Nitride', 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), Compound Semiconductor Week, IEEE, Nara, Japan.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Layered van der Waals materials are emerging as compelling two-dimensional platforms for nanophotonics, polaritonics, valleytronics and spintronics, and have the potential to transform applications in sensing, imaging and quantum information processing. Amongst these, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is known to host ultra-bright, room-temperature quantum emitters, whose nature is yet to be fully understood. Here, we present a set of measurements which give unique insight into the photophysical properties and level structure of hBN quantum emitters. Specifically, we report the existence of a class of hBN quantum emitters with a fast-decaying intermediate and a long-lived metastable state accessible from the first excited electronic state. Furthermore, by means of a two-laser repumping scheme, we show an enhanced photoluminescence and emission intensity which can be utilized to realize a new modality of far-field super-resolution imaging. Our findings expand current understanding of quantum emitters in hBN and show new potential ways of harnessing their nonlinear optical properties in sub-diffraction nanoscopy.
Fu, LB, Shi, BY, Jin, DY & Chung, R 2017, 'Versatile upconversion surfaces evaluation platform for bio-nano surface selection for nervous system', 2017 IEEE 17th International Conference on Nanotechnology, NANO 2017, 17th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO), IEEE, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, pp. 932-933.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. Neurodegenerative disorder diseases have been perplexing physicians and scientists for many years. There is considerable interest in developing diagnostic nanotools for diagnosis and therapeutic treatment strategies for the neuron diseases. However, a key challenge remains in selection of suitable surface to overcome the nano-bio interface issue as many nanoparticles indicate instability when administered into biological environments and show serious cytotoxicity to sensitive central nervous system. We have developed new-generation upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) which represent a promising model nanoparticle for suitable evaluation due to its superior properties in bio photonics.
© 2017 OSA. Through the strategic application of upconversion rare-earth nanoparticles (UCNPs), this work has reduced the intensity of the traditional super-resolution by 2-3 orders of magnitude. It reveals a new mechanism of stimulated emission caused by the photon avalanche effect. With only 30mW continuous laser, resolution down to 28nm has been attained, which is only 1/36 of the excitation wavelength.
Yang, X, Xie, H, Alonas, E, Liu, Y, Chen, X, Santangelo, PJ, Ren, Q, Xi, P & Jin, D 2017, 'Mirror enhanced STED super-resolution microscopy', 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2017 - Proceedings, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, IEEE, San Jose, CA, USA, pp. 1-2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. Through reflective interference, the axial thickness of confocal point spread function can be easily improved to 100 nm. Six-fold of axial resolution and two-fold of lateral resolution can be obtained for STED nanoscopy.
Jin, D, Li, D & Shi, X 2016, 'Polydopamine-coated gold nanostars for CT imaging and enhanced photothermal therapy of tumors', Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE, Adelaide.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The advancement of biocompatible nanoplatforms with dual functionalities of diagnosis and therapeutics is strongly demanded in biomedicine in recent years. In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of polydopamine (pD)-coated gold nanostars (Au NSs) for computed tomography (CT) imaging and enhanced photothermal therapy (PTT) of tumors. Au NSs were firstly formed via a seed-mediated growth method and then stabilized with thiolated polyethyleneimine (PEI-SH), followed by deposition of pD on their surface. The formed pD-coated Au NSs (Au-PEI@pD NSs) were well characterized. We show that the Au-PEI@pD NSs are able to convert the absorbed near-infrared laser light into heat, and have strong X-ray attenuation property. Due to the co-existence of Au NSs and the pD, the light to heat conversion efficiency of the NSs can be significantly enhanced. These very interesting properties allow their uses as a powerful theranostic nanoplatform for efficient CT imaging and enhanced phtotothermal therapy of cancer cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo. With the easy functionalization nature enabled by the coated pD shell, the developed pD-coated Au NSs may be developed as a versatile nanoplatform for targeted CT imaging and PTT of different types of cancer. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Wen, S, Li, D, Liu, D, Xu, X, Du, Y, Mitchell, DRG, Shi, B, Shi, X & Jin, D 2016, 'Seed mediated one-pot growth of versatile heterogeneous upconversion nanocrystals for multimodal bioimaging', Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE Digital Library, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 SPIE.The rapid development of a variety of molecular contrast agents makes the multimodality bioimaging highly attractive towards higher resolution, more sensitive, informative diagnosis. The key lies in the development of facile material synthesis that allows the integration of multiple contrast agents, ideally in a way that each of the components should be logically assembled to maximize their performances. Here, we report the one-pot programmable growth of multifunctional heterogeneous nanocrystal with tunable size, shape, composition, and properties. We demonstrated a facile one-pot hot-injection method to enable the highly selectively controlled growth of different sodium lanthanide fluoride nanomaterials in either longitudinal or transversal directions with atomic scale precision. This technique allows the upconversion luminescence signal, MRI signal and x-ray signal logically integrated and optimized within one single versatile nanoplatform for multimode bioimaging. These findings suggest that the facile strategy developed here have the promising to get the desired heterogeneous nanocrystals as an all-in-one contrast agent for integrated and self-correlative multimodal bioimaging.
