Daryl Adair (PhD) is Associate Professor of Sport Management. He has taught at Flinders Univ of South Australia (Adelaide), De Montfort Univ (Leicester), Univ of Queensland (Brisbane), and Univ of Canberra (ACT) before joining UTS in July 2007.
Daryl is on the editorial board of the academic journals Sporting Traditions, Sport in Society, Performance Enhancement and Health, the Journal of Sport History and the Journal of Sport for Development.
Can supervise: YES
sport management; sport history; Olympic Games; drugs in sport
Though an integral element of sport sociology, the study of masculinities in sport has been largely confined to Western sports such as American football. This book provides a more expanded view, offering tantalising insights into sport and manliness from culturally and geographically distinct perspectives. Editors Jorge Knijnik and Daryl Adair, along with a group of international researchers, articulate how various types of masculinities can be played out in different sports by drawing from personal experiences of athletes, investigating the cultural -- and even global -- impact of male achievements in sport, and comparing men's experiences in sport with women's. While maintaining the bodys pivotal role in the social construction of gender, Embodied Masculinities provides the sport sociological literature with an innovative and truly global perspective on what it means to be a man , whether on the field, on the court, or in the saddle.
Given the size of the Football World Cup and its economic impact it is surprising that this book is the first attempt to bring leading international mega-sport event researchers together to examine the management and organizational ...
This book provides a critical approach to sport-for-development, acknowledging the potential of this growing field but also emphasising challenges, problems and limitations, particularly if programs are not adequately planned, delivered or monitored. The book features both critical theory and reflective praxis, and will thus be useful to both academics and practitioners.
The express purpose of this volume is to critically examine the planning, management and operation of the Olympic Games as the world's premier mega-sport event.
Every year, all over the world, millions of Irish people, both native and by descent, together with their non-Irish friends, celebrate the life of a man who died over 1500 years ago. St Patrick's Day is a boisterous festival of parading and revelry, dancing and drinking, emblazoned with shamrocks and harps, and all in emerald green. The fascinating story of how the celebration of 17 March was transformed from a stuffy dinner for Ireland's elite to one of the world's most public festivals is captured for the first time in "The Wearing of the" "Green: A History of St Patrick's Day." Long celebrated with more fanfare in New York than in Dublin, the holiday has been criticized for its loss of religious meaning, ever-increasing commercialism and embarrassing displays of drunkenness. More recently, it has become a flashpoint between political divides within the Irish community. At the same time, however, it has served to unite Irish emigrants worldwide, whether they be in America, Australia or Canada.
Adair, D, Stronach, M & Maxwell, H 2019, ''Djabooly-djabooly: why don't they swim?': the ebb and flow of water in the lives of Australian Aboriginal women', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 286-304.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Aquatic activities have been pivotal to the lifestyle of Australian Indigenous peoples for millennia. That historical connection with rivers, streams and beaches is a largely untold story. This paper considers one aspect of the story: the significance swimming for Aboriginal women. Aquatic activities were, for many Aboriginal communities, crucial for food, movement and leisure.
Even a cursory trawl through newspapers and memoirs provides observations about the prowess of Aboriginal women as swimmers. But this skill-set dissipated in the wake of territorial conflict, resulting in the displacement or erosion of Aboriginal communities in coastal areas.
The paper then moves to the contemporary era, starting with an assumption that the passion for, swimming has been lost for Aboriginal women. Stories about female Indigenous swimmers, alongside the recollections of two mature-age women, present a story of limited opportunity, discrimination and challenges by way of access to water and safety therein.
Lakisa, D, Teaiwa, K, Adair, D & Taylor, T 2019, 'Empowering Voices from the Past: The Playing Experiences of Retired Pasifika Rugby League Athletes in Australia', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF SPORT.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There is a key tension associated with ethnographic explorations into the lives of people in the Global South – 'outsider' researchers from the Global North who lack experience of the environments they are seeking to understand. A considered response, therefore, is for scholars to seek physical immersion in a field – to live among those they are trying to understand. Such ethnographic inquiries are optimal when researchers have the capacity to engage over long periods of time. However, in some circumstances, this may not feasible. Thus, questions arise about the veracity of field work investigations that are not only temporally brief but undertaken by scholars who lack local experience. This paper reflects on the experiences of a researcher who was faced with those challenges. It provides guidance as to how scholars might prepare for short-term ethnography (STE) in field work, along with the limitations and constraints of such an approach. The research centered on a sport for development and peace study into intergroup relations and ethnic separatism in Fijian sport.
Sugden, JT, Kanemasu, Y & Adair, D 2019, 'Indo-Fijian women and sportive activity: A critical race feminism approach', International Review for the Sociology of Sport, p. 1012690219854645.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There are no reliable statistics about female participation in Fijian sport, yet it is well known by locals (though not widely understood) that engagement in sportive activities is rare among Indo-Fijian girls and women. This paper is the first attempt to explore how and why that is so. That said, there is an important caveat: we are not insisting that sportive activities are an inherent good. Indeed, for some cultural groups, Western-invented competitive sport may be of no interest; similarly, tangential forms of human movement, such as recreational pursuits like cycling or gym sessions, may be just as uninspiring. In that sense, the main thrust of our inquiry is the sportive experiences of Indo-Fijian female athletes, yet we have also sought feedback from those charged with the responsibility of managing sportive programmes. These combined perspectives are intended to provide a preliminary entree into the much larger ? hitherto unexplored ? question of what attitudes, opportunities and constraints are associated with sportive activities for Indo-Fijian girls and women. The paper adopts a critical race feminism framework: the goal was to accentuate females of colour (in this case Indo-Fijian women) by hearing their voices and, with their permission, reporting what they had to say. The paper nonetheless provides an adaptation to critical race feminism theory: it also engaged with individuals ? whether women or men ? charged with the responsibility of managing sportive activities. In that sense, we were interested in individual agency and experience on the part of athletic Indo-Fijian women, but also wanted to understand how (or if) local sport administrators understood ethnic diversity among female athletes, including ? in our case ? the involvement (or otherwise) of Indo-Fijian females.
