Eeshwarasinghe, D, Loganathan, P, Kalaruban, M, Sounthararajah, DP, Kandasamy, J & Vigneswaran, S 2018, 'Removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water using granular activated carbon: kinetic and equilibrium adsorption studies', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 25, no. 14, pp. 13511-13524.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a group of highly persistent, toxic and widespread environmental micropollutants that are increasingly found in water. A study was conducted in removing five PAHs, specifically naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene and phenanthrene, from water by adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). The pseudo-first-order (PFO) model satisfactorily described the kinetics of adsorption of the PAHs. The Weber and Morris diffusion model's fit to the data showed that there were faster and slower rates of intra-particle diffusion probably into the mesopores and micropores of the GAC, respectively. These rates were negatively related to the molar volumes of the PAHs. Batch equilibrium adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich models, of which the Freundlich model exhibited the best fit. The adsorption affinities were related to the hydrophobicity of the PAHs as determined by the log Kow values. Free energies of adsorption calculated from the Dubinin–Radushkevich model and the satisfactory kinetic data fitting to the PFO model suggested physical adsorption of the PAHs. Adsorption of naphthalene, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene in fixed-bed columns containing a mixture of GAC (0.5 g) + sand (24.5 g) was satisfactorily simulated by the Thomas model.
Loganathan, P, Shim, WG, Sounthararajah, DP, Kalaruban, M, Nur, T & Vigneswaran, S 2018, 'Modelling equilibrium adsorption of single, binary, and ternary combinations of Cu, Pb, and Zn onto granular activated carbon', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 16664-16675.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sountharajah, DP, Kus, B, Kandasamy, J & Vigneswaran, S 2017, 'Quantifying the reduction in water demand due to rainwater tank installations at residential properties in sydney', Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 202-218.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, International Centre for Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems SDEWES. All rights reserved. This paper examines data on actual reductions in consumption of water supply due to the widespread installation of rainwater tanks at residential properties in the Sydney metropolitan area and surrounding areas connected to Sydney Water Corporation water supply mains. The water consumption was based on metered potable water usage between 2002 and 2009. The number of properties in the study database totalled 962,697 single residential dwellings. Of this a total of 52,576 or 5.5% of Sydney's households had a rainwater tank registered with Sydney Water Corporation. The water usage consumption before and after the installation of the rainwater tank was analysed to quantify the extent to which rainwater tanks reduced mains water consumption. The average percentage of water savings by installing rainwater tanks across all 44 local government authorities was 9%. In some Sydney localities this reduction was up to 15%. On average, a household was able to save around 24 kilolitre of water annually by installing a rainwater tank even without considering other factors that affect water usage. The results were compared against socio-demographic factors using variables such as household size, educational qualifications, taxable income, rented properties, and non-English-speaking background, etc., to gain an appreciation of how these factors may have influenced the outcomes evident in the data. Among the co-relations found were that most properties within inner Sydney with a rainwater tank achieved at least a 9 to 11% additional reduction in water usage, with more than half of those local government authorities achieving more than 11%; properties with larger land area were more likely to have a rainwater tank installed; local government authorities with more people born in non-English speaking countries had lower reduction in water consumption reduction...
Sounthararajah, DP, Loganathan, P, Kandasamy, J & Vigneswaran, S 2017, 'Removing heavy metals using permeable pavement system with a titanate nano-fibrous adsorbent column as a post treatment.', Chemosphere, vol. 168, pp. 467-473.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Permeable pavement systems (PPS) are a widely-used treatment measure in sustainable stormwater management and groundwater recharge. However, PPS are not very efficient in removing heavy metals from stormwater. A pilot scale study using zeolite or basalt as bed material in PPS removed 41-72%, 67-74%, 38-43%, 61-72%, 63-73% of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively, from synthetic stormwater (pH 6.5; Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations of 0.04, 0.6, 0.06, 1.0, and 2.0 mg L-1, respectively) over a period of 80 h. The total volume of stormwater that passed through the PPS was equivalent to runoff in 10 years of rainfall in Sydney, Australia. The concentrations of metals in the PPS effluent failed fresh and marine water quality trigger values recommended in the Australian and New Zealand guidelines. An addition of a post-treatment of a horizontal filter column containing a titanate nano-fibrous (TNF) material with a weight < 1% of zeolite weight and mixed in with granular activated carbon (GAC) at a GAC:TNF weight ratio of 25:1 removed 77% of Ni and 99-100% of all the other metals. The effluent easily met the required standards of marine waters and just met those concerning fresh waters. Batch adsorption data from solutions of metals mixtures fitted the Langmuir model with adsorption capacities in the following order, TNF ≫ zeolite > basalt; Pb > Cu > Cd, Ni, Zn.
Sounthararajah, DP, Loganathan, P, Kandasamy, J & Vigneswaran, S 2016, 'Column studies on the removal of dissolved organic carbon, turbidity and heavy metals from stormwater using granular activated carbon', DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 5045-5055.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sounthararajah, DP, Loganathan, P, Kandasamy, J & Vigneswaran, S 2015, 'Adsorptive removal of heavy metals from water using sodium titanate nanofibres loaded onto GAC in fixed-bed columns', JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, vol. 287, pp. 306-316.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sounthararajah, DP, Loganathan, P, Kandasamy, J & Vigneswaran, S 2015, 'Effects of Humic Acid and Suspended Solids on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water by Adsorption onto Granular Activated Carbon', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 10475-10489.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Kandasamy, JK, Sounthararajah, DP, Sivabalan, P, Chanan, A, Vigneswaran, S & Sivapalan, M 2014, 'Socio-hydrologic drivers of the pendulum swing between agricultural development and environmental health: a case study from Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia', Hydrology And Earth System Sciences, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1027-1041.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site