Zhao, J, Zheng, X, Schartner, EP, Ionescu, P, Zhang, R, Nguyen, TL, Jin, D & Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H 2016, 'Upconversion nanocrystals doped glass: A new paradigm for integrated optical glass', Optics InfoBase Conference Papers.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© OSA 2016. A new versatile method of integrating upconversion nanocrystals into a glassy matrix is presented, which opens up exciting possibilities for new hybrid glass materials and multifunctional fiber devices with tailored nanoscale properties and high transparency.
Jin, D 2014, 'Upconversion SuperDots', Optical Instrumentation for Energy and Environmental Applications, E2 2014.
Liu, Y, Xie, H, Alonas, E, Santangelo, PJ, Jin, D & Xi, P 2012, 'CW STED nanoscopy with a Ti:Sapphire oscillator', Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, Optics in Health Care and Biomedical Optics, SPIE, Beijing, China.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool to study biological molecules, pathways and events in living cells, tissues and animals. Meanwhile, the conventional optical microscopy is limited by the wavelength of the light. Even the most advanced confocal microscopy or multiphoton microscopy can only yield optical resolution approaching the diffraction limit of ~200 nm. This is still larger than many subcellular structures, which are too small to be resolved in detail. These limitations have driven the development of super-resolution optical imaging methodologies over the past decade. The stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy was the first and most direct approach to overcoming the diffraction limit for far-field nanoscopy. Typically, the excitation focus is overlapped by an intense doughnut-shaped spot to instantly de-excite markers from their fluorescent state to the ground state by stimulated emission. This effectively eliminates the periphery of the Point Spread Function (PSF), resulting in a narrower focal region, or super-resolution. Scanning a sharpened spot through the specimen renders images with sub-diffraction resolution. Multi-color STED imaging can present important structural and functional information for protein-protein interaction. In this work, we presented a dual color, synchronization-free STED stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy with a Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The excitation wavelengths were 532nm and 635nm, respectively. With pump power of 4.6 W and sample irradiance of 310 mW, we achieved super-resolution as high as 71 nm. We also imaged 200 nm nanospheres as well as all three cytoskeletal elements (microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments), clearly demonstrating the super-resolution resolving power over conventional diffraction limited imaging. It also allowed us to discover that, Dylight 650, exhibits improved performance over ATTO647N, a fluorophore frequently used in STED. Furthermore, we ap...
Lu, Y, Lu, J, Piper, JA, Xi, P & Jin, D 2013, 'Orthogonal scanning automated microscopy (OSAM) speeds up time-gated luminescence detection', Bio-Optics: Design and Application, BODA 2013.
We report a versatile platform of orthogonal scanning automated microscopy (OSAM) cooperated with time-gated detection technique. Featuring rapid processing and background-free detection, it offers ultra-high sensitivity to spot rare-event cells and quantitate low-expression surface molecules. Optics in the Life Sciences Congress Technical Digest © 2013 The Optical Society (OSA).
Lu, Y, Lu, J, Piper, JA, Xi, P & Jin, D 2013, 'Orthogonal scanning automated microscopy speeds up time-gated luminescence detection', Optical Trapping Applications, OTA 2013.