Sugden, JT, Schulenkorf, N, Adair, D & Frawley, S 2019, 'The role of sport in reflecting and shaping group dynamics: The 'intergroup relations continuum' and its application to Fijian rugby and soccer', Sport Management Review.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A significant body of knowledge exists around the role of intergroup relations in sport for development and peace (SFDP). However, while numerous SFDP studies have investigated overt conflict, scholars have typically overlooked the varied nature of intergroup relations in comparatively stable SFDP environments. In addressing that issue, this paper explores intergroup relations in the context of Fiji, a country which in recent years has moved from a society characterized by the politics of coup d'état to democratic government and relatively peaceful social relations. That said, Fiji has long been shaped by a fundamental cultural divide between Indigenous Fijians (iTaukei) and Fijians of Indian ancestry (Indo-Fijians): this is reflected in the de facto separatism between these groups in relation to their role in rugby union and Association football (soccer). In this paper, the authors present a qualitative framework—the Intergroup Relations Continuum (IRC)—by which to 'map' intergroup relations as they apply in Fiji according to identity, ethnicity and sport. While the IRC is applied here in a Fijian context, the model is intended to be generalizable, aiming to provide a practical instrument for researchers, sport managers, policymakers and local stakeholders.
Mack, M, Schulenkorf, N, Adair, D & Bennie, A 2018, 'Factors influencing the development of elite-level sports officials in Australia: the AFL, ABA and FFA', Sport in Society, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1240-1257.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Previous research into sports officiating at the elite level has primarily
focused on factors that impact negatively on sports officials, including
experiences of abuse, time pressures and fear of failure. However,
factors that have positively influenced the development of elite
officials have largely been neglected. This is problematic, as a better
knowledge about how elite officials progress to top-tier competitions
may improve officiating performance and role satisfaction. This study
therefore, aims to identify factors that work positively for individuals
who seek to reach elite levels of sport officiating. This is important
because it can assist our understanding of how to create a positive
environment for the development of young officials, thereby helping
with role satisfaction, improved chances of retention and, where
appropriate, pathways into career development at the elite level of
sport. The context for this study is Australia, with a focus on national
competitions in basketball, football (soccer) and Australian Rules
football as representative samples for referees and umpires.
Tower, J, McGrath, R, Sibson, R, Adair, D, Bevan, N, Brown, G, Foley, C, Fullagar, S, Gray, L, Hawkins, C, Jeanes, R, Kerr, R, Martin, K, Maxwell, H, McDonald, K, Peel, N, Reis, A, Xing, T, Yerbury, R & Zimmerman, JA 2018, 'State of leisure studies in Australia and New Zealand', World Leisure Journal, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 58-66.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 World Leisure Organization. A recurring theme has emerged from past ANZALS (Australia and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies) Conferences' keynote presentations conc erning the status of leisure studies from a teaching and research perspective. While this broad discussion has been raised, little is formally known about the current status of leisure studies in Australian and New Zealand universities. The ANZALS Board initiated a project in 2015 to gain insights into this topic. The purpose of the project was to document issues about leisure studies in Australian and New Zealand universities and to explore strategies that could assist ANZALS to promote leisure studies across various sectors. This initiative sought feedback from the ANZALS Patron organisations as well as members via a workshop conducted at the 2015 ANZALS Conference. Outcomes from the project have identified leisure studies as a diverse and disparate field of study. Leisure studies is no longer a centralised field within Australian and New Zealand universities. Instead, leisure studies have become divergent and focused on the elements within leisure such as recreation, sport, tourism and events, as well as across domains such as management and health. The project outcomes indicate the need for organisations such as ANZALS to develop and maintain collaborative networks with a variety of stakeholders, both within the tertiary sector as well as amongst practitioners in various industry sectors. There is also a need for ANZALS and kindred organisations to recognise and acknowledge the past and ensure its future by examining how leisure studies can be defined for application in a realm of related fields of study.
Maxwell, H, Stronach, M, Adair, D & Pearce, S 2017, 'Indigenous Australian women and sport: Findings and recommendations from a parliamentary inquiry', Sport in Society, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1500-1529.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Researchers have consistently pointed to positive links between
sport, physical activity, health and wellbeing amongst marginalized
population groups. This paper concentrates on a group about which
little is presently known in terms of these links - Indigenous women
in Australia. The catalyst for this focus is twofold: demographic data
that, while sparse, suggests that this group has very low levels of
participation in sport and associated physical activity; and second,
a recent parliamentary inquiry into Indigenous sport in which the
participation of women featured in several submissions. Both data sets
confirm that Indigenous women are significantly underrepresented in
the Australian sporting landscape. There is no systematic knowledge
about why this is so. The present study contributes to that small
body of literature by considering (a) evidence about participation
rates of Indigenous women in sport; and (b) the aspirations of sport
organizations to attract Indigenous women into their programs.
Westberg, K, Stavros, C, Smith, ACT, Newton, J, Lindsay, S, Kelly, S, Beus, S & Adair, D 2017, 'Exploring the wicked problem of athlete and consumer vulnerability in sport', Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 94-112.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper aims to extend the literature on wicked problems in consumer research by exploring athlete and consumer vulnerability in sport and the potential role that social marketing can play in addressing this problem.
This paper conceptualises the wicked problem of athlete and consumer vulnerability in sport, proposing a multi-theoretical approach to social marketing, incorporating insights from stakeholder theory, systems theory and cocreation to tackle this complex problem.