We report a versatile platform of orthogonal scanning automated microscopy (OSAM) cooperated with time-gated detection technique. Featuring rapid processing and background-free detection, it offers ultra-high sensitivity to spot rare-event cells and quantitate low-expression surface molecules. © 2013 The Optical Society (OSA).
Lu, Y, Lu, J, Piper, JA, Xi, P & Jin, D 2013, 'Orthogonal scanning automated microscopy speeds up time-gated luminescence detection', Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging and Drug Delivery, OMP 2013.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We report a versatile platform of orthogonal scanning automated microscopy (OSAM) cooperated with time-gated detection technique. Featuring rapid processing and background-free detection, it offers ultra-high sensitivity to spot rare-event cells and quantitate low-expression surface molecules. ©2013 The Optical Society (OSA).
Schartner, EP, Jin, D, Zhao, J & Monro, TM 2013, 'Sensitive detection of NaYF4: Yb/Tm nanoparticles using suspended core microstructured optical fibers', Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, Conference on Colloidal Nanocrystals for Biomedical Applications, SPIE, San Francisco, California, United States.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Rare-earth doped upconversion nanocrystals are emerging as the next-generation luminescent biomaterials. Here we load NaYF 4 : Yb/Er and NaYF 4 : Yb/Tm upconversion nanocrystals into a soft-glass suspended-core optical fiber dip sensor, allowing sensitive measurements and power-dependent characterizations to be performed. This, in combination with negligible background autofluorescence from the glass fiber when using infrared excitation has provided a significant improvement in terms of sensitivity over what has previously been demonstrated using an optical fiber dip sensor. For detection we employ suspended-core optical fibers, which have found extensive use in sensing applications. These combine the high evanescent overlap comparable to that of a nanowire, with the robust handling characteristics and long interaction length of a conventional fiber. The fiber sensor platform allows measurements to be performed using minimal sample volumes ( < 20 nL) while still maintaining the sensitivity of the platform. © 2013 Copyright SPIE.
Xi, P, Xie, H, Liu, Y & Jin, D 2013, 'Stimulated emission depletion point spread function generation with vector solution', Nanophotonics, Nanoelectronics and Nanosensor, N3 2013.
The excitation and depletion point spread functions of stimulated emission depletion optical microscopy have been derived, based on the vectorial diffraction theory. The performance of STED with high numerical aperture objective can be simulated with this method. © OSA 2013.
Xie, H, Ding, Y, Liu, Y, Zhang, L, Jin, D, Santangelo, PJ, Ren, Q & Xi, P 2013, 'Sted3d: Point spread function simulation for high numerical aperture objective and resolution evaluation', Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging and Drug Delivery, OMP 2013.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We developed STED3D to accelerate the calculation of point spread function with vector diffraction theory. Electromagnetic fields for both excitation and vortex modulated depletion beams can be simulated, to yield the resolution of STED nanoscopy.©Optics in the Life Sciences Congress Technical Digest.
Xie, H, Ding, Y, Liu, Y, Zhang, L, Jin, D, Santangelo, PJ, Ren, Q & Xi, P 2013, 'STED3D: Point spread function simulation for high numerical aperture objective and resolution evaluation', Bio-Optics: Design and Application, BODA 2013.
We developed STED3D to accelerate the calculation of point spread function with vector diffraction theory. Electromagnetic fields for both excitation and vortex modulated depletion beams can be simulated, to yield the resolution of STED nanoscopy. Optics in the Life Sciences Congress Technical Digest © 2013 The Optical Society (OSA).
Xie, H, Ding, Y, Liu, Y, Zhang, L, Jin, D, Santangelo, PJ, Ren, Q & Xi, P 2013, 'Sted3D: Point spread function simulation for high numerical aperture objective and resolution evaluation', Optical Trapping Applications, OTA 2013.
We developed STED3D to accelerate the calculation of point spread function with vector diffraction theory. Electromagnetic fields for both excitation and vortex modulated depletion beams can be simulated, to yield the resolution of STED nanoscopy. © 2013 The Optical Society (OSA).
Zhao, J, Lu, Z, Yin, Y, Zhang, L, McKay, A, McRae, C, Piper, JA, Jin, D, Goldys, EM & Dawes, JM 2013, 'Characterisation of upconversion nanoparticles for imaging', Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, ACP, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA, Beijing, China.View/Download from: Publisher's site
By controlling the size of Yb,Er, doped upconversion nanoparticles, we obtain varying emission lifetimes and emission ratios of green and red light, which we explain by modelling of excited state decay mechanisms. © OSA 2013.
Leif, RC, Yang, S, Lu, Y, Jin, D & Chambers, S 2012, 'A cost-effective analog method to produce time-gated luminescence images', Proceedings of SPIE Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues X, Conference on Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues, SPIE, San Francisco, California, United States.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Time-gated luminescence images were obtained by analog summation of a series of sequential images that were obtained with a cooled modified interline CCD camera, and a fluorescence microscope modified to use a UV LED for illumination. The interline CCD camera obtains an analog sum of a multi-frame image by not reading out the storage line after each frame is acquired; instead, the charges from the acquisition pixels are transferred to the storage pixels, which adds them to those previously stored; subsequently, the sum of the images is readout from the storage pixels and digitized. The length of the exposure is limited by the capacity of the storage pixels and the rate of generation of background (noise). Previously, the quality of the images obtained with the room temperature camera was degraded by the buildup of thermal noise. The interline transfer, electronically shuttered, cooled astronomy CCD camera, which was modified for analog summation rapidly produced low noise images; yet permitted long exposures. The past problems with lanthanide dyes of low extinction coefficients and equipment cost have now been solved. © 2012 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
Peng, T, Xie, H, Ding, Y, Lu, Y, Jin, D & Xi, P 2012, 'LOSOM: Phase relief imaging can be achieved with confocal system', Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, Optics in Health Care and Biomedical Optics, SPIE, Beijing, China.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We reported recently that laser oblique scanning optical microscopy (LOSOM) is able to obtain a relief image in transparent sample directly. To optimize the performance of LOSOM, the parameters such as numerical aperture, the distance between the specimen and the fluorescent medium and the pinhole size are investigated in this work. A beam blocker is introduced in light path which enhances dramatically the visualization of local phase difference. © Copyright SPIE.
Peng, T, Xie, H, Ding, Y, Wang, W, Li, Z, Jin, D, Tang, Y, Ren, Q & Xi, P 2012, 'Confocal reflectance/auto-fluorescence tomograpy (CRAFT) for early skin cancer diagnosis', Biomedical Optics, BIOMED 2012, Biomedical Optics and 3-D Imaging, OSA Publishing.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Histopathological analysis has been the gold standard of conventional cancer diagnosis for decades, which is based on the structural and/or biochemical change of the cancerous sites, through biopsy. However, due to cosmetic reasons, the biopsy procedure has to be limited. In this work, we report the noninvasive, in situ, 3-D optical diagnostic method for "virtual biopsy". To obtain simultaneously the structural and pathological information, a multimodality Confocal Reflectance/Auto-Fluorescence Tomography (CRAFT) system was established. Nude mice skin with cancerous sites and normal skin sites were compared with the system. The cellular density and reflective intensity in cancerous sites reflects the structural alteration of the tissue. The corresponding NAD(P)H decay index for cancerous sites is 2.45-fold that of normal sites, leading to a clearly separation of the cancerous sites with the healthy control sites. The results are verified by the followed histological analysis. Therefore, CRAFT may provide a novel method for the in vivo, non-invasive diagnosis of early cancer. © 2012.
Schartner, EP, Jin, D, Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H, Piper, JA & Monro, TM 2012, 'Lanthanide upconversion nanocrystals within microstructured optical fibres; A sensitive platform for biosensing and a new tool for nanocrystal characterisation', Proceedings of SPIE Third Asia Pacific Optical Sensors Conference, Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference, SPIE, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We investigate a powerful new sensing platform based on upconversion luminescence in NaYF4: Yb/Er nanocrystals loaded inside a suspended-core microstructured optical fibre. The use of a NIR source enables autofluorescence from the glass to be reduced compared to using visible sources for excitation of fluorescence. We demonstrate a substantial improvement in the detection limit that can be achieved in a suspended-core fibre sensor, with detection limits as low as 660 fM achieved. This is a factor of 15× better than the best results previously reported using Quantum dots in a similar fibre. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
Zhao, J, Piper, JA, Dawes, JM, Jin, D & Goldys, EM 2011, 'Mechanisms of size-dependent lifetime quenching in luminescent upconverting colloidal NaYF4:Yb, Er nanocrystals', 2011 International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC) and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Pacific Rim incorporating the Australasian Conference on Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim, IEEE, Sydney, NSW, Australia, pp. 384-386.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Upconversion decay rates in colloidal NaYF 4 :Yb, Er nanocrystals for biolabelling depend on nanoparticle size. Lifetime dependence on various quenching mechanisims is explained using rate equations to describe the evolution of upconverting green and red luminescence. © 2011 IEEE.