Sport provides a rich context for exploring a social marketing approach to a wicked problem, as it operates in a complex ecosystem with multiple stakeholders with differing, and sometimes conflicting, objectives. It is proposed that consumers, particularly those that are highly identified fans, are key stakeholders that have both facilitated the problematic nature of the sport system and been rendered vulnerable as a result. Further, a form of consumer vulnerability also extends to athletes as the evolution of the sport system has led them to engage in harmful consumption behaviours. Social marketing, with its strategic and multi-faceted focus on facilitating social good, is an apt approach to tackle behavioural change at multiple levels within the sport system.
Sport managers, public health practitioners and policymakers are given insight into the key drivers of a growing wicked problem as well as the potential for social marketing to mitigate harm.
This paper is the first to identify and explicate a wicked problem in sport. More generally it extends insight into wicked problems in consumer research by examining a case whereby the consumer is both complicit in, and made vulnerable by, the creation of a wicked problem. This paper is the first to explore the use of social marketing in managing wicked problems in sport.
Adair, D 2016, 'Confronting 'race' and policy: sport, race and indigeneity', Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 212-217.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Where Hylton and Long (2015) draw on a welcome abundance of historical, sociological
and policy literature about intersections between sport, 'race' and society, I address here
the less understood, though perhaps even more complex, virtues or otherwise of sport,
'race' and indigeneity for First Nation communities in post-colonial settings (Bloom &
Willard, 2002; Long & Spracklen, 2010; Ross, 2005). The situatedness of ethnic categories
that Hylton and Long (2015) hint at is augmented in this consideration of 'race', ethnicity
and Indigeneity to insinuate how identities are lived and resisted. As with ethno-racial diasporas,
such as African American (Wiggins, 2015) or British African-Caribbean groups
(Carrington, 2010), indigenous peoples confront difficulties with racism and stereotyping,
irrespective of the validity of the constructs. Additionally, in both society and sport they
encounter major challenges (and ironically enough some opportunities) as a consequence
of being indigenous and ascribed racialised labels.
Morgan, A, Adair, D, Taylor, T & Hermens, A 2014, 'Sport Sponsorship Alliances: Relationship Management for Shared Value', Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 4, no. 4.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Adair, D & Stronach, M 2014, 'Kwementyaye (Charles) Perkins: Indigenous Soccer Player and Australian Political Activist', The International Journal of the History of Sport, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 778-794.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Stronach, MM & Adair, D 2014, 'Dadirri: Using a Philosophical Approach to Research to Build Trust between a Non-Indigenous Researcher and Indigenous Participants', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 117-134.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT) experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeople—a rather narrow perspective that fails to acknowledge the situational complexity and socio-cultural diversity of elite athletes. With such a range of personal circumstances, it is reasonable to suppose that athletes from different cultural groups will have different individual SCT needs. The researcher is non-Indigenous and mature aged: she encountered a number of challenges in her efforts to understand Indigenous culture and its important sensitivities, and to build trust with the Indigenous male participants she interviewed. An Indigenous philosophy known as Dadirri, which emphasises deep and respectful listening, guided the development of the research design and methodology. Consistent with previous studies conducted by non-Indigenous researchers, an open-ended and conversational approach to interviewing Indigenous respondents was developed. The objective was for the voices of the athletes to be heard, allowing the collection of rich data based on the participants' perspectives about SCT. An overview of the findings is presented, illustrating that Indigenous athletes experience SCT in complex and distinctive ways. The article provides a model for non-Indigenous researchers to conduct qualitative research with Indigenous people.
Eisenhauer, S, Adair, D & Taylor, T 2014, 'Fifa-isation: Spatial security, sponsor protection and media management at the 2010 World Cup', Surveillance and Society, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 377-391.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper presents a case-study of spatial brand protection and media management and security strategies at the 2010 Football World Cup (FWC) in South Africa (RSA). This focus stems from the realisation that commercially designated event spaces are very important environments for the interests of FWC sponsors, and that the media has a pivotal role in conveying messages about desirable conduct in such environments. In these respects, stakeholder organisations are concerned about safeguarding core event spaces, and with promoting positive messages about the FWC via the media. The paper therefore investigates the interests of key stakeholders at the 2010 FWC: the event owner Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the FWC sponsors and the host city (Cape Town). It is concerned with identifying various surveillance strategies to manage public spaces at the FWC, albeit with a particular emphasis on protecting the interests of sponsors and their brand integrity. It is also concerned with strategies to manage the media at the FWC, with a particular emphasis on how FIFA stymies dissent and forces compliance among reporters and news outlets that undermine critical surveillance into these practices of spatial management. Taken together, these hyper-protectionist appr oaches demonstrate what we have described as the FIFA-isation of the FWC, where commercial risk is outsourced to the event host, while the commercial benefits flow back to the event owner. Concomitantly, FIFA makes enormous surveillance demands on the event hosts and those residing in the country and city where it is to be held, and upon the media that broadcast and report on the world's biggest sports mega events. © The author(s), 2014.
Khoo, C, Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D 2014, 'The opportunities and challenges of using cricket as a sport-for-development tool in Samoa', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 76-102.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigates benefits and challenges associated with the use of sport – in this case cricket – as a community development tool in Samoa. This Pacific Island nation, like others in the region, has been the focus of various development programs in the post-colonial era, with developed economy neighbours like Australia and New Zealand providing aid funding. Some of that has involved sport as a development tool, underpinned either by funding from the national government, foreign aid agencies, or a combination of both. The present paper, by focusing on a cricket for development (CFD) program in Samoa, aims to explore outcomes and limitations associated with the use of sport as a community engagement tool. The paper pursues that goal by examining the activities of relevant sport and government organisations, and – most crucially – it interviews key stakeholders involved in the CFD process in Samoa. In short, the prime purpose of this paper is to identify and interpret – from the perspective of locals – whether the CFD program has brought benefits to Samoan communities, and the challenges and limitations they see thus far. This is important because, to date, there has been an absence of qualitative inquiry into the efficacy of sport for development (SFD) programs in Samoa, and very limited research in a Pacific Islands context.
Lakisa, D, Adair, D & Taylor, T 2014, 'Pasifika Diaspora and the Changing Face of Australian Rugby League', CONTEMPORARY PACIFIC, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 347-367.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Jonson, PT, Lynch, S & Adair, D 2013, 'The contractual and ethical duty for a professional athlete to be an exemplary role model: bringing the sport and sports person into unreasonable and unfair disrepute', Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 55-88.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Adair, D 2013, 'Doping: Separating the powers of athlete advice from prosecution', World Sports Law Report, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1-5.
The articles by Waddington, Christiansen, Gleaves, Hoberman, & Møller (2013) and Henne, Koh, & McDermott (2013) are important contributions to the rather limited academic debate about illicit drug use among athletes and the role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in monitoring and regulating substances that are, by and large, illegal in society. In this very brief commentary, I focus on what the two articles offer to that debate, then suggest another way forward.
Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D 2013, 'Temporality, transience and regularity in sport-for-development: synchronizing programs with events', Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 99-104.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Definitions on sport-for-development remain silent on guidelines for the longevity and regularity of projects. In other words, initiatives ranging from one-day sport events to decade-long sport programs are all combined - simplistically so - under the S4D definitional banner. We argue that this vagueness provides significant challenges for academics and practitioners trying to evaluate, compare and learn from different projects. A focus on temporality, transience and regularity (TTR) within the S4D paradigm may open up the prospect of analyzing the duration and cycle of different types of S4D activities, i.e. transitory one-off activities, occasional interventions and ongoing day-to-day programs, and trying to pinpoint the efficacy of these approaches in relation to the aspirations of S4D project organizers, the needs of local populations and the impacts on host communities. With this background and research problem in mind, this paper will investigate the inter-related themes of TTR in S4D. We also pursue an associated proposition by theorizing the potential significance of synchronizing special events with regular sport programs.
Adair, D 2012, 'Ancestral footprints: assumptions of 'natural' athleticism among Indigenous Australians.', Journal of Australian Indigenous Issues, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 23-35.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This article addresses the fascination with Aboriginal physical acumen in sport, arguing that although performance excellence ought to be appreciated there are risks associated with an obsession about the capabilities of Indigenous athletic bodies. In particular, there is a (generally unspoken) assumption that Indigenous people ought to rely on their sportive proficiency in order to command respect in wider society. This overlooks their potential for success in areas where the body is not centre stage, such as in education, science, business, information technology, fine arts, and so on. In developing a critique of sport performance and Indigenous involvement, the paper presents perspectives from two non-Aboriginal observers, Peter McAllister and Robert De Castella, one an academic and the other a former elite athlete. McAllister, influenced by evolutionary biology, contends that Indigenous Australians are naturally well equipped to be top-flight sprinters, while De Castella, influenced by his interest in endurance athletics, predicts that Indigenous Australians are naturally well equipped to be top-flight marathon runners. It is difficult to imagine a more starkly opposite set of athletic performance expectations from the same population group. The paper concludes that although sport remains a crucial domain for Indigenous pride and confidence, Aboriginal athletes like their non-Aboriginal peers can benefit from a range of skill sets via education, training and other types of professional or cultural development. The well-rounded athlete, whether Indigenous or otherwise, is arguably better placed to adapt to complex socio-economic environments both during elite sport and in a transition phase to life beyond the playing field.
Merrett, C, Tatz, CM & Adair, D 2011, 'History and its racial legacies: quotas in South African rugby and cricket', Sport in Society, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 754-777.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
South African identity has always been shaped by racial quotas; that is, divisions, assignments, allowances and allocations based on socially created ideas of race and difference. Both law and custom assigned a hierarchy which separated the rulers from the ruled, and allocated and rationed goods, services and enjoyments in all spheres of life, including sport. `Superior whites were layered above the Cape coloured people, followed by the Indian community and, lastly, the Africans, the black majority. This article looks briefly at the historical context of racial divisions and, with the downfall of apartheid, the rhetoric of an avowedly de-racialized `new South Africa. Given the chronic history of negative discrimination, it is understandable that affirmative action has become a major policy framework in the building of a post-apartheid society. But sport is a sobering example of how a domain can be `re-racialized in this quest. How does the African National Congress justify the (re)introduction into sport of a proportional or numerical quota system based on racial categories? Is there a need for demographic representativeness in white-dominated sports like cricket and rugby, but seemingly not in black-dominated soccer? Is an arithmetic quota system not merely a logical extension of the reviled racial genres and divides of previous centuries?
Stewart, B, Adair, D & Smith, AD 2011, 'Drivers of illicit drug use regulation in Australian sport', Sport Management Review, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 237-245.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Most Australian sport stakeholders not only believe that government regulation is a good thing, but also assume that intervention in the drug-use problem will improve sports social outcomes and operational integrity. In this paper we examine the regulation of illicit drug use in Australian sport through an interrogation of two cases: the Australian Football League and the National Rugby League. Using Pierre Bourdieus conceptual frames of social field, capital, and habitus, we aim to secure a clearer understanding of the drivers of Australian sports illicit drug regulations by (1) identifying those stakeholders who set the drug regulation agenda, (2) revealing the values and dispositions that underpin these regulations, and (3) explaining how dominant stakeholders go about sustaining their position and marginalising those stakeholders with opposing drug regulation claims. Our results show that Australian sports drug-use regulations are driven by a set of values and dispositions that views sport as an instrument for shaping the character of its participants, and drugs as a threat to sports moral fabric and good standing. The dominant stakeholders, comprising the Commonwealth Government, its sport agencies, and the major governing bodies for sport, imposed these values and dispositions on peripheral stakeholders by designing a drugs-in-sport social field that yielded capital and power to only those participants who endorsed these values and dispositions. Peripheral stakeholders including players, their agents, and drug-treatment professionals who mostly shared different values and dispositions, were sidelined, and denied the opportunity of adding to their already limited supplies of capital, power, and policy making influence.