Deng, W, Jin, D, Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K, Yuan, J, Wu, J & Goldys, EM 2011, 'Plasmonic Ag/SiO2composite nanoparticles doped with europium chelate and their metal enhanced fluorescence', Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, Colloidal Quantum Dots/Nanocrystals for Biomedical Applications VI, SPIE, USA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We report silver nanostructure-enhanced fluorescence of a europium (Eu) chelate, BHHCT-Eu-DPBT, which was covalently bound in Ag/SiO 2 nanocomposites. This design enhances the europium signal intensity by more than one order of magnitude, and accelerates the decay time from 0.3 ms down to 60 microseconds, at low excitation conditions. These nanocomposites were bright enough to be observed in time-gated fluorescence microscopy under 365 nm LED excitation. The increased brightness and reduced lifetime of such fluorescent core-shell nanocomposites will enhance their applicability for ultrasensitive bioassays and bioimaging, especially with time-gating. © 2011 SPIE.
Goldys, EM, Deng, W, Calander, NP, Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K & Jin, D 2011, 'Nanoscale plasmonic resonators with high Purcell factor: Spontaneous and stimulated emission', Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, Colloidal Quantum Dots/Nanocrystals for Biomedical Applications VI, SPIE, USA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Plasmonic nanoparticles with silver cores and silica shells containing Eu fluorophores near the surface have been produced by wet chemistry method and their spontaneous emission properties characterized. Fluorescence amplification and decreased lifetime is interpreted within the Purcell framework which highlights the role of surface plasmon polariton modes of the nanoparticle. These behave as energy-storing resonators, with values of the Q factor between 50 and 170 at the fluorophore wavelength of 615 nm, and very small mode volumes, in the order of 10 4 nm 3 , producing high Purcell factors of over 4000. Comparison of experiment with theoretical calculations by using the Mie theory shows that the values of cavity Q factors are moderated by the nonradiative rate of fluorophore molecules close to metal. The criteria for laser action in such composite nanoparticles are also presented, including lasing frequencies and threshold gain. © 2011 SPIE.
Jin, D, Lu, Y, Zhao, J, Deng, W, Lu, J & Piper, JA 2011, 'Advances in lanthanide bioprobes and high-throughput background-free biophotonics sensing', 2011 Int. Quantum Electron. Conf., IQEC 2011 and Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO Pacific Rim 2011 Incorporating the Australasian Conf. Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy and the Australian Conf., 2011 International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC) and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Pacific Rim incorporating the Australasian Conference on Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, IEEE, Sydney, NSW, Australia, pp. 80-82.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We report time-domain techniques of biophotonics sensing. Our bioprobes have been engineered to emit tunable luminescence across multiple sharp spectra and microsecond-long lifetimes. This offers high-throughput opportunities for cellular-level disease diagnosis at low cost. © 2011 IEEE.
Lu, Y, Piper, JA, Huo, Y & Jin, D 2011, 'Cytometric investigation of rare-events featuring time-gated detection and high-speed stage scanning', 2011 Int. Quantum Electron. Conf., IQEC 2011 and Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO Pacific Rim 2011 Incorporating the Australasian Conf. Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy and the Australian Conf., pp. 2011-2013.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We report a time-gated luminescence cytometric strategy to detect rare-event waterborne pathogens. The prototype system is capable of analyzing a 15mm 15mm slide containing as rare as 13 europium-labeled Giardia cysts within 5 minutes. © 2011 IEEE.