Stronach, MM & Adair, D 2010, 'Lords of the square ring: Future capital and career transition issues for elite indigenous Australian boxers', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Jo..., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 46-70.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In Australia a serious and widely documented statistical gap exists between the socio-economic circumstances of the countrys Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Areas of divergence include life expectancy, health, housing, income, and educational opportunity and employment. This has made career attainment problematic for most Aboriginal people. Among male Indigenous people, professional sport is portrayed as one of the few realms in which they can prosper. This is particularly true in the major football codes Australian Rules and rugby league and a feature of elite-level boxing, where Indigenous fighters are also statistically over-represented. However, while sport has provided opportunities for a small number of talented Indigenous athletes, it has rarely been a pathway to lifelong prosperity. This paper contends that as a result of over-reliance on an abundant bank of physical capital, Indigenous Australian boxers are particularly vulnerable to potential occupational obsolescence should their bodily assets erode more quickly than envisaged. Drawing on an Indigenous concept, Dadirri, to inform a wider interpretive phenomenological approach, the paper examines retirement experiences of fourteen elite male Indigenous Australian boxers; the goal of this research is to understand their post-sport career decision making. In this respect, Pierre Bourdieus concepts of habitus, capital and field are utilised to frame and interpret the capacity of Indigenous boxers to develop sustainable career pathways which we describe as future capital during their time as elite athletes.
Adair, D, Taylor, TL & Darcy, SA 2010, 'Managing ethnocultural and 'racial' diversity in sport: Obstacles and opportunities', Sport Management Review, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 307-312.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Diversity involves coming to terms with alterity (otherness) and negotiating inclusion (togetherness). That goal is more likely, philosopher Emmanuel Levinas argues, when people usually separated socially culturally, politically, economically geographically are brought together in consensual face-to-face contact and in social contexts where equitable interpersonal co-operation and group cohesion are fostered (Burggraeve, 2002, 2008). Such a quest for consensus about diversity and mutuality, as opposed to discordance through disdain for difference (Grillo, 2007), is a challenge (but also an opportunity) in a range of normative environments, such as business, education and sport (Kostogriz & Doecke, 2007; Lim, 2007; Sykes, 2006). In an overarching sense, the management of diversity and the policies that underpin mutuality are arguably contributions to cosmopolitanism, which Vertovec and Cohen (2002, p. 4) argue incorporates `variously complex repertoires of allegiance, identity and interest. They conclude that cosmopolitanism, as an applied philosophical position, `seems to offer a mode of managing cultural and political multiplicities (2002, p. 4).
Adair, D & Rowe, D 2010, 'Beyond boundaries? 'Race', ethnicity and identity in sport', International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 251-257.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This dual engagement of race and ethnicity widens the scope of analysis, but it also presents challenges, such as contention over what these descriptors are said to represent, and their complex and often contradictory relationship. For example, there is a widespread view that there is no scientific basis to `race, hence the qualifier `race is sometimes highlighted to emphasize the social constructedness of this term and, therefore, the fallacy of biological determinism (Graves, 2001). `Race, in this sense, is simplistically applied to skin colour and stereotypical assumptions about identity and status associated with racialized appearance. Despite its flaws, `race has currency in social practice; as Warmington has put it, `the paradox of race-conscious scholarship (2009: 281) lies in the need to work within, yet against, problematic conceptual tools. Indeed, by placing `race in inverted commas in this context, we have signalled our refusal to legitimize the concept while recognizing its stubborn persistence within language, culture and politics. The articles herein, when taken as a whole, provide the reader with an opportunity for reflection upon sport and societal structures, norms, values, narratives, discourses and symbols in the context of what might be termed ethno-racial studies.
Emmerick, RR & Adair, D 2010, 'Prestige, privilege and polite society: The origins of fencing in New South Wales, 1800 to 1939', Sporting Traditions, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 67-83.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fencing has been an Olympic sport since 1896, but even with that status it has attracted little interest from historians. Internationally the major study of fencing is Cohenï½s By the Sword (2002), which is not a history per se but rather snapshots of different people and times. Within that potted context, Australian fencing receives no mention, though such an omission may not surprise. Sporting Traditions has never published a paper on 15 of the 23 Summer Olympic Sports, including fencing. If there is to be worthwhile analysis of the Olympic movement and of the Games, surely an understanding of all of the sports of which the Olympics are comprised is a necessity. Further, while these 15 overlooked sports may be considered `minorï½ in Australia, many other countries ascribe great value to them. Indeed, in terms of fencing, World Championships typically have television coverage in more than 50 nations.
Leeworthy, D, Taylor, M, Lake, RJ, Adair, D, Beck, PJ, Merritt, RK, Porter, D, Nead, L & Galligan, F 2010, 'Book Reviews', Sport in History, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 164-187.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Stronach, MM & Adair, D 2009, ''Brave new world' or 'sticky wicket'? Women, management and organizational power in Cricket Australia', Sport in Society, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 910-932.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In 2003 the men's Australian Cricket Board (ACB) and Women's Cricket Australia (WCA) amalgamated to form a gender integrated national body, Cricket Australia. This essay shows that this new organization has served the interests of women well in a number of key areas, including junior development, coaching of talented youth, financial support and scholarships. There have also been modest improvements to the publicity and profile of the women's game. Yet these benefits are, arguably, compromised by an arm's length managerial strategy in which women have little decision-making voice in the state organizations, and are absent from the board of CA itself. The men who run the game of cricket have recourse to substantial amounts of revenue and sponsorship income, which are deployed as they see fit. We argue that if women's cricket is to emerge out of the shadow of the men's game, it is vital to have female representation on the CA board and more generally among state cricket organizations.
The academic study of sport history in Australia is a relatively recent initiative, dating back to the 1970s. It was inspired by a handful of enterprising scholars, each of whom is now retired. The following paper has two aims. First, it reflects on the efforts of early sport historians to carve out a research niche within the Australian academy. In keeping with the festschrift theme, it also dwells upon the profound influence of Wray Vamplew - a Yorkshireman who had the temerity to help pioneer sport history in an Antipodean setting. Second, the main body of the paper goes on to identify three key areas of research developed over the past thirty years by scholars of Australian sport history, then concludes with recommendations for further research.
Despite 'the wonderful and chaotic universe of clashing colors, temperaments and emotions, of brave deeds against odds seemingly insuperable', sport is mixed with 'mean and shameful acts of pure skullduggery', villainy, cowardice, depravity, rapaciousness and malice. Thus wrote celebrated American novelist Paul Gallico on the eve of the Second World War (Gallico 1938 :9-10). An acute enough observation about society in general, his farewell to sports writing also captures the 'clashing colors' in Australian sport. In this 'land of the fair go', we look at the malice of racism in the arenas where, as custom might have it, one would least want or expect to find it. The history of the connection between sport, race and society - the long past, the recent past and the social present - is commonly dark and ugly but some light and decency are just becoming visible.
Bartolomé, A, Ramos, V & Rey-Maquieira, J 2007, 'Sport tourism: interrelationships, impacts and issues by Brent W. Ritchie and Daryl Adair (eds), Channel View Publications, Clevedon, 2004. No. of pages: 302 + x. ISBN 1-873150-66-0; ISBN 1-873150-65-2', International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 392-393.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Barnard, TC 2003, 'The wearing of the green. A history of Saint Patrick's Day', JOURNAL OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 785-786.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Budd, M, Adair, D, Lenskyj, H, Silk, M, Wedgwood, N, Russell, D, Boyle, R, Sage, GH, Guttmann, A & Nash, R 1999, 'Book reviews', Culture, Sport, Society, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 127-145.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mandle, B 1999, 'BOOK REVIEW: Daryl Adair and Wray Vamplew.SPORT IN AUSTRALIAN HISTORY.Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998.', Victorian Studies, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 352-353.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mandle, B 1999, 'Sport in Australian history', VICTORIAN STUDIES, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 352-353.
Adair, D 1998, 'Conformity, Diversity, and Difference in Antipodean Physical Culture: The Indelible Influence of Immigration, Ethnicity, and Race during the Formative Years of Organized Sport in Australia, c.1788-1918', Immigrants and Minorities, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 14-48.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Adair, D, Nauright, J & Phillips, M 1998, 'Playing fields through to battle fields: The development of Australian sporting manhood in its imperial context, c. 1850–1918', Journal of Australian Studies, vol. 22, no. 56, pp. 51-67.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Adair, D & Stronach, M 2017, 'Kwementyaye (Charles) Perkins: Indigenous Soccer Player and Australian Political Activist' in Nauright, J & Wiggins, D (eds), Sport and Revolutionaries Reclaiming the Historical Role of Sport in Social and Political Activism, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon, pp. 86-102.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This collection examines the role of sport in the lives of key revolutionary thinkers and leftist activists.
Darcy, S, Frawley, SM & Adair, D 2017, 'The Paralympic Games: Managerial and StrategicDirections' in Managing the Paralympics, Palgrave Macmillan, UK, pp. 1-20.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In 2020 it will be 60 years since the first Paralympic Games in Rome
(International Paralympic Committee 2015a, b). Over that time the
Paralympics have grown into the world's third largest sporting event
behind the Olympic Games and Fédération Internationale de Football
Association (FIFA) World Cup. Each successive Paralympic Games has
made contribution to this growth: introducing new sports, encouraging
more countries to attend, increased scope of broadcasting, record
ticket sales, and alternative media channels to promote the event and
its athletes. From 1960 to 2020 this has led to 11-fold increase in athlete
participation, 'from less than 400 in 1964 to over 4,250 at London
2012 and a projected 4,350 for Rio 2016' (International Paralympic
Committee 2015b). Geographically, those countries represented at the
Games have grown from 21 to 164 competing for some 500 medal event 23, evolving from an event for wheelchair athletes to numerous activities
involving nine different impairment types (International Paralympic
Committee 2015b). The summer Paralympics now has a cumulative TV
audience of 3.8 billion people and has an increasing presence on social
media: at London 2012, for example, some 1.3 million tweets mentioned
'Paralympic' (International Paralympic Committee 2015b). Like
the Olympics, the focus of these statistics has often been on the summer
Paralympics, but there has also been important growth in the winter
Paralympic Games (Legg and Gilbert 2011).
Doping in sport, as with cheating in other realms of life, is disappointing but not surprising. For high-performance athletes, there is arguably a stronger impetus to break the rules than in other domains: this is because some believe that their competitors are doping and—perverse as it might sound—a decision not to dope would put them at a performance disadvantage (Kräkel 2007).
In this chapter, we aim to familiarise students with sport-for-development (SFD) by providing a review of the SFD literature. We base this chapter on a recently conducted integrated literature review that synthesised all SFD research studies published between 2000 and 2014 (see Schulenkorf, Sherry and Rowe, 2016). In particular, we present the status quo of SFD activity in relation to the research foci, authorship, journal outlets, dates of publication, geographical contexts, thematic areas, sport activities, and research methodologies. Based on this review, we will reflect on the implications of SFD as an emerging area of research and provide recommendations for future work in the field.
Morgan, A, Taylor, TL, Adair, D & Hermens, A 2016, 'Tensions within Interorganizational Alliances: A sponsorship Case Study' in Das, TK (ed), Governance Issues in Strategic Alliances, Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC USA, pp. 201-223.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This is the first book to offer a comprehensive survey of the full sweep of approaches to the study of sport, race and ethnicity.
Adair, D 2015, 'Steroids, Male Body Image, and the Intimate Self' in Knijnik, J & Adair, D (eds), Embodied Masculinities in Global Sport, West Virginia University Press, Morgantown, WV, pp. 151-169.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Struggles for social distinction, status, and identity are fundamental dimensions of societies the world over (Bourdieu, 1987). Within that milieu, two facets are of interest here are conceptions of gender and norms of physical appearance. In keeping with the theme of this book, the focus is with male embodiment and notions of masculinity—in this case, the body as a locus for the physical expression of manliness.
Knijnik, J & Adair, D 2015, 'Conceptualizing Embodied Masculinities in Global Sport' in Knijnik, J & Adair, D (eds), Embodied Masculinities in Global Sport, FIT Publishing, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
What does it mean to be a man? What does it mean to be 'masculine'? Why do some" "males feel a need to prove their sense of 'manliness'? Such questions have attracted a growing body of scholarship over recent decades. This is not merely about academics; issues of gender identity are part of the daily lives of people globally (Heasley, 2013). There is often a desire for a simple conception of what men (and women) either 'are' or 'should be' and how they ought to conduct themselves publicly and privately in "accordance with 'routine' gender norms.
Lynch, S, Adair, D & Jonson, P 2014, 'Professional Athletes and their Duty to be Role Models' in Alan Tapper (ed), Achieving Ethical Excellence (research in Ethical Issues in Organizations), Emerald, UK, pp. 75-90.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Adair, D & Schulenkorf, N 2014, 'Global Sport-for-Development in Theory and Praxis: Reflections' in Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D (eds), Global Sport-for-Development: Critical Perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 245-249.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter reflects on what the combination of essays in the book "Sport-for-Development: Critical Perspectives" has revealed about the nuances of theory and praxis in sport-for-development (S4D). This is done against a background where each of the chapters under 'Framework', while focused primarily on conceptual concerns, has also drawn upon experiences from field work.
Similarly, each of the chapters under the 'From the Field' section, while focused primarily on programme delivery issues, has been informed by theoretical assumptions. Therefore, the final chapter allows for commentary within these two sections. In the process, it dwells upon opportunities and challenges for the S4D genre, including emerging trends with respect to critical engagement and reforms to practice.
Eisenhauer, S, Adair, D & Taylor, T 2014, 'Beyond the Stadium: Football World Cup Fan Fests and Global Live Sites' in Frawley, S & Adair, D (eds), Managing the Football World Cup, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, UK, pp. 133-148.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Frawley, SM & Adair, D 2014, 'Managing the World Cup: Future Research' in Frawley, S & Adair, D (eds), Managing the Football World Cup, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 237-243.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D 2014, 'Sport-for-Development: The Emergence and Growth of a New Genre' in Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D (eds), Global Sport-for-Development: Critical Perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 3-11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In this chapter we briefly survey the S4D field, evaluate its origins and evolution. We pinpoint key problems for the genre, both in terms of theory and praxis, and establish how the book "Sport-for-Development: Critical Perspectives" and its constituent chapters proposes to address these shortcomings. Our focus is on explaining the significance of critical theory informing practice, and of practice informing scholarship. In short, the chapter highlights the value of conceptual rigour underlying S4D programme goals, planning and delivery, and the subsequent imperative for monitoring, evaluation and critical reflection thereafter.
Toohey, K & Taylor, TL 2014, 'Managing Security at the World Cup' in Frawley, S & Adair, D (eds), Managing the Football World Cup, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, pp. 175-196.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Adair, D 2013, 'On the pros and cons of postmodern sport history' in Pringle, R & Phillips, M (eds), Examining Sport Histories: Power, Paradigms, and Reflexivity, West Virginia University Press, Morgantown WV, pp. 295-312.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Adair, D 2013, 'Sports: Cricket' in Mason, PL (ed), Encyclopedia of Race and Racism : 4 Volume Set, Macmillan Reference USA, Independence, KY, pp. 110-113.
This volume had a defined goa l: to critica lly examine the planning, management and delivery of the Olympics as a mega-event. It evaluated how organizers produce the Games, taking into account knowledge from previous Olym pics, as well as the emergence of models of best practice. This operational focus is an underexplored aspect of the Games, and so the book is merely a step towards gaining a more sophisticated understanding of what is required to run an Olympic mega-event. A single volume cannot do justice to the vast operational repertoire required of Olympic Games organ izers, so the book focused on a selection of key aspects of Olympic programme delivery. There are, of course, further areas to be researched; what follows is a sketch for additiona l scholarly inquiry. There are several important operational aspects of the Games that ought to be included in a further volume of essays devoted to the planning and delivery of Olympic mega-events. We offer eight key recommendations, in no particular order. First, preparing for and staging the Games require a sophisticated understanding of both logistics and supply chain management. The global scope and scale of the Olympics makes these operations particularly complex. The movement and co-ordination of equipment and goods involves the interaction of numerous parties and the transaction of associated data. There are logistical challenges in all of this: internal and external variables, government regulations, levels of infrastructure, periods of peak demand and so on.
Frawley, SM & Adair, D 2013, 'The Olympic Games: Managerial and Strategic Dimensions' in Frawley, S & Adair, D (eds), Managing the Olympics, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 1-14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Tile Olympics are, without doubt, the largest and most signifi cant IlIcga-event in the world, taking in a multitude of sports at both SumIlicr and Winter Games every two years. Planning for and staging the Olympics is one of the most complex tasks that event organizers and project management teams will ever undertake. The ambulatory nature of the Games, moving from one Olympic city to another every four yca rs, means that there are context-specific challenges for hosts, as wcll as start-up knowledge required for each event. Given the sca le, \cope and complexity of all th is, it is surprising that relatively little research has been published about the underlying logistics, organizaI ion and operation of the Olympic Games from event and project Ilianagement perspectives. The planning and delivery of such a massive enterprise, several years in the making but only two weeks by wily of performance, is of substantial interest to those vested with the responsibility of Olympic hosts. Beyond that, the planning and management of the Games is also important to those who analyse the Olympics, such as academics and journali sts, as well as those with an illterest in learning about how they are staged, such as teachers and sludents.