Deng, W, Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K, Jin, D & Goldys, EM 2010, 'Silver nanostructure coated beads enhance fluorescence for sensitive immunoassays and bioimaging', ICONN 2010 - Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, pp. 108-111.View/Download from: Publisher's site
While the principle of fluorescence enhancement of metal nanostructures is well known, the utility of this effect in practical methodologies used in analytical laboratories remains to be established. In this work we explored the advantage of fluorescence enhancement for flow cytometry and bioimaging. We reported the observation of metal-enhanced fluorescence emission of fluorophores located on the surface of silver nanostructure-coated silica beads, suitable for flow cytometry detection. The fluorescence enhancement was investigated using a model AlexaFluor 430 IgG immunoassay. Approximately 8.5-fold higher fluorescence intensities at 430 nm excitation was observed from silvered 400 nm silica beads deposited on glass as compared to the control sample. Enhanced fluorescence signals, by a factor of 2, were also observed in imaging of cells labeled with the europium chelate, 4,4'-bis(1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-4,6- hexanedion-6-yl)chlorosulfo-o-terphenyl-Eu3 (BHHCT-Eu3), when such silver-coated silica beads were used as substrates. These results indicated that silver nanostructures-coated silica beads are able to provide intensified fluorescence signals for bioassays and bioimaging. © 2010 IEEE.
Jin, D, Piper, J, Yuan, J & Leif, R 2010, 'Time-gated real-time bioimaging system using multicolor microsecond-lifetime silica nanoparticles', IMAGING, MANIPULATION, AND ANALYSIS OF BIOMOLECULES, CELLS, AND TISSUES VIII, Conference on Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues VII, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, San Francisco, CA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jin, D, Ferrari, B, Leif, R, Yang, S, Vallarino, LM, WilliamS, J & Piper, J 2008, 'UV LED excited time-gated luminescence flow cytometry: Evaluation for rare-event particle counting', IMAGING, MANIPULATION, AND ANALYSIS OF BIOMOLECULES, CELLS, AND TISSUES VI, Conference on Imaging, Manipulation and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues VI, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, San Jose, CA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Leif, RC, Jin, D, Piper, J, Vallarino, LM, Williams, JW, Yang, S & Zucker, RM 2008, 'Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes', IMAGING, MANIPULATION, AND ANALYSIS OF BIOMOLECULES, CELLS, AND TISSUES VI, Conference on Imaging, Manipulation and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues VI, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, San Jose, CA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jin, D, Connally, R & Piper, J 2006, 'UV LED excited time-gated luminescence flow cytometry: Concepts and experimental evaluation', SMART MEDICAL AND BIOMEDICAL SENSOR TECHNOLOGY IV, Conference on Smart Medical and Biomedical Sensor Technology IV, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, Boston, MA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Connally, R, Jin, DY & Piper, J 2005, 'BHHST : An improved lanthanide chelate for time-resolved fluorescence applications', Genetically Engineered and Optical Probes for Biomedical Applications III, Conference on Genetically Engineered and Optical Probes for Biomedical Applications III, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, San Jose, CA, pp. 93-104.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jin, DY, Connally, R & Piper, J 2005, 'Investigation of UV LED luminescence properties for time-resolved fluorescence biomedical applications', 2005 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (LEOS), 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE-Lasers-and-Electro-Optical-Society, IEEE, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, pp. 161-162.
Jin, DY, Connally, R & Piper, J 2005, 'Ultra-sensitive time-resolved nanoliter volume fluorometry based on UV LEDs and a channel photomultiplier tube', IMAGING, MANIPULATION, AND ANALYSIS OF BIOMOLECULES AND CELLS: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS III, Conference on Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules and Cells - Fundamentals and Applications III, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, San Jose, CA, pp. 237-245.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Piper, JA, Connally, RE & Jin, DY 2005, 'High-contrast detection of target organisms in highly autofluorescent backgrounds using time-rdesolved techniques', 2005 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (LEOS), 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE-Lasers-and-Electro-Optical-Society, IEEE, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, pp. 159-160.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Research funding income: Since his PhD in 2007, Prof Jin has attracted competitive research funding of over $40 m ($10 m as lead or sole Chief Investigator, including four consecutive research fellowship awards).
ARC LIEF grant ($435,279.00) to build a high-throughput portable and wearable device fabrication facility (Lead CI)
ARC LIEF grant ($541,705.00) to build a National facility for nanoscale characterisation of luminescent materials
ARC Industry Transformational Research Hub for Integrated Device for End-user Analysis at Low-levels (IDEAL) as the Director. ($3.7 million requested from ARC), with University of Technology Sydney, University of South Australia, MINOMIC INTERNATIONAL LTD, SURGICAL DIAGNOSTICS PTY LIMITED, PREG TECH PTY LTD, ALCOLIZER TECHNOLOGY By transforming Australian advances in biomolecular science, nanotechnology and device engineering into highvalue products, the Hub aims to radically improve sensitivity, selectivity, speed and cost for detection of biological materials. The mission is to build a portable device for rapid, time-critical detection of low abundance molecular and cellular analytes. The resulting technologies will be designed for use on the production line, at the clinic, bedside, roadside and transport points to identify tiny levels of targeted molecules. The initial focus is early diagnosis of disease and point-of-care drug testing for humans and animals, but the technology platform could be used to sample food and environmental toxins, for example.
ARC (LIEF 150100177), $440,000.00 from ARC + $370 k from collaboration institutions, Macquarie University, the University of Sydney, RMIT University, and the University of Adelaide, (Lead Chief Investigator) "National live cell scanning platform for nanoparticle tracking" Chief Investigators: Jin, A/Prof Dayong; Monro, Prof Tanya M; Braet, A/Prof Filip C; Gibson, Dr Brant C; Paulsen, Prof Ian T; Traini, A/Prof Daniela; Hutchinson, A/Prof Mark R; Greentree, A/Prof Andrew D; Chung, Prof Roger; Young, A/Prof Paul M; Willows, A/Prof Robert D; Lu, Dr Yiqing; project summary: The aim of the project is to establish a multi-disciplinary, multi-user, self-correlated scanning facility to reach a new level of temporal and spatial precision for real-time tracking and quantification of biomolecules and nanoparticles within large populations of living cells. The facility will consist of a live-cell spinning-disc confocal microscope, a correlated biological atomic force microscope, and remote access facilities. It is expected that with superior optical characterisation and mechanical manipulation, the automated orthogonal scanning facility will open new avenues to reveal unprecedented information from biological and pathological processes. The collaborative facility will support world-class researchers in the multi-disciplinary areas of physical, material and life sciences, placing Australia at the forefront of nanoscale biophotonics.
ARC Industry Linkage Project 2014 -2017 (LP140100462), $370,000.00 from ARC + $ 110k cash & $341 k in-kind from industry, (Lead Chief Investigator) “Rapid Pathogen Detection using Super-Sensitive Multiplexing Nanophotonic Probes”; Project Summary: Responding to an urgent need to advance rapid molecular diagnostics, this project aims to explore new photonics and biochemistry approaches to DNA recognition. It is anchored on proprietary light-emitting nanodots which have single- molecule sensitivity in conjunction with tunable optical identities. The project aims to develop a multiplexing reagent library of DNA probes to sense trace DNA molecules and to recognise multiple pathogens in a single assay. This innovation aims to create a hybrid-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology platform for current industry-standard pathogen detection tests.
ARC Future Fellowship 2013 -2017, $753,270.00 from ARC + $200,000.00 from Macquarie University (Sole Chief Investigator) “Beyond Spectral Detection: Engineering SUPER Dot Probes for High-Throughput Discovery”
ARC Centre of Excellence – Nanoscale Biophotonics, 2014 – 2020, $23,000,000.00 funded from the Australian Research Council (Centre Director, Prof. Tanya Monro). I am one of the ten Chief Investigators spanning the University of Adelaide, Macquarie University and RMIT University, and co-leading the “Illuminate” Science Theme to develop strategic research direction on advanced functional/optical materials, and oversee the progress of Centre programs to deliver a library of efficient nanoscale light sources.