Adair, D 2012, 'Indigeneity, race relations and sport management' in Leberman, S, Collins, C & Trenberth, L (eds), Sport Business Management in New Zealand and Australia, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne, pp. 54-80.
Adair, D 2012, 'Le Musée Olympique: Epicentre of Olympic Evangelism' in Murray Phillips (ed), Representing the Sporting Past in Museums and Halls of Fame, Routledge, London, pp. 107-129.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter evaluates the deployment of museology to inspirit the cause of Olympic values and principles, which in turn underpins the ideology of Olympism and the IOCs imprimatur as both institutional custodian and moral gatekeeper of the Olympic Movement. It analyses how LMO is now a fulcrum through which the ideals of Olympism are trumpeted, and from which the Olympic Games and the Olympic Movement are venerated. In a conceptual sense the chapter explores evangelistic and mythopoeic displays and narratives.
Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D 2012, 'Sport Development' in Leberman, S, Collins, C & Trenberth, L (eds), Sport Business Management in New Zealand and Australia, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne, pp. 284-298.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fundamentally, sport development is about providing opportunities for individuals and communities to engage in grassroots physical activities in terms of what can be described as 'the common good'. When appropriately conceived and managed, sport allows participants to optimise their physical fitness levels and has the capacity to provide people of varying ages with valuable social experiences. People who work in sport development, therefore, share a similar goal of motivating individuals to participate in sport for purposes of health promotion and wider social benefit. However, as we will see in this chapter, the purposes, values and desired outcomes of sport development are not static; indeed, the more recent move to sport-for-development indicates a fundamental move away from sport participation as the key objective and towards involvement in sport as a vehicle to achieve desired social outcomes. Indeed, the principle goal of sport-for-development managers today is the deployment of sport and physical activity programs to engage people from varying ethnocultural and socio-economic backgrounds, within which ideals of interpersonal respect, intergroup harmony and community cohesion are crucial.
Adair, D & Stronach, MM 2011, 'Natural-Born Athletes? Australian Aboriginal People and the Double-Edged Lure of Professional Sport' in Spracklen, K & Long, J (eds), Sport and Challenges to Racism, Palgrave MacMillan, London, pp. 117-134.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In examining race in sport, this book is an essential contribution to debates about sports policy, the role of sport in society, and the globalization/localization of sports policies. In particular, it maps out local, national and international responses within sport to racism, and initiatives within sport to tackle racism in and through sport. The unifying concept through the chapters is a political and intellectual commitment to a critically realist position on racism. This collection, including an international line-up of contributors, assesses anti-racism strategies in the context of practices, policies and challenges. Combining empirical research with more theoretically-framed understandings of policies about and towards racism, this book is more than a set of case studies of different experiences: its goal is to map the dimensions of the challenge to racism in and through sport.
Adair, D 2011, 'Making sense of Australian sport history' in Georgakis, S & Russell, K (eds), Youth Sport in Australia, Sydney University Press, Sydney, Ausralia, pp. 1-25.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Despite the high profile of sport in Australian culture, the historical analysis of sport in this country has not attracted much coverage, whether in terms of academic research, media interest, or the reading public. Australian sport fans are eager to recount glorious performances by the nation's teams and athletes, and they certainly indulge in eulogistic books and magazines about sport. But these enthusiasts have comparatively little knowledge about, or interest in, Australian history and the role of sport in shaping its evolution. This is, in large part, a reflection of inadequate education: in many schools history has been supplanted as a key area of study, with the Australian story conveyed as part of broad brush subjects like 'social studies' or 'civics and citizenship: Moreover, at university level Australian history is typically taught with scant regard for the explanatory potential of sport and physical culture.
Adair, D 2011, 'Perceptions of skin and kin: sport as an arena of difference and diversity' in Adair, D (ed), Sport, Race and Ethnicity: Narratives of Difference and Diversity, Fitness Information Technology, Morgantown, WV, USA, pp. 1-12.
Sport is a deceptively rich area for the investigation of community attitudes, values, and power relations. It is a public display within which behavioral norms and social hierarchies are played out. Sport can variously include or exclude, and engage or marginalize, depending on a complex mix of values, attitudes, and power structures. Like society, the ideas and purposes of sport are subject to competing forces of conservatism and change, the impacts of localism and globalization, and the influence of divergent ideologies. Sport, in that sense, is neither inherently virtuous nor heinous. It is a human creation that continues to evolve. Depending on context, sport can either reinforce prevailing orthodoxies or be part of reformist or radical agendas.
In its current form, the Olympic Museum in Lausanne is only 10 years old. None the less, during that brief time the museum has become a significant showcase for the Olympic movement. This chapter examines the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) rationale for establishing an Olympic Museum, the process of funding its development and the museum's varied roles as archival repository, exhibition centre and tourist destination.
Sugden, J, Schulenkorf, N, Adair, D, Edwards, D & Frawley, S 2016, 'Sport for Peace or Sport for Development: Uncoupling two distinct genres', ISSA's World Congress of Sociology of Sport: Sport, Global Development and Social Change, Budapest.
Sugden, J, Schulenkorf, N, Frawley, S, Edwards, D & Adair, D 2016, 'Sport, Stereotypes and Racial Formation in Fiji', Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand (SMAANZ) Conference, Auckland.