ARC Industry Linkage Project 2013 - 2016, $427,510.00 from ARC + $190,000.00 cash & $570,000.00 in-kind from industry, (Lead Chief Investigator) "Rapid detection of rare-event cells by strong UP-conversion encoded nano-radiators (SUPER Dots): finding a needle in a haystack" Project Summary: Current diagnostic tests are not sensitive enough to detect cancer in its very early stages or early recurrence following treatment. The new technologies developed by this project will be able to find single cancer cells in blood and urine samples heralding a new era in medical diagnostics.
ARC Australian Research Council Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities 2014, $300,000.00 (Co CI) " CyTOF platform for the Advanced Cytometry Facility: overcoming fluorescence spectral barriers to truly multiparametric cytometry by mass spectrometry"
Macquarie University Research Development Grant 2013 –2014, $ 30, 000 (sole Chief Investigator) “Pass the barriers: new opportunities to investigate the nanoscale drug delivery”
MQ safety net fund, 2013, $25,000.00 (co-CI) “Lanthanide Dyes for Super Resolution: Achieving Stimulated Emission Depletion at Sub-milliwatt Powers (DP140104227: Piper & Jin)”
Research Infrastructure Block Grants (RIBG) 2014, $ 100,000.00 (First Lead CI) “Automated Scanning Cytometry for Rapid Detection, Quantification and Localization of Pathogens, Cells, and Photonics Nanomaterials” Research Infrastructure Block Grants (RIBG) 2012, $ 98,784.00 (Co CI) “An in vivo platform for background-free luminescence imaging of small animals”
Macquarie University Vice-Chancellor's Innovation Fellowship Scheme 2013, $250,000.00, (Sole CI) " Biophotonics: Powering Next-generation Molecular Diagnostics"
Research Infrastructure Block Grants (RIBG) 2012, $ 98,000.00 (First Lead CI) “Flow cytometry platform promoting multidisciplinary research excellence” Research Infrastructure Block Grants (RIBG) 2012, $ 85,650.00 (Co CI) “Broadly tunable UV-visible-IR pulsed light source for spectroscopy and nanophotonics”
Australian Research Council Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities 2012, $654,000.00 (Co CI) "Single cell genomics"
Macquarie University Linkage Projects Seeding Grants 2010 Stage 1, $ 10, 000 (Sole Chief Investigator) "Medical Demonstration of Background-free Cytometry on Rare Earth" collaborating with BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA
Macquarie University Linkage Projects Seeding Grants 2010 Stage 1, $10, 000 (Sole Chief Investigator) "Handheld flow cytometer for point-of-need microbiological testing of water" collaborating with Palo Alto Research Centre (PARC), CA, USA
Research Infrastructure Block Grants (RIBG) 2011, $ 60, 000 (Lead Chief Investigator) “High-throughput Simultaneous Photon-Sensing Platform” Research Infrastructure Block Grants (RIBG) 2011, $ 40, 000 (Co-Chief Investigator) “Multi-color imaging facility”
MQ Research Centre Scheme 2011, MQ Biofocus Research Centre (Co-Chief Investigator) $50,000
Macquarie University Research Development Grant 2010 –2012, $ 50, 000 (sole Chief Investigator) “Developing nanolasers as bio-nano-probes for ultra-sensitive biomolecular detection”
Australian Research Council Discovery Project DP1095465, 2010-2012, $ 335,125.00 (Chief Investigators Prof. J.A. Piper, Dr. D. Jin)“Novel coding and decoding in suspension arrays for accelerated biomolecular discovery and personalised medicine”
Macquarie University Research Fellowship Scheme, 2008-2011, $49,940.00 Project fund (Chief Investigator) “Background-free 100 kHz time-gated luminescence techniques for high-throughput screening of microorganisms” and $250,000.00 Salary fund
IPCMC commercialisation/Access MQ project fund, 2008, $18,331.00 (sole CI) “time-gated fluorescence flow cytometry”
MQSNS, safety net fund, 2008, $16,800.00 (sole CI) “High-speed time-gated flow cytometry with ultrabright microsecond nano-probes”
Support Scheme for Emerging Research Projects, 2006” from the FABLS network for $9,109.00 (Chief Investigator) “Time-gated Luminescence flow cytometry counting method for HIV monitoring in resource poor settings”
Support Scheme for Emerging Research Projects, 2007” from the FABLS network for $6,135.00 (Chief Investigator) “Background-free imaging flow cytometry